Publications by authors named "Yuxuan Wang"

243 Publications

A multi-layer functional genomic analysis to understand noncoding genetic variation in lipids.

Am J Hum Genet 2022 08;109(8):1366-1387

Division of Genome Science, Department of Precision Medicine, National Institute of Health, Chungbuk, South Korea.

A major challenge of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) is to translate phenotypic associations into biological insights. Here, we integrate a large GWAS on blood lipids involving 1.6 million individuals from five ancestries with a wide array of functional genomic datasets to discover regulatory mechanisms underlying lipid associations. We first prioritize lipid-associated genes with expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) colocalizations and then add chromatin interaction data to narrow the search for functional genes. Polygenic enrichment analysis across 697 annotations from a host of tissues and cell types confirms the central role of the liver in lipid levels and highlights the selective enrichment of adipose-specific chromatin marks in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Overlapping transcription factor (TF) binding sites with lipid-associated loci identifies TFs relevant in lipid biology. In addition, we present an integrative framework to prioritize causal variants at GWAS loci, producing a comprehensive list of candidate causal genes and variants with multiple layers of functional evidence. We highlight two of the prioritized genes, CREBRF and RRBP1, which show convergent evidence across functional datasets supporting their roles in lipid biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.06.012DOI Listing
August 2022

Pattern and Predictive Factors of Metastasis in Lymph Nodes Posterior to the Right Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 18;13:914946. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin's Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, China.

Objective: The right cervical central lymph nodes include lymph nodes anterior to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve (LN-arRLN) and lymph nodes posterior to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve (LN-prRLN), and are separated by the right recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). LN-prRLN is a common site of nodal recurrence after the resection of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the complexity in anatomical structure brings difficulties in determining the surgical scope, so it is necessary to assess the pattern and predictive factors of right cervical central lymph nodes, especially LN-prRLN metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Methods: A total of 562 diagnosed PTC patients who underwent right or total thyroidectomy were enrolled in this retrospective study. The clinicopathological features were collected, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine predictive factors of the right central lymph node metastasis.

Results: In this study, the metastatic rates of the right CLN, the LN-arRLN and the LN-prRLN were 59.6% (335/562), 51.8% (291/562) and 30.4% (171/562), respectively. And 22.6% (127/562) of patients had both LN-arRLN and LN-prRLN metastasis. Among patients without LN-arRLN metastasis, the rate of LN-prRLN metastasis was 16.2% (44/271), accounting for 25.7% of the LN-prRLN metastasis group. Factors associated with an increased risk of LN-arRLN metastasis include male, age below 55 years, tumor size > 1cm, extrathyroidal extension (ETE), clinical lymph nodes metastasis(cN1), lateral lymph node metastasis, and left CLN metastasis. In addition, ETE, lateral lymph node metastasis, and LN-arRLN metastasis were independent factors of LN-prRLN metastasis. The predictive factors of LN-prRLN in cN0 PTC were further explored, revealing that tumor size ≥1.5cm, ETE, and LN-arRLN metastasis were independent predictors of LN-prRLN metastasis in cN0 PTC.

Conclusion: The LN-prRLN should not be ignored in surgery because of its high rate of metastasis. Our findings indicate that thorough dissection of central lymph nodes, especially LN-prRLN is crucial in clinical work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.914946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339603PMC
August 2022

A functional reference map of the RNF8 interactome in cancer.

Biol Direct 2022 07 13;17(1):17. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Department of Biology and Chemistry, College of Sciences, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073, Hunan, China.

Background: RNF8 is an E3 ligase identified as a critical DNA damage-responsive protein. Recently, multiple reports have shown that RNF8 could be used as an important therapeutic target for cancer chemo/radiotherapy. However, the understanding of RNF8 remains limited due to the lack of its interactome reference map and comprehensive analysis of RNF8 in diverse cancers, which underscores the need to map the interactome of RNF8 via high-throughput methods.

Results: A two-way identification method based on LC-MS was designed for the identification of the RNF8 interactome with high-specificity. By in silico analysis and in vitro validation, we identified a new reference map of the RNF8 interactome network containing many new targets, such as YBX1, DNMT1, and HDCA1, new biological functions and the gene-disease associations of RNF8. Our results revealed a close relationship between RNF8 and neurodegenerative diseases or tumor-infiltrating immune cells using bulk RNA-seq and scRNA-seq datasets. As a proof of concept of our interactome map, we validated the direct binding between RNF8 and YBX1 and showed that RNF8 catalyzed the ubiquitination of YBX1. These results demonstrated that RNF8 might be a crucial regulator of YBX1.

Conclusions: Our work provides a unique framework for researchers and clinicians who seek to better explore or understand RNF8-regulated biological functions in cancers. This study will hopefully facilitate the rational design and further development of anti-RNF8 therapy in cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13062-022-00331-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9277853PMC
July 2022

Dopamine Suppresses Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells via AKT/GSK-3/-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

Stem Cells Int 2022 29;2022:4154440. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Stomatology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Nervous system is critically involved in bone homeostasis and osteogenesis. Dopamine, a pivotal neurotransmitter, plays a crucial role in sympathetic regulation, hormone secretion, immune activation, and blood pressure regulation. However, the role of dopamine on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) remains poorly understood. In this study, we firstly investigated the effect of dopamine on the apoptosis, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. Dopamine did not, however, interfere with the apoptosis and proliferation of rBMSCs. Interestingly, dopamine suppressed the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs, as characterized by reduced ALP staining, ALP activity, mineralized nodule formation, and the mRNA and protein levels of osteogenesis-related genes (, , , , and ). Furthermore, dopamine inactivated AKT/GSK-3/-catenin signaling pathway. Treatment of LiCl (GSK-3 inhibitor) rescued the inhibitory effects of dopamine on osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. LY294002 (AKT inhibitor) administration exacerbated the inhibitory effects of dopamine on osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. Taken together, these findings indicate that dopamine suppresses osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs via AKT/GSK-3/-catenin signaling pathway. Our study provides new insights into the role of neurotransmitters in bone homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4154440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9259353PMC
June 2022

Identification of all-against-all protein-protein interactions based on deep hash learning.

BMC Bioinformatics 2022 Jul 8;23(1):266. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

College of Computer and Cyber Security, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350108, People's Republic of China.

Background: Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is vital for life processes, disease treatment, and drug discovery. The computational prediction of PPI is relatively inexpensive and efficient when compared to traditional wet-lab experiments. Given a new protein, one may wish to find whether the protein has any PPI relationship with other existing proteins. Current computational PPI prediction methods usually compare the new protein to existing proteins one by one in a pairwise manner. This is time consuming.

Results: In this work, we propose a more efficient model, called deep hash learning protein-and-protein interaction (DHL-PPI), to predict all-against-all PPI relationships in a database of proteins. First, DHL-PPI encodes a protein sequence into a binary hash code based on deep features extracted from the protein sequences using deep learning techniques. This encoding scheme enables us to turn the PPI discrimination problem into a much simpler searching problem. The binary hash code for a protein sequence can be regarded as a number. Thus, in the pre-screening stage of DHL-PPI, the string matching problem of comparing a protein sequence against a database with M proteins can be transformed into a much more simpler problem: to find a number inside a sorted array of length M. This pre-screening process narrows down the search to a much smaller set of candidate proteins for further confirmation. As a final step, DHL-PPI uses the Hamming distance to verify the final PPI relationship.

Conclusions: The experimental results confirmed that DHL-PPI is feasible and effective. Using a dataset with strictly negative PPI examples of four species, DHL-PPI is shown to be superior or competitive when compared to the other state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision, recall or F1 score. Furthermore, in the prediction stage, the proposed DHL-PPI reduced the time complexity from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] for performing an all-against-all PPI prediction for a database with M proteins. With the proposed approach, a protein database can be preprocessed and stored for later search using the proposed encoding scheme. This can provide a more efficient way to cope with the rapidly increasing volume of protein datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-022-04811-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9264577PMC
July 2022

Deep learning to diagnose Hashimoto's thyroiditis from sonographic images.

Nat Commun 2022 06 29;13(1):3759. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Tianjin Cancer Institute, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the main cause of hypothyroidism. We develop a deep learning model called HTNet for diagnosis of HT by training on 106,513 thyroid ultrasound images from 17,934 patients and test its performance on 5051 patients from 2 datasets of static images and 1 dataset of video data. HTNet achieves an area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of 0.905 (95% CI: 0.894 to 0.915), 0.888 (0.836-0.939) and 0.895 (0.862-0.927). HTNet exceeds radiologists' performance on accuracy (83.2% versus 79.8%; binomial test, p < 0.001) and sensitivity (82.6% versus 68.1%; p < 0.001). By integrating serologic markers with imaging data, the performance of HTNet was significantly and marginally improved on the video (AUC, 0.949 versus 0.888; DeLong's test, p = 0.004) and static-image (AUC, 0.914 versus 0.901; p = 0.08) testing sets, respectively. HTNet may be helpful as a tool for the management of HT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31449-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9243092PMC
June 2022

Conjugative transfer of mcr-1-bearing plasmid from Salmonella to Escherichia coli in vitro on chicken meat and in mouse gut.

Food Res Int 2022 Jul 21;157:111263. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

Since mcr-1 was first discovered in 2015, this gene has shown excellent transmission ability and evolutionary characteristics worldwide, leading to major public health and food safety concerns. In this study, chicken meat was used as a food vehicle for the conjugation of mcr-1-bearing Salmonella at different storage temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C, and 37 °C) to simulate mcr-1 transmission during food transportation and storage and determine its efficiency and mechanism. In addition, conjugation experiments were performed in mouse gut to further confirm that mcr-1 is horizontally transferred in vivo during food consumption. 16S rDNA sequencing of mouse stool samples was performed to understand the effect of horizontal transfer of mcr-1 on mouse gut bacteria. mcr-1-bearing plasmids were characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and S1 nuclease-PFGE and sequenced by Illumina sequencing. Our results showed that mcr-1-bearing plasmids in donors are successfully transferred to recipients on chicken meat at not only 25 °C and 37 °C but also 4 °C with conjugation frequencies between 1.32 × 10 and 3.85 × 10 per recipient cell. In mouse gut, mcr-1 was transferred not only to the recipient bacteria introduced by intragastric administration but also to the intestinal bacteria (E. coli strain named as E6353). Horizontal transfer of mcr-1-bearing plasmid in mouse gut negatively affected the mouse intestinal microbiota. In a constant conjugative environment, plasmid replicon type is the most decisive factor affecting the conjugation frequency. The peak number of transconjugants in group D6-E. coli C600 with an IncHI2-type mcr-1-bearing plasmid (1.43 × 10 colony-forming units [CFU]/g feces) was significantly higher than that of transconjugants in group D7-E. coli C600 with an IncX4-type mcr-1-bearing plasmid (0.3 × 10 CFU/g feces). The upstream and downstream genetic environment of mcr-1 in different plasmid replicon types in Salmonella varied during conjugation in different horizontal transfer environments. An IncI2 plasmid (p25-D4R7S1_mcr-1) lost the insertion sequence ISApl1, which originally existed upstream of mcr-1, when this plasmid transferred from donor to recipient cells on chicken meat at 25 °C. An IncHI2 plasmid was more active than IncI2 and IncX4 plasmids during bacterial reproduction and evolution; an IncFIB-IncHI2 hybrid plasmid (p6176253_mcr-1) was formed in mouse gut during conjugation from pD6_tet(M) and pD6_mcr-1. mcr-1 is captured by mobile genetic elements IS26 in IncX4 plasmids and ISApl1 in IncI2, IncHI2, and IncFIB-IncHI2 hybrid plasmids and is disseminated among bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111263DOI Listing
July 2022

Long-term trend in surface ozone in Houston-Galveston-Brazoria: Sectoral contributions based on changes in volatile organic compounds.

Environ Pollut 2022 Sep 16;308:119647. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Institute for Interdisciplinary Science, St. Edward's University, Austin, TX, USA. Electronic address:

This study investigated the long-term variations in ambient levels of surface ozone, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen oxides (NO) within the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) region. Analysis of ozone levels revealed an overall reduction in the maximum daily 8-h average ozone (MDA8 O) from 2000 to 2019 (April-October) with an average rate of ∼ -0.48 ppb/yr across HGB. With a few exceptions, the MDA8 O reduction rates were more pronounced for the monitoring sites closer to the Houston Ship Channel (HSC). Meanwhile, ambient levels of NO and most VOC species (across the three representative sites as Houston Bayland Park, Haden Road, and Lynchburg Ferry) decreased significantly within the same investigation period, reflecting the impact of emission reductions. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model applied to the mentioned sites identified regional background ozone, petrochemical emissions, engine combustion, natural gas/fuel evaporation, and solvent/painting/rubber industries as the major sources of MDA8 O. The regional background ozone was the predominant source, accounting for 59-70% of MDA8 O across the three sites. Regarding the local anthropogenic emissions, natural gas/fuel evaporation was the largest contributor (19.5 ± 6.1%) to MDA8 O at Houston Bayland Park, whereas petrochemical facilities (10.9 ± 4.9%) and solvent/painting/rubber industries (18.1 ± 9.5%) were the largest factor at Haden Road and Lynchburg Ferry, respectively. Notable reductions were found in the contributions of petrochemical emissions, engine combustion, and natural gas/fuel evaporation to MDA8 O within 2000-2019, but an increasing trend was revealed in the role of solvent/painting/rubber industries on MDA8 O most probably due to the enhanced demand for their products. Results of this study corroborated the success of emission control policies in limiting ozone precursors and provided useful details for prioritizing emission reduction policies to further reduce ozone pollution in the HGB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119647DOI Listing
September 2022

SU(4) Symmetry in Twisted Bilayer Graphene: An Itinerant Perspective.

Phys Rev Lett 2022 Jun;128(22):227601

School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

We study symmetry-broken phases in twisted bilayer graphene at small filling above charge neutrality and at van Hove filling. We argue that the Landau functionals for the particle-hole order parameters at these fillings both have an approximate SU(4) symmetry, but differ in the sign of quartic terms. We determine the order parameter manifold of the ground state and analyze its excitations. For small fillings, we find a strong first-order transition to an SU(3)⊗U(1) manifold of orders that break spin-valley symmetry and induce a 3-1 splitting of fermionic excitations. For van Hove filling, we find a weak first-order transition to an SU(2)⊗SU(2)⊗U(1) manifold of orders that preserves the twofold band degeneracy. We discuss the effect of particle-hole orders on superconductivity and compare with strong-coupling approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.227601DOI Listing
June 2022

The influence mechanism of psychological contract on primary medical staff's turnover intention in the context of COVID-19 pandemic in China.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

School of Public Administration, Hubei University, Wuhan, China.

Objective: This research aims to study the influence mechanism of psychological contract on the turnover intention of primary medical staff in the context of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) fighting.

Methods: Six hundred and fifteen primary medical staff from 13 primary health care institutions in Jianghan District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China were selected by random sampling. Psychological contract, emotional exhaustion and turnover intention questionnaires were adjusted appropriately according to research needs, and 5-point Likert scale was used to measure.

Results: Normal, interpersonal, and developmental contracts were negatively associated with turnover intention. Emotional exhaustion mediated the effects of interpersonal and developmental contracts on turnover intention.

Conclusion: The government should establish a long-term incentive mechanism for primary medical staff, fully recognise the work of them in fighting against COVID-19, pay close attention to the psychological state of them, and carry out timely and effective psychological intervention to alleviate their emotional exhaustion and reduce their turnover intention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hpm.3533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9349371PMC
June 2022

Effects of dandelion addition on antioxidant property, sensory characteristics and inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase of beer.

Curr Res Food Sci 2022 30;5:927-939. Epub 2022 May 30.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, PR China.

The effects of dandelion addition (DA) on the physiochemical properties, antioxidant activity, inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (XOD) and flavor of craft beer were investigated. It was found that DA changed the pH value, total acid content, thiobarbituric-acid-value, sugar content and color of beer, and increased the contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids and thus the antioxidant activity of beer. HPLC analysis showed that DA provided beer with chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic, and chicoric acid, contributing to the inhibition activity against XOD that is a key enzyme in uric acid production. GC-MS analysis showed that 3-methyl-1-butanol, isopentyl acetate and ethyl caprylate were main aroma components of all samples. Although DA introduced the special aroma component of azulene, it did not significantly affect the appearance, bubble, aroma and taste evaluation of beer. Conclusively, DA potentially improved the beer properties of antioxidant and inhibition of uric acid production without changing its sensory characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crfs.2022.05.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9168054PMC
May 2022

Rotor-Tuning Boron Dipyrromethenes for Dual-Functional Imaging of Aβ Oligomers and Viscosity.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2022 Jun 7;5(6):3049-3056. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

MOE International Joint Research Laboratory on Synthetic Biology and Medicines, School of Biology and Biological Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, PR China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), known as a common incurable and elderly neurodegenerative disease, has been widely explored for accurate detection of its biomarker (Aβ oligomers) for early diagnosis. Although great efforts have been made, it is still of great importance to develop fluorescence probes for Aβ oligomers with good selectivity and low background. Herein, starting from BODIPY493/503 (a commercial dye for neutral lipid droplets), which exhibited a small Stokes shift and no response toward Aβ peptides, two fluorescence probes and with a benzothiazole rotor at the 2-position of the BODIPY core and a methyl or benzyl group at the meso position have been designed and synthesized, which exhibited excellent optical properties/stability and could successfully image β-amyloid fibrils and viscosity. Upon exposure to Aβ oligomers, the fluorescence intensity of was enhanced by 43.64-fold with the corresponding fluorescence quantum yields changing from 0.85% to 27.43%. Meanwhile, probe showed a highly sensitive viscosity response in both solutions and living cells. In vitro and in vivo experiments confirmed that probe exhibited an excellent capacity for imaging β-amyloid fibrils. Therefore, , as a rotor-tuning BODIPY analogue, could possibly serve as a highly potential and powerful fluorescence probe for early diagnosis of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsabm.2c00335DOI Listing
June 2022

Whole Genome DNA and RNA Sequencing of Whole Blood Elucidates the Genetic Architecture of Gene Expression Underlying a Wide Range of Diseases.

Res Sq 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

To create a scientific resource of expression quantitative trail loci (eQTL), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using genotypes obtained from whole genome sequencing (WGS) of DNA and gene expression levels from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of whole blood in 2622 participants in Framingham Heart Study. We identified 6,778,286 -eQTL variant-gene transcript (eGene) pairs at  < 5x10 (2,855,111 unique -eQTL variants and 15,982 unique eGenes) and 1,469,754 -eQTL variant-eGene pairs at  < 1e-12 (526,056 unique -eQTL variants and 7,233 unique eGenes). In addition, 442,379 -eQTL variants were associated with expression of 1518 long non-protein coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Gene Ontology (GO) analyses revealed that the top GO terms for eGenes are enriched for immune functions (FDR < 0.05). The -eQTL variants are enriched for SNPs reported to be associated with 815 traits in prior GWAS, including cardiovascular disease risk factors. As proof of concept, we used this eQTL resource in conjunction with genetic variants from public GWAS databases in causal inference testing (e.g., COVID-19 severity). After Bonferroni correction, Mendelian randomization analyses identified putative causal associations of 60 eGenes with systolic blood pressure, 13 genes with coronary artery disease, and seven genes with COVID-19 severity. This study created a comprehensive eQTL resource via BioData Catalyst that will be made available to the scientific community. This will advance understanding of the genetic architecture of gene expression underlying a wide range of diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1598646/v1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9164515PMC
May 2022

Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis Guiding Adjuvant Therapy in Stage II Colon Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2022 06 4;386(24):2261-2272. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

From the Division of Personalised Oncology, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research (J.T., R.W., M.L., B.L., P.G.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre (J.T., B.L.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Western Health (J.T., S.K., M.L., P.G.), the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne (J.T., P.G.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Eastern Health (R.W., M.L.), the Eastern Health Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing, and Health Sciences, Monash University (R.W., M.L.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Cabrini Health (J.S.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Monash Health (M.H.), the Department of Medical Oncology, St. Vincent's Hospital (S.-A.M.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Northern Health (B.L.), Melbourne, VIC, the Research and Biostatistics Group, Melanoma Institute Australia, and the Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Sydney (S.N.L.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Bendigo Health, Bendigo, VIC (S.H.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Fiona Stanley Hospital, and Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA (A.K.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, and the University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (M.B.), Newcastle Private Hospital (J.L.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital (F.D.), Newcastle, NSW, the Department of Medical Oncology, Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart, TAS (L.N.), and South West Healthcare, Warrnambool, VIC (T.H.) - all in Australia; the Ludwig Center for Cancer Genetics and Therapeutics (J.D.C., Y.W., J.P., N.S., L.D., M.P., N.P., K.W.K., B.V.), the Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics (K.L., C.T.), Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center (J.D.C., Y.W., J.P., N.S., L.D., M.P., R.H., A.M.L., N.P., K.W.K., B.V.), the Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center (J.D.C., Y.W., J.P., N.S., L.D., M.P., R.H., A.M.L., N.P., K.W.K., B.V.), and the Departments of Pathology (R.H.) and Medicine (A.M.L.), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (J.P., N.S., B.V.), the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University (J.D.C.), and the Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (C.T.) - all in Baltimore; and the Institute for Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia (S.N.L.).

Background: The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II colon cancer continues to be debated. The presence of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) after surgery predicts very poor recurrence-free survival, whereas its absence predicts a low risk of recurrence. The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for ctDNA-positive patients is not well understood.

Methods: We conducted a trial to assess whether a ctDNA-guided approach could reduce the use of adjuvant chemotherapy without compromising recurrence risk. Patients with stage II colon cancer were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to have treatment decisions guided by either ctDNA results or standard clinicopathological features. For ctDNA-guided management, a ctDNA-positive result at 4 or 7 weeks after surgery prompted oxaliplatin-based or fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy. Patients who were ctDNA-negative were not treated. The primary efficacy end point was recurrence-free survival at 2 years. A key secondary end point was adjuvant chemotherapy use.

Results: Of the 455 patients who underwent randomization, 302 were assigned to ctDNA-guided management and 153 to standard management. The median follow-up was 37 months. A lower percentage of patients in the ctDNA-guided group than in the standard-management group received adjuvant chemotherapy (15% vs. 28%; relative risk, 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 2.65). In the evaluation of 2-year recurrence-free survival, ctDNA-guided management was noninferior to standard management (93.5% and 92.4%, respectively; absolute difference, 1.1 percentage points; 95% CI, -4.1 to 6.2 [noninferiority margin, -8.5 percentage points]). Three-year recurrence-free survival was 86.4% among ctDNA-positive patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy and 92.5% among ctDNA-negative patients who did not.

Conclusions: A ctDNA-guided approach to the treatment of stage II colon cancer reduced adjuvant chemotherapy use without compromising recurrence-free survival. (Supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and others; DYNAMIC Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12615000381583.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2200075DOI Listing
June 2022

An Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Discrete-Time Alternating Quantum Walk and Advanced Encryption Standard.

Entropy (Basel) 2022 Apr 27;24(5). Epub 2022 Apr 27.

School of Science, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266520, China.

This paper proposes an image encryption scheme based on a discrete-time alternating quantum walk (AQW) and the advanced encryption standard (AES). We use quantum properties to improve the AES algorithm, which uses a keystream generator related to AQW parameters to generate a probability distribution matrix. Some singular values of the matrix are extracted as the key to the AES algorithm. The Rcon of the AES algorithm is replaced with the elements of the probability distribution matrix. Then, the ascending order of the size of the clone probability distribution matrix scrambles the mapping rules of the S-box and ShiftRow transformations in the AES algorithm. The algorithm uses a probability distribution matrix and plaintext XOR operation to complete the preprocessing and uses the modified AES algorithm to complete the encryption process. The technology is based on simulation verification, including pixel correlation, histograms, differential attacks, noise attacks, information entropy, key sensitivity, and space. The results demonstrate a remarkable encryption effect. Compared with other improved AES algorithms, this algorithm has the advantages of the original AES algorithm and improves the ability to resist correlation attacks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e24050608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9140423PMC
April 2022

A DFT study on the structure activity relationship of the natural xanthotoxin-based pharmaceutical cocrystals.

J Mol Model 2022 May 17;28(6):155. Epub 2022 May 17.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Resource Utilization, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, 150040, China.

In this work, the pharmaceutical cocrystals xanthotoxin-para-aminobenzoic acid (XT-PABA) and xanthotoxin-oxalic acid (XT-OA) were systematically investigated in the gas and water phases by using the quantum chemical approach. The weak intermolecular interactions have been estimated and the O1…H4 (O1…H5) intermolecular hydrogen bond (IHB) with moderate intensity and partial covalent natures was confirmed based on the computed structural parameters, topology analysis, and reduced density gradient (RDG) isosurfaces. The electrophilic and nucleophilic reactivities of different positions associated with intermolecular interactions in XT, PABA, and OA were predicted by plotting the molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) diagrams. The calculated natural bond orbital (NBO) population analysis has quantitatively unveiled the intrinsic reason for the variations in weak intermolecular interactions within XT-PABA and XT-OA cocrystals, from the gas phase to the water phase. Besides, the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), Fukui function, and various global reactivity descriptors were computed to measure the chemical reactivity of all the investigated molecular systems. The XT-PABA and XT-OA cocrystals explored in this work could be regarded as valuable exemplar systems to design and synthesize the high-efficiency pharmaceutical cocrystals in the experiment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-022-05152-5DOI Listing
May 2022

Return Strategy and Machine Learning Optimization of Tennis Sports Robot for Human Motion Recognition.

Front Neurorobot 2022 28;16:857595. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Sports Institute, Nanchang JiaoTong Institute, Nanchang, China.

At present, there are many kinds of intelligent training equipment in tennis sports, but they all need human control. If a single tennis player uses the robot to return the ball, it will save some human resources. This study aims to improve the recognition rate of tennis sports robots in the return action and the return strategy. The human-oriented motion recognition of the tennis sports robot is taken as the starting point to recognize and analyze the return action of the tennis sports robot. The OpenPose traversal dataset is used to recognize and extract human motion features of tennis sports robots under different classifications. According to the return characteristics of the tennis sports robot, the method of tennis return strategy based on the support vector machine (SVM) is established, and the SVM algorithm in machine learning is optimized. Finally, the return strategy of tennis sports robots under eight return actions is analyzed and studied. The results reveal that the tennis sports robot based on the SVM-Optimization (SVM-O) algorithm has the highest return recognition rate, and the average return recognition rate is 88.61%. The error rates of the backswing, forward swing, and volatilization are high in the return strategy of tennis sports robots. The preparation action, backswing, and volatilization can achieve more objective results in the analysis of the return strategy, which is more than 90%. With the increase of iteration times, the effect of the model simulation experiment based on SVM-O is the best. It suggests that the algorithm proposed has a reliable accuracy of the return strategy of tennis sports robots, which meets the research requirements. Human motion recognition is integrated with the return motion of tennis sports robots. The application of the SVM-O algorithm to the return action recognition of tennis sports robots has good practicability in the return action recognition of tennis sports robot and solves the problem that the optimization algorithm cannot be applied to the real-time requirements. It has important research significance for the application of an optimized SVM algorithm in sports action recognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbot.2022.857595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9097601PMC
April 2022

Monte Carlo study of the pseudogap and superconductivity emerging from quantum magnetic fluctuations.

Nat Commun 2022 May 12;13(1):2655. Epub 2022 May 12.

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

The origin of the pseudogap behavior, found in many high-T superconductors, remains one of the greatest puzzles in condensed matter physics. One possible mechanism is fermionic incoherence, which near a quantum critical point allows pair formation but suppresses superconductivity. Employing quantum Monte Carlo simulations of a model of itinerant fermions coupled to ferromagnetic spin fluctuations, represented by a quantum rotor, we report numerical evidence of pseudogap behavior, emerging from pairing fluctuations in a quantum-critical non-Fermi liquid. Specifically, we observe enhanced pairing fluctuations and a partial gap opening in the fermionic spectrum. However, the system remains non-superconducting until reaching a much lower temperature. In the pseudogap regime the system displays a "gap-filling" rather than "gap-closing" behavior, similar to the one observed in cuprate superconductors. Our results present direct evidence of the pseudogap state, driven by superconducting fluctuations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30302-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9098861PMC
May 2022

Whole Genome DNA and RNA Sequencing of Whole Blood Elucidates the Genetic Architecture of Gene Expression Underlying a Wide Range of Diseases.

medRxiv 2022 May 3. Epub 2022 May 3.

To create a scientific resource of expression quantitative trail loci (eQTL), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using genotypes obtained from whole genome sequencing (WGS) of DNA and gene expression levels from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of whole blood in 2622 participants in Framingham Heart Study. We identified 6,778,286 -eQTL variant-gene transcript (eGene) pairs at <5×10 (2,855,111 unique -eQTL variants and 15,982 unique eGenes) and 1,469,754 -eQTL variant-eGene pairs at <1e-12 (526,056 unique -eQTL variants and 7,233 unique eGenes). In addition, 442,379 -eQTL variants were associated with expression of 1518 long non-protein coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Gene Ontology (GO) analyses revealed that the top GO terms for eGenes are enriched for immune functions (FDR <0.05). The -eQTL variants are enriched for SNPs reported to be associated with 815 traits in prior GWAS, including cardiovascular disease risk factors. As proof of concept, we used this eQTL resource in conjunction with genetic variants from public GWAS databases in causal inference testing (e.g., COVID-19 severity). After Bonferroni correction, Mendelian randomization analyses identified putative causal associations of 60 eGenes with systolic blood pressure, 13 genes with coronary artery disease, and seven genes with COVID-19 severity. This study created a comprehensive eQTL resource via BioData Catalyst that will be made available to the scientific community. This will advance understanding of the genetic architecture of gene expression underlying a wide range of diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2022.04.13.22273841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9094109PMC
May 2022

Exosome-transmitted circVMP1 facilitates the progression and cisplatin resistance of non-small cell lung cancer by targeting miR-524-5p-METTL3/SOX2 axis.

Drug Deliv 2022 Dec;29(1):1257-1271

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important regulatory roles in multiple human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we explored the role of circRNA vacuole membrane protein 1 (circVMP1) in NSCLC progression and cisplatin (DDP) resistance.

Methods: The DDP resistance, proliferation, sphere formation ability, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of NSCLC cells were analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay, sphere formation assay, wound healing assay, Transwell assay, and flow cytometry. Methylated RIP-qPCR (MeRIP-qPCR) was conducted to analyze the mA modification level of SRY-box transcription factor 2 (SOX2). Dual-luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay, and RNA-pull down assay were performed to confirm the intermolecular interaction. Exosomes were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA).

Results: CircVMP1 expression was markedly elevated in DDP-resistant NSCLC cell lines compared with their parental cell lines. CircVMP1 absence restrained the proliferation, sphere formation, migration, invasion, and DDP resistance and promoted the apoptosis of DDP-resistant NSCLC cells. CircVMP1 acted as microRNA-524-5p (miR-524-5p) sponge to up-regulate the expression of methyltransferase 3, N6-adenosine-methyltransferase complex catalytic subunit (METTL3) and SOX2. CircVMP1 silencing restrained the malignant behaviors and DDP resistance of A549/DDP and H1299/DDP cells by targeting miR-524-5p. Exosomal circVMP1 disseminated the malignant properties and DDP resistance to DDP-sensitive cells. Exosomal circVMP1 elevated the DDP resistance of xenograft tumors . Exosomal circVMP1 was up-regulated in the serum samples of DDP-resistant NSCLC patients compared with DDP-sensitive patients.

Conclusion: Exosome-mediated transmission of circVMP1 promoted NSCLC progression and DDP resistance by targeting miR-524-5p-METTL3/SOX2 axis.HighlightsCircVMP1 level is up-regulated in DDP-resistant NSCLC cell lines compared with DDP-sensitive cell lines.CircVMP1 absence restrains the malignant behaviors and DDP resistance of A549/DDP and H1299/DDP cells.CircVMP1-miR-524-5p/METTL3/SOX2 axis is identified for the first time.CircVMP1 plays an oncogenic role by targeting miR-524-5p-METTL3/SOX2 axis in A549/DDP and H1299/DDP cells.Exosomal circVMP1 transmits the malignant properties and DDP resistance to DDP-sensitive cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2022.2057617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9045767PMC
December 2022

Rapid Detection of Avocado Oil Adulteration Using Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

Foods 2022 Apr 14;11(8). Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Key Laboratory of Meat Processing, MOA, Key Laboratory of Meat Processing and Quality Control, MOE, Jiang Synergetic Innovation Center of Meat Production, Processing and Quality Control, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Avocado oil (AO) has been found to be adulterated by low-price oil in the market, calling for an efficient method to detect the authenticity of AO. In this work, a rapid and nondestructive method was developed to detect adulterated AO based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR, 43 MHz) detection and chemometrics analysis. PCA analysis revealed that the relaxation components area (S) and relative contribution (P and P) were crucial LF-NMR parameters to distinguish AO from AO adulterated by soybean oil (SO), corn oil (CO) or rapeseed oil (RO). A Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) model was established to identify the types of adulterated oils with a high calibration (0.98) and validation accuracy (0.93). Compared with partial least squares regression (PLSR) models, the support vector regression (SVR) model showed better prediction performance to calculate the adulteration levels when AO was adulterated by SO, CO and RO, with high square correlation coefficient of calibration (R > 0.98) and low root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC < 0.04) as well as root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP < 0.09) values. Compared with SO- and CO-adulterated AO, RO-adulterated AO was more difficult to detect due to the greatest similarity in fatty acids' composition being between AO and RO, which is characterized by the high level of monounsaturated fatty acids and viscosity. This study could provide an effective method for detecting the authenticity of AO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11081134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9032617PMC
April 2022

A sub-freshness monitoring chitosan/starch-based colorimetric film for improving color recognition accuracy via controlling the pH value of the film-forming solution.

Food Chem 2022 Sep 13;388:132975. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

College of Food Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110866, China. Electronic address:

The demand for intelligent packaging in food sub-freshness monitoring is increasing. Herein, a pH and NH responsing colorimetric film (PS-CH-LCA) was fabricated based on potato starch (PS), chitosan (CH) and Lonicera caerulea L. anthocyanins (LCA) via controlling the pH value of the film-forming solution, and was applied to the real-time monitoring of shrimp freshness. The PS-CH-LCA pH 2.5 film exhibited the highest tensile strength (6.43 MPa), the lowest water solubility (33.11%) and the most sensitive color responsiveness. Morphological and structural results revealed that CH was attached to the surface of PS via hydrogen bond, and anthocyanins were well immobilized in the film-forming matrix. The sensitive color change and its high correlation with spoilage indices demonstrated the PS-CH-LCA pH 2.5 film well indicated fresh, sub-fresh, spoiled level of shrimp. The results solved the limitation of chitosan-based packaging films in undistinguishable colorimetric endpoints, providing a new strategy for indicating the sub-freshness of food packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132975DOI Listing
September 2022

Concentration Prediction of Polymer Insulation Aging Indicator-Alcohols in Oil Based on Genetic Algorithm-Optimized Support Vector Machines.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Apr 2;14(7). Epub 2022 Apr 2.

School of Electrical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

The predictive model of aging indicator based on intelligent algorithms has become an auxiliary method for the aging condition of transformer polymer insulation. However, most of the current research on the concentration prediction of aging products focuses on dissolved gases in oil, and the concentration prediction of alcohols in oil is ignored. As new types of aging indicators, alcohols (methanol, ethanol) are becoming prevalent in the aging evaluation of transformer polymer insulation. To address this, this study proposes a prediction model for the concentration of alcohols based on a genetic-algorithm-optimized support vector machine (GA-SVM). Firstly, accelerated thermal aging experiments on oil-paper insulation are conducted, and the concentration of alcohols is measured. Then, the data of the past 4 days of aging are used as the input feature of SVM, and the GA algorithm is utilized to optimize the kernel function parameter and penalty factor of SVM. Moreover, the concentrations of methanol and ethanol are predicted, after which the prediction accuracy of other algorithms and GA-SVM are compared. Finally, an industrial software program for predicting the concentration of methanol and ethanol is established. The results show that the mean square errors () of methanol and ethanol concentration predictions of the model proposed in this paper are 0.008 and 0.003, respectively. The prediction model proposed in this paper can track changes in methanol and ethanol concentrations well, providing a theoretical basis for the field of alcohol concentration prediction in transformer oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14071449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9003247PMC
April 2022

Reveal the Antimigraine Mechanism of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Cyperi Rhizoma Based on the Integrated Analysis of Metabolomics and Network Pharmacology.

Front Pharmacol 2022 24;13:805984. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Migraine is a common neurological disorder that manifests as recurrent attacks of unilateral and throbbing headache. "Chuanxiong" (Apiaceae; Chuanxiong rhizoma) and rotundus L. (Cyperaceae; Cyperi rhizoma) (CRCR), is a classic prescription for treating migraine. This study aimed to reveal the potential mechanisms of CRCR extract against migraine using integrated analysis of metabolomics and network pharmacology. Behavioral changes in the nitroglycerin rat migraine model were determined from von Frey withdrawal response. Untargeted serum metabolomics was used to identify the differentially expressed metabolites and metabolic pathways. The differentially expressed metabolites were analyzed to obtain the corresponding targets by a compound-reaction-enzyme-gene network. Network pharmacology was used to construct a compound-target-pathway network. The common targets of metabolomics and network pharmacology were further analyzed. Metabolomics analysis identified 96 differentially expressed metabolites and 77 corresponding targets. Network pharmacology analysis identified 201 potential targets for CRCR against migraine. By intersecting 77 targets with 201 targets, monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), and catechol--methyltransferase (COMT) were identified as the common targets, and MAO-A, MAO-B, and COMT were involved in the tyrosine metabolism pathway. Further experiments demonstrated that the contents of MAO-A and COMT were significantly increased in serum and brainstem tissue of the migraine rats. CRCR extract significantly decreased the contents of MAO-A and COMT, while no significant difference was found in MAO-B. Metabolomics analysis indicated that the contents of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate (DOPAC) and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate (HPP) were significantly increased in the migraine rats, and CRCR extract caused significant decreases in DOPAC and HPP. Interestingly, DOPAC and HPP were two differentially expressed metabolites involved in the tyrosine metabolism pathway. Correlation analysis showed that DOPAC and HPP were highly positively correlated with MAO-A and COMT. Taken together, two key differentially expressed metabolites (DOPAC and HPP), two key targets (MAO-A and COMT), and one relevant metabolic pathway (tyrosine metabolism) showed great importance in the treatment of migraine. This research could provide a new understanding of the potential mechanism of CRCR against migraine. More attentions should be paid into the tyrosine metabolism pathway in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.805984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8987590PMC
March 2022

Single-view calibration of a catadioptric camera based on a theodolite model.

Appl Opt 2022 Mar;61(9):2256-2266

The catadioptric panoramic imaging system may provide 360° panoramic imaging by employing the convex surface of a quadric surface with rotational symmetry as the reflector, which effectively compensates for the disadvantages of the narrow field of view in typical camera systems. First, this paper proposes a theodolite-based catadioptric camera image model based on the rotational symmetry of a catadioptric camera mirror, which simplifies the 2D modeling problem to a 1D problem. Simultaneously, the equivalence of the theodolite imaging model and the standard spherical imaging model also is demonstrated in this work. Second, this paper presents a method to calibrate the theodolite model parameters using only a single view and explains the calculation of model parameter initialization and iterative optimization steps in detail. Then, this paper demonstrates how to calibrate the theodolite model parameters using only a single view, as well as how to calculate the model parameter initialization and iterative optimization steps. Finally, simulation experiments and actual experiments have confirmed the correctness and stability of the method. The experimental results show that the average and standard deviation of the back-projection error are, respectively, 0.1983125 pixels and 0.0006153 pixels, in this model. We believe the theodolite model suggested in this paper offers a viable approach to catadioptric camera image modeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.447883DOI Listing
March 2022

Analytical Solution for Forced Vibration Characteristics of Rotating Functionally Graded Blades under Rub-Impact and Base Excitation.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Mar 15;15(6). Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Kinesiology, Shenyang Sport University, Shenyang 110102, China.

This paper presents an analytical investigation on the forced vibration characteristics of a rotating functionally graded material (FGM) blade subjected to rub-impact and base excitation. Based on the Kirchhoff plate theory, the rotating blade is modelled theoretically. The material properties of the FGM blade are considered to vary continuously and smoothly along the thickness direction according to a volume fraction power-law distribution. By employing Hamilton's principle, the equations of motion are derived. Then, the Galerkin method and the small parameter perturbation method are utilized to obtain the analytical solution for the composite blade under a combined action of radial force, tangential force and displacement load. Finally, special attention is given to the effects of power-law index, rub-impact location, friction coefficient, base excitation amplitude and blade aspect ratio on the vibration characteristics of the FGM structure. The obtained results can play a role in the design of rotating FGM blades to achieve significantly improved structural performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15062175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8954408PMC
March 2022

A comparison of analytical strategies for cluster randomized trials with survival outcomes in the presence of competing risks.

Stat Methods Med Res 2022 Jul 15;31(7):1224-1241. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

310058Department of Biostatistics, 50296Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

While statistical methods for analyzing cluster randomized trials with continuous and binary outcomes have been extensively studied and compared, little comparative evidence has been provided for analyzing cluster randomized trials with survival outcomes in the presence of competing risks. Motivated by the Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders trial, we carried out a simulation study to compare the operating characteristics of several existing population-averaged survival models, including the marginal Cox, marginal Fine and Gray, and marginal multi-state models. For each model, we found that adjusting for the intraclass correlations through the sandwich variance estimator effectively maintained the type I error rate when the number of clusters is large. With no more than 30 clusters, however, the sandwich variance estimator can exhibit notable negative bias, and a permutation test provides better control of type I error inflation. Under the alternative, the power for each model is differentially affected by two types of intraclass correlations-the within-individual and between-individual correlations. Furthermore, the marginal Fine and Gray model occasionally leads to higher power than the marginal Cox model or the marginal multi-state model, especially when the competing event rate is high. Finally, we provide an illustrative analysis of Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders trial using each analytical strategy considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09622802221085080DOI Listing
July 2022

Advances in Modification Methods Based on Biodegradable Membranes in Guided Bone/Tissue Regeneration: A Review.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Feb 23;14(5). Epub 2022 Feb 23.

The CONVERSATIONALIST Club, School of Stomatology, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Tai'an 271016, China.

Guided tissue/bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) is commonly applied in dentistry to aid in the regeneration of bone/tissue at a defective location, where the assistive material eventually degrades to be substituted with newly produced tissue. Membranes separate the rapidly propagating soft tissue from the slow-growing bone tissue for optimal tissue regeneration results. A broad membrane exposure area, biocompatibility, hardness, ductility, cell occlusion, membrane void ratio, tissue integration, and clinical manageability are essential functional properties of a GTR/GBR membrane, although no single modern membrane conforms to all of the necessary characteristics. This review considers ongoing bone/tissue regeneration engineering research and the GTR/GBR materials described in this review fulfill all of the basic ISO requirements for human use, as determined through risk analysis and rigorous testing. Novel modified materials are in the early stages of development and could be classified as synthetic polymer membranes, biological extraction synthetic polymer membranes, or metal membranes. Cell attachment, proliferation, and subsequent tissue development are influenced by the physical features of GTR/GBR membrane materials, including pore size, porosity, and mechanical strength. According to the latest advances, key attributes of nanofillers introduced into a polymer matrix include suitable surface area, better mechanical capacity, and stability, which enhances cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, it is essential to construct a bionic membrane that satisfies the requirements for the mechanical barrier, the degradation rate, osteogenesis, and clinical operability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14050871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8912280PMC
February 2022

Responsibility optimization of a high-speed InP/InGaAs photodetector with a back reflector structure.

Opt Express 2022 Feb;30(4):4919-4929

Top-illuminated PIN photodetectors (PDs) are widely utilized in telecommunication systems, and more efforts have been focused on optimizing the optical responsibility and bandwidth for high-speed and capacity applications. In this work, we develop an integrated top-illuminated InP/InGaAs PIN PD with a back reflector by using a microtransfer printing (µ-TP) process. An improved µ-TP process, where the tether of silicon nitride instead of photoresist, is selected to support an underetched III-V device on an InP substrate before transfer. According to theoretical simulations and experimental measurements, the seamless integration of the PD with a back reflector through µ-TP process makes full use of the 2 or even multiple reflecting light in the absorption layer to optimize the maximum responsibility. The integrated device with a 5 µm square p-mesa possesses a high optical responsibility of 0.78 A/W and 3 dB bandwidth of 54 GHz using a 500 nm i-InGaAs absorption layer. The present approach for top-illuminated PIN PDs demonstrates an advanced route in which a thin intrinsic layer is available for application in high-performance systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.447596DOI Listing
February 2022

Current and potential trends in the bioactive properties and health benefits of Sieb. Et Zucc: a comprehensive review for value maximization.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2022 Feb 24:1-17. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Center for Biological Science and Technology, Advanced Institute of Natural Sciences, Beijing Normal University at Zhuhai, Zhuhai, Guangdong, China.

Sieb. Et Zucc () is an acidic fruit native to China (named Chinese Mei or greengage plum). It is currently cultivated in several Asian countries, including Japan ("Ume"), Korea (Maesil), and Vietnam (Mai or Mo). Due to its myriad nutritional and functional properties, it is accepted in different countries, and its characteristics account for its commercialization. In this review, we summarize the information on the bioactive compounds from the fruit of and their structure-activity relationships (SAR); the pulp has the highest enrichment of bioactive chemicals. The nutritional properties of and the numerous uses of its by-products make it a potential functional food. extracts exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-hyperuricaemic properties, cardiovascular protective effects, and hormone regulatory properties in various in vitro and in vivo assays. SAR shows that the water solubility, molecular weight, and chemical conformation of extracts are closely related to their biological activity. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the fruit's potential nutritional and functional therapeutic mechanisms. The industrial process of large-scale production of and its extracts as functional foods or nutraceuticals needs to be further optimized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2022.2042186DOI Listing
February 2022
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