Publications by authors named "Zahra Chavoshzadeh"

53 Publications

The Prevalence of Selective and Partial Immunoglobulin A Deficiency in Patients with Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy.

Immunol Invest 2021 Jan 12:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences , Karaj, Iran.

: Autoimmune disorders are reported as presenting signs in patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency. Herein, we aim to evaluate serum IgA among patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy. : Patients with two or more autoimmune endocrinopathies were selected and the serum IgA levels were measured. Patients with an isolated low serum IgA (<7 mg/dL) after exclusion of other causes of hypogammaglobulinemia were considered as selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD), while partial IgA deficiency (PIgAD) was defined as IgA levels below lower limits of IgA normal range for age but higher than 7 mg/dL. : Fifty-three patients (19 [35.8%] male and 34 [64.2%] female) with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy enrolled in the study. Parental consanguinity and positive family history of autoimmunity were reported in 38.0% and 52.9% of patients, respectively. Overall, IgA deficiency was observed in 5 (9.4%) patients including PIgAD in 3 (5.7%) and SIgAD in 2 (3.8%) patients. Among IgA deficient patients, the first autoimmune disorder was developed at earlier ages ( = .002), and the prevalence of infection ( = .002), lymphoproliferation ( = .021), and overlap between insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroiditis ( = .032) were significantly higher than patients with normal IgA. Also, the number of autoimmune comorbidities was closely correlated with the occurrence of IgA deficiency ( = .008). : The prevalence of IgA deficiency in patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy is higher than that in the general population. In these patients, immunologic workup may lead to early diagnosis of inborn error of immunity, which can positively impact the evolution of complications and even management of the autoimmune disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2021.1872615DOI Listing
January 2021

The First Iranian Cohort of Pediatric Patients with Activated Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-δ (PI3Kδ) Syndrome (APDS).

Immunol Invest 2021 Jan 6:1-16. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Science , Tehran, Iran.

: Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS) is a recently defined combined primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity and lymphoma. Gain-of-function mutations in and loss-of-function of genes lead to APDS1 and APDS2, respectively. : Demographic, clinical, immunological and genetic data were collected from medical records of 15 pediatric patients, who were genetically identified using the whole-exome sequencing method. : Fifteen patients (6 APDS1 and 9 APDS2) were enrolled in this study. Recurrent respiratory tract infections followed by lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity were the most common manifestations (86.7%, 53.3% and 26.7%, respectively). Five patients (33.3%) had a Hyper-IgM-syndrome-like immunoglobulin profile. In the APDS1 group, splice site and missense mutations were found in half of the patients and the C-lobe domain of was the most affected region (50%). In the APDS2 group, splice site mutation was the most frequent mutation (77.8%) and the inter-SH2 domain was the most affected region of (66.7%). Mortality rate was significantly higher in APDS2 group ( = .02) mainly due to chronic lung infections. : Respiratory tract infections and humoral immunodeficiency are commonly the most important complication in pediatric APDS patients, and they can be fatal by ultimately causing catastrophic damage to the structure of lungs. Hence, physicians should be aware of its significance and further work-up of patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections especially in patients with lymphoproliferation. Moreover, delineation of genotype-phenotype associations with disease severity could be helpful in the timely application of appropriate management and patients' survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2020.1863982DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of topical marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) on atopic dermatitis in children: A pilot double-blind active-controlled clinical trial of an in-silico-analyzed phytomedicine.

Phytother Res 2020 Oct 9. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Traditional Medicine Clinical Trial Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing eczematous skin disease, which primarily affects infants and young children. Due to the side effects of commonly used drugs for its treatment, the development of safer therapeutic strategies is needed. There are many reports on the topical use of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) for a range of skin diseases in Persian medicine. The main aim of the present investigation was evaluating the efficacy of marshmallow in children with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis. Another aim of the study was screening the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory potential of phytocomponents against target proteins, including TNF-alpha, IL6, and PDEs A, B, and D enzymes with PDB IDs: 2AZ5, 1P9M, 3I8V, 4KP6, and 1Y2K, respectively, along with their respective standard ligands using computational docking analysis. A pilot clinical trial was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of Althaea officinalis in children with AD. The diagnosis of AD was made according to the criteria of Hanifin and Rajka. Children between 3 months and 12 years old were participated in this trial and randomly allocated into two parallel intervention and control groups. The intervention group used Althaea officinalis 1% ointment while the positive control group used Hydrocortisone 1% ointment twice a day for a week and after that, three times per week for a period of 3 weeks. The severity of AD was measured using the SCORAD score at the end of each assessment visits. A total number of 22 patients completed the study. A significant decrease of the SCORAD score was observed in both groups. At the end of the study, this score change, which indicates the improvement of the patients was significantly higher in the intervention group in comparison to the baseline (p-value = .015) and week 1 (p-value = .018). In the docking analysis of the study, 33 phytochemical compounds were identified, which were docked into the active site of IL6, TNF-alpha, and human PDE4 isoenzymes. Affinity toward the selected enzymes was significantly higher in glycosylated compounds. The results of this pilot study showed that the efficacy of Althaea officinalis 1% ointment in a decrease of disease severity is more than Hydrocortisone 1% in children with AD. However, further studies are needed to confirm this finding. Moreover, the docking analysis revealed that the inhibitory activity of compounds with free hydroxyl groups such as glycosylated compounds was better than others, probably due to the hydrogen bond interaction of hydroxyl groups of the ligands with the enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6899DOI Listing
October 2020

Global systematic review of primary immunodeficiency registries.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2020 07;16(7):717-732

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: During the last 4 decades, registration of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) has played an essential role in different aspects of these diseases worldwide including epidemiological indexes, policymaking, quality controls of care/life, facilitation of genetic studies and clinical trials as well as improving our understanding about the natural history of the disease and the immune system function. However, due to the limitation of sustainable resources supporting these registries, inconsistency in diagnostic criteria and lack of molecular diagnosis as well as difficulties in the documentation and designing any universal platform, the global perspective of these diseases remains unclear.

Areas Covered: Published and unpublished studies from January 1981 to June 2020 were systematically reviewed on PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. Additionally, the reference list of all studies was hand-searched for additional studies. This effort identified a total of 104614 registered patients and suggests identification of at least 10590 additional PID patients, mainly from countries located in Asia and Africa. Molecular defects in genes known to cause PID were identified and reported in 13852 (13.2% of all registered) patients.

Expert Opinion: Although these data suggest some progress in the identification and documentation of PID patients worldwide, achieving the basic requirement for the global PID burden estimation and registration of undiagnosed patients will require more reinforcement of the progress, involving both improved diagnostic facilities and neonatal screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1744666X.2020.1801422DOI Listing
July 2020

Clinical and Mutation Description of the First Iranian Cohort of Infantile Inflammatory Bowel Disease: The Iranian Primary Immunodeficiency Registry (IPIDR).

Immunol Invest 2020 Jul 7:1-15. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies (RCID), Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran.

We describe a cohort of 25 Iranian patients with infantile inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 14 (56%) of whom had monogenic defects. After proper screening, patients were referred for whole exome sequencing (WES). Four patients had missense mutations in the , and one had a large deletion in the . Four patients had mutations in genes implicated in host:microbiome homeostasis, including deficiency, and two patients with novel mutations in the and . We found a novel homozygous mutation in the in a deceased patient and the heterozygous variant in his sibling with a milder phenotype. Three patients had combined immunodeficiency: one with ZAP-70 deficiency (TBNK), and two with atypical SCID due to mutations in and . One patient had a mutation without neutropenia. Eleven of the 14 patients with monogenic defects were results of consanguinity and only 4 of them were alive to this date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2020.1776725DOI Listing
July 2020

Monogenic Primary Immunodeficiency Disorder Associated with Common Variable Immunodeficiency and Autoimmunity.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2020 2;181(9):706-714. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran,

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent primary immunodeficiency disorder mainly characterized by recurrent bacterial infections besides other immunological defects including loss of or dysfunction of B cells and decreased immunoglobulin levels. In this study, our aim is to evaluate clinical, immunological, and molecular data of patients with a primary clinical diagnosis of CVID and autoimmune phenotype with a confirmed genetic diagnosis.

Methods: Among 297 patients with CVID, who were registered in the Iranian Primary Immunodeficiency Registry at Children's Medical Center Hospital in Iran, 83 patients have been genetically examined and 27 patients with autoimmunity and confirmed genetic mutations were selected for analysis. Whole-exome sequencing and confirmatory Sanger sequencing methods were used for the study population. A questionnaire was retrospectively filled for all patients to evaluate demographic, laboratory, clinical, and genetic data.

Results: In the 27 studied patients, 11 different genetic defects were identified, and the most common mutated gene was LRBA, reported in 17 (63.0%) patients. Two patients (7.7%) showed autoimmune complications as the first presentation of immunodeficiency. Eleven patients (40.7%) developed one type of autoimmunity, and 16 patients (59.3%) progressed to poly-autoimmunity. Most of the patients with mono-autoimmunity (n = 9, 90.0%) primarily developed infectious complications, while in patients with poly-autoimmunity, the most common first presentation was enteropathy (n = 6, 37.6%). In 13 patients (61.9%), the diagnosis of autoimmune disorders preceded the diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency. The most frequent autoimmune manifestations were hematologic (40.7%), gastrointestinal (48.1%), rheumatologic (25.9%), and dermatologic (22.2%) disorders. Patients with poly-autoimmunity had lower regulatory T cells than patients with mono-autoimmunity.

Conclusion: In our cohort, the diagnosis of autoimmune disorders preceded the diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency in most patients. This association highlights the fact that patients referring with autoimmune manifestations should be evaluated for humoral immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508817DOI Listing
February 2021

Recurrent angioedema, Guillain-Barré, and myelitis in a girl with systemic lupus erythematosus and CD59 deficiency syndrome.

Auto Immun Highlights 2020 Dec 29;11(1). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: CD59 deficiency is a congenital mutation disorder in complement pathway which can present with various manifestations.

Case Presentation: Herein, we presented an adolescent 16-years-old girl with recurrent attacks of Guillain-Barre in early childhood and then recurrent attacks of angioedema, paresthesia, and myelitis. Finally, she presented with quadriplegia, malar rash, proteinuria, lymphopenia, and high titer of antinuclear antibody. So, the patient developed systemic lupus erythematosus. Furthermore, we performed whole exome sequencing which revealed homozygote mutations in CD59 for the patient and heterozygote one for her parents. CD flow cytometry showed less than 1 percent expression of CD59 on the surface of the patient's peripheral blood cells confirming the disorder. So, she had CD59 deficiency. The patient's episodes were managed with plasma exchanges, corticosteroids, Cyclophosphamide, and Mycophenolate Mofetil which induced and maintained remission.

Conclusion: CD59 deficiency can be presented with various clinical features such as neurologic, hematologic, dermatologic, and rheumatologic problems including systemic lupus erythematosus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13317-020-00132-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322911PMC
December 2020

Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD): Clinical and Genetic Features of 32 Iranian Patients.

J Clin Immunol 2020 08 30;40(6):872-882. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Pediatric Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare congenital condition characterized by a selective predisposition to infections caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria and other types of intra-macrophagic pathogens. The 16 genes associated with MSMD display a considerable level of allelic heterogeneity, accounting for 31 distinct disorders with variable clinical presentations and prognosis. Most of MSMD deficiencies are isolated, referred to as selective susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. However, other deficiencies are syndromic MSMD, defined by the combination of the mycobacterial infection with another, equally common, infectious, specific phenotypes. Herein, we described a series of 32 Iranian MSMD cases identified with seven distinct types of molecular defects, all of which are involved in the interferon gamma (IFNγ) immunity, including interleukin IL-12 receptor-β1 (IL-12Rβ1) deficiency (fifteen cases), IL-12p40 deficiency (ten cases), and IL-23R deficiency (three cases), as well as IFNγ receptor 1 (IFNγR1) deficiency, IFNγ receptor 2 (IFNγR2) deficiency, interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) deficiency, and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) deficiency each in one case. Since the first report of two MSMD patients in our center, we identified 30 other affected patients with similar clinical manifestations. As the number of reported Iranian cases with MSMD diagnosis has increased in recent years and according to the national vaccination protocol, all Iranian newborns receive BCG vaccination at birth, early diagnosis, and therapeutic intervention which are required for a better outcome and also prevention of similar birth defects. Therefore, we investigated the clinical and molecular features of these 32 patients. The current report also defined novel classes of pathological mutations, further expanding our knowledge of the MSMD molecular basis and associated clinical manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00813-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Identifying Novel Mutations in Iranian Patients with LPS-responsive Beige-like Anchor Protein (LRBA) Deficiency.

Immunol Invest 2020 Jun 1:1-7. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Immunology and Allergy Department, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science , Tehran, Iran.

LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is a monogenic primary immunodeficiency characterized by a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with immune dysregulation. In this study, we reported clinical, immunologic, and genetic evaluation of two Iranian patients from unrelated families, both suffering from recurrent respiratory tract infections, failure to thrive, interstitial lung disease, autoimmune cytopenia, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Pulmonary abscess in one patient and persistent enteropathy in another were also observed. Further investigations revealed causative mutations in the exon (c.2166_2766del) and intron (c.4730-3 T > G) of the gene. These results may provide further elucidation of the clinical phenotypes and responsible genetic factors of LRBA deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2020.1770784DOI Listing
June 2020

Long-term outcome of LRBA deficiency in 76 patients after various treatment modalities as evaluated by the immune deficiency and dysregulation activity (IDDA) score.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 05 27;145(5):1452-1463. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Research Unit for Pediatric Hematology and Immunology, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria; Division of Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Recent findings strongly support hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe presentation of LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency, but long-term follow-up and survival data beyond previous patient reports or meta-reviews are scarce for those patients who do not receive a transplant.

Objective: This international retrospective study was conducted to elucidate the longitudinal clinical course of patients with LRBA deficiency who do and do not receive a transplant.

Method: We assessed disease burden and treatment responses with a specially developed immune deficiency and dysregulation activity score, reflecting the sum and severity of organ involvement and infections, days of hospitalization, supportive care requirements, and performance indices.

Results: Of 76 patients with LRBA deficiency from 29 centers (median follow-up, 10 years; range, 1-52), 24 underwent HSCT from 2005 to 2019. The overall survival rate after HSCT (median follow-up, 20 months) was 70.8% (17 of 24 patients); all deaths were due to nonspecific, early, transplant-related mortality. Currently, 82.7% of patients who did not receive a transplant (43 of 52; age range, 3-69 years) are alive. Of 17 HSCT survivors, 7 are in complete remission and 5 are in good partial remission without treatment (together, 12 of 17 [70.6%]). In contrast, only 5 of 43 patients who did not receive a transplant (11.6%) are without immunosuppression. Immune deficiency and dysregulation activity scores were significantly lower in patients who survived HSCT than in those receiving conventional treatment (P = .005) or in patients who received abatacept or sirolimus as compared with other therapies, and in patients with residual LRBA expression. Higher disease burden, longer duration before HSCT, and lung involvement were associated with poor outcome.

Conclusion: The lifelong disease activity, implying a need for immunosuppression and risk of malignancy, must be weighed against the risks of HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.12.896DOI Listing
May 2020

Investigation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Microdeletion/ Microduplication(s) in Fifty Iranian Patients with Multiple Congenital Anomalies.

Cell J 2019 Oct 15;21(3):337-349. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Electronic Address:

Objective: Major birth defects are inborn structural or functional anomalies with long-term disability and adverse impacts on individuals, families, health-care systems, and societies. Approximately 20% of birth defects are due to chromosomal and genetic conditions. Inspired by the fact that neonatal deaths are caused by birth defects in about 20 and 10% of cases in Iran and worldwide respectively, we conducted the present study to unravel the role of chromosome abnormalities, including microdeletion/microduplication(s), in multiple congenital abnormalities in a number of Iranian patients.

Materials And Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 50 sporadic patients with Multiple Congenital Anomalies (MCA) were selected. The techniques employed included conventional karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and array comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH), according to the clinical diagnosis for each patient.

Results: Chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletion/microduplication(s) were observed in eight out of fifty patients (16%). The abnormalities proved to result from the imbalances in chromosomes 1, 3, 12, and 18 in four of the patients. However, the other four patients were diagnosed to suffer from the known microdeletions of 22q11.21, 16p13.3, 5q35.3, and 7q11.23.

Conclusion: In the present study, we report a patient with 46,XY, der(18)[12]/46,XY, der(18), +mar[8] dn presented with MCA associated with hypogammaglobulinemia. Given the patient's seemingly rare and highly complex chromosomal abnormality and the lack of any concise mechanism presented in the literature to justify the case, we hereby propose a novel mechanism for the formation of both derivative and ring chromosome 18. In addition, we introduce a new 12q abnormality and a novel association of an Xp22.33 duplication with 1q43q44 deletion syndrome. The phenotype analysis of the patients with chromosome abnormality would be beneficial for further phenotype-genotype correlation studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/ cellj.2019.6053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582423PMC
October 2019

Clinical Manifestations, Immunological Characteristics and Genetic Analysis of Patients with Hyper-Immunoglobulin M Syndrome in Iran.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2019 22;180(1):52-63. Epub 2019 May 22.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran,

Background: Hyper-immunoglobulin M (HIGM) syndrome is a rare heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency disorders characterized by low or absent serum levels of IgG and IgA along with normal or elevated serum levels of IgM.

Methods: Clinical and immunological data were collected from the 75 patients' medical records diagnosed in Children's Medical Center affiliated to Tehran University Medical Sciences and other Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Among 75 selected patients, 48 patients (64%) were analyzed genetically using targeted and whole-exome sequencing.

Results: The ratio of male to female was 2.9:1. The median age at the onset of the disease, time of diagnosis, and diagnostic delay were 10.5, 50, and 24 months, respectively. Pneumonia and lower respiratory tract infections (61.3%) were the most common complications. Responsible genes were identified in 35 patients (72.9%) out 48 genetically analyzed patients. Cluster of differentiation 40 ligand gene was the most mutated gene observed in 24 patients (68.5%) followed by activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene in 7 patients, lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor (1 patient), nuclear factor-kappa-B essential modulator (1 patient), phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 (1 patient), and nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (1 patient) genes. Nineteen (25.3%) patients died during the study period, and pneumonia was the major cause of death occurred in 6 (31.6%) patients.

Conclusion: Physicians in our country should carefully pay attention to respiratory tract infections and pneumonia, particularly in patients with a positive family history. Further investigations are required for detection of new genes and pathways resulting in HIGM phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500197DOI Listing
September 2019

Fourth Update on the Iranian National Registry of Primary Immunodeficiencies: Integration of Molecular Diagnosis.

J Clin Immunol 2018 10 9;38(7):816-832. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The number of inherited diseases and the spectrum of clinical manifestations of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are ever-expanding. Molecular diagnosis using genomic approaches should be performed for all PID patients since it provides a resource to improve the management and to estimate the prognosis of patients with these rare immune disorders.

Method: The current update of Iranian PID registry (IPIDR) contains the clinical phenotype of newly registered patients during last 5 years (2013-2018) and the result of molecular diagnosis in patients enrolled for targeted and next-generation sequencing.

Results: Considering the newly diagnosed patients (n = 1395), the total number of registered PID patients reached 3056 (1852 male and 1204 female) from 31 medical centers. The predominantly antibody deficiency was the most common subcategory of PID (29.5%). The putative causative genetic defect was identified in 1014 patients (33.1%) and an autosomal recessive pattern was found in 79.3% of these patients. Among the genetically different categories of PID patients, the diagnostic rate was highest in defects in immune dysregulation and lowest in predominantly antibody deficiencies and mutations in the MEFV gene were the most frequent genetic disorder in our cohort.

Conclusions: During a 20-year registration of Iranian PID patients, significant changes have been observed by increasing the awareness of the medical community, national PID network establishment, improving therapeutic facilities, and recently by inclusion of the molecular diagnosis. The current collective study of PID phenotypes and genotypes provides a major source for ethnic surveillance, newborn screening, and genetic consultation for prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-018-0556-1DOI Listing
October 2018

Comparison of Common Monogenic Defects in a Large Predominantly Antibody Deficiency Cohort.

Authors:
Reza Yazdani Hassan Abolhassani Fatemeh Kiaee Sima Habibi Gholamreza Azizi Marzieh Tavakol Zahra Chavoshzadeh Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani Tooba Momen Mohammad Gharagozlou Masoud Movahedi Amir Ali Hamidieh Nasrin Behniafard Mohammamd Nabavi Mohammad Hassan Bemanian Saba Arshi Rasol Molatefi Roya Sherkat Afshin Shirkani Reza Amin Soheila Aleyasin Reza Faridhosseini Farahzad Jabbari-Azad Iraj Mohammadzadeh Javad Ghaffari Alireza Shafiei Arash Kalantari Mahboubeh Mansouri Mehrnaz Mesdaghi Delara Babaie Hamid Ahanchian Maryam Khoshkhui Habib Soheili Mohammad Hossein Eslamian Taher Cheraghi Abbas Dabbaghzadeh Mahmoud Tavassoli Rasoul Nasiri Kalmarzi Seyed Hamidreza Mortazavi Sara Kashef Hossein Esmaeilzadeh Javad Tafaroji Abbas Khalili Fariborz Zandieh Mahnaz Sadeghi-Shabestari Sepideh Darougar Fatemeh Behmanesh Hedayat Akbari Mohammadreza Zandkarimi Farhad Abolnezhadian Abbas Fayezi Mojgan Moghtaderi Akefeh Ahmadiafshar Behzad Shakerian Vahid Sajedi Behrang Taghvaei Mojgan Safari Marzieh Heidarzadeh Babak Ghalebaghi Seyed Mohammad Fathi Behzad Darabi Saeed Bazregari Nasrin Bazargan Morteza Fallahpour Alireza Khayatzadeh Naser Javahertrash Bahram Bashardoust Mohammadali Zamani Azam Mohsenzadeh Sarehsadat Ebrahimi Samin Sharafian Ahmad Vosughimotlagh Mitra Tafakoridelbari Maziar Rahim Parisa Ashournia Anahita Razaghian Arezou Rezaei Ashraf Samavat Setareh Mamishi Hossein Ali Khazaei Javad Mohammadi Babak Negahdari Nima Parvaneh Nima Rezaei Vassilios Lougaris Silvia Giliani Alessandro Plebani Hans D Ochs Lennart Hammarström Asghar Aghamohammadi

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 03 19;7(3):864-878.e9. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Iranian Primary Immunodeficiencies Network (IPIN), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Predominantly antibody deficiencies (PADs) are the most common primary immunodeficiencies, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and inability to generate effective antibody responses.

Objective: We intended to report most common monogenic PADs and to investigate how patients with PAD who were primarily diagnosed as suffering from agammaglobulinemia, hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome, and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have different clinical and immunological findings.

Methods: Stepwise next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing were performed for confirmation of the mutations in the patients clinically diagnosed as suffering from agammaglobulinemia, HIgM syndrome, and CVID.

Results: Among 550 registered patients, the predominant genetic defects associated with agammaglobulinemia (48 Bruton's tyrosine kinase [BTK] and 6 μ heavy chain deficiencies), HIgM syndrome (21 CD40 ligand and 7 activation-induced cytidine deaminase deficiencies), and CVID (17 lipopolysaccharides-responsive beige-like anchor deficiency and 12 atypical Immunodeficiency, Centromeric instability, and Facial dysmorphism syndromes) were identified. Clinical disease severity was significantly higher in patients with μ heavy chain and CD40 ligand mutations compared with patients with BTK (P = .003) and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (P = .009) mutations. Paralysis following live polio vaccination was considerably higher in patients with μ heavy chain deficiency compared with BTK deficiency (P < .001). We found a genotype-phenotype correlation among patients with BTK mutations regarding clinical manifestation of meningitis and chronic diarrhea. Surprisingly, we noticed that first presentations in most patients with Immunodeficiency, Centromeric instability, and Facial dysmorphism were respiratory complications (P = .008), whereas first presentations in patients with lipopolysaccharides-responsive beige-like anchor deficiency were nonrespiratory complications (P = .008).

Conclusions: This study highlights similarities and differences in the clinical and genetic spectrum of the most common PAD-associated gene defects. This comprehensive comparison will facilitate clinical decision making, and improve prognosis and targeted treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2018.09.004DOI Listing
March 2019

Neurological Manifestations of Primary Immunodeficiencies.

Iran J Child Neurol 2018 ;12(3):7-23

Pediatric Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are a heterogeneous group of disorders with a variable clinical spectrum of manifestations. The central nervous system may be involved in PID with symptoms which may present initially or develop at later stages. The purpose of this study was to review the neurological manifestations of different PID syndromes.

Materials & Methods: We focused on 104 selected studies on PID with certain neurological abnormalities which may accompany these disorders or may later signify a PID in their course.

Results: Diverse neurological deficits accompanying certain PIDs may be mild or they may greatly influence the course of the disease with major impacts on the quality of life of these patients.

Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment is important to prevent or reduce future irreversible neurological sequelae. Therefore physicians should be aware of the neurological features accompanying PID.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6045935PMC
January 2018

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: A Case Series and Review from a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Apr;17(2):201-207

Pediatric Infectious Research Center, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran AND Department of Allergy and Immunology, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID) is a life-threatening condition leading to early infant death as a result of severe infection, due to impaired cellular and humoral immune systems. Various forms of SCID are classified based on the presence or absence of T cells, B cells and natural killer cells. Patients usually present with recurrent infections and failure to thrive. Definitive treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To achieve the best outcome, it should be performed prior to the development of severe infection. In This study, we described 10 patients (6 male and 4 female) with SCID who were admitted to Mofid Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2006 to 2013. We reviewed patients' clinical manifestation, laboratory data, family history and outcome. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 131.8 days. One patient had non-consanguineous parents. Seven patients received BCG vaccine before the diagnosis of SCID, three of them showed disseminated BCG infection. One patient presented with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Flow cytometric analysis showed T⁻B⁺NK⁻ in three patients, T⁻B⁻NK⁺ in five patients, T⁻B⁻NK⁻ in one patient, and T⁻B⁺NK⁺ in one patient. This study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and patient referral before the occurrence of serious infection.
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April 2018

Characterization of 4 New Mutations in the CYBB Gene in 10 Iranian Families With X-linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 07;40(5):e268-e272

Department of Pathology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS).

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disease of the innate immune system that results from defects in 1 of the 5 subunits of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex and leads to life-threatening infections with granuloma formation. During 3 years of study, we recognized 10 male patients with X-linked CGD from a tertiary referral center for immune deficiencies in Iran. The CGD patients were diagnosed according to clinical features and biochemical tests, including nitroblue tetrazolium and dihydrorhodamine-1, 2, 3 tests, performed on patients and their mothers. In all patients, Western blot analysis showed a gp91 phenotype. Mutation screening by single strand conformation polymorphism and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis of the CYBB gene encoding gp91, followed by sequencing, showed 9 different mutations, 4 of them novel as far as we know.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001189DOI Listing
July 2018

Van Maldergem syndrome and Hennekam syndrome: Further delineation of allelic phenotypes.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 05;176(5):1166-1174

Department of Pediatrics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Biallelic variants in FAT4 are associated with the two disorders, Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) (n = 11) and Hennekam syndrome (HS) (n= 40). Both conditions are characterized by a typical facial gestalt and mild to moderate intellectual disability, but differ in the occurrence of neonatal hypotonia and feeding problems, hearing loss, tracheal anomalies, and osteopenia in VMS, and lymphedema in HS. VMS can be caused by autosomal recessive variants in DCHS1 as well, and HS can also be caused by autosomal recessive variants in CCBE1 and ADAMTS3. Here we report two siblings with VMS and one girl with HS, all with FAT4 variants, and provide an overview of the clinical findings in all patients reported with FAT4 variants. Our comparison of the complete phenotypes of patients with VMS and HS indicates a resemblance of several signs, but differences in several other main signs and symptoms, each of marked importance for affected individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38652DOI Listing
May 2018

Economic Burden of Pediatric Asthma: Annual Cost of Disease in Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2018 Feb;47(2):256-263

Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Asthma is the first cause of children hospitalization and need for emergency and impose high economic burden on the families and governments. We aimed to investigate the economic burden of pediatric asthma and its contribution to family health budget in Iran.

Methods: Overall, 283 pediatric asthmatic patients, who referred to two tertiary pediatric referral centers in Tehran capital of Iran, included from 2010-2012. Direct and indirect asthma-related costs were recorded during one-year period. Data were statistically analyzed for finding association between the costs and factors that affect this cost (demographic variables, tobacco smoke exposure, control status of asthma and asthma concomitant diseases).

Results: Ninety-two (32.5%) females and 191(67.5%) males with the age range of 1-16 yr old were included. We found the annual total pediatrics asthma related costs were 367.97±23.06 USD. The highest cost belonged to the medications (69%) and the lowest one to the emergency (2%). We noticed a significant increasing in boys' total costs (=0.011), and 7-11 yr old age group (=0.018). In addition, we found significant association between total asthma costs and asthma control status (=0.011).

Conclusion: The presence of an asthmatic child can consume nearly half of the health budget of a family. Our results emphasis on improving asthma management programs, which leads to successful control status of the disease and reduction in economic burden of pediatric asthma.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5810389PMC
February 2018

Is the Atopy Patch Test Reliable in the Evaluation of Food Allergy-Related Atopic Dermatitis?

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2018 13;175(1-2):85-90. Epub 2018 Jan 13.

Department of Immunology and Allergy, Mofid Children Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Aeroallergens and food allergens are found to be relevant in atopic dermatitis. The atopy patch test (APT) can help to detect food allergies in children with atopic dermatitis. This study evaluates if the APT is a valuable tool in the diagnostic workup of children with food allergy-related atopic dermatitis.

Methods: 42 children between 6 months and 12 years of age were selected at the Mofid Children Hospital. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed, and the severity of the disease was determined. At the test visit, the patients underwent a skin prick test (SPT), APT, and serum IgE level measurement for cow's milk, egg yolk, egg white, wheat, and soy.

Results: We found a sensitivity of 91.7%, a specificity of 72.7%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 88%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 80%, and an accuracy of 85.7% for APT performed for cow's milk. APT performed for egg yolk had a sensitivity and a NPV of 100%, while the same parameters obtained with egg white were 84.2 and 75%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and NPV of the APT for wheat were 100, 75, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity, PPV, and NPV of the APT for soy were 87.5, 70, and 87.5%, respectively.

Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that the APT is a reliable diagnostic tool to evaluate suspected food allergy-related skin symptoms in childhood and infancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000485126DOI Listing
April 2018

Clinical, immunologic, and genetic spectrum of 696 patients with combined immunodeficiency.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 04 12;141(4):1450-1458. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran, and the University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Network (PIDNet), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) are diseases of defective adaptive immunity with diverse clinical phenotypes. Although CIDs are more prevalent in the Middle East than Western countries, the resources for genetic diagnosis are limited.

Objectives: This study aims to characterize the categories of patients with CIDs in Iran clinically and genetically.

Methods: Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from 696 patients with CIDs. Patients were subdivided into those with syndromic (344 patients) and nonsyndromic (352 patients) CIDs. Targeted DNA sequencing was performed on 243 (34.9%) patients.

Results: The overall diagnostic yield of the 243 sequenced patients was 77.8% (189 patients). The clinical diagnosis of hyper-IgE syndrome (P < .001), onset of disease at greater than 5 years (P = .02), and absence of multiple affected family members (P = .04) were significantly more frequent in the patients without a genetic diagnosis. An autosomal recessive disease was found in 62.9% of patients, reflecting the high rate of consanguinity in this cohort. Mutations impairing VDJ recombination and DNA repair were the most common underlying causes of CIDs. However, in patients with syndromic CIDs, autosomal recessive mutations in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), autosomal dominant mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and microdeletions in 22q11.21 were the most commonly affected genomic loci. Patients with syndromic CIDs had a significantly lower 5-year survival rate rather than those with nonsyndromic CIDs.

Conclusions: This study provides proof of principle for the application of targeted next-generation sequencing panels in countries with limited diagnostic resources. The effect of genetic diagnosis on clinical care requires continued improvements in therapeutic resources for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2017.06.049DOI Listing
April 2018

HLA-B*1502 in Iranian Children with Anticonvulsant Drugs-Induced Skin Reactions.

Iran J Child Neurol 2017 ;11(2):26-30

Department of Immunology and Allergy, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Anticonvulsant drugs can cause various forms of skin drug reactions, ranging from exanthema to severe blistering reactions. An association between HLA-B*1502 allele and severe skin reactions have been reported.

Materials & Methods: Fifteen patients with severe skin reactions following treatment with anticonvulsant drugs (Carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, primidone) and 15 controls (age-matched epileptic patients taking similar anticonvulsants without drug eruption) were included. They were referred to Mofid Children's Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between Jan 2012 to Jan 2014. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of all patients and HLA- B*1502 genotype was detected by real-time PCR.

Results: None of the patients was positive for HLA- B*1502, but two patients in control group had positive HLA- B*1502.

Conclusion: The HLA- B*1502 is not correlated with severe anticonvulsant drugs -induced skin reactions in Iranian children.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5493826PMC
January 2017

Clinical, immunologic, molecular analyses and outcomes of iranian patients with LRBA deficiency: A longitudinal study.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2017 08 19;28(5):478-484. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is a combined immunodeficiency caused by mutation in LRBA gene. The patients have a variety of clinical symptoms including hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections, autoimmunity, and enteropathy.

Methods: A total of 17 LRBA-deficient patients were enrolled in this longitudinal study. For all patients, demographic information, clinical records, laboratory, and molecular data were collected.

Result: Hypogammaglobulinemia was reported in 14 (82.4%), CD4 T-cell deficiency in five (29.4%), NK cell deficiency in three (21.4%), and CD19 B-cell deficiency in 11 (64.7%) patients. All patients had history of infectious complications; pneumonia was the most common (76.5%) occurring infection. A history of lymphoproliferative disorders was observed in 14 (82.3%), enteropathy in 13 (76.5%), allergic symptoms in six (35.5%), neurologic problems in four (23.5), and autoimmunity (mostly autoimmune cytopenia) in 13 (76.5%) patients. Sirolimus treatment improved enteropathy of patients with remarkable success. The 20-year overall survival rate declined to 70.6%.

Conclusion: LRBA deficiency has a very broad and variable phenotype and should be considered, especially in children with early-onset hypogammaglobulinemia, severe autoimmune manifestations, enteropathy, lymphoproliferation, and recurrent respiratory tract infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pai.12735DOI Listing
August 2017

Cow's Milk Desensitization in Anaphylactic Patients: A New Personalized-dose Method.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2017 Feb;16(1):45-52

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Rasool-e-Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most frequent food allergy in children and oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising approach for treatment of patients. The most challenging cases are anaphylactic with coexisting asthma and proposing safe protocols is crucial especially in high risk groups. Considering that CMA varies among patients, an individualized OIT protocol would be beneficial to achieve a safer and more efficient method of desensitization. 18 children more than 3 years of age with IgE-mediated CMA were enrolled. CMA was confirmed by positive skin prick test (SPT) and positive oral food challenge (OFC) and 60% of individuals had a convincing history of persistent asthma. SPT with milk extracts, whole fresh milk and serially diluted milk concentrations were performed.  The dilution of milk that induced 3-5 mm of wheal in each individual was selected as the starting dilution for OIT. Desensitization began by 1 drop of the defined dilution and continued increasingly. Overall, 16 out of 18 children (88.8%) achieved the daily intake of 120 mL of milk. Four out of these 16 children accomplished the protocol without any adverse allergic reactions. 12 patients experienced mild to severe reactions. Wheal and erythema in SPT (p≤0.001), and sIgE (p≤0.003) to most milk allergens were significantly decreased following desensitization. We successfully desensitized 16 of 18 children with IgE-mediated CMA by individualized desensitization protocol. Individualizing the OIT protocol would be helpful to save time and perhaps to relieve the allergic symptoms after ingesting cow's milk intake.
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February 2017

Effect of Air Pollution in Frequency of Hospitalizations in Asthmatic Children.

Acta Med Iran 2016 Aug;54(8):542-546

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. AND Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. AND Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran.

Asthma is one of the most common diseases in childhood, which has been increased during last decade because of epidemiological pattern changes with climate and industrialization of the communities. There are some controversies on the relationship between air pollution and asthma. Tehran, as the capital of Iran, is one of the densest populations and is one of the most polluted cities in the world. This study was performed to search effects of various air pollutants using GIS-based modeling on the rate of hospitalizations due to asthma in children in Tehran. Information of patients who were admitted with a diagnosis of asthma in a referral pediatric hospital was checked and the total number of admissions in the same age range (2 to 14 years) during a 2-year period (March 2009-March 2011) were calculated. Information about air pollutants including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and sulfur dioxide, obtained from the air quality control center. Days of the year divided into GOOD and NONGOOD days according to the guideline for reporting of the daily air quality index (AQI). Two thousand two hundred nineteen cases enrolled in the study and asthma admission to total admission ratio compared with air pollutants data in admission day (725 days), using nonlinear regression method. Analysis of the data revealed that there is a significant relationship between NONGOOD nitrogen dioxide (P=0.01), ozone (P=0.01), and sulfur dioxide (P=0.04), levels and admission due to asthma in children, but There was no significant relationship between carbon monoxide levels and asthma admission in children. A significant relationship between nitrogen dioxide, ozone and sulfur dioxide concentration in air and admission due to asthma at levels other than GOOD, reveals air pollutants levels can be significantly harmful to children before AQI reaches to hazardous levels.
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August 2016

Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses and Children with Primary Immunodeficiency, Iran, 1995-2014.

Emerg Infect Dis 2016 10;22(10):1712-9

Widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccine has led to an ≈99.9% decrease in global incidence of poliomyelitis (from ≈350,000 cases in 1988 to 74 cases in 2015) and eradication of wild-type poliovirus serotypes 2 and 3. However, patients with primary immunodeficiency might shed vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) for an extended period, which could pose a major threat to polio eradication programs. Since 1995, sixteen VDPV populations have been isolated from 14 patients with immunodeficiency in Iran. For these patients, vaccine-associated paralysis, mostly in >1 extremity, was the first manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Seven patients with humoral immunodeficiency cleared VDPV infection more frequently than did 6 patients with combined immunodeficiencies. Our results raise questions about manifestations of VDPVs in immunodeficient patients and the role of cellular immunity against enterovirus infections. On the basis of an association between VDPVs and immunodeficiency, we advocate screening of patients with primary immunodeficiency for shedding of polioviruses.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5038407PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2210.151071DOI Listing
October 2016

Evaluation of Lymphocyte Transformation Test Results in Patients with Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions following the Use of Anticonvulsant Drugs.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2016 25;170(3):158-62. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background/aim: Administration of the anticonvulsant drugs phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine and lamotrigine can be associated with severe hypersensitivity reactions. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) is a method to determine which drug has caused the hypersensitivity reaction. This study was done to evaluate the results of LTT in patients with delayed hypersensitivity reactions following the administration of anticonvulsants.

Methods: Twenty-four patients with hypersensitivity reactions, e.g. drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug rash and eosinophilia with systemic symptoms (DIHS/DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN), following the administration of anticonvulsant drugs, and 24 patients who had used anticonvulsant drugs but did not have hypersensitivity reactions (the control group) were included in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated. The cells were stimulated with the drugs, phytohemagglutinin as a mitogen and Candida as an antigen (positive controls). Lymphocyte proliferation was measured using the BrdU proliferation assay kit (Roche, Germany). The stimulation index was calculated as the mean ratio of the OD of stimulated cells divided by the OD of unstimulated cells. The results in the case and control groups were compared.

Results: Of 24 patients in the test group, 14 (58.3%) had positive LTT results and 10 (41.7%) had negative results. Among patients in the control group, 1 (4.2%) had a positive LTT result and 23 (95.8%) had negative results. Among the patients who had received carbamazepine and phenytoin, there was a significant difference between the results of LTT in the case and control groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.028, respectively). Although patients receiving lamotrigine and phenobarbital had more positive LTT results in the case group than in the control group, these differences were not statistically significant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of LTT were 58.4, 95.8, 93.3 and 69.9%, respectively.

Conclusions: Considering the significant difference in LTT results between the case and control groups in patients receiving carbamazepine and phenytoin, and not observing such a difference in patients receiving phenobarbital and lamotrigine, LTT results are more valuable for the diagnosis of hypersensitivity reactions following the administration of carbamazepine and phenytoin. The LTT has good specificity but low sensitivity for the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000448284DOI Listing
February 2017

DRESS Syndrome Presents as Leukoencephalopathy.

Turk J Pediatr 2015 Sep-Oct;57(5):541-4

Pediatric Neurology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

DRESS syndrome (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome, which reflects a serious hypersensitivity reaction to drugs, presenting by generalized skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, atypical lymphocytosis, and internal organ involvement. Herein a 21-month old male infant with DRESS and Encephalopathy syndrome is presented who complicated after phenobarbital usage that persisted due to phenytoin cream usage. The case received phenobarbital after a seizure disorder presented as "status epilepticus". He developed drug eruption, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, increased liver enzymes, encephalopathy and progressive loss of consciousness with extensive hyperintense white matter lesions in brain MRI. After discontinuation of phenobarbital and phenytoin, all symptoms were resolved, while brain MRI became normal after two months. To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case that developed leukoencephalopathy along with DRESS syndrome.
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September 2017

Spectrum of Phenotypes Associated with Mutations in LRBA.

J Clin Immunol 2016 Jan 28;36(1):33-45. Epub 2015 Dec 28.

Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

To date, several germline mutations have been identified in the LRBA gene in patients suffering from a variety of clinical symptoms. These mutations abolish the expression of the LRBA protein, leading to autoimmunity, chronic diarrhea, B-cell deficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, functional T-cell defects and aberrant autophagy. We review the clinical and laboratory features of patients with LRBA mutations and present five novel mutations in eight patients suffering from a multitude of clinical features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-015-0224-7DOI Listing
January 2016

Investigation of ITGB2 gene in 12 new cases of leukocyte adhesion deficiency-type I revealed four novel mutations from Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2015 Nov;18(11):760-4

Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I (LAD-I) is a rare, autosomal recessive inherited immunodeficiency disease. LAD-I is caused by mutations in the ITGB2 gene and characterized by recurrent severe bacterial infections, as well as impaired wound healing with lack of pus formation.

Methods: In this study, we investigated ITGB2 gene mutations in 12 patients and their parents. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples. All coding regions of the ITGB2 gene were amplified using PCR and followed by direct sequencing.

Results: Genetic analysis revealed 12 different homozygous mutations, including six missense (c.382G>A, c.2146G>C, c.715G>A, c.691G>C, c.1777C and new c.1686C>A), two new nonsense (c.1336G>T and c.1821C>A), three-frame shift (c.1143delc, c.1907delA and new c.474dupC) and a splice site (c.1877+2T>C). Flow cytometry analysis of CD11/CD18 expression on neutrophils revealed defect in CD18 in all twelve cases (1.4% to 42%), CD11a in ten cases (0.1% to 26.7%), CD11b in nine cases (1.2% to 58.8%), and CD11c in all cases (0 % to 18.1%). The patients' parents were both heterozygous carriers.

Conclusion: Our findings showed four new mutations in the ITGB2 gene. These results can be used for decisive genetic diagnosis, genetic counseling, as well as  prenatal diagnosis for all patients who are suspended to LADI.
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http://dx.doi.org/0151811/AIM.006DOI Listing
November 2015