Publications by authors named "Zaher Khazaei"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The association between incidence and mortality of brain cancer and human development index (HDI): an ecological study.

BMC Public Health 2020 Nov 12;20(1):1696. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Modeling in Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Brain cancer is a rare and deadly malignancy with a low survival rate. The present study aims to evaluate the epidemiology of brain cancer and its relationship with the human development index (HDI) worldwide.

Methods: This is an ecological study. The data on cancer incidence and cancer mortality was extracted from the World Bank for Cancer in 2018 (GLOBOCAN 2018). The incidence, mortality rate, and brain cancer distribution maps were drawn for different countries. We used correlation and regression tests to examine the association of incidence and mortality rates of brain cancer with HDI. The statistical analysis was carried out by Stata-14 and a significance level of 0.05 was considered.

Results: According to the results of Global Cancer Registry in 2018, there were 18,078,957 registered cases of cancer in both sexes, of which 29,681 were related to brain cancer. The highest incidence (102,260 cases, 34.4%) and mortality (77,815 cases, 32.3%) belonged to very high HDI regions. Results showed that incidence (r = 0.690, P < 0.0001) and mortality rates (r = 0.629, P < 0.001) of brain cancer are significantly correlated with HDI. We also observed a positive correlation between brain cancer incidence and Gross National Income (GNI) (r = 0.346, P < 0.001), Mean Years of Schooling (MYS) (r = 0.64, P < 0.001), TABLE (LEB) (r = 0.66, P < 0.001) and Expected Years of Schooling (EYS) (r = 0.667, P < 0.001). Results also revealed that mortality rate was significantly correlated with GNI (r = 0.28, P < 0.01), MYS (r = 0.591, P < 0.01), LEB (r = 0.624, P < 0.01), and EYS (r = 0.605, P < 0.01).

Conclusion: The results of the study showed that the incidence and mortality of brain cancer in countries with higher HDI levels is higher than countries with lower HDI levels, so attention to risk factors and action to reduce it in countries with higher HDI levels in controlling this cancer in this Countries are effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09838-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664078PMC
November 2020

Quality of life in people with transsexuality after surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2020 Aug 3;18(1):264. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Background: Several reports have demonstrated varying results on the quality of life (QoL) of the transgender population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis about the quality of life (QoL) of individuals during the post transsexual surgery period.

Methods: We searched major biomedical electronic databases, including Scopus, Google Scholar, Psychological Information Database (PsycInfo), Web of Science, PubMed, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), and ProQuest, for all relevant literature published in English up to December 2019. The included papers required to be cross sectional studies that reported quality of life in people with transsexuality post surgery. After selecting eligible studies, 2 authors extracted data of each study independently and resolved any inconsistency by consensus with the third reviewer. The risk of bias was assessed by 2 independent research experts by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS).

Results: In this study, out of 497 articles extracted from the initial investigation, 8 articles with 1099 patients were ultimately selected for meta-analysis. The pooled mean of quality of life in transsexual individuals was obtained to be 70.45 (95%CI 55.87-85.03) and 59.17 (95%CI 48.59-69.74), based on World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL-BREF) and The 36-item short form of the Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire (SF36), respectively. Also, the results of the subgroup analysis for the weighted mean quality of life in male to female and female to male showed that the mean quality of life in female to male was 57.54 (95%CI 42.24-72.84) and it was 62.47 (95%CI 45.94-79.00) in male to female, based on SF36 questionnaire. Moreover, the weighted mean quality of life in female to male was 69.99 (95%CI 43.76, 96.23) and it was 70.65 (95%CI 53.11, 88.19) in male to female, based on WHOQoL-BREF questionnaire.

Conclusion: The results of this systematic review may support the approaches to transsexuality that facilitates sex reassignment. In this review, the means of quality of life after surgery were not compared to the means of quality of life before surgery or even before hormonal therapy which was due to inadequate number of primary studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01510-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7397654PMC
August 2020

Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Asian female population and human development index (HDI): an ecological study.

Obstet Gynecol Sci 2020 Jul 24;63(4):497-505. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Objective: Anemia is a major problem in developing countries, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the human development index (HDI) and the prevalence of anemia among Asian women.

Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic ecological study. The study analyzed data including HDI and prevalence of anemia extracted from the World Bank. The correlation coefficient and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. The significance level was considered to be less than 0.05. Analyses were performed using Stata-14 software.

Results: The results revealed that the prevalence of anemia in women of reproductive age (R=-0.626, P<0.001), pregnant women (R=-0.576, P<0.001) and non-pregnant women (R=-0.623, P<0.0001) was significantly negatively correlated with HDI index. In the analysis of HDI components and the prevalence of anemia, a significant negative correlation was observed between the prevalence of anemia and the mean years of schooling, life expectancy at birth, and expected years of schooling indices in all 3 groups of women (non-pregnant, pregnant, and of reproductive age) (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Since there was a negative correlation between the prevalence of anemia in women and HDI, paying greater attention to factors which influence anemia may contribute to the prevention of anemia in developing countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5468/ogs.19196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393760PMC
July 2020

Epidemiology of the Incidence and Mortality of Pancreas Cancer and its Relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in the World: An Ecological Study in 2018.

Curr Pharm Des 2020 ;26(40):5163-5173

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Objective: Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in developed countries and a lethal malignant neoplasm worldwide. This study aims to evaluate the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality and its relationship with HDI.

Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that is based on cancer incidence data and cancer mortality rates derived from the GLOBOCAN in 2018. The incidence and mortality rates of Pancreas as well as Pancreas cancer distribution maps were derived for world countries. The data analysis was conducted using a correlation test, and regression tests were used to evaluate the correlation of the incidence and mortality of Pancreas with HDI. The statistical analysis was carried out by Stata-14, and a significance level of 0.05 was considered.

Results: The highest incidence of pancreatic cancer was reported in Asia with 214499 (46.7%) cases and the lowest incidence was related to Oceania with 4529 cases (0.99%). The results showed a positive and significant correlation between incidence (r = 0.764, P <0.0001) and mortality (r = 0.771, P <0.0001) of pancreatic cancer and the HDI index. The results of ANOVA revealed that the highest mean incidence was related to the very high HDI (P <0.0001) and the highest mortality was connected to the very high human development (P <0.0001). The results exhibited that incidence was positively and significantly correlated with GNI (r = 0.497, P <0.0001), MYS (r = 0.746, P <0.0001), LEB (r = 0.676, <0.0001) and EYS (r = 0.738, P <0.0001). Also, a significant positive correlation was found between mortality and GNI (r = 0.507, P <0.0001), MYS (r = 0.745, P <0.0001), LEB (r = 0.679, <0.0001), and EYS (r = 0.748, P <0.0001).

Conclusion: Given the higher incidence and mortality of pancreatic cancer in countries with HDI, it is necessary to pay a greater attention to risk factors and appropriate planning to reduce these factors and minimize the impact and mortality rate of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612826666200713170047DOI Listing
January 2020

GLOBAL Leukemia in Children 0-14 Statistics 2018, Incidence and Mortality and Human Development Index (HDI): GLOBOCAN Sources and Methods.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2020 May 1;21(5):1487-1494. Epub 2020 May 1.

Iranian Research Center on Healthy Aging, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran.

Objective: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in children under 15 and leukemia is the most common type of cancer in this age group.  The aim of the present study is to investigate the incidence and mortality of leukemia in children aged 0-14 years and its relationship with Human Development Index (HDI in different countries of the world.  Methods: Incidence and mortality rates were obtained from GLOBOCAN and Country's income from World Bank. The data analysis was conducted using correlation analysis. The association of incidence and mortality rates with HDI was investigated using linear regression models.

Results: The results revealed a significant positive correlation between the incidence rate and Gross National Income per capita (r = 0.464, P <0.0001), mean years of schooling (r = 0.566, P <0.0001), life expectancy at birth (r = 0.712, P <0.0001) and expected years of schooling (r = 0.604, P <0.0001). The results also demonstrated a positive and significant correlation between mortality rate and life expectancy at birth (r = 0.199, P <0.0001). An improvement in HDI [Beta = 7.7, CI95% (0.1, 15.3)] and life Expectancy at birth [Beta = 0.1, CI95% (0.03, 0.1)] caused a significantly rise in the incidence of leukemia. Moreover, the improved HDI [Beta = 6.2, CI95% (1.9, 10.5)] was associated with increased mean years of schooling [Beta = -0.1, CI95% (-0.2, -0.01)] and expected years of schooling [Beta = -0.1, CI95% (-0.3, -0.08).

Conclusion: As the HDI increases, incidence and mortality from of leukemia increases indicating a change in factors that affects leukemia incidences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.5.1487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541866PMC
May 2020

Association between the incidence and mortality rates for corpus uteri cancer and human development index (HDI): a global ecological study.

Obstet Gynecol Sci 2020 Mar 20;63(2):141-149. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the incidence of and mortality due to corpus uteri cancer (CUC) and the human development index (HDI) across the world.

Methods: This was an ecological study. The incidence and mortality rates of CUC along with HDI data were extracted from the Global Cancer Data in 2018. Subsequently, correlation coefficient and linear regression model were used to determine the association between the incidence and mortality rates of CUC and the HDI. STATA-14 was used for data analysis.

Results: There was a positive and significant correlation between the incidence (r=0.693; <0.001) and mortality (r=0.284; <0.001) rates of uterine cancer and the HDI. A positive and significant correlation was also observed between the incidence rate and the gross national income per 1,000 capita (r=0.440; <0.001), mean years of schooling (MYS) (r=0.740; <0.001), life expectancy at birth (LEB) (r=0.590; <0.001), and expected years of schooling (r=0.650; <0.001). The results of the linear regression model showed a significant statistical association between MYS and the incidence of CUC (β=1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-1.70) and LEB and mortality due to uteri cancer (β=0.40; 95% CI, 0.10-0.90).

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a significant statistical association between the incidence and mortality rates of CUC and the HDI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5468/ogs.2020.63.2.141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073362PMC
March 2020

The Comparison of the Adverse Events of Pentavalent Vaccine and DPT Vaccine in 2-6 Months Infants in Iran: A National Study.

Ann Glob Health 2020 02 3;86(1):11. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, IR.

Background: Vaccination is the most remarkable intervention in public health and is an effective strategy in controlling infectious diseases among infants.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the adverse events of Pentavalent vaccine and DPT vaccine in two- to six-month-old infants in Iran.

Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study in which healthy infants aged two to six months, having received DPT vaccine in 2013 and Pentavalent vaccine in 2015, were studied for any experienced adverse events related to these vaccines. Percentage, mean, standard deviation and chi-square tests were used to describe and analyze the data (p < 0.05).

Findings: The results showed that 10,464 and 17,561 adverse events, which were associated with DPT vaccine and Pentavalent vaccine respectively, were recorded in the infants who received these vaccines throughout Iran. Mazandaran, Qazvin and Golestan provinces reported the highest number of adverse events, respectively (15.74%, 11.25%, and 9.12%). Moreover, Pentavalent vaccine seemed to have more recorded adverse events compared to DPT, high fever had the highest record rate for DPT vaccine (47.4%) and mild localized complications was the highest for Pentavalent vaccines (31.68%). There was a significant relationship between the kind of vaccine and the type of reaction, adverse event categorization and the country that produced the vaccine (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Severe localized adverse events including high fever, vomiting, diarrhea and restlessness seemed to be less in Pentavalent vaccine compared to DPT vaccine. Therefore, substituting Pentavalent vaccine for DPT vaccine in infants seems to reduce the adverse events among them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/aogh.2449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7006586PMC
February 2020

The effect of diabetes on the risk of endometrial Cancer: an updated a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Cancer 2019 May 31;19(1):527. Epub 2019 May 31.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fellowship of Minimally Invasive Gynecology, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Background: Previous studies conducted on the association between diabetes and the risk of endometrial cancer have reported controversial results that have raised a variety of questions about the association between diabetes and the incidence of this cancer. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to more precisely estimate the effect of diabetes on the risk of endometrial cancer incidence.

Methods: All original articles were searched in international databases, including Medline (PubMed), Web of sciences, Scopus, EMBASE, and CINHAL. Search was done from January 1990 to January 2018 without language limitations. Also, logarithm and standard error logarithm relative risk (RR) were used for meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 22 cohort and case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis, of which 14 showed statistically significant associations between diabetes and risk of endometrial cancer. Diabetes was associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer (RR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.48-2.01). The summary of RR for all 9 cohort studies was 1.56 (95% CI 1.21-2.01), and it was 1.85 (95% CI 1.53-2.23) for 13 case control studies. The summary of RR in hospital-based studies was higher than other studies. Thirteen of the primary studies-controlled BMI as a confounding variable, and the combined risk of their results was 1.62 (95% CI 1.34-1.97).

Conclusions: Diabetes seems to increases the risk of endometrial cancer in women, and this finding can be useful in developing endometrial cancer prevention plans for women having diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-5748-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6544993PMC
May 2019

Prevalence of obesity and overweight in Iranian children aged less than 5 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Korean J Pediatr 2019 Jun 23;62(6):206-212. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Purpose: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight in Iranian children under 5 years of age using a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, CINHAL, and the Iranian databases, including Scientific Information Database (www.sid.ir), Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (Irandoc.ac.ir), Iranmedex (www.iranmedex.com), and Magiran (www.magiran.com), for all articles published between January 1989 and August 2017. Sources of heterogeneity were determined using subgroup analysis and meta-regression.

Results: Six articles were ultimately included in the meta-analysis to estimate the pooled prevalence, based on which the prevalence of obesity and overweight were estimated to be 8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6%-10%) and 9% (95% CI, 7%-11%), respectively. The results of the subgroup analysis showed that the prevalence of obesity in boys and girls was 9% (95% CI, 6%-13%) and 7% (95% CI, 4-10%), respectively, and the prevalence of overweight in boys and girls was 10% (95% CI, 5%-15%) and 9% (95% CI, 5%-13%), respectively.

Conclusion: Despite high heterogeneity among the results of the articles included in the meta-analysis, the prevalence of obesity and overweight is higher in Iranian children under 5 years of age. Therefore, parents and the health system must pay more attention to the lifestyle, nutritional habits, and physical activity of these children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2018.07255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6584232PMC
June 2019

Determining the Survival Rate of Colorectal Cancer in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Nov 28;19(11):3009-3018. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Health Sciences Research Center, Departman of Public Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Email:

Objective: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Despite of remarkable advances in medical sciences, cancer is an important disease and the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. The present study was aimed at determining the survival rate of colorectal cancer in Iran. Methods: The present study is a systematic review of national and international electronic databases. Studies that had the inclusion criteria were included in the study, electronically published articles over December 2007 and March 2015 were retrieved. The collected data were analyzed by meta-analytic method through stata 11.0 Software, and the survival rate was measured. Results: The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival rates of colorectal cancer in Iran were respectively calculated as 85, 75.10, 65, 55.40, and 52.The results indicated that there is a significant relationship between anatomic location of tumor and survival rate. According to the results of this examination, survival rate of the patients with rectal cancer was 41.9 times higher than those with colorectal cancer. Conclusion: Due to the relative high prevalence of this cancer among young people in Iran and the low survival rate, early diagnosis of colorectal neoplasms is necessary before they become symptomatic through more effective diagnosis programs of enhancing the patients’ health and survival rate. Moreover, it is necessary to conduct more specialized and relevant studies in order to determine genetic or environmental causes of cancer such as diet and cultural and behavioral habits at the national level and with different ethnicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2018.19.11.3009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6318383PMC
November 2018

Epidemiologic Aspects of Overall Injuries in Hamadan Province; A Six-Year Registry-Based Analysis.

Bull Emerg Trauma 2018 Jul;6(3):233-238

Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran.

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological aspects of all-cause injuries in Hamadan province during a 6-year period.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on injured subjects admitted to private or governmental hospitals in Hamadan province during March 2009 to March 2015. The epidemiological characteristics were retrieved from a registry-based system including gender, residency, injury mechanism and date of injury occurrence, outcome of hospitalization (full recovery/disability/death).

Results: Totally, 135,925 hospitalized injured cases were recorded. The majority of cases were male (72.6%) and were occurred in urban areas (60%), about 40% of patients were in 20-34 years' age group, and the highest proportion (30.13%) of injuries occurred in summer. Logistic regression showed that the odds of disability vs. recovery was significantly higher in rural areas [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =3.42] and the odds of death vs. recovery was higher among male gender (AOR=1.46). In addition, comparing to the 0-4-year age-group, odds of death were significantly higher in middle aged and elderly victims.

Conclusion: Our findings showed that middle age groups, male gender and urban area increase the odds of death. Injured males and old age subjects had the highest odds of death and out of residential area injuries were common cause of leading death injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29252/beat-060308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6078468PMC
July 2018

Prevalence of Risky Behaviors and Related Factors among Students of Dezful.

Iran J Psychiatry 2017 Jul;12(3):188-193

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

There is a likelihood of risky behaviors such as drug abuse, risky sexual behavior, and adaptability issues in young ages. The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence of risky behaviors among students of Dezful University of Medical Sciences in 2014. : This was a descriptive-analytical cross sectional study, with a random sampling approach. Scale of measuring risky behaviors was used to measure the risky behaviors (high speed driving, maim, drug use, and sexual behaviors) and related factors. The mean, standard deviation, Chi-square tests, t tests, and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The study was conducted on 150 (50%) female and 150 (50%) male students. Most of the participants aged 20 to 24 years. A statistically significant difference was obtained between the average scores of risky behaviors among female and male students (p˂0.05). The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of risky behaviors, high speed driving, and drug consumption was different among the students of various study fields (p˂0.05). The prevalence of risky behaviors among students of Dezful University was relatively low, and the prevalence of these behaviors in female students was far less than in male students. Risky behaviors were associated with background variables, except for mother's occupation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5640580PMC
July 2017

Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Hydatid Cysts in Khorasan Razavi Province, from 2011 to 2014.

Iran J Parasitol 2016 Jul-Sep;11(3):364-370

Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran; Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with hydatid cyst during 2011 to 2014.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Khorasan Razavi Province, the Northeast of Iran, from 2011 to 2014. The study population was all cases with hydatid cyst who diagnosed in governmental and private laboratories, hospitals and health centers (HC) in Khorasan Razavi Province during 2011-14.

Results: The prevalence rate of hydatidosis was 1.44 per 100000 individuals. Of 357 cases, 54.9% were women, 40.3% rural, 45.8% housewives, and 3.4% were Afghan. The mean age of women was higher than that of men (39.13±18.9 compared to 34.7±17.9 yr, respectively, -value=0.025). The highest proportion of cases (39.2%) was in the age group of 21-40 yr old. Abdominal pain was reported in 42.3% of cases. Liver involvement was the most common localization of hydatid cyst reported in 59.4% of patients, and 8.4% had multiple organ involvement. The common diagnosis methods of the disease were radiology (42.3%) followed by CT scan (37.8%). 45.9% of patients had domestic dog and hygiene principles of washing the vegetables was adhered by 6.7% of patients.

Conclusion: The prevalence of human hydatidosis, as a most important neglected disease, should be considered by health policy-makers in public health domain. In addition, educational programs to better recognition of the disease symptoms, and to identify the infection sources are needed in high risk group of population.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5256053PMC
January 2017

Trend of Smear-positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Iran during 1995-2012: A Segmented Regression Model.

Int J Prev Med 2016 20;7:86. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Department of Operating Room, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, IR Iran.

Background: Describing trend in tuberculosis (TB) over time can play an important role to assess the disease control strategies and predict the future morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the incidence trend of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (SPPT) in sub-age and sex groups during the years of 1995-2012.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed in 2015 by using the dataset regarding National Statistics of SPPT reported by World Health Organization during 1995-2012. Annual percent changes (APCs) and average annual percent changes (AAPCs) were estimated to determine the summery statistics of trend using segmented regression model.

Results: During 1995-2012, there were 96,579 SPPT case notifications in Iran (male to female ratio: 0.99). There was only one change point in 1997 for SPPT incidence in subgroups of age and sex during 1995-2012. The AAPCs for both genders and also all three age groups had a significant descending trend during the time period (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our results showed a downward trend in the SPPT incidence. It seems that to achieve the set goals and high successful in TB control program especially reduction in SPPT, pay more attention to old age and males should be considered. In addition, improvement of clinical and medical care services and notification processes would be imperative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.184317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4926552PMC
July 2016