Publications by authors named "Yvonne Ducolomb"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of Porcine Immature Oocyte Vitrification on Actin Microfilament Distribution and Chromatin Integrity During Early Embryo Development .

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 19;9:636765. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biology of Reproduction, Metropolitan Autonomous University-Iztapalapa, Mexico City, Mexico.

Vitrification is mainly used to cryopreserve female gametes. This technique allows maintaining cell viability, functionality, and developmental potential at low temperatures into liquid nitrogen at -196°C. For this, the addition of cryoprotectant agents, which are substances that provide cell protection during cooling and warming, is required. However, they have been reported to be toxic, reducing oocyte viability, maturation, fertilization, and embryo development, possibly by altering cell cytoskeleton structure and chromatin. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of vitrification in the germinal vesicle, metaphase II oocytes, zygotes, and blastocysts, but the knowledge of its impact on their further embryo development is limited. Other studies have evaluated the role of actin microfilaments and chromatin, based on the fertilization and embryo development rates obtained, but not the direct evaluation of these structures in embryos produced from vitrified immature oocytes. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate how the vitrification of porcine immature oocytes affects early embryo development by the evaluation of actin microfilament distribution and chromatin integrity. Results demonstrate that the damage generated by the vitrification of immature oocytes affects viability, maturation, and the distribution of actin microfilaments and chromatin integrity, observed in early embryos. Therefore, it is suggested that vitrification could affect oocyte repair mechanisms in those structures, being one of the mechanisms that explain the low embryo development rates after vitrification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.636765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093386PMC
April 2021

Effect of porcine immature oocyte vitrification on oocyte-cumulus cell gap junctional intercellular communication.

Porcine Health Manag 2020 Nov 25;6(1):37. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09340, CDMX, México.

Vitrification may severely affect cumulus cells and oocyte morphology and viability, limiting their maturation and developmental potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) integrity after the vitrification of porcine immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Fresh COCs were randomly distributed in three groups: untreated (control), toxicity (cryoprotectants exposure), and vitrification, then subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM). Oocyte viability and IVM were measured in all groups. The evaluation of GJIC was expressed as relative fluorescence intensity (RFI). Vitrification significantly decreased oocyte viability and maturation after 44 h of culture compared to control. Also, significantly reduced RFI was observed in vitrified COCs during the first hours of culture (4-8 h) compared to control. This study demonstrates that porcine oocyte viability and maturation after 44 h of culture decreased after vitrification. GJIC was also affected during the first hours of culture after the vitrification of immature oocytes, being one of the possible mechanisms by which oocyte maturation decreased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40813-020-00175-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687833PMC
November 2020

Effects of methylparaben on in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes.

J Appl Toxicol 2021 Feb 7;41(2):330-337. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Biology of Reproduction, Metropolitan Autonomous University-Iztapalapa Campus, Mexico City, Mexico.

Parabens (PBs) are compounds widely used in industry for food and personal care products as antimicrobials and preservatives. Their indiscriminate use has resulted in their detection in different ecosystems so that humans and other organisms are highly exposed. Methylparaben (MePB), compared with other PBs, is mostly detected in food, personal care and baby care products. PBs could be linked to the generation of hormonal disorders and fertility impairment since their recent classification as endocrine disruptors. The knowledge of the effects that MePB can exert is of great importance as, in terms of reproduction, information is limited. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of MePB on porcine oocyte viability and in vitro maturation (IVM), as well as to determine the lethal concentration at 50% (LC ) and the maturation inhibition concentration at 50% (MIC ). Oocytes were exposed to different MePB concentrations 0 (control), 50, 100, 500, 750 and 1000 μm during 44 h of IVM. Cytoplasmic alterations and reduced cumulus cell expansion were observed in oocytes exposed to MePB; however, viability was not affected. In addition, oocyte maturation decreased in a concentration-dependent manner after exposure to MePB. The estimated LC was 2028.38 μm, whereas MIC was 780.31 μm. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates that MePB altered porcine oocyte morphology, and caused a reduction in cumulus cell expansion, both of which resulted in decreased oocyte maturation. Therefore, MePB exposure may be one of the factors involved in fertility impairment in mammals, including that of humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.4045DOI Listing
February 2021

Perfluorooctanoic acid disrupts gap junction intercellular communication and induces reactive oxygen species formation and apoptosis in mouse ovaries.

Environ Toxicol 2019 Jan 2;34(1):92-98. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, CDMX, Mexico.

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acid family of compounds. Due to the presence of strong carbon-fluorine bonds, it is practically nonbiodegradable and highly persistent in the environment. PFOA has been detected in the follicular fluid of women, and positively associated with reduced fecundability and infertility. However, there are no reports concerning the experimental evaluation of PFOA on oocyte toxicity in mammals. The aim of the present study was to determine if PFOA is able to induce oxidative stress in fetal ovaries and cause apoptosis in oocytes in vitro. In addition, since inhibition of the gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) by PFOA has been demonstrated in liver cells in vivo and in vitro, the effect of PFOA on the GJIC between the oocyte and its supportive cumulus cells was studied. Results show that PFOA induced oocyte apoptosis and necrosis in vitro (medium lethal concentration, LC = 112.8 μM), as evaluated with Annexin-V-Alexa 508 in combination with BOBO-1 staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, as assessed by DCFH-DA, increased significantly in fetal ovaries exposed to ¼ LC (28.2 μM, a noncytotoxic and relevant occupational exposure concentration) and LC PFOA ex vivo. This perfluorinated compound also caused the blockage of GJIC in cumulus cells-oocyte complexes (COCs) obtained from female mice exposed in vivo, as evaluated by calcein transfer from cumulus cells to the oocyte. The ability of PFOA of disrupting the GJIC in COCs, generating ROS in the fetal ovary and causing apoptosis and necrosis in mammal's oocytes, might account for the reported association between increasing maternal plasma concentrations of PFOA with reduced fertility in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.22661DOI Listing
January 2019

An efficiency comparison of different in vitro fertilization methods: IVF, ICSI, and PICSI for embryo development to the blastocyst stage from vitrified porcine immature oocytes.

Porcine Health Manag 2018 13;4:16. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

1Departamento de Biología de la Reproducción, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09340 CDMX, Mexico.

Background: Most studies carried out to evaluate recovery and development after porcine oocyte vitrification, reported better rates when cryopreserved in embryonic development stages or zygotes, but not in immature oocytes. For this reason, many studies are performed to improve immature oocyte vitrification protocols testing the use of different cryoprotectant concentrations, cooling devices, incubation times; but only a few of them have evaluated which fertilization procedure enhances blastocyst rates in vitrified oocytes. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate: 1) if the sperm selection with hyaluronic acid (HA) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) before injection could play a key role in increasing fertilization and blastocyst formation and 2) the embryo developmental ability and blastocyst production of porcine immature oocytes retrieved after vitrification-warming and co-cultured with granulosa cells during IVM, using different fertilization techniques: in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and conventional ICSI with hyaluronic acid (HA) sperm selection, known as physiological intracytoplasmic sperm injection (PICSI) and.

Results: Sperm selected with HA-PICSI displayed a higher percentage of live/acrosome reacted status compared to those in control and exposed to PVP. Higher dead/acrosome reacted rates were obtained after PVP exposure compared to control and HA. In oocytes, viability significantly decreased after IVM in vitrified oocytes. Besides, IVM rates were not different between control denuded oocytes cultured with granulosa cells (DO-GC) and vitrified oocytes. Regarding fertilization parameters, IVF showed higher percentages of total fertilization rate than those obtained by ICSI and PICSI. However, results demonstrate that PICSI fertilization increased the blastocysts formation rate in control DO-GC and vitrified oocytes compared to IVF and ICSI.

Conclusions: To achieve high blastocyst formation rates from vitrified GV oocytes, it is recommended that sperm should be selected with HA instead of PVP before injection since high viability and acrosome reaction rates were obtained. Also, PICSI fertilization was the best method to produce higher blastocyst rates compared to the IVF and ICSI procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40813-018-0093-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6088397PMC
August 2018

Endocrine disruptor effect of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on porcine ovarian cell steroidogenesis.

Toxicol In Vitro 2018 Feb 2;46:86-93. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

Laboratorio de Biología Celular, Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, CDMX, México. Electronic address:

Previous studies with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) indicate that they act as endocrine disruptors, in addition to inducing alterations and damaging reproductive health; however, the biological mechanisms by which these disorders are produced are not yet understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of PFOS and PFOA on in vitro steroidogenic secretion in porcine theca and granulosa cells, with or without gonadotropic stimulation. Granulosa and theca cells were isolated and cultured. Cell nature was performed by immunocytochemistry. PFOS and PFOA effect on steroid secretion was analyzed by chemiluminescence. In the present study, alterations in steroidogenic secretion were found when administering PFOS (0.12, 1.2, 12, 120 or 240μM) or PFOA (0.012, 0.12, 1.2, 12 or 24μM) to theca and granulosa cells. When theca and granulosa cells were stimulated with 500ng/mL LH or 500ng/mL FHS, respectively and immediately followed with 1.2μM of PFOS or PFOA, the perfluorinated compounds inhibited the secretion of steroid hormones in both stimulated cell types. The results indicate that PFOS and PFOA act on steroidogenic ovarian cells as endocrine disruptors, which could affect the dependent functions of sexual steroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2017.09.030DOI Listing
February 2018

Oxidative stress as a damage mechanism in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes exposed to malathion during in vitro maturation.

Environ Toxicol 2017 Jun 10;32(6):1669-1678. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ciudad de México.

Malathion is one of the most commonly used insecticides. Recent findings have demonstrated that it induces oxidative stress in somatic cells, but there are not enough studies that have demonstrated this effect in germ cells. Malathion impairs porcine oocyte viability and maturation, but studies have not shown how oxidative stress damages maturation and which biochemical mechanisms are affected in this process in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). The aims of the present study were to determine the amount of oxidative stress produced by malathion in porcine COCs matured in vitro, to define how biochemical mechanisms affect this process, and determine whether trolox can attenuate oxidative damage. Sublethal concentrations 0, 750, and 1000 µM were used to evaluate antioxidant enzyme expressions, reactive oxygen species (ROS production), protein oxidation, and lipid peroxidation, among other oxidation products. COCs viability and oocyte maturation decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Malathion increased Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) protein level and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) protein level. Species reactives of oxygen (ROS), protein oxidation and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels increased in COCs exposed to the insecticide, but when COCs were pre-treated with the trolox (50 µM) 30 min before and during malathion exposure, these parameters decreased down to control levels. This study showed that malathion has a detrimental effect on COCs during in vitro maturation, inducing oxidative stress, while trolox attenuated malathion toxicity by decreasing oxidative damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.22384DOI Listing
June 2017

Porcine embryo production following in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection from vitrified immature oocytes matured with a granulosa cell co-culture system.

Cryobiology 2015 Oct 5;71(2):299-305. Epub 2015 Aug 5.

Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09340 DF, Mexico. Electronic address:

This study was designed to evaluate the capacity of vitrified-warmed porcine immature oocytes to mature and to be fertilized using in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and to determine the subsequent embryo development. Immature oocytes were vitrified using ethylene glycol and dimethylsulphoxide as cryoprotectants and the Cryolock method. After warming oocytes were cultured 44 h for maturation. Oocytes were randomly distributed in three treatment groups and subjected to in vitro fertilization (Experiment 1) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Experiment 2) procedures. The results indicate that the embryo development was higher in denuded oocytes co-cultured with granulosa cells (NkO-CC group) fertilized by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection compared to cumulus-cell oocyte complexes (COCs group), showing no significant differences with control. Vitrified denuded oocytes matured with a co-culture system NkO-CC group, displayed higher cleavage rate and blastocyst production than vitrified COCs group. Blastocysts were successfully obtained after IVF and ICSI procedures; however, the development to the blastocyst stage was better after IVF. These results show that the vitrification-warming media, the employment of a granulosa cell co-culture system and the Cryolock method during vitrification, increased the nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of vitrified porcine immature oocytes. Further experiments are required to enhance porcine embryo production after vitrification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2015.08.003DOI Listing
October 2015

Co-culture with granulosa cells improve the in vitro maturation ability of porcine immature oocytes vitrified with cryolock.

Cryobiology 2014 Oct 23;69(2):299-304. Epub 2014 Aug 23.

Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 DF, México. Electronic address:

This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of two oocyte vitrification-warming procedures using two different devices: Superfine Open Pulled Straws (SOPS) and Cryolock, as well as the effect of the co-culture of vitrified immature oocytes with fresh granulosa cells to improve in vitro maturation (IVM). Immature oocytes were vitrified with two procedures: A) Oocytes were exposed to an increasing concentration of ethylene glycol (EG) from 4% to 35% with 0.5 M trehalose. They then, were loaded in SOPS or Cryolock. For warming, oocytes were exposed to decreasing concentrations of trehalose 0.3, 0.2 and 0.1 M for IVM. B) Oocytes were exposed to two mixtures of EG and dimethylsulfoxide (Me2SO), at 7.5% and 16%, both with 0.4 M of sucrose and then loaded in SOPS or Cryolock and stored in liquid nitrogen. For warming, oocytes were exposed to a single concentration of sucrose 0.5M. After warming, viability was determined; and after 44 h of IVM both viability and meiotic stages were evaluated. The results indicate no significant differences between procedures A and B with SOPS in all maturation stages, reaching a maximum maturation rate of 21%. As to Cryolock, significant differences were observed between both procedures, being procedure B, more efficient with a yield of 38% in MII stage and increased to 49% due to the co-culture with fresh granulosa cells. In conclusion, viability and maturation rates were improved with Cryolock and procedure B with the co-culture system in vitrified immature oocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2014.08.004DOI Listing
October 2014

Effect of porcine follicular fluid proteins and peptides on oocyte maturation and their subsequent effect on in vitro fertilization.

Theriogenology 2013 Apr 26;79(6):896-904. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Department of Health Sciences, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México Distrito Federal, México.

The follicular fluid (FF) is a microenvironment that contains molecules involved in oocyte maturation, ovulation, and fertilization. Characterizing the proteins and peptides present in the FF could be useful for determining which proteins and peptides to use as a supplement for culture media. Biologically active peptides produced during the maturation or degradation of functional proteins are called cryptides. The aim of this study was to identify the proteins and cryptides in porcine FF that could stimulate porcine oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) when added to culture maturation medium. Five FF protein fractions (F1-F5) were obtained by ionic exchange chromatography, resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. These fractions had effects on IVM and/or IVF. The F1 fraction, which was composed of immunoglobulin fragments, cytokeratin, transferrin, and plasminogen precursor increased IVM and IVF. The F2, F3, and F4 fractions reduced the percentage of oocytes in first metaphase. Additionally, the F3 fraction, which was composed of immunoglobulins and transthyretin, interfered with germinal vesicle breakdown. The F5 fraction, which was mainly composed of serum albumin and keratin, favored germinal vesicle breakdown and promoted IVM. Most of the 31 proteins which were associated with the immune response and inflammatory processes could be related to oocyte maturation and fertilization. Some of the identified proteins were present in more than one fraction; this could be explained by a change in their isoelectric points, because of the loss of part of the amino acid sequence or a change in the glycosylation status of the protein. Improved oocyte IVM and IVF will increase embryo production, which in turn will contribute to the efficiency of assisted reproduction in various mammalian species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2013.01.024DOI Listing
April 2013

Sebox plays an important role during the early mouse oogenesis in vitro.

Zygote 2014 Feb 18;22(1):64-8. Epub 2012 Jul 18.

Department of Health Sciences, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México DF 09340, Mexico.

Oogenesis is a highly complex process that requires the exquisite temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression at multiple levels. Skin-embryo-brain-oocyte homeobox (Sebox) gene encodes a transcription factor that is highly expressed in germinal vesicle stage oocytes and that plays an essential role in early embryogenesis at the 2-cell stage in the mouse. As Sebox is also expressed in mouse fetal ovaries, the aim of the present study was to study its role during the early oogenesis in vitro. Expression of Sebox was low in 15.5 to 17.5 days post coitum (dpc) ovaries, showed a peak at 18.5 dpc and then its expression decreased dramatically in newborn ovaries. Sebox expression was efficiently knocked down (>80%) in fetal mouse ovary explants in culture using RNAi technology. When fetal ovary explants were transfected with Sebox-specific RNAi, the number of oocytes at germinal vesicle stage and showing a diameter of 40-70 μm was decreased significantly to 75% after 7 days of culture relative to the negative control, and to 22.4% after 10 days of culture, thus indicating that Sebox plays an important role in the early oogenesis in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0967199412000342DOI Listing
February 2014

Viability, maturation and embryo development in vitro of immature porcine and ovine oocytes vitrified in different devices.

Cryobiology 2012 Jun 18;64(3):261-6. Epub 2012 Feb 18.

Departamento de Producción Agrícola y Animal, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100, 04960 DF, Mexico.

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of vitrification on immature porcine and ovine oocytes, collected at a slaughterhouse, by performing vitrification in devices with different volumes. Viability was evaluated both before and after vitrification and maturation. Immediately after warming, the percentage of viable pig oocytes was 81% regardless the type of device, while in the control (after oocyte selection) was 95%. The viability of matured pig oocytes after warming, vitrified in beveled edge open straws (BES) was 6%, in small-open-pulled-straw (SOPS) was 17% and in cryotop was 4%, while the viability of the control group was 86%. The viability and maturation results were similar with all devices. Embryo development (ED) was observed in fresh porcine oocytes with 15% 2-8 cell embryos, 7% morulae and 3% blastocysts, and non-embryo cleavage was observed in warmed oocytes. The viability of sheep oocytes immediately after warming averaged 90% in all devices, while that of the control (after oocyte selection) averaged 95%. The viability of warmed oocytes after maturation was: BES 21%, SOPS 30%, cryotop 21% and control group 86%; while maturation values were 11, 21, 34 and 70%, respectively. After vitrification, the highest ED was achieved with ovine oocytes vitrified in SOPS, with 17% morulae development and it was the only device in which blastocysts developed. A direct relationship was observed between viability and actin filament integrity in both species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryobiol.2012.02.009DOI Listing
June 2012

Differential effects of herbicides atrazine and fenoxaprop-ethyl, and insecticides diazinon and malathion, on viability and maturation of porcine oocytes in vitro.

Toxicol In Vitro 2010 Feb 9;24(1):224-30. Epub 2009 Sep 9.

Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, DF, México.

Exposure to pesticides may be a major cause of reproductive dysfunction in humans and animals. Atrazine and fenoxaprop-ethyl, widely used herbicides, and malathion and diazinon, organophosphate insecticides, are considered only slightly toxic to vertebrates; however, there is evidence of greater effects on reproductive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these pesticides on oocyte viability and in vitro maturation. Gametes were matured in increasing concentrations of the pesticides and then stained with MTT to evaluate viability and bisbenzimide to assess the maturation stage, in the same oocyte. Atrazine had no effect on viability but maturation was significantly reduced, while fenoxaprop-ethyl affected both parameters. The insecticides affected viability and maturation but to a different degree. The four pesticides showed a more pronounced effect on maturation than on viability, due to a blockage at germinal vesicle stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2009.09.004DOI Listing
February 2010

In vitro effect of malathion and diazinon on oocytes fertilization and embryo development in porcine.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2009 Dec 17;25(6):623-33. Epub 2009 Jan 17.

Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, D.F., CP 09340, México.

Diazinon and malathion are commonly used organophosphate insecticides in agriculture, industry, and in veterinary medicine as an ectoparasiticide. The importance to carry out in vitro reproductive toxicology assays lies on the need of knowing the alterations these insecticides may cause at cellular level, since they are endocrine disruptors that interfere with reproductive functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro oocyte viability, fertilization, and embryo development with different concentrations of diazinon and malathion. For in vitro fertilization (IVF), porcine oocytes and sperm were co-incubated for 7 h with increasing concentrations (50, 100, and 500 microM) of diazinon and malathion. For embryo development, fertilized oocytes were cultured in medium containing the same insecticide concentrations during 96 h for embryo development and 144 h for morulae formation. Diazinon did not affect oocyte viability and embryo divisions but decreased IVF (fertilization inhibition(50) = 502 microM) and morulae formation (morulae inhibition(50) = 344 microM). Malathion affected all the studied parameters: lethal concentration(50) = 1 mM, fertilization inhibition(50) = 443 microM, development inhibition(50) = 375 microM, and morulae inhibition(50) = 216 microM. The results of this study indicate that diazinon and malathion used in commercial formulation could be toxic, producing impairment in in vitro fertilization and embryo development. This is an approach for further investigations to find out cell damage mechanisms produced by these widely used insecticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10565-008-9117-3DOI Listing
December 2009

Gene expression analysis on the early development of pig embryos exposed to malathion.

Int J Toxicol 2007 Mar-Apr;26(2):143-9

Doctorado en Biología Experimental, CBS, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, México, D. F. México.

Malathion is a widely used pesticide and there is evidence that it could alter mammal's germ and somatic cells, as well as cell lines. There are not enough studies showing how the nonacute malathion doses affect gene expression. This study analyzes gene expression alterations in pig morular embryos exposed in vitro, for 96 h, to several malathion concentrations after in vitro fertilization. cDNA libraries of isolated morular embryos were created and differential screenings performed to identify target genes. Seven clones were certainly identified. Genes related to mitochondrial metabolism as cytochrome c subunits I and III, nuclear genes such as major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I), and a hypothetical protein related with a splicing factor were the target of malathion's deregulation effect. The widespread use of malathion as a pesticide should be regarded with reproductive implications and more detailed analysis would yield more about molecular mechanisms of malathion injury on embryo cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10915810701226263DOI Listing
May 2007