Publications by authors named "Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari"

17 Publications

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Incidence of HIV and HCV in people who inject drugs: a systematic and meta-analysis review protocol.

BMJ Open 2021 Jan 15;11(1):e041482. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Public Health, La Trobe University, Plenty Rd & Kingsbury Dr, Bundoora, VIC 3086, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major health concerns globally. This systematic review and meta-analysis protocol study aims to estimate the incidence of HIV and HCV among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) by reviewing studies that have applied mathematical modelling. The primary purpose of this systematic review is to identify and review mathematical modelling studies of HIV and HCV incidence in PWIDs.Methods and analysis cohort, cross-sectional and clinical trial studies conducted to estimate the incidence of HIV and HCV based on mathematical models or have evaluated the effectiveness of mathematical models will be considered for inclusion in the review. A comprehensive search applying a Cochrane approach will be used to identify relevant primary studies, published between January 2000 and July 2020, and indexed in PubMed, EMBASE, Opengrey, WOS, SCOPUS and Cochrane Library with no restriction on language. This protocol was prepared according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). Study selection and data extraction will be performed by two independent reviewers. Assessment of risk of bias will be implemented using forms of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Publication bias will be assessed by funnel plots, Begg's and Egger's tests. A meta-analysis will be conducted to answer the first research question, 'What is the incidence of HIV and HCV when applying mathematical model in PWID?'. Clinical heterogeneity will be assessed by looking at the characteristics of participants, method of diagnosis and case definitions in the included primary studies. In addition, subgroup analyses will be conducted for population and secondary outcomes.

Ethics And Dissemination: There are no ethical issues related to this study. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presented at international and national conferences.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42019126476.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813328PMC
January 2021

Decomposing socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health among Iranian adult population: results from the PERSIAN cohort study.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 05 13;20(1):229. Epub 2020 May 13.

Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Socioeconomic inequality in mental health in Iran is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health among Iranian adults.

Methods: The study used the baseline data of PERSIAN cohort study including 131,813 participants from 17 geographically distinct areas of Iran. The Erreygers Concentration index (E) was used to quantify the socioeconomic inequalities in poor mental health. Moreover, we decomposed the E to identify factors contributing to the observed socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health in Iran.

Results: The estimated E for poor mental health was - 0.012 (95% CI: - 0.0144, - 0.0089), indicating slightly higher concentration of mental health problem among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults in Iran. Socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health was mainly explained by gender (19.93%) and age (12.70%). Region, SES itself, and physical activity were other important factors that contributed to the concentration of poor mental health among adults with low socioeconomic status.

Conclusion: There exists nearly equitable distribution in poor mental health among Iranian adults, but with important variations by gender, SES, and geography. These results suggested that interventional programs in Iran should focus on should focus more on socioeconomically disadvantaged people as a whole, with particular attention to the needs of women and those living in more socially disadvantaged regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02596-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218818PMC
May 2020

HIV risk perception and sexual behaviors among female sex workers in Tehran, Iran.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2019 25;33:101. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Department of Sociology, University of Groningen, 9712 TG Groningen, Netherlands.

An adequate perception of the degree to which one is at risk of having or contracting HIV is necessary for behavioural change and the adoption of safe behaviours. There are limited data regarding HIV risk perceptions among female sex workers in Iran. This study aimed to determine the HIV risk perception status and its association with sexual behaviours among female sex workers in Tehran. A cross sectional study was conducted among 170 female sex workers in Tehran. Participants were recruited using a combination of snowball, purposeful, and convenience sampling methods. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify adjusted associations between background factors, sexual behaviours, and HIV risk perception. The analysis was conducted by the "logistf" package in the R statistical system. P-value less than .05 was considered as statistically significant. Among the participants, 122 (77%) reported high HIV risk perception. Most female sex workers with high HIV risk perception reported that they did not consistently use condoms (n=120, 98%. Female sex workers with a higher frequency of sex work (AOR=1.18, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.31), inconsistent condom use (AOR=0.15, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.66), a history of HIV testing (AOR=5.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 26.0), and low HIV knowledge (AOR=0.97, 95% CI=0.95, 0.996) were more likely to report high HIV risk perception. Most female sex workers with risky sexual behaviours had a high HIV risk perception. Effective educational programs are suggested to enable female sex workers to correctly assess their own HIV risk and change risk behaviors based on self-assessment of actual risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.33.101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946931PMC
September 2019

Burden of injury along the development spectrum: associations between the Socio-demographic Index and disability-adjusted life year estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Authors:
Juanita A Haagsma Spencer L James Chris D Castle Zachary V Dingels Jack T Fox Erin B Hamilton Zichen Liu Lydia R Lucchesi Nicholas L S Roberts Dillon O Sylte Oladimeji M Adebayo Alireza Ahmadi Muktar Beshir Ahmed Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour Fares Alahdab Suliman A Alghnam Syed Mohamed Aljunid Rajaa M Al-Raddadi Ubai Alsharif Khalid Altirkawi Mina Anjomshoa Carl Abelardo T Antonio Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Olatunde Aremu Amit Arora Hamid Asayesh Reza Assadi Ashish Awasthi Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Shivanthi Balalla Amrit Banstola Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo Till Winfried Bärnighausen Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi Neeraj Bedi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Corina Benjet Derrick A Bennett Isabela M Bensenor Soumyadeep Bhaumik Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Guilherme Borges Rohan Borschmann Dipan Bose Soufiane Boufous Alexandra Brazinova Julio Cesar Campuzano Rincon Rosario Cárdenas Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ferrán Catalá-López Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Christopher Stephen Crowe Koustuv Dalal Ahmad Daryani Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Louisa Degenhardt Diego De Leo Jan-Walter De Neve Kebede Deribe Getenet Ayalew Dessie Gabrielle Aline deVeber Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Linh Phuong Doan Kate A Dolan Tim Robert Driscoll Manisha Dubey Ziad El-Khatib Christian Lycke Ellingsen Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Aman Yesuf Endries Sharareh Eskandarieh Andre Faro Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Eduarda Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Richard Charles Franklin Takeshi Fukumoto Kebede Embaye Gezae Tiffany K Gill Alessandra C Goulart Ayman Grada Yuming Guo Rahul Gupta Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Josep Maria Haro Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Rasmus Havmoeller Delia Hendrie Andualem Henok Martha Híjar Michael K Hole Enayatollah Homaie Rad Naznin Hossain Sorin Hostiuc Guoqing Hu Ehimario U Igumbor Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Rebecca Q Ivers Kathryn H Jacobsen Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Rizwan Kalani Amir Kasaeian Abraham Getachew Kelbore Andre Pascal Kengne Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Nauman Khalid Ejaz Ahmad Khan Abdullah T Khoja Aliasghar A Kiadaliri Young-Eun Kim Daniel Kim Adnan Kisa Ai Koyanagi Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer Manasi Kumar Ratilal Lalloo Hilton Lam Faris Hasan Lami Van C Lansingh Janet L Leasher Shanshan Li Shai Linn Raimundas Lunevicius Flavia R Machado Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Narayan Bahadur Mahotra Marek Majdan Azeem Majeed Reza Malekzadeh Manzoor Ahmad Malik Deborah Carvalho Malta Ana-Laura Manda Mohammad Ali Mansournia Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Man Mohan Mehndiratta Addisu Melese Walter Mendoza Melkamu Merid Mengesha Tuomo J Meretoja Atte Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Tomasz Miazgowski Ted R Miller G K Mini Erkin M Mirrakhimov Babak Moazen Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Roghayeh Mohammadibakhsh Shafiu Mohammed Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Stefania Mondello Pablo A Montero-Zamora Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Lidia Morawska Ilais Moreno Velásquez Shane Douglas Morrison Marilita M Moschos Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Srinivas Murthy Kamarul Imran Musa Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Bruno Ramos Nascimento Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Ionut Negoi Trang Huyen Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Olanrewaju Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Pedro R Olivares Heather M Orpana Stanislav S Otstavnov Mahesh P A Smita Pakhale Eun-Kee Park George C Patton Konrad Pesudovs Michael R Phillips Suzanne Polinder Swayam Prakash Amir Radfar Anwar Rafay Alireza Rafiei Siavash Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Muhammad Aziz Rahman Rajesh Kumar Rai Kiana Ramezanzadeh Salman Rawaf David Laith Rawaf Andre M N Renzaho Serge Resnikoff Shahab Rezaeian Leonardo Roever Luca Ronfani Gholamreza Roshandel Yogesh Damodar Sabde Basema Saddik Payman Salamati Yahya Salimi Inbal Salz Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Lidia Sanchez Riera Milena M Santric Milicevic Maheswar Satpathy Monika Sawhney Susan M Sawyer Sonia Saxena Mete Saylan Ione J C Schneider David C Schwebel Soraya Seedat Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Morteza Shamsizadeh Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Aziz Sheikh Jiabin Shen Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Adauto Martins Soares Filho Joan B Soriano Sergey Soshnikov Ireneous N Soyiri Vladimir I Starodubov Dan J Stein Mark A Stokes Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Jacob E Sunshine Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Gizachew Assefa Tessema Jarnail Singh Thakur Khanh Bao Tran Bach Xuan Tran Lorainne Tudor Car Olalekan A Uthman Benjamin S Chudi Uzochukwu Pascual R Valdez Elena Varavikova Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Yasir Waheed Yuan-Pang Wang Tissa Wijeratne Andrea Sylvia Winkler Priyanka Yadav Yuichiro Yano Muluken Azage Yenesew Paul Yip Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Chuanhua Yu Shamsa Zafar Zoubida Zaidi Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Yong Zhao Sanjay Zodpey Simon I Hay Alan D Lopez Ali H Mokdad Theo Vos

Inj Prev 2020 Oct 8;26(Supp 1):i12-i26. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates.

Methods: Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate.

Results: For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced.

Conclusions: The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571356PMC
October 2020

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Social network and HIV risk behaviors in female sex workers: a systematic review.

BMC Public Health 2018 Aug 16;18(1):1020. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Sociology, University of Groningen, 9712, TG Groningen, Netherlands.

Background: Social network characteristics have an important role in understanding HIV transmission among female sex workers. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize and critically appraise the existing studies on the social network characteristics and HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers.

Method: A systematic review was performed using predefined eligibility criteria through searching electronic databases. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of studies.

Results: Nineteen papers met the eligible review criteria. The synthesized evidence suggests that characteristics of social networks, especially functional characteristics such as social support and social capital, are important constructs for understanding the HIV risk behaviors.

Conclusions: The findings of the present review enhance our understanding of the role of social network characteristics in HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers. However, the findings also highlighted a dearth of knowledge about the association of structural characteristics of social networks with HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5944-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6097207PMC
August 2018

Factors associated with time between using a drug and injection initiation among people who inject drugs in Kermanshah, Iran.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2018 May 17;32(5). Epub 2018 May 17.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background The transition from non-injection to injection drug use dramatically increases the risk of transmitting HIV and other blood borne infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the transition from first illicit drug use to first injection among drug users. Methods Using snowball sampling and convenience sampling through needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), we recruited 500 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Kermanshah, between September and December 2014. Trained interviewers collected data on socio-demographic characteristics, HIV testing and drug-related risk behaviors over the last month prior to interview using a structured questionnaire. Our main outcome variable was first illicit drug use to first injection (TIJ). TIJ was calculated by subtracting age at first drug injection from age of first illicit drug use. Results Overall, the average age at first drug use and injection were 21.4 [standard deviation (SD 5.6)] and 22.8 (SD 8.9), respectively. The average duration of injection was 6.0 (SD 4.6) years. Overall, the mean of TIJ for participants was 1.4 (IQR = 2, 4) years. Age of first injecting drug use negatively correlated with TIJ (R2 = 0.219, p = 0.001). Education level and socioeconomic status (SES), and negatively correlated with TIJ. Conclusion Some demographic factors and drug use characteristics including educational level, SES, knowledge of HIV status, age of initiating drug use, being a poly drug user and using methamphetamine were predictors of the time to transition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0204DOI Listing
May 2018

An indirect estimation of the population size of students with high-risk behaviors in select universities of medical sciences: A network scale-up study.

PLoS One 2018 8;13(5):e0195364. Epub 2018 May 8.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

Background: Network scale-up is one of the most important indirect methods of estimating the size of clandestine populations and people with high-risk behaviors. The present study is an indirect estimation of the population size of students with high-risk behaviors in select universities of medical sciences.

Methods: A total of 801 students from two University of Medical Sciences at Tehran and Alborz University of Medical Sciences were selected through convenience sampling. Six subgroups of high-risk behaviors were examined in the study, including Tramadol use, cannabis use, opium use, alcohol consumption, extramarital heterosexual intercourse, and heterosexual intercourse in return for money. To estimate the social network size in the study population, each participant was asked to name their close student friends from the two select universities. Data were collected using a checklist designed for this purpose.

Results: The participants' mean number of close friends from the selected medical universities was C = 8.14 (CI: 7.54-8.75). Within these social networks, friends with extramarital heterosexual intercourse (5.53%) and friends who consumed alcohol (4.92%) had the highest frequency, and friends who used opium (0.33%) had the lowest frequency. The variables of age, gender, marital status, type of residence and academic degree were significantly related to the likelihood of having close friends with certain high-risk behaviors (P<0.001).

Conclusion: According to the results obtained, alcohol consumption and extramarital heterosexual intercourse are very common among students. Special HIV prevention programs are therefore necessary for this age group.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195364PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5940232PMC
August 2018

Sibling cigarette smoking and peer network influences on substance use potential among adolescent: a population based study.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2017 Dec 15;32(4). Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Social welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Koodakyar Alley, Daneshjoo Blv., Velenjak, P.O Box: 1985713834, Tehran, Iran, Phone: +98-21-222180008, Fax: +98-21-22180115.

Background Peer and parental substance use are established predictors for substance use among adolescent, little is known about influence of sibling cigarette smoking and its interaction with peer network on substance use potential that can introduce an important way for substance use prevention programs. Objective The aim of present study was to explore the association of sibling cigarette smoking and peer network with substance use potential among high school students in Tehran. Subjects Data were drawn from the population-based cross-sectional study of among 650 high schools students. Methods Multiple linear regression was used in order to determine the adjusted association between cigarette smoking among family members, peer network, their interaction and substance use potential. Result Having a sister who smokes (B = 3.19; p < 0.01) and peer network quality were associated with substance use potential (B = -0.1; p < 0.05). The increase in mean of substance use potential associated with decreases in peer network quality score is much more than in who have a sister with a cigarette smoking habit. Conclusion Having a sister who smokes interacts with peer network quality; appears to be one of the important mechanisms for adolescents' tendency to substance use. These findings can help in a better understanding of substance use potential mechanisms, screening efforts and the formulation of prevention programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0162DOI Listing
December 2017

Injecting and Sexual Networks and Sociodemographic Factors and Dual HIV Risk among People Who Inject Drugs: A Cross-sectional Study in Kermanshah Province, Iran.

Addict Health 2016 Jul;8(3):186-194

Assistant Professor, Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Few studies suggest that social network factors, including size of sexual network may associate with drug-related and sexual high-risk behaviors. The objective of this study is to investigate injecting and sexual networks and sociodemographic factors that might be associated with dual HIV risk (DHR) among people who inject drug (PWID).

Methods: The data from a cross-sectional study of 455 PWID that were recruited through peer-referral sampling were used in this study. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire consisted of modules on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and injection-related risk behaviors during 12 months before the interview. DHR was defined as engaged in both using a syringe previously used by other PWIDs and unprotected sex during last 12 months. Data analysis was performed with descriptive and logistic regression. In final model, we considered variables with P < 0.500 as statistically significant. Finally, reported adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence interval (95% CI) for variables that were significant in the final model.

Findings: A total of 455 men who injected drugs participated in this study. The mean age ± standard deviation (SD) was 33.2 ± 7.3 (range 19-58) years. Overall, the prevalence of DHR In the last 12 months, 38% (95% CI: 18.3-51.2%). Multivariate model showed that regular visit to needle, syringe programs (NSPs) reduced odd of HDR to 50% when adjusted for other covariates, but still remained statistically significant (P < 0.050). The odds of reporting DHR was significantly higher in those ≥ 2 sex partners and injection partner (P < 0.010). Odds of DHR was higher (AOR: 2.3) among participants who had more than 2 injection per day but was not statistically significant (P > 0.050).

Conclusion: DHR was common in PWID in Kermanshah, Iran. Having multiple injecting and sexual partners increased the odds of engaging in dual risk behaviors, but regular visit of NSPs can reduce the DHR among PWID.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5422015PMC
July 2016

Comparing Characteristics of Early-Onset Injection Drug Users to Those With Late-Onset Injection in Kermanshah, Iran.

Subst Use Misuse 2017 05 3;52(6):754-759. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

a Social Determinants of Health Research Center , University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Background: Characteristics and behaviors of early-onset injection drug users are under studied topics in Iran. This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic characteristics as well as the drug using behaviors of early-onset and late-onset injection drug users in Kermanshah, West Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study using snowball and convenience sampling, we recruited 450 people during the Fall of 2014 from two drop in centers in Kermanshah, Iran. We collected data through face-to-face interviews. Early-onset injection is defined as whether the person reported their first injection at 22 years of age or younger. Subsequently, late-onset injection is defined as 23 years of age or older. We compared the characteristics of the two groups through both univariate and multiple logistic analyses.

Results: Overall, 54% (CI 95%: 44.3%, 62.2%) were early injectors. After controlling for low socioeconomic status, initiation of drug use at a young age, multiple drug use and methamphetamine use were all significantly associated with a higher likelihood of early-onset injection. Additionally, early-onset injection was associated with recent syringe borrowing (OR = 2.6, p = 0.001), recent syringe lending (OR = 1.4, p = 0.01), recent cooker sharing (OR = 3.2, p = 0.01) and injecting two or more times a day (OR = 2.2, p = 0.04).

Conclusion: Early-onset injectors were more likely to report a lower socioeconomic status, initiation of first drug use at a younger age, using methamphetamine alongside polydrug use, and engaging in higher risk taking behaviors like borrowing needles. With these associations, the study emphasizes the need for drug-prevention programs to focus on the transition to injection drug use at younger ages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2016.1263666DOI Listing
May 2017

HIV Risk Perception and Risky Behavior Among People Who Inject Drugs in Kermanshah, Western Iran.

Int J Behav Med 2017 08;24(4):613-618

School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Understanding and increasing awareness on individual risk for HIV infection as well as HIV risk perception's effects on different behavioral outcomes for people who inject drugs (PWID) is important for policymaking and planning purposes. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether HIV risk perception was associated with greater injection and sexual risk-taking behaviors among PWIDs.

Method: We surveyed 460 PWID in Kermanshah regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, HIV risk perception, and drug-related risk behaviors in the month prior to the study. Three classes of HIV risk perception were identified using ordinal regression to determine factors associated with HIV risk perception.

Results: Study participants were categorized as follows: "low" (n = 100, 22%), "moderate" (n = 150, 32%), and "high" (n = 210, 46%) risk perception for becoming infected with HIV. The odds of categorizing as "high" risk for HIV was significantly greater in PWID that reported unprotected sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.4, p value 0.02), receptive syringe sharing (AOR 1.8, p value 0.01), and multiple sex partners (AOR 1.4, p value 0.03). PWID who reported unprotected sex had 2.7 times the odds of "high" risk perception when compared to PWID with "low" risk perception.

Conclusion: Findings show that PWID could rate their HIV risk with acceptable accuracy. Additionally, perceived HIV risk was associated with many risk factors for transmission of HIV, emphasizing the importance of developing targeted prevention and harm reduction programs for all domains of risk behaviors, both sexual and drug-related use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-017-9634-7DOI Listing
August 2017

Psychological, Social, and Familial Problems of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A Qualitative Study.

Int J Prev Med 2015 23;6:126. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the diseases which not only makes threats to physical health, but also, due to the negative attitudes of people and the social stigma, affects the emotional and social health of patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological, social, and family problems of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Iran.

Methods: In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to enroll PLWHA, their families, and physicians and consultants in two cities of Kermanshah and Tehran. Each group of PLWHA, their families, physicians, and consultants participated in two focus group discussions (FGDs), and a total of eight FGDs were conducted. Six interviews were held with all key people, individually.

Results: Based on the views and opinions of various groups involved in the study, the main problems of PLWHA were: Ostracism, depression, anxiety, a tendency to get revenge and lack of fear to infect others, frustration, social isolation, relationship problems, and fear due to the social stigma. Their psychological problems included: Marriage problems, family conflict, lack of family support, economic hardships inhibiting marriage, and social rejection of patient's families. Their family problems were: Unemployment, the need for housing, basic needs, homelessness, and lack of social support associations.

Conclusions: It seems that the identification and focusing on psychological, social, and family problems of affected people not only is an important factor for disease prevention and control, but also enables patients to have a better response to complications caused by HIV/AIDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.172540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4736053PMC
February 2016

Disclosure of HIV Status and Social Support Among People Living With HIV.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014 Aug 5;16(8):e11856. Epub 2014 Aug 5.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Social Welfare Management, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Disclosure of HIV is important for improving self-care behaviors, psychological well-being, commitment to the treatment, and reducing risk of transmission. One of the major benefits of disclosure is social support, which is an essential resource for effective coping with HIV infection. However, receiving any social support requires disclosing of HIV status.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the disclosure of HIV status and its related factors such as social support in addition to demographic and disease characteristics among people living with HIV in Iran.

Patients And Methods: This cross-sectional study, using simple random sampling, was carried out on 175 people with HIV/AIDS who referred to Behavioral Counseling Centers. The self-administrated, Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire was used to measure social support. Disclosure of HIV status was assessed with an investigator-designed questions. Multiple logistic regression analysis with backward Likelihood Ratio method was applied to identify the adjusted odds ratio between disclosure as dependent variable and demographic variables, social support as independent variables.

Results: Participants were often disclosed their HIV status to family members. But there were differences about disclosure of HIV status within the context of the family. Family members were perceived as more supportive. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrates that the gender (adjusted OR = 0.181; 95% CI .068-0.479), CD4 cell count (adjusted OR = 0.997; 95% CI 0.994-0.999), route of transmission (injection-drug user [adjusted OR = 9.366; 95% CI 3.358-26.123] and other routes [tattooing, mother to child, dental services, etc.], [adjusted OR = 3.752; 95% CI 1.157-12.167]), and functional support variable (adjusted OR = 1.007; 95% CI 1.001-1.013) remained in the model as significant predictors for disclosure.

Conclusions: The results of this study regarding disclosure of HIV status and its relations to social support and some demographic variables can provide an understanding based on the evidence for promotion of knowledge and coping interventions about people living with HIV/AIDS and their perceived social support status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.11856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4221996PMC
August 2014

Migraine and quality of life in high school students: a population-based study in Boukan, Iran.

J Child Neurol 2015 Feb 14;30(2):187-92. Epub 2014 May 14.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of the study was to estimate quality of life and determine the adjusted association of migraine with the quality of life in a sample of students. This population-based study was performed among 857 high school students in Boukan City (with a Kurdish language-speaking population, about 600 km west of the city of Tehran, Iran). The World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire was used along with International Headache Society criteria. Multiple linear regression models were applied. The mean scores of quality of life domains of physical health, psychological, environmental, and social relationships were 69.1 (standard deviation = 16.5), 61.5 (standard deviation = 18. 1), 66.3 (standard deviation = 20. 8), and 65.2 (standard deviation = 17. 8) out of 100, respectively. Migraine after adjusting for the other factors was associated significantly with the scores in the physical (P = .002), social (P = .002), and environmental (P = .033) domains. Migraine is associated with reducing the physical, environmental, and social aspects of the students' quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073814534318DOI Listing
February 2015

Perceived social support among people with physical disability.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013 Aug 5;15(8):663-7. Epub 2013 Aug 5.

Social Determinant of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Disability is more based on social, rather than medical aspects. Lack of attention and social support may impact on participation of people with physical disability in various aspects and their return to normal life in the society.

Objectives: This study was conducted to determine perceived social support and related factors among physically disabled in the city of Tehran.

Patients And Methods: This cross-sectional study by using simple random sampling was conducted on 136 people with physically disabled who were covered by Welfare Organization of Tehran. The Norbeck social support questionnaire was used .Multiple linear regression analysis with the backward method was used to identify the adjusted association between perceived social support as dependent variable and demographic variables as independent variables.

Results: The present sample comprised of 68 (50%) male and 68 (50%) female with the mean age of 33 (SD = 8.9) years. Based on the results, mean of functional support was 135. 57 (SD = 98.77) and mean of structural support was 77.37 (SD = 52.37). Regression analysis model, demonstrates that variables of age and marital status remained in the model as significant predictors of functional support (P = 0.003, P = 0.004, respectively) and structural support (P = 0.002, P = 0.006, respectively).

Conclusions: Based on the results, participants in the study didn't have favorable status with respect to perceived social support (in all dimensions) from their social network members. While, social support as one of the social determinants of health, plays an important role in improving psychological conditions in people's lives; therefore, being aware of social support and designing effective interventions to improve it for the disabled is very important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.12500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3918189PMC
August 2013

Social Support Network among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Iran.

AIDS Res Treat 2013 28;2013:715381. Epub 2013 Apr 28.

Social Determinants of Health Research Centre, Department of Social Welfare Management, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study considers social network interactions as a potential source of support for individuals living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 people with HIV/AIDS who refer to behavioral counseling centers. Participants were randomly selected among all people with HIV/AIDS from these centers. Relatives were more reported as sources of support than nonrelatives. They were closer to participants, but there was difference between the closest type among relative and nonrelative supporters (P = 0.01). Mean of functional support with considering the attainable range 0-384 was low (126.74  (SD = 76.97)). Social support of participants has been found to be associated with CD4 cell count (P = 0.000), sex (P = 0.049), and network size (P = 0.000) after adjusted for other variables in the final model. Totally, in this study, many of participants had the static social support network that contained large proportions of family and relatives. The findings contribute to the evidence for promotion of knowledge about social support network and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/715381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3655486PMC
May 2013