Publications by authors named "Yvonne S Eisele"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Soluble α-synuclein-antibody complexes activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in hiPSC-derived microglia.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Neurodegeneration New Medicines Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037;

Parkinson's disease is characterized by accumulation of α-synuclein (αSyn). Release of oligomeric/fibrillar αSyn from damaged neurons may potentiate neuronal death in part via microglial activation. Heretofore, it remained unknown if oligomeric/fibrillar αSyn could activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in human microglia and whether anti-αSyn antibodies could prevent this effect. Here, we show that αSyn activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived microglia (hiMG) via dual stimulation involving Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) engagement and mitochondrial damage. In vitro, hiMG can be activated by mutant (A53T) αSyn secreted from hiPSC-derived A9-dopaminergic neurons. Surprisingly, αSyn-antibody complexes enhanced rather than suppressed inflammasome-mediated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion, indicating these complexes are neuroinflammatory in a human context. A further increase in inflammation was observed with addition of oligomerized amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and its cognate antibody. In vivo, engraftment of hiMG with αSyn in humanized mouse brain resulted in caspase-1 activation and neurotoxicity, which was exacerbated by αSyn antibody. These findings may have important implications for antibody therapies aimed at depleting misfolded/aggregated proteins from the human brain, as they may paradoxically trigger inflammation in human microglia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025847118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054017PMC
April 2021

Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation and Thromboembolic Risk in Wild-Type Transthyretin Amyloid Cardiomyopathy.

Circulation 2021 Mar 29;143(13):1335-1337. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.052136DOI Listing
March 2021

α-Synuclein Oligomers Induce Glutamate Release from Astrocytes and Excessive Extrasynaptic NMDAR Activity in Neurons, Thus Contributing to Synapse Loss.

J Neurosci 2021 Mar 22;41(10):2264-2273. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Neuroscience Translational Center and Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037

Synaptic and neuronal loss are major neuropathological characteristics of Parkinson's disease. Misfolded protein aggregates in the form of Lewy bodies, comprised mainly of α-synuclein (αSyn), are associated with disease progression, and have also been linked to other neurodegenerative diseases, including Lewy body dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and frontotemporal dementia. However, the effects of αSyn and its mechanism of synaptic damage remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that αSyn oligomers induce Ca-dependent release of glutamate from astrocytes obtained from male and female mice, and that mice overexpressing αSyn manifest increased tonic release of glutamate In turn, this extracellular glutamate activates glutamate receptors, including extrasynaptic NMDARs (eNMDARs), on neurons both in culture and in hippocampal slices of αSyn-overexpressing mice. Additionally, in patch-clamp recording from outside-out patches, we found that oligomerized αSyn can directly activate eNMDARs. In organotypic slices, oligomeric αSyn induces eNMDAR-mediated synaptic loss, which can be reversed by the drug NitroSynapsin. When we expose human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cerebrocortical neurons to αSyn, we find similar effects. Importantly, the improved NMDAR antagonist NitroSynapsin, which selectively inhibits extrasynaptic over physiological synaptic NMDAR activity, protects synapses from oligomeric αSyn-induced damage in our model systems, thus meriting further study for its therapeutic potential. Loss of synaptic function and ensuing neuronal loss are associated with disease progression in Parkinson's disease (PD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanism of synaptic damage remains incompletely understood. α-Synuclein (αSyn) misfolds in PD/LBD, forming Lewy bodies and contributing to disease pathogenesis. Here, we found that misfolded/oligomeric αSyn releases excessive astrocytic glutamate, in turn activating neuronal extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (eNMDARs), thereby contributing to synaptic damage. Additionally, αSyn oligomers directly activate eNMDARs, further contributing to damage. While the FDA-approved drug memantine has been reported to offer some benefit in PD/LBD (Hershey and Coleman-Jackson, 2019), we find that the improved eNMDAR antagonist NitroSynapsin ameliorates αSyn-induced synaptic spine loss, providing potential disease-modifying intervention in PD/LBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1871-20.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018774PMC
March 2021

Prominent microglial inclusions in transgenic mouse models of α-synucleinopathy that are distinct from neuronal lesions.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2020 08 12;8(1):133. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Tübingen, Germany.

Alpha-synucleinopathies are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by intracellular deposits of aggregated α-synuclein (αS). The clinical heterogeneity of these diseases is thought to be attributed to conformers (or strains) of αS but the contribution of inclusions in various cell types is unclear. The aim of the present work was to study αS conformers among different transgenic (TG) mouse models of α-synucleinopathies. To this end, four different TG mouse models were studied (Prnp-h[A53T]αS; Thy1-h[A53T]αS; Thy1-h[A30P]αS; Thy1-mαS) that overexpress human or murine αS and differed in their age-of-symptom onset and subsequent disease progression. Postmortem analysis of end-stage brains revealed robust neuronal αS pathology as evidenced by accumulation of αS serine 129 (p-αS) phosphorylation in the brainstem of all four TG mouse lines. Overall appearance of the pathology was similar and only modest differences were observed among additionally affected brain regions. To study αS conformers in these mice, we used pentameric formyl thiophene acetic acid (pFTAA), a fluorescent dye with amyloid conformation-dependent spectral properties. Unexpectedly, besides the neuronal αS pathology, we also found abundant pFTAA-positive inclusions in microglia of all four TG mouse lines. These microglial inclusions were also positive for Thioflavin S and showed immunoreactivity with antibodies recognizing the N-terminus of αS, but were largely p-αS-negative. In all four lines, spectral pFTAA analysis revealed conformational differences between microglia and neuronal inclusions but not among the different mouse models. Concomitant with neuronal lesions, microglial inclusions were already present at presymptomatic stages and could also be induced by seeded αS aggregation. Although nature and significance of microglial inclusions for human α-synucleinopathies remain to be clarified, the previously overlooked abundance of microglial inclusions in TG mouse models of α-synucleinopathy bears importance for mechanistic and preclinical-translational studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-020-00993-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7425556PMC
August 2020

Molecular Imaging of Cardiac Amyloidosis.

J Nucl Med 2020 07 1;61(7):965-970. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Division of Cardiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Transthyretin and light-chain amyloidosis are the 2 main causes of cardiac amyloidosis. Recent developments in molecular imaging have transformed our ability to diagnose transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis noninvasively and unmasked a hitherto unrecognized prevalence of the disease. This review summarizes the current and evolving imaging approaches, their molecular structural basis, and the gaps in imaging capabilities that have arisen as a result of parallel developments in pharmacotherapy delivering the first effective treatment options for this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.120.245381DOI Listing
July 2020

Efficient 1-Hour Technetium-99 m Pyrophosphate Imaging Protocol for the Diagnosis of Transthyretin Cardiac Amyloidosis.

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 02 17;13(2):e010249. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Division of Cardiology, Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (A.M., S.B, S.A., R.N., W.F., A.B., T.C.W., E.S., P.S.).

Background: Technetium-99 m pyrophosphate protocols for transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis diagnosis have variably used 1- and 3-hour imaging time points. We investigated whether imaging at 1 hour with superior efficiency had comparable diagnostic accuracy as 3-hour imaging.

Methods: This is a registry analysis of patients with suspected transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis referred for technetium-99 m pyrophosphate at a single tertiary center from June 2015 through January 2019. Patients underwent planar and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging at 1 and 3 hours. A positive Tc-99m pyrophosphate study was defined by the presence of diffuse myocardial tracer uptake on SPECT. For planar imaging, visual semiquantitative (grades 0-3, ≥2 considered positive) and quantitative heart to contralateral ratios (≥1.5 considered positive) were used.

Results: Two hundred thirty-three patients (69% men; median age, 77 [69-83] years) underwent the study protocol. There were 60 (25.8%) patients with diffuse myocardial uptake, 1 (0.4%) with regional uptake, and 172 (73.8%) with no myocardial uptake. Results of SPECT were identical at 1 and 3 hours. Planar imaging at 1 hour had 98% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Planar grade 0 uptake or heart to contralateral ratio ≤1.2 and planar grade 3 uptake or heart to contralateral ratio ≥2.0 were always associated with negative and positive SPECT, respectively. For planar grades 1 and 2 uptake and heart to contralateral ratio 1.3 to 1.9, SPECT was needed to make a diagnosis. No patient with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis had positive SPECT.

Conclusions: An efficient 1-hour technetium-99 m pyrophosphate protocol had comparable diagnostic performance to a 3-hour protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.119.010249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7032611PMC
February 2020

Amyloidosis by Bacterial Infection in Critically Ill Patients?

Authors:
Yvonne S Eisele

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 12;198(12):1475-1476

School of MedicineUniversity of PittsburghPittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201809-1777EDDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212801PMC
December 2018

Peptide probes detect misfolded transthyretin oligomers in plasma of hereditary amyloidosis patients.

Sci Transl Med 2017 Sep;9(407)

Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that soluble misfolded protein assemblies contribute to the degeneration of postmitotic tissue in amyloid diseases. However, there is a dearth of reliable nonantibody-based probes for selectively detecting oligomeric aggregate structures circulating in plasma or deposited in tissues, making it difficult to scrutinize this hypothesis in patients. Hence, understanding the structure-proteotoxicity relationships driving amyloid diseases remains challenging, hampering the development of early diagnostic and novel treatment strategies. We report peptide-based probes that selectively label misfolded transthyretin (TTR) oligomers circulating in the plasma of TTR hereditary amyloidosis patients exhibiting a predominant neuropathic phenotype. These probes revealed that there are much fewer misfolded TTR oligomers in healthy controls, in asymptomatic carriers of mutations linked to amyloid polyneuropathy, and in patients with TTR-associated cardiomyopathies. The absence of misfolded TTR oligomers in the plasma of cardiomyopathy patients suggests that the tissue tropism observed in the TTR amyloidoses is structure-based. Misfolded oligomers decrease in TTR amyloid polyneuropathy patients treated with disease-modifying therapies (tafamidis or liver transplant-mediated gene therapy). In a subset of TTR amyloid polyneuropathy patients, the probes also detected a circulating TTR fragment that disappeared after tafamidis treatment. Proteomic analysis of the isolated TTR oligomers revealed a specific patient-associated signature composed of proteins that likely associate with the circulating TTR oligomers. Quantification of plasma oligomer concentrations using peptide probes could become an early diagnostic strategy, a response-to-therapy biomarker, and a useful tool for understanding structure-proteotoxicity relationships in the TTR amyloidoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aam7621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5628019PMC
September 2017

Conversion of Synthetic Aβ to In Vivo Active Seeds and Amyloid Plaque Formation in a Hippocampal Slice Culture Model.

J Neurosci 2016 05;36(18):5084-93

Department of Cellular Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Tübingen D-72076, Germany, DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Tübingen D-72076, Germany,

Unlabelled: The aggregation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in brain is an early event and hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We combined the advantages of in vitro and in vivo approaches to study cerebral β-amyloidosis by establishing a long-term hippocampal slice culture (HSC) model. While no Aβ deposition was noted in untreated HSCs of postnatal Aβ precursor protein transgenic (APP tg) mice, Aβ deposition emerged in HSCs when cultures were treated once with brain extract from aged APP tg mice and the culture medium was continuously supplemented with synthetic Aβ. Seeded Aβ deposition was also observed under the same conditions in HSCs derived from wild-type or App-null mice but in no comparable way when HSCs were fixed before cultivation. Both the nature of the brain extract and the synthetic Aβ species determined the conformational characteristics of HSC Aβ deposition. HSC Aβ deposits induced a microglia response, spine loss, and neuritic dystrophy but no obvious neuron loss. Remarkably, in contrast to in vitro aggregated synthetic Aβ, homogenates of Aβ deposits containing HSCs induced cerebral β-amyloidosis upon intracerebral inoculation into young APP tg mice. Our results demonstrate that a living cellular environment promotes the seeded conversion of synthetic Aβ into a potent in vivo seeding-active form.

Significance Statement: In this study, we report the seeded induction of Aβ aggregation and deposition in long-term hippocampal slice cultures. Remarkably, we find that the biological activities of the largely synthetic Aβ aggregates in the culture are very similar to those observed in vivo This observation is the first to show that potent in vivo seeding-active Aβ aggregates can be obtained by seeded conversion of synthetic Aβ in a living (wild-type) cellular environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0258-16.2016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6601857PMC
May 2016

Propagation of Aß pathology: hypotheses, discoveries, and yet unresolved questions from experimental and human brain studies.

Acta Neuropathol 2016 Jan 29;131(1):5-25. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

Laboratoire de Neuropathologie Raymond-Escourolle, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, 47, boulevard de l'Hopital, 75651, Paris Cedex 13, France.

In brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Aβ peptides accumulate in parenchyma and, almost invariably, also in the vascular walls. Although Aβ aggregation is, by definition, present in AD, its impact is only incompletely understood. It occurs in a stereotypical spatiotemporal distribution within neuronal networks in the course of the disease. This suggests a role for synaptic connections in propagating Aβ pathology, and possibly of axonal transport in an antero- or retrograde way-although, there is also evidence for passive, extracellular diffusion. Striking, in AD, is the conjunction of tau and Aβ pathology. Tau pathology in the cell body of neurons precedes Aβ deposition in their synaptic endings in several circuits such as the entorhino-dentate, cortico-striatal or subiculo-mammillary connections. However, genetic evidence suggests that Aβ accumulation is the first step in AD pathogenesis. To model the complexity and consequences of Aβ aggregation in vivo, various transgenic (tg) rodents have been generated. In rodents tg for the human Aβ precursor protein, focal injections of preformed Aβ aggregates can induce Aβ deposits in the vicinity of the injection site, and over time in more distant regions of the brain. This suggests that Aβ shares with α-synuclein, tau and other proteins the property to misfold and aggregate homotypic molecules. We propose to group those proteins under the term "propagons". Propagons may lack the infectivity of prions. We review findings from neuropathological examinations of human brains in different stages of AD and from studies in rodent models of Aβ aggregation and discuss putative mechanisms underlying the initiation and spread of Aβ pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-015-1516-yDOI Listing
January 2016

Persistence of Aβ seeds in APP null mouse brain.

Nat Neurosci 2015 Nov 9;18(11):1559-61. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

Department of Cellular Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Cerebral β-amyloidosis is induced by inoculation of Aβ seeds into APP transgenic mice, but not into App(-/-) (APP null) mice. We found that brain extracts from APP null mice that had been inoculated with Aβ seeds up to 6 months previously still induced β-amyloidosis in APP transgenic hosts following secondary transmission. Thus, Aβ seeds can persist in the brain for months, and they regain propagative and pathogenic activity in the presence of host Aβ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.4117DOI Listing
November 2015

Targeting protein aggregation for the treatment of degenerative diseases.

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2015 Nov 4;14(11):759-80. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

The aggregation of specific proteins is hypothesized to underlie several degenerative diseases, which are collectively known as amyloid disorders. However, the mechanistic connection between the process of protein aggregation and tissue degeneration is not yet fully understood. Here, we review current and emerging strategies to ameliorate aggregation-associated degenerative disorders, with a focus on disease-modifying strategies that prevent the formation of and/or eliminate protein aggregates. Persuasive pharmacological and genetic evidence now supports protein aggregation as the cause of postmitotic tissue dysfunction or loss. However, a more detailed understanding of the factors that trigger and sustain aggregate formation and of the structure-activity relationships underlying proteotoxicity is needed to develop future disease-modifying therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrd4593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4628595PMC
November 2015

A fluorogenic aryl fluorosulfate for intraorganellar transthyretin imaging in living cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans.

J Am Chem Soc 2015 Jun 8;137(23):7404-14. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

†Department of Chemistry, ‡Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, §Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, ∥Department of Chemical Physiology, ⊥Department of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, #The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, ∇Dorris Neuroscience Center, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, United States.

Fluorogenic probes, due to their often greater spatial and temporal sensitivity in comparison to permanently fluorescent small molecules, represent powerful tools to study protein localization and function in the context of living systems. Herein, we report fluorogenic probe 4, a 1,3,4-oxadiazole designed to bind selectively to transthyretin (TTR). Probe 4 comprises a fluorosulfate group not previously used in an environment-sensitive fluorophore. The fluorosulfate functional group does not react covalently with TTR on the time scale required for cellular imaging, but does red shift the emission maximum of probe 4 in comparison to its nonfluorosulfated analogue. We demonstrate that probe 4 is dark in aqueous buffers, whereas the TTR·4 complex exhibits a fluorescence emission maximum at 481 nm. The addition of probe 4 to living HEK293T cells allows efficient binding to and imaging of exogenous TTR within intracellular organelles, including the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, live Caenorhabditis elegans expressing human TTR transgenically and treated with probe 4 display TTR·4 fluorescence in macrophage-like coelomocytes. An analogue of fluorosulfate probe 4 does react selectively with TTR without labeling the remainder of the cellular proteome. Studies on this analogue suggest that certain aryl fluorosulfates, due to their cell and organelle permeability and activatable reactivity, could be considered for the development of protein-selective covalent probes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5b03042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4472559PMC
June 2015

Endogenous murine Aβ increases amyloid deposition in APP23 but not in APPPS1 transgenic mice.

Neurobiol Aging 2015 Jul 25;36(7):2241-2247. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Department of Cellular Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Endogenous murine amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is expressed in most Aβ precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease but its contribution to β-amyloidosis remains unclear. We demonstrate ∼ 35% increased cerebral Aβ load in APP23 transgenic mice compared with age-matched APP23 mice on an App-null background. No such difference was found for the much faster Aβ-depositing APPPS1 transgenic mouse model between animals with or without the murine App gene. Nevertheless, both APP23 and APPPS1 mice codeposited murine Aβ, and immunoelectron microscopy revealed a tight association of murine Aβ with human Aβ fibrils. Deposition of murine Aβ was considerably less efficient compared with the deposition of human Aβ indicating a lower amyloidogenic potential of murine Aβ in vivo. The amyloid dyes Pittsburgh Compound-B and pentamer formyl thiophene acetic acid did not differentiate between amyloid deposits consisting of human Aβ and deposits of mixed human-murine Aβ. Our data demonstrate a differential effect of murine Aβ on human Aβ deposition in different APP transgenic mice. The mechanistically complex interaction of human and mouse Aβ may affect pathogenesis of the models and should be considered when models are used for translational preclinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.03.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4457564PMC
July 2015

Progression of Seed-Induced Aβ Deposition within the Limbic Connectome.

Brain Pathol 2015 Nov 24;25(6):743-52. Epub 2015 Mar 24.

Department of Cellular Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

An important early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the aberrant polymerization and extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). In young transgenic mice expressing the human Aβ-precursor protein (APP), deposits of Aβ can be induced by the inoculation of minute amounts of brain extract containing Aβ aggregates ("Aβ seeds"), indicative of a prion-like seeding phenomenon. Moreover, focal intracerebral injection of Aβ seeds can induce deposits not only in the immediate vicinity of the injection site, but, with time, also in distal regions of the brain. However, it remains uncertain whether the spatial progression of Aβ deposits occurs via nonsystematic diffusion from the injection site to proximal regions or via directed transit along neuroanatomical pathways. To address this question, we analyzed the spatiotemporal emergence of Aβ deposits in two different APP-transgenic mouse models that had been previously inoculated with Aβ seeds into the hippocampal formation. The results revealed a specific, neuroanatomically constrained pattern of induced Aβ deposits in structures corresponding to the limbic connectome, supporting the hypothesis that neuronal pathways act as conduits for the movement of proteopathic agents among brain regions, thereby facilitating the progression of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4530099PMC
November 2015

Multiple factors contribute to the peripheral induction of cerebral β-amyloidosis.

J Neurosci 2014 Jul;34(31):10264-73

Department of Cellular Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany, and

Deposition of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in brain is an early event and hallmark pathology of Alzheimer's disease and cerebral Aβ angiopathy. Experimental evidence supports the concept that Aβ multimers can act as seeds and structurally corrupt other Aβ peptides by a self-propagating mechanism. Here we compare the induction of cerebral β-amyloidosis by intraperitoneal applications of Aβ-containing brain extracts in three Aβ-precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse lines that differ in levels of transgene expression in brain and periphery (APP23 mice, APP23 mice lacking murine APP, and R1.40 mice). Results revealed that beta-amyloidosis induction, which could be blocked with an anti-Aβ antibody, was dependent on the amount of inoculated brain extract and on the level of APP/Aβ expression in the brain but not in the periphery. The induced Aβ deposits in brain occurred in a characteristic pattern consistent with the entry of Aβ seeds at multiple brain locations. Intraperitoneally injected Aβ could be detected in blood monocytes and some peripheral tissues (liver, spleen) up to 30 d after the injection but escaped histological and biochemical detection thereafter. These results suggest that intraperitoneally inoculated Aβ seeds are transported from the periphery to the brain in which corruptive templating of host Aβ occurs at multiple sites, most efficiently in regions with high availability of soluble Aβ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1608-14.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6608275PMC
July 2014

Blood platelets in the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

PLoS One 2014 28;9(2):e90523. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Hemostasis, Hemotherapy and Transfusion Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany ; Medizinische Klinik III, Kardiologie und Kreislauferkrankungen, Eberhard-Karls-Universität, Tübingen, Germany.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neurotoxic amyloid-ß plaque formation in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Besides CAA, AD is strongly related to vascular diseases such as stroke and atherosclerosis. Cerebrovascular dysfunction occurs in AD patients leading to alterations in blood flow that might play an important role in AD pathology with neuronal loss and memory deficits. Platelets are the major players in hemostasis and thrombosis, but are also involved in neuroinflammatory diseases like AD. For many years, platelets were accepted as peripheral model to study the pathophysiology of AD because platelets display the enzymatic activities to generate amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides. In addition, platelets are considered to be a biomarker for early diagnosis of AD. Effects of Aß peptides on platelets and the impact of platelets in the progression of AD remained, however, ill-defined. The present study explored the cellular mechanisms triggered by Aß in platelets. Treatment of platelets with Aß led to platelet activation and enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and membrane scrambling, suggesting enhanced platelet apoptosis. More important, platelets modulate soluble Aß into fibrillar structures that were absorbed by apoptotic but not vital platelets. This together with enhanced platelet adhesion under flow ex vivo and in vivo and platelet accumulation at amyloid deposits of cerebral vessels of AD transgenic mice suggested that platelets are major contributors of CAA inducing platelet thrombus formation at vascular amyloid plaques leading to vessel occlusion critical for cerebrovascular events like stroke.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0090523PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3938776PMC
June 2015

Seeded strain-like transmission of β-amyloid morphotypes in APP transgenic mice.

EMBO Rep 2013 Nov 3;14(11):1017-22. Epub 2013 Sep 3.

1] Department of Cellular Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany [2] DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

The polymorphic β-amyloid lesions present in individuals with Alzheimer's disease are collectively known as cerebral β-amyloidosis. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse models similarly develop β-amyloid depositions that differ in morphology, binding of amyloid conformation-sensitive dyes, and Aβ40/Aβ42 peptide ratio. To determine the nature of such β-amyloid morphotypes, β-amyloid-containing brain extracts from either aged APP23 brains or aged APPPS1 brains were intracerebrally injected into the hippocampus of young APP23 or APPPS1 transgenic mice. APPPS1 brain extract injected into young APP23 mice induced β-amyloid deposition with the morphological, conformational, and Aβ40/Aβ42 ratio characteristics of β-amyloid deposits in aged APPPS1 mice, whereas APP23 brain extract injected into young APP23 mice induced β-amyloid deposits with the characteristics of β-amyloid deposits in aged APP23 mice. Injecting the two extracts into the APPPS1 host revealed a similar difference between the induced β-amyloid deposits, although less prominent, and the induced deposits were similar to the β-amyloid deposits found in aged APPPS1 hosts. These results indicate that the molecular composition and conformation of aggregated Aβ in APP transgenic mice can be maintained by seeded conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/embor.2013.137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3818077PMC
November 2013

From soluble aβ to progressive aβ aggregation: could prion-like templated misfolding play a role?

Authors:
Yvonne S Eisele

Brain Pathol 2013 May;23(3):333-41

DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Tübingen, Germany.

Accumulation, aggregation and deposition of Aβ peptides are pathological hallmarks in the brains of individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) or by cerebral β-amyloid angiopathy (Aβ-CAA). While Aβ is a peptide of yet largely unknown function, it is constantly produced in the human brain where it normally remains in a soluble state. However, Aβ peptides are aggregation prone by their intrinsic ability to adopt alternative conformations rich in β-sheet structure that aggregate into oligomeric as well as fibrillar formations. This transition from soluble to aggregated state has been hypothesized to initiate the pathological cascade and is therefore subject to intensive research. Mounting evidence suggests prion-like templated misfolding as the biochemical phenomenon responsible for promoting progressive Aβ aggregation. Here, we review studies in vitro and in vivo that suggest that cerebral Aβ aggregation may indeed progress via prion-like templated misfolding. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding initiation and progression of the disease and to developing therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12049DOI Listing
May 2013

The presence of Aβ seeds, and not age per se, is critical to the initiation of Aβ deposition in the brain.

Acta Neuropathol 2012 Jan 20;123(1):31-7. Epub 2011 Nov 20.

Department of Cellular Neurology, Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

The deposition of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in senile plaques and cerebral Aβ-amyloid angiopathy can be seeded in β-amyloid precursor protein (APP)-transgenic mice by the intracerebral infusion of brain extracts containing aggregated Aβ. Previous studies of seeded β-amyloid induction have used relatively short incubation periods to dissociate seeded β-amyloid induction from endogenous β-amyloid deposition of the host, thus precluding the analysis of the impact of age and extended incubation periods on the instigation and spread of Aβ lesions in brain. In the present study using R1.40 APP-transgenic mice (which do not develop endogenous Aβ deposition up to 15 months of age) we show that: (1) seeding at 9 months of age does not induce more Aβ deposition than seeding at 3 months of age, provided that the incubation period (6 months) is the same; and (2) very long-term (12 months) incubation after a focal application of the seed results in the emergence of Aβ deposits throughout the forebrain. These findings indicate that the presence of Aβ seeds, and not the age of the host per se, is critical to the initiation of Aβ aggregation in the brain, and that Aβ deposition, actuated in one brain area, eventually spreads throughout the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-011-0912-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3297471PMC
January 2012

Soluble Aβ seeds are potent inducers of cerebral β-amyloid deposition.

J Neurosci 2011 Oct;31(41):14488-95

Department of Cellular Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Cerebral β-amyloidosis and associated pathologies can be exogenously induced by the intracerebral injection of small amounts of pathogenic Aβ-containing brain extract into young β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. The probable β-amyloid-inducing factor in the brain extract has been identified as a species of aggregated Aβ that is generated in its most effective conformation or composition in vivo. Here we report that Aβ in the brain extract is more proteinase K (PK) resistant than is synthetic fibrillar Aβ, and that this PK-resistant fraction of the brain extract retains the capacity to induce β-amyloid deposition upon intracerebral injection in young, pre-depositing APP23 transgenic mice. After ultracentrifugation of the brain extract, <0.05% of the Aβ remained in the supernatant fraction, and these soluble Aβ species were largely PK sensitive. However, upon intracerebral injection, this soluble fraction accounted for up to 30% of the β-amyloid induction observed with the unfractionated extract. Fragmentation of the Aβ seeds by extended sonication increased the seeding capacity of the brain extract. In summary, these results suggest that multiple Aβ assemblies, with various PK sensitivities, are capable of inducing β-amyloid aggregation in vivo. The finding that small and soluble Aβ seeds are potent inducers of cerebral β-amyloidosis raises the possibility that such seeds may mediate the spread of β-amyloidosis in the brain. If they can be identified in vivo, soluble Aβ seeds in bodily fluids also could serve as early biomarkers for cerebral β-amyloidogenesis and eventually Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3088-11.2011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3229270PMC
October 2011

Peripherally applied Abeta-containing inoculates induce cerebral beta-amyloidosis.

Science 2010 Nov 21;330(6006):980-2. Epub 2010 Oct 21.

Department of Cellular Neurology, Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

The intracerebral injection of β-amyloid-containing brain extracts can induce cerebral β-amyloidosis and associated pathologies in susceptible hosts. We found that intraperitoneal inoculation with β-amyloid-rich extracts induced β-amyloidosis in the brains of β-amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice after prolonged incubation times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1194516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3233904PMC
November 2010

Induction of cerebral beta-amyloidosis: intracerebral versus systemic Abeta inoculation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009 Aug 21;106(31):12926-31. Epub 2009 Jul 21.

Department of Cellular Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Despite the importance of the aberrant polymerization of Abeta in the early pathogenic cascade of Alzheimer's disease, little is known about the induction of Abeta aggregation in vivo. Here we show that induction of cerebral beta-amyloidosis can be achieved in many different brain areas of APP23 transgenic mice through the injection of dilute Abeta-containing brain extracts. Once the amyloidogenic process has been exogenously induced, the nature of the induced Abeta-deposition is determined by the brain region of the host. Because these observations are reminiscent of a prion-like mechanism, we then investigated whether cerebral beta-amyloidosis also can be induced by peripheral and systemic inoculations or by the intracerebral implantation of stainless steel wires previously coated with minute amounts of Abeta-containing brain extract. Results reveal that oral, intravenous, intraocular, and intranasal inoculations yielded no detectable induction of cerebral beta-amyloidosis in APP23 transgenic mice. In contrast, transmission of cerebral beta-amyloidosis through the Abeta-contaminated steel wires was demonstrated. Notably, plasma sterilization, but not boiling of the wires before implantation, prevented the induction of beta-amyloidosis. Our results suggest that minute amounts of Abeta-containing brain material in direct contact with the CNS can induce cerebral beta-amyloidosis, but that systemic cellular mechanisms of prion uptake and transport to the CNS may not apply to Abeta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0903200106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2722323PMC
August 2009

E22Q-mutant Abeta peptide (AbetaDutch) increases vascular but reduces parenchymal Abeta deposition.

Am J Pathol 2009 Mar 13;174(3):722-6. Epub 2009 Feb 13.

Department of Cellular Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Otfried-Müller Strasse 27, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Patients that have hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type (HCHWA-D) generate both wild-type beta-amyloid (Abetawt) and E22Q-mutant beta-amyloid (AbetaDutch). Postmortem analysis of HCHWA-D brains reveals severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy with very little parenchymal amyloid deposition. To investigate amyloidosis in the presence of both Abetawt and AbetaDutch variants, transgenic (tg) APP23 mice were crossed with APPDutch mice. Although single-tg APP23 mice deposited Abetawt with aging, double-tg APP23/APPDutch mice co-deposited AbetaDutch (mainly AbetaDutch1-40) and Abetawt at twofold higher total Abeta levels. Vascular Abeta deposits and hemorrhages were twice as high in APP23/APPDutch mice compared with APP23 mice. Surprisingly, parenchymal Abeta deposition was reduced in the double-tg mice compared with the single-tg APP23 mice. Our findings suggest that AbetaDutch1-40 inhibits parenchymal amyloidosis but exacerbates vascular amyloid, hence explaining the compartment-specific distribution of cerebral amyloid in HCHWA-D patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2009.080790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2665734PMC
March 2009

Gleevec increases levels of the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain and of the amyloid-beta degrading enzyme neprilysin.

Mol Biol Cell 2007 Sep 11;18(9):3591-600. Epub 2007 Jul 11.

Department of Cellular Neurology, Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition is a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Gleevec, a known tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to lower Abeta secretion, and it is considered a potential basis for novel therapies for Alzheimer's disease. Here, we show that Gleevec decreases Abeta levels without the inhibition of Notch cleavage by a mechanism distinct from gamma-secretase inhibition. Gleevec does not influence gamma-secretase activity in vitro; however, treatment of cell lines leads to a dose-dependent increase in the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain (AICD), whereas secreted Abeta is decreased. This effect is observed even in presence of a potent gamma-secretase inhibitor, suggesting that Gleevec does not activate AICD generation but instead may slow down AICD turnover. Concomitant with the increase in AICD, Gleevec leads to elevated mRNA and protein levels of the Abeta-degrading enzyme neprilysin, a potential target gene of AICD-regulated transcription. Thus, the Gleevec mediated-increase in neprilysin expression may involve enhanced AICD signaling. The finding that Gleevec elevates neprilysin levels suggests that its Abeta-lowering effect may be caused by increased Abeta-degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e07-01-0035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1951756PMC
September 2007