Publications by authors named "Zahra Esmaili"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preparation, Statistical Optimization and Characterization of Propolis-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Using Box-Behnken Design.

Adv Pharm Bull 2021 Feb 20;11(2):301-310. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Propolis is a resinous material obtained by honeybees with many biological and pharmacological properties which can be used for treatment of various diseases. Current study aims to formulate and characterize propolis-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) carrier system. The prepared SLNs, composed of glyceryl monostearate (GMS), Soy lecithin, Tween 80 and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), were fabricated employing solvent emulsification-evaporation technique. In addition, the impact of several variables including concentration ratios of GMS/Soy lecithin and PEG 400/Tween 80 along with emulsification time were evaluated on the size, polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential of particles. SLN formulations were optimized using Box-Behnken design. The particles were freeze dried and morphologically studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in-vitro release profile of propolis entrapped in the optimized nanoparticles was investigated. The mean particle size, PDI, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading efficiency (LE) of optimized propolis-loaded SLNs were found to be 122.6±22.36 nm, 0.28±0.06, -26.18±3.3 mV, 73.57±0.86% and 3.29±0.27%, respectively. SEM images exhibited nanoparticles to be non-aggregated and in spherical shape. The in-vitro release study showed prolonged release of propolis from nanoparticles. The results implied that the proposed way of SLN preparation could be considered as a proper method for production of propolis loaded colloidal carrier system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/apb.2021.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046400PMC
February 2021

Nanomicellar curcuminoids attenuates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat through prevention of apoptosis and downregulation of MAPKs pathways.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Feb 19;48(2):1735-1743. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Nanobiology and Nanomedicine Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is considered as a main problem in clinical practice. Curcuminoids, the active constituents of turmeric, seem to have potential renoprotective effects. However, the poor bioavailability of curcuminoids restricts their therapeutic effects. In the present study, the effect of nanomicellar curcuminoids (NC) treatment on renal function, histology, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative stress (TOS), caspase-3 level as well as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs: JNK, p38 and ERK) phosphorylation were evaluated following renal I/R. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered NC at the dose of 25 mg/kg 1 h before renal ischemia induction. The animals were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 60 min and reperfusion for 24 h. Subsequently, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), renal histopathology, TAC, TOS, and oxidative stress index, cleaved caspase-3 level, Bax and MAPKs signaling were evaluated. The results indicated that NC pretreatment at the dose of 25 mg/kg significantly improved renal function as well as histolopatholgical damages. Moreover, NC reduced the level of renal oxidative stress, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax (as the proapoptotic proteins) and suppressed the activated Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK), p38 and extracellular receptor kinase (ERK) signaling induced by renal I/R. The findings of the current study indicate that NC might prevent the injury induced by renal I/R through suppression of oxidative stress, apoptosis and MAPKs pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06214-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of sub-chronic caffeine ingestion on memory and the hippocampal Akt, GSK-3β and ERK signaling in mice.

Brain Res Bull 2021 May 5;170:137-145. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Nanobiology and Nanomedicine Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Caffeine, one of the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, has been shown to affect mood, memory, alertness, and cognitive performance. This study aimed to assess the effect of sub-chronic oral gavage of caffeine on memory and the phosphorylation levels of hippocampal Akt (protein kinase B), GSK-3β (Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3beta) and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) in mice. Adult male NMRI mice were administered with caffeine at the doses of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg/oral gavage for 10 days before behavioral assessments. Upon completion of the behavioral tasks, the hippocampi were isolated for western blot analysis to detect the phosphorylated and total levels of Akt, GSK-3β and ERK proteins. The results showed that sub-chronic caffeine ingestion at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg improves memory in mice both in passive avoidance and novel object recognition tasks. Furthermore, this memory enhancing dose of caffeine elevated the ratios of phosphorylated to total contents of hippocampal Akt, GSK-3β and ERK. This study suggests that sub-chronic low dose of caffeine improves memory and increases the phosphorylation of hippocampal Akt, GSK-3β and ERK proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.02.007DOI Listing
May 2021

Pharmaceutical implants: classification, limitations and therapeutic applications.

Pharm Dev Technol 2020 Jan 12;25(1):116-132. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Pharmaceutics Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Controlled/sustained delivery systems have been developed rapidly which show the ability to overcome the obstacles of traditional delivery systems. Daily development of biomedical and biomaterial sciences has brought more attention to the implantable delivery systems. As a result, these systems have found their position in the medical field since they were introduced. The advances in the polymeric science along with the other fields, make the production of a wide variety of implantable systems, possible. The influence of these systems in medical field could not be denied Here', the pharmaceutical applications which have been mostly focused on, are discussed. Since these systems have proven to be beneficial, researchers are trying to adjust their defects to the desired properties. Doing so, the path that implantable delivery systems have crossed so far should be studied, and that's the aim of this review. In the present report, the advantages of these systems in chemotherapeutic, contraceptive, neuropsychology, pain management, peptide delivery, ocular delivery, cardiovascular, orthopedic, and dental fields have been evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10837450.2019.1682607DOI Listing
January 2020

Effect of acute caffeine administration on PTZ-induced seizure threshold in mice: Involvement of adenosine receptors and NO-cGMP signaling pathway.

Epilepsy Res 2019 01 29;149:1-8. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Physiology Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: Caffeine is a non-selective antagonist of A and A adenosine receptors (ARs). In this regard, nitric oxide (NO) is partly involved in the central effects of caffeine. In this study, we examined the effect of acute caffeine administration on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure threshold by focusing on ARs, ARs, and NO-cGMP signaling pathway.

Methods: NMRI male mice (25-30 g) received caffeine (5, 50, and 100 mg/kg) alone, whereas 8-CPT (1 and 5 mg/kg, a selective ARs antagonist), SCH-442416 (5 and 10 mg/kg, a selective ARs antagonist) or sildenafil (5 and 10 mg/kg, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor) were administrated alone or as pre-treatment before caffeine. Seizure threshold was assessed by intravenous infusion of PTZ. Nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) were measured with the Griess method.

Results: When administrated alone, caffeine (5 and 50 mg/kg) and 8-CPT (1 and 5 mg/kg) significantly decreased seizure threshold, while 100 mg/kg of caffeine, SCH-442416 or sildenafil did not change it. Only pre-treatment with SCH-442416 (5 and 10 mg/kg) or sildenafil (5 and 10 mg/kg) before 100 mg/kg of caffeine significantly decreased seizure threshold. Moreover, NOx levels significantly decreased following alone administration of caffeine (100 mg/kg) or 8-CPT (5 mg/kg).

Conclusion: The results of present study showed that 5 and 50 mg/kg of caffeine had a proconvulsant effect but caffeine at a dose of 100 mg/kg had no effect on seizure threshold. In addition, it seems that the effect caffeine on seizure threshold is partly mediated through ARs or modulation of the NO-cGMP signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2018.10.013DOI Listing
January 2019

Acetophenone benzoylhydrazones as antioxidant agents: Synthesis, in vitro evaluation and structure-activity relationship studies.

Food Chem 2018 Dec 19;268:292-299. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Acetophenone and its analogues are naturally-occurring compounds found in many foods and plants. In this study, a series of acetophenone benzoylhydrazones 5a-o were designed and synthesized as new potential antioxidant agents. Designed molecules contain hydrazone and phenolic hydroxyl moieties which possibly contribute to antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties of compounds 5a-o in terms of reducing ability and radical-scavenging activity were assessed by using FRAP and DPPH tests, respectively. While the unsubstituted compound 5a had the superior capacity in the FRAP assay, the 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone analogue 5g was the most potent radical scavenger in the DPPH method. The antioxidant potential of representative compounds 5a and 5g was further confirmed by TEAC and ORAC assays. Cell viability assays revealed that while the promising compounds 5a and 5g had no significant toxicity against HepG2 and NIH3T3 cells, they potently protected HepG2 cells against HO-induced oxidative damage at low concentrations. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies with different biometals demonstrated that 5g was able to interact with Cu to form a 1:1 complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.06.083DOI Listing
December 2018

Fabrication of long-acting insulin formulation based on poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanoparticles: preparation, optimization, characterization, and in vitro evaluation.

Pharm Dev Technol 2019 Feb 26;24(2):176-188. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

a Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

The purpose of this research was the fabrication, statistical optimization, and in vitro characterization of insulin-loaded poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanoparticles (INS-PHBV-NPs). Nanopar-ticles were successfully developed by double emulsification solvent evaporation method. The NPs were characterized for particle size, entrapment efficiency (EE%), and polydispersity index (PDI). The NPs also were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and circular dichroism (CD). The optimum conditions were found to be 1.6% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 0.9% of PHBV, and 15 mg/ml of insulin with the aid of the Box-Behnken experimental design results. The optimized NPs showed spherical shape with particle size of 250.21 ± 11.37 nm, PDI of 0.12 ± 0.01, and with EE% of 90.12 ± 2.10%. In vitro drug release pattern followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model and exhibited an initial burst release of 19% with extended drug release of 63.2% from optimized NPs within 27 d. In conclusion, these results suggest that INS-PHBV-NPs could be a promising candidate for designing an injectable sustained release formulation for insulin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10837450.2018.1452936DOI Listing
February 2019

Development and characterization of electrosprayed nanoparticles for encapsulation of Curcumin.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2018 Jan 2;106(1):285-292. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Curcumin has been proven to be an effective herbal derived anti-inflammatory and antioxidant biocompatible agent. In this research, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (as a biocompatible and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) polymer) nanoparticles containing Curcumin were electrosprayed from different polymeric solutions with different concentrations for the first time. Morphology of these nanoparticles in the absence/presence of Curcumin was evaluated by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. Perfectly shaped nanoparticles with an average size of 300 and 320 nm were observed for neat and Curcumin-loaded PLGA, respectively. Curcumin-loaded electrosprayed nanoparticles showed a normal moderate initial burst and then a prolonged release period. Weibull, Peppas, and modified Korsmeyer-Peppas models were applied to study the kinetic and mechanism of Curcumin release from PLGA nanoparticles. Results showed high specific surface area and spherical geometry of the nanoparticles. Effectiveness of the electrospray method as a promising technique for preparing Curcumin-loaded nanoparticles was confirmed in this study. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 285-292, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.36233DOI Listing
January 2018

G-CSF loaded nanofiber/nanoparticle composite coated with collagen promotes wound healing in vivo.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2017 Oct 14;105(10):2830-2842. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Sustained release of functional growth factors can be considered as a beneficial methodology for wound healing. In this study, recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were incorporated in Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers, followed by surface coating with collagen type I. Physical and mechanical properties of the PCL nanofibers containing G-CSF loaded chitosan nanoparticles PCL/NP(G-CSF) and in vivo performance for wound healing were investigated. G-CSF structural stability was evaluated through SDS_PAGE, reversed phase (RP) HPLC and size-exclusion chromatography, as well as circular dichroism. Nanofiber/nanoparticle composite scaffold was demonstrated to have appropriate mechanical properties as a wound dresser and a sustained release of functional G-CSF. The PCL/NP(G-CSF) scaffold showed a suitable proliferation and well-adherent morphology of stem cells. In vivo study and histopathological evaluation outcome revealed that skin regeneration was dramatically accelerated under PCL/NP(G-CSF) as compared with control groups. Superior fibroblast maturation, enhanced collagen deposition and minimum inflammatory cells were also the beneficial properties of PCL/NP(G-CSF) over the commercial dressing. The synergistic effect of extracellular matrix-mimicking nanofibrous membrane and G-CSF could develop a suitable supportive substrate in order to extensive utilization for the healing of skin wounds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2830-2842, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.36135DOI Listing
October 2017

Effect of TNF-α Blockade in Gingival Crevicular Fluid on Periodontal Condition of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Iran J Immunol 2016 Sep;13(3):197-203

Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) share a number of clinical and pathologic features, one of which is the presence of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced bone resorption that is involved in the pathogenesis of both.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of TNF-α blockade on periodontal conditions in patients with active RA.

Method: The periodontal statuses of 36 patients (26 females, 10 males) diagnosed with active RA were evaluated both before and after anti-TNF-α therapy. Gingival index, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), oral hygiene index (OHI), and levels of TNF-α in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were measured at the baseline and 6 weeks after the treatment. Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used for statistical analyses.

Results: Based on OHI (p=0.860), the level of plaque control did not change during the study period, but there was a significant reduction in gingival inflammation based on the mean BOP (p=0.049) and GI (p=0.036) before and after 6 weeks of anti-TNF-α therapy. The mean PPD index did not significantly differ at the baseline and 6 weeks after treatment (p=0.126).

Conclusion: Anti-TNF-α therapy might have a desirable effect on periodontal conditions and might reduce TNF-α level in GCF of patients with RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/IJIv13i3A5DOI Listing
September 2016

Effect of Prayer on Intensity of Migraine Headache: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2017 Jan 9;22(1):37-40. Epub 2016 Feb 9.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Science, Qazvin, Iran.

Background And Aim: Migraine is a common form of headache that affects patients quality of life negatively. In addition to pharmacologic treatment, there are a variety of nonpharmacologic treatments for migraine headache. In present study, we examined the effect of prayer on intensity of migraine pain.

Methods: In a prospective, randomized, controlled trial from October 2013 to June 2014, this study has been conducted in Kerman, Iran. We randomly assigned 92 patients in 2 groups to receive either 40 mg of propranolol twice a day for 2 month (group "A") or 40 mg of propranolol twice a day for 2 months with prayer (group "B"). At the beginning of study and 3 months after intervention, patients' pain was measured using the visual analogue scale.

Results: At the beginning of study and before intervention, the mean score of pain in patients in groups A and B were 5.7 ± 1.6 and 6.5 ± 1.9, respectively. According to results of independent t test, mean score of pain intensity at the beginning of study were similar between patients in 2 groups (P > .05). Three month after intervention, mean score of pain intensity decreased in patients in both groups. At this time, the mean scores of pain intensity were 5.4 ± 1.1 and 4.2 ± 2.3 in patients in groups A and B, respectively. This difference between groups was statistically significant (P < .001).

Conclusions: The present study revealed that prayer can be used as a nonpharmacologic pain coping strategy in addition to pharmacologic intervention for this group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2156587215627551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871201PMC
January 2017

The frequency of using herbal medicines among patients with hypertension in Kerman, Iran, 2012-2013.

J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2015 Jul 12;20(3):199-202. Epub 2015 Apr 12.

Research Center for Modeling in Health, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: The use of medicinal plants has dramatically increased in recent years. Given the increasing rate of hypertension and medical plants usage by these patients and considering drug interactions due to concomitant use with drugs, the present study aims to evaluate the rate of medicinal plants usage in hypertensive patients.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study (descriptive-analytical) in which 650 hypertensive patients referring to the subspecialty clinic of Kerman were questioned about medicinal plants usage by a medicinal plants questionnaire. Among these patients, there were 612 who consented to participate. After the variables were described, the data were finally analyzed using Stata 12.

Results: The average age of those using these drugs in the past year was 58.8 ± 10 years. Of the total number of participants using medicinal plants, there were 58 males (23.5%) and 122 females (33.4%). There were 129 participants (72.5%) using medicinal plants through self-administration, 17 participants (9.5%) on experienced users' advice, 16 participants (9%) as administered by herbalists, and 11 participants (6%) as administered by doctors. However, the most important resources for using a drug that prevents hypertension were family and friends (74 participants; 41.5%) and doctors (13 participants; 7.3%). According to the results, there was no significant difference between the level of education and medicinal plants usage (P = .95); however, there was a significant difference between gender and medicinal plants usage (P = .009).

Discussion: According to the results indicating the relatively high prevalence of medicinal plants usage and their arbitrary use by hypertensive patients without consulting a specialist, it seems necessary to plan for more effective and secure public education and train people to provide herbal drug services for various diseases with hypertension being the most common one.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2156587215573141DOI Listing
July 2015

Transdermal absorption enhancing effect of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis on percutaneous absorption of Na diclofenac from topical gel.

Pharm Biol 2015 8;53(10):1442-7. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences , Sari , Iran .

Context: Rosemary essential oil has been used topically for several purposes (analgesic, anti acne, and anti-inflammatory) in Iranian traditional medicine.

Objectives: This investigation aimed to study the effect of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) on the transdermal absorption of Na diclofenac from topical gel.

Material And Methods: Diclofenac sodium topical gel was prepared with HPMC K4M and Carbopol 934P as a gelling agent, and several vehicles. The most stable gel was chosen and enhancing effects of the essential oil with different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0% w/w) on the permeation of diclofenac were evaluated. The anti-nociceptive effect of preparations was evaluated based on the formalin and tail flick tests in mice.

Results: The major constituents of the essential oil were 1,8-cineol (15.96%), α-pinene (13.38%), camphor (7.87%), bornyl acetate (6.54%), verbenone (5.82%), borneol (5.23%), camphene (4.96%), and (E)-caryophyllene (3.8%). Topical diclofenac containing 0.5% essential oil showed more analgesic effect after 25, 30, and 35 min (p < 0.001) than the reference drug in the tail flick test. The analgesic effect of preparation containing 1% essential oil was more than reference gel after 15 min (p < 0.05). This difference was observed after 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 min (p < 0.001) too. Rosemary essential oil 1% promoted analgesic effect of drug in comparison with diclofenac gel in the formalin early phase (p < 0.05). The enhancing effect of rosemary was observed in 0.5 and 1% concentration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) in the late phase.

Conclusion: This study proved the enhancing effect of 0.5 and 1% of rosemary essential oil on diclofenac percutaneous absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2014.984855DOI Listing
April 2016
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