Publications by authors named "Yuxiang Wang"

247 Publications

Application of MRT-qPCR for pathogen detection of lower respiratory tract infection.

Am J Transl Res 2022 15;14(5):3311-3318. Epub 2022 May 15.

Biotecnovo (Langfang) Medical Lab Co, Ltd Langfang 065000, Hebei, P. R. China.

Objective: To analyze and clarify the application value of multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (MRT-PCR) assay in detecting pathogens involved in lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), so as to realize accurate and rapid detection of respiratory pathogens.

Methods: Bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens from 186 patients with LRTI collected in the Cangzhou Central Hospital from June 2020 to September 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. Pathogen detection was performed by both MRT-PCR and direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA), and the results of different inspection methods were compared.

Results: Among the seven pathogens detected by MRT-PCR, 140 positive specimens were identified out of the 186 patients, with the top three pathogens with the highest positive rates being influenza A virus (Flu A; 36 [19.35%]), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; 30 [16.13%]) and human adenovirus (HAdV; 23 [12.37%]), and the pathogen with the lowest positive rate being parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3; 9 [4.84%]). DFA showed 110 pathogen-positive specimens, and the top three pathogens with the highest positive rates were Flu A (30 [16.13%]), HAdV (21 [11.29%]) and RSV (19 [10.22%]). The total sensitivity and accuracy of MRT-PCR assay were 93.01% and 98.69% respectively, which were statistically higher than those of 48.45% and 91.24% of DFA (P<0.05). The two inspection methods showed no significant difference in specificity (99.4% for MRT-PCR assay and 97.28% for DFA) (P>0.05).

Conclusions: MRT-PCR is rapid, accurate and specific in detecting pathogens of LRTI, which significantly improves the detection rate, with reliable performance and it has high clinical application value.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9185067PMC
May 2022

Extensive Radiological Manifestation in Patients with Diabetes and Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2022 23;18:595-602. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Tuberculosis, The Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is believed to affect tuberculosis (TB) at multiple levels in disease control and treatment efficacy, but clinical and radiological presentation resulting from interaction of the two diseases is not known.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on data obtained from medical records of 438 patients confirmed with TB-DM comorbidity at the Third people's hospital of Shenzhen from May 01, 2014, to April 30, 2019. Their CT images were reviewed, and patients were divided into subgroups according to lung cavitation: with and without cavities, and number of segments showing pulmonary infiltration: <4 segment, 4-8 segment, >8 segment infiltrates. We then compared clinical parameters between these groups.

Results: The median age of the patients was 50.0 years (IQR 43.3-56.0) and 86% (n=375) of them were male. Pulmonary cavities were found in 80.8% patients. About 42.7% and 27.2% patients were seen to have infiltration involving 4-8 and >8 lung segments, respectively. Patients presented with cavitation and infiltration involving a greater number of lung segments had significantly higher values of WBC, MONO%, GRA%, CRP, lower LYN% level and higher bacterial burden in sputum (<0.001). Higher HbA1c and FBG were only observed in patients with lung cavities (<0.001). There was no difference in positive ELISPOT.TB and PCT level between the groups regardless of presence or absence of lung cavity (>0.9 and =0.1 respectively). Lower HGB, ALB and higher PCT were observed in patients with infiltration involving more lung segments.

Conclusion: Hyper-inflammation in peripheral blood was significantly associated with cavity and the number of lung lesions. Hyperglycemia was significantly associated with the development of lung cavity. Glycemic control and inflammation influenced radiographic manifestations in patients with TB-DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S363328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9137957PMC
May 2022

Evaluating the Efficacy of EGFR-TKIs Combined With Radiotherapy in Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients With EGFR Mutation: A Retrospective Study.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2022 Jan-Dec;21:15330338221100358

The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University and Hebei Province Tumor Hospital, Hebei Clinical Research Center for Radiation Oncology, Shijiazhuang, China.

: Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have been recommended as the first-line treatment for advanced lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. This study retrospectively evaluated patients' survival and related prognostic factors from single-center, real-world data. From January 2015 to December 2020, patients detected with EGFR mutation showing unresectable clinical stages III to IV advanced lung adenocarcinoma and receiving EGFR-TKIs and radiotherapy (RT) were recruited for the study. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were statistically analyzed with SPSS 22.0 software. This study included 238 patients who completed their follow-up by December 30, 2020. The 1-, 2-, 3-year and median OS were 84.4%, 59.7%, 38.7%, and 30.3 months for OS, 57.0%, 28.8%, 15.7%, and 14.1 months for progression-free survival (PFS1), and 78.9%, 71.7%, 33.3%, and 25.0 months for PFS2, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that, the independent factors for OS are age, clinical stage, the sequence of TKI and CT, and the total treatment response, and total response; the independent factors for progression-free survival 1 are clinical stage and total treatment response; the independent factors for PFS2 are clinical stage, type of TKI, sequence of TKI and CT, and total treatment response. The univariate analysis also showed a significant association between RT duration ( = 0.041) and dose ( = 0.026) with PFS1. EGFR-TKIs combined with RT was tolerable and efficient for patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. OS and PFS prove CT sequential with TKIs. Better treatment response with CR + PR was associated with a longer duration of OS, PFS1, and PFS2. However, further study is required in a larger sample size to confirm the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15330338221100358DOI Listing
May 2022

Genome-wide gain-of-function screening identifies EZH2 mediating resistance to PI3Kα inhibitors in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Clin Transl Med 2022 May;12(5):e835

Division of Anti-tumor Pharmacology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Phosphoinositide-3 kinase alpha (PI3Kα) has been confirmed to be a potential therapeutic target for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), while the potency of PI3Kα inhibitors is often attenuated by concurrent oncogenic signalling pathways. We performed genome-wide gain-of-function screening with a CRISPR-SAM library and identified enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) rendering ESCC cells resistant to the PI3Kα inhibitor CYH33. Enhanced expression of EZH2 frequently occurs in ESCC and is related to poor prognosis. Overexpression of full-length EZH2 but not methyltransferase-deficient EZH2 conferred resistance to CYH33, while downregulating EZH2 expression restored sensitivity. EZH2 expression was negatively related to the activity of CYH33 against the proliferation of ESCC cell lines and patient-derived cells. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that EZH2 abrogated CYH33-mediated cell cycle regulation. EZH2 epigenetically suppressed the transcription of CDKN1A, promoting RB phosphorylation and cell cycle progression. Concurrently targeting EZH2 significantly potentiated CYH33 to inhibit the growth of ESCC cells and patient-derived xenografts accompanied by enhanced cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our study demonstrated that an EZH2-p21-RB axis remodeled cell cycle regulation and rendered resistance to PI3Kα inhibitors in ESCC. Simultaneously targeting PI3Kα and EZH2 may provide an effective strategy for ESCC therapy with high expression of EZH2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.835DOI Listing
May 2022

ContactAngleCalculator: An Automated, Parametrized, and Flexible Code for Contact Angle Estimation in Visual Molecular Dynamics.

J Chem Inf Model 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3216, Australia.

Accurate, fast, and flexible approaches for contact angle estimation in molecular dynamics simulations are of great importance for characterization of surface wettability, especially for machine learning approaches which would usually require thousands of computational contact angle evaluations for training and prediction purposes. However, evaluation of the contact angle from molecular simulations is typically a human-intensive process, which hinders the required fast throughput. To address this challenge, here a flexible and automated contact angle estimation tool, ContactAngleCalculator, is developed to meet these new requirements. In contrast to the current widely used computational approaches that are laborious and human intensive, this code is based on the concepts of the coarse-graining technique and equivalent contact area and volume of the droplet. Once the parameters are determined for a target liquid, it can automatically estimate the contact angle of different time points of one case or multiple cases by only one click. This tool is targeted for integration with machine learning methods, in which it can substantially streamline and reduce human labor and time in a computational contact angle estimation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.2c00408DOI Listing
May 2022

Comparative genomic analysis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma: New opportunities towards molecularly targeted therapy.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2022 Mar 30;12(3):1054-1067. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Division of Anti-tumor Pharmacology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.

Esophageal cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide because of its rapid progression and poor prognosis. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are two major subtypes of esophageal cancer. ESCC predominantly affects African and Asian populations, which is closely related to chronic smoking and alcohol consumption. EAC typically arises in Barrett's esophagus with a predilection for Western countries. While surgical operation and chemoradiotherapy have been applied to combat this deadly cancer, molecularly targeted therapy is still at the early stages. With the development of large-scale next-generation sequencing, various genomic alterations in ESCC and EAC have been revealed and their potential roles in the initiation and progression of esophageal cancer have been studied. Potential therapeutic targets have been identified and novel approaches have been developed to combat esophageal cancer. In this review, we comprehensively analyze the genomic alterations in EAC and ESCC and summarize the potential role of the genetic alterations in the development of esophageal cancer. Progresses in the therapeutics based on the different tissue types and molecular signatures have also been reviewed and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2021.09.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9069403PMC
March 2022

An instantly fixable and self-adaptive scaffold for skull regeneration by autologous stem cell recruitment and angiogenesis.

Nat Commun 2022 05 6;13(1):2499. Epub 2022 May 6.

National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, 29# Wangjiang Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610064, P. R. China.

Limited stem cells, poor stretchability and mismatched interface fusion have plagued the reconstruction of cranial defects by cell-free scaffolds. Here, we designed an instantly fixable and self-adaptive scaffold by dopamine-modified hyaluronic acid chelating Ca of the microhydroxyapatite surface and bonding type I collagen to highly simulate the natural bony matrix. It presents a good mechanical match and interface integration by appropriate calcium chelation, and responds to external stress by flexible deformation. Meanwhile, the appropriate matrix microenvironment regulates macrophage M2 polarization and recruits endogenous stem cells. This scaffold promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro, as well as significant ectopic mineralization and angiogenesis. Transcriptome analysis confirmed the upregulation of relevant genes and signalling pathways was associated with M2 macrophage activation, endogenous stem cell recruitment, angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Together, the scaffold realized 97 and 72% bone cover areas after 12 weeks in cranial defect models of rabbit (Φ = 9 mm) and beagle dog (Φ = 15 mm), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30243-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9076642PMC
May 2022

Evaluating the Causal Effects of TIMP-3 on Ischaemic Stroke and Intracerebral Haemorrhage: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Front Genet 2022 4;13:838809. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Spine Surgery and Orthopaedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Since tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP-3) was reported to be a potential risk factor of atherosclerosis, aneurysm, hypertension, and post-ischaemic neuronal injury, it may also be a candidate risk factor of stress. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the causal role of TIMP-3 in the risk of ischaemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), which are the two main causes of stress via this Mendelian Randomisation (MR) study. The summarised data of TIMP-3 level in circulation was acquired from the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg public database and the outcome of IS and ICH was obtained from genome-wide association studies conducted by MEGASTROKE and the International Stroke Genetics Consortium, respectively. Five statistical methods including inverse-variance weighting, weighted-median analysis, MR-Egger regression, MR Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier test, and MR-Robust Adjusted Profile Score were applied to evaluate the causal role of TIMP-3 in the occurrence of IS and ICH. Inverse-variance weighting was applied for assessing causality. Furthermore, heterogeneity and pleiotropic tests were utilised to confirm the reliability of this study. We found that TIMP-3 could be a positively causal relationship with the incidence of IS (OR = 1.026, 95% CI: 1.007-1.046, = 0.0067), especially for the occurrence of small vessel stroke (SVS; OR = 1.045, 95% CI: 1.016-1.076, = 0.0024). However, the causal effects of TIMP-3 on another IS subtype cardioembolic stroke (CES; OR = 1.049, 95% CI: 1.006-1.094, = 0.024), large artery stroke (LAS; OR = 1.0027, 95% CI: 0.9755-1.0306, = 0.849) and ICH (OR = 0.9900, 95% CI: 0.9403-1.0423, = 0.701), as well as ICH subtypes were not observed after Bonferroni corrections ( = 0.00714). Our results revealed that high levels of circulating TIMP-3 causally increased the risk of developing IS and SVS, but not CES, LAS, ICH, and all ICH subtypes. Further investigation is required to elucidate the underlying mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.838809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9015162PMC
April 2022

Predictive Effect of Triglyceride Glucose-Related Parameters, Obesity Indices, and Lipid Ratios for Diabetes in a Chinese Population: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 30;13:862919. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and new-onset diabetes under different glycemic states and to compare the predictive value of TyG-related parameters, obesity indices, and lipid ratios for new-onset diabetes.

Methods: Data were collected from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), consisting of 6,258 participants aged ≥45 years. Participants were grouped according to their glycemic states. Cox proportional hazards models and restricted cubic spline regression were used to explore the association between TyG index and diabetes. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to confirm the predictive value of the optimal marker. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the predictive value.

Results: TyG index was positively correlated with the risk of diabetes (hazard ratio (HR), 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.56-1.97), and the linear association existed ( < 0.001). The highest correlation with diabetes was visceral adiposity index (VAI) (HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.44-2.90) in normal fasting glucose (NFG) group and TyG-body mass index (TyG-BMI) (HR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.97-3.26) in impaired fasting glucose (IFG) group. The largest area under curve (AUC) was observed in TyG-waist-to-height ratio (TyG-WHtR) in the NFG group (AUC, 0.613; 95% CI, 0.527-0.700), and TyG-BMI had the highest AUC in the IFG group (AUC, 0.643; 95% CI, 0.601-0.685).

Conclusion: The association between TyG index and new-onset diabetes was positive and linear. TyG-WHtR was a clinically effective marker for identifying the risks of diabetes in the NFG group and TyG-BMI was an effective marker to predict diabetes in the IFG group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.862919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9007200PMC
April 2022

YY1 safeguard multidimensional epigenetic landscape associated with extended pluripotency.

Nucleic Acids Res 2022 Apr 15. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Joint School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510530, China.

Although extended pluripotent stem cells (EPSCs) have the potential to form both embryonic and extraembryonic lineages, how their transcriptional regulatory mechanism differs from that of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains unclear. Here, we discovered that YY1 binds to specific open chromatin regions in EPSCs. Yy1 depletion in EPSCs leads to a gene expression pattern more similar to that of ESCs than control EPSCs. Moreover, Yy1 depletion triggers a series of epigenetic crosstalk activities, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and high-order chromatin structures. Yy1 depletion in EPSCs disrupts the enhancer-promoter (EP) interactions of EPSC-specific genes, including Dnmt3l. Yy1 loss results in DNA hypomethylation and dramatically reduces the enrichment of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac on the promoters of EPSC-specific genes by upregulating the expression of Kdm5c and Hdac6 through facilitating the formation of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-mediated EP interactions surrounding their loci. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) experiments revealed that YY1 is required for the derivation of extraembryonic endoderm (XEN)-like cells from EPSCs in vitro. Together, this study reveals that YY1 functions as a key regulator of multidimensional epigenetic crosstalk associated with extended pluripotency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkac230DOI Listing
April 2022

A Coronal Landmark for Tibial Component Positioning With Anatomical Alignment in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Radiological and Clinical Study.

Front Surg 2022 29;9:847987. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Orthopaedics, Tongji Medical College, Union Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of the lateral point of articular surface of distal tibia (LADT) for anatomical alignment in total knee arthroplasty.

Methods: We reconstructed 148 three-dimensional pre-arthritic tibias and measured the tibial component inclination angle corresponding to the distal landmark of LADT. A retrospective study included 81 TKA recipients divided into the AA group and MA group. Clinical assessments including ROM, HSS, WOMAC, satisfaction for surgery, and radiological assessment were evaluated at one-year follow-up.

Results: The tibial component varus angle corresponding to the distal landmark of LADT in the male and female groups were 3.4 ± 0.3° (2.6~4.2°) and 3.2 ± 0.3° (2.3~4.0°), respectively ( <0.05). Using LADT as the distal landmark for extramedullary tibial cutting guidance, the medial proximal tibia angle (MPTA) of the AA group was 87.0±1.2° (85.0~90.0°), and the AA and MA technique showed no difference in improvement in postoperative knee functional recovery at final follow-up.

Conclusions: This study preliminarily indicated that LADT can be a reliable and economical landmark for coronal plane alignment of the tibial component.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2022.847987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9001927PMC
March 2022

Prospects of contezolid (MRX-I) against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.

Drug Discov Ther 2022 May 12;16(2):99-101. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Tuberculosis, The Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen, China.

Tuberculosis has become a great global public health threat. Compared with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), the treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) involve more severe adverse events and poorer treatment outcomes. Linezolid (LZD) is the first oxazolidinones used for TB. Thanks to its potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, LZD has become one of the key agents in the regimens against MDR/XDR-TB. However, this drug may cause intolerability and other adverse events. Contezolid, another novel oxazolidinone, can also inhibit M. tuberculosis, still with fewer adverse effects compared with LZD. This paper is to prospect the potentials of contezolid in the treatment of MDR/XDR-TB, with focus on its efficacy and possible adverse effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/ddt.2022.01025DOI Listing
May 2022

Phenotypic and molecular states of IDH1 mutation-induced CD24-positive glioma stem-like cells.

Neoplasia 2022 Jun 7;28:100790. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Center for Immunotherapy and Precision Immuno-Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44022, USA; Case Western School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Electronic address:

Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 drive the development of gliomas. These genetic alterations promote tumor cell renewal, disrupt differentiation states, and induce stem-like properties. Understanding how this phenotypic reprogramming occurs remains an area of high interest in glioma research. Previously, we showed that IDH mutation results in the development of a CD24-positive cell population in gliomas. Here, we demonstrate that this CD24-positive population possesses striking stem-like properties at the molecular and phenotypic levels. We found that CD24 expression is associated with stem-like features in IDH-mutant tumors, a patient-derived gliomasphere model, and a neural stem cell model of IDH1-mutant glioma. In orthotopic models, CD24-positive cells display enhanced tumor initiating potency compared to CD24-negative cells. Furthermore, CD24 knockdown results in changes in cell viability, proliferation rate, and gene expression that closely resemble a CD24-negative phenotype. Our data demonstrate that induction of a CD24-positive population is one mechanism by which IDH-mutant tumors acquire stem-like properties. These findings have significant implications for our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of IDH-mutant gliomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2022.100790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9014446PMC
June 2022

Physiological and transcriptome analyses highlight multiple pathways involved in drought stress in Medicago falcata.

PLoS One 2022 7;17(4):e0266542. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

West Arid Region Grassland Resource and Ecology Key Laboratory, College of Grassland and Environmental Sciences, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, China.

Medicago falcata is one of the leguminous forage crops, which grows well in arid and semiarid region. To fully investigate the mechanism of drought resistance response in M. falcata, we challenged the M. falcata plants with 30% PEG-6000, and performed physiological and transcriptome analyses. It was found that, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (eg. SOD, POD, and CAT) and soluble sugar content were all increased in the PEG-treated group, as compared to the control group. Transcriptome results showed that a total of 706 genes were differentially expressed in the PEG-treated plants in comparison with the control. Gene enrichment analyses on differentially expressed genes revealed that a number of genes in various pathway were significantly enriched, including the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (ko00940) and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (ko00010), indicating the involvement of these key pathways in drought response. Furthermore, the expression levels of seven differentially expressed genes were verified to be involved in drought response in M. falcata by qPCR. Taken together, these results will provide valuable information related to drought response in M. falcata and lay a foundation for molecular studies and genetic breeding of legume crops in future research.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0266542PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8989214PMC
April 2022

Proximal Junction Kyphosis in Adult Scoliosis: Best Postoperative Radiological Predictors-A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Adv Orthop 2022 23;2022:9814416. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan, China.

Background: Proximal junction kyphosis (PJK) is the postsurgical radiographic event seen in the surgical plane after the fusion of a spinal deformity. Unfavorable health outcomes have been reported in symptomatic PJK patients compared to non-PJK patients.

Methods: The data for adult scoliosis patients who underwent curve correction were extracted from the hospital database. Pelvic and spinal parameters were measured and calculated to compare four predictive formulae for occurrences of PJK. Formula 1. Restoration of hypothetical values of lumbar lordosis (LL) and thoracic kyphosis (TK) according to pelvic incidence (PI). Formula 2. Evaluation of global sagittal alignment. Formula 3. Restoration of the apex of LL to its hypothetical position according to the spine shape. Formula 4. Evaluation of positive-sum and negative-sum of (LL + TK).

Results: A total number of cases were 52. There were 14 cases of PJK. The incidence of PJK was 26.9%, and the mean age for PJK cases was 63.2 ± 5.2. The excellent predictor for occurrences of PJK was formula 3. Postsurgical sagittal apexes of lumbar lordosis were located in their hypothetical position in 24 cases, and 12.5% of these cases developed PJK. While sagittal apexes were not located in their hypothetical position in 28 patients, PJK occurred in 39.3% of them (=0.03, OR: 4.53, (95% CI: 1.09-18.9)). The second good predictor for occurrences of PJK was formula 2 (GSA >45° versus GSA <45° OR = 2.5, (95% CI: 0.67-9.38), =0.17). The other two formulae (1 and 4) were not good predictors for occurrences of PJK.

Conclusion: Among the four proposed formulae for predicting occurrences of PJK, the position of the sagittal apex of lumbar lordosis is an excellent predictor of the development of PJK, followed by GSA. Hypothetical values of LL and TK, and positive or negative-sum of (LL + TK), are weak predictors for occurrences of PJK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9814416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8967590PMC
March 2022

Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping and Identification of Candidate Genes for Resistance to Fusarium Wilt Race 7 Using a Resequencing-Based High Density Genetic Bin Map in a Recombinant Inbred Line Population of .

Front Plant Sci 2022 10;13:815643. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Engineering Research Centre of Cotton, Ministry of Education/College of Agriculture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Ürümqi, China.

Fusarium wilt caused by f. sp. (FOV) is one of the most destructive diseases in cotton ( spp.) production, and use of resistant cultivars is the most cost-effective method managing the disease. To understand the genetic basis of cotton resistance to FOV race 7 (FOV7), this study evaluated a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 110 lines of from a cross between susceptible Xinhai 14 and resistant 06-146 in eight tests and constructed a high-density genetic linkage map with resequencing-based 933,845 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers covering a total genetic distance of 2483.17 cM. Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for FOV7 resistance were identified, including on chromosome D03 in two tests. Through a comparative analysis of gene expression and DNA sequence for predicted genes within the QTL region between the two parents and selected lines inoculated with FOV7, encoding for a calmodulin (CaM)-like (CML) protein was identified as a candidate gene. A further analysis confirmed that the expression of was suppressed, leading to increased disease severity in plants of the resistant parent with virus induced gene silencing (VIGS).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.815643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8965654PMC
March 2022

Perfect Control of Diffraction Patterns with Phase-Gradient Metasurfaces.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Apr 31;14(14):16856-16865. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Microwave Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China.

Phase-gradient metasurfaces (PGMs) constitute an efficient platform for deflection of a beam in a desired direction. According to the generalized Snell's law, the direction of the reflected/refracted wave can be tuned by the spatial phase function provided by the PGMs. However, most studies on PGM focus only on a single diffraction order, that is, the incident wave can be reflected or refracted to a single target direction. Even in the case of multiple beams pointing in different directions, the beams are still in the same order mode, and the energy carried by different beams cannot be controlled. In addition, the energy ratio of multiple beams is generally uncontrollable. Here, we propose a general method to perfectly control diffraction patterns based on a multi-beam PGM. An analytical solution for arbitrarily controlling diffraction beams is derived through which the generation and energy distribution in high-order diffraction beams can be achieved. Three metasurfaces with different diffraction orders and energy ratios are designed and fabricated to demonstrate the proposed method. The efficiencies of diffraction for the desired channels are close to 100%. The simulated and measured far-field patterns are in good agreement with theoretical predictions, validating the proposed method that provides a new way to design multi-beam antennas and that has significance in wireless communication applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c00742DOI Listing
April 2022

In Vivo Near-Infrared Noninvasive Glucose Measurement and Detection in Humans.

Appl Spectrosc 2022 May 24:37028221092474. Epub 2022 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, 12605Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

In optical noninvasive glucose detection, how to detect the glucose-caused signals from the constant human variations and disturbed probing conditions is always the biggest challenge. Developing effective measurement strategies is essential to realize the detection. A near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy-based strategy is studied to effectively solve the in vivo measurement issues, obtaining clean blood glucose-caused signals. Two solutions composing our strategy are applied to the NIR spectroscopy-based measurement system to acquire clean raw signals in the data collection, which are a customized high signal-to-noise ratio multi-ring InGaAs detector to reduce the influence of human variations, and a fixing and aiming method to reproduce a consistent measurement condition. Seventeen cases of glucose tolerance test (GTT) on healthy and diabetic volunteers were conducted to validate the strategy. The human experiment results clearly show that the expected blood glucose changes have been detected at 1550 nm. The average correlation coefficient of the 17 cases of GTT between light signal and glucose reference reaches 0.84. The proposed measurement strategy is verified feasible for the glucose detecting in vivo. The strategy provides references to further studies and product developments for the NIR spectroscopy-based glucose measurement and references to other optical measurements in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00037028221092474DOI Listing
May 2022

Roles of PTEN inactivation and PD-1/PD-L1 activation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Mol Biol Rep 2022 Mar 17. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, No. 12 Jian Kang Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, P. R. China.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common type of esophageal cancer in China and developing countries. The purpose of this review is to summarize the roles of inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and activation of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) upon binding to its ligand (PD-L1) in the promotion of ESCC. Studies of ESCC performed in vitro and in vivo indicated that PTEN and PD-L1 function in the regulation of cell proliferation, invasion, and migration; the epithelial-mesenchymal transition; resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Certain genetic variants of PTEN are related to susceptibility to ESCC, and PTEN and PD-L1 also function in ESCC progression and affect the prognosis of patients with ESCC. There is also evidence that the expression of PD-L1 and PTEN are associated with the progression of certain other cancers. Future studies should further examine the relationship of PD-L1 and PTEN and their possible interactions in ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-022-07246-yDOI Listing
March 2022

Growing single crystals of two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks enabled by intermediate tracing study.

Nat Commun 2022 Mar 16;13(1):1370. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117585, Singapore.

Resolving single-crystal structures of two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) is a great challenge, hindered in part by limited strategies for growing high-quality crystals. A better understanding of the growth mechanism facilitates development of methods to grow high-quality 2D COF single crystals. Here, we take a different perspective to explore the 2D COF growth process by tracing growth intermediates. We discover two different growth mechanisms, nucleation and self-healing, in which self-assembly and pre-arrangement of monomers and oligomers are important factors for obtaining highly crystalline 2D COFs. These findings enable us to grow micron-sized 2D single crystalline COF Py-1P. The crystal structure of Py-1P is successfully characterized by three-dimensional electron diffraction (3DED), which confirms that Py-1P does, in part, adopt the widely predicted AA stacking structure. In addition, we find the majority of Py-1P crystals (>90%) have a previously unknown structure, containing 6 stacking layers within one unit cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-29086-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8927472PMC
March 2022

Luminescent Thin Films Enabled by CsPbX (X=Cl, Br, I) Precursor Solution.

Chemistry 2022 May 28;28(25):e202104463. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022, P. R. China.

Inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals are candidates for lighting and display materials due to their outstanding optoelectronic properties. However, the dissolution issue of perovskite nanocrystals in polar solvents remains a challenge for practical applications. Herein, we present a newly designed one-step spin-coating strategy to prepare a novel multicolor-tunable CsPbX (X=Cl, Br, I) nanocrystal film, where the CsPbX precursor solution was formed by dissolving PbO, Cs CO , and CH NH X into the ionic liquid n-butylammonium butyrate. The as-designed CsPbX nanocrystal films show high color purity with a narrow emission width. Also, the blue CsPb(Cl/Br) film demonstrates an absolute photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQY) of 15.6 %, which is higher than 11.7 % of green CsPbBr and 8.3 % of red CsPb(Br/I) film. This study develops an effective approach to preparing CsPbX nanocrystal thin films, opening a new avenue to design perovskite nanocrystals-based devices for lighting and display applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202104463DOI Listing
May 2022

Multi-Omics Association Reveals the Effects of Intestinal Microbiome-Host Interactions on Fat Deposition in Broilers.

Front Microbiol 2021 17;12:815538. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Key Laboratory of Chicken Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Harbin, China.

Growing evidence indicates that gut microbiota factors cannot be viewed as independent in the occurrence of obesity. Because the gut microbiome is highly dimensional and complex, studies on interactions between gut microbiome and host in obesity are still rare. To explore the relationship of gut microbiome-host interactions with obesity, we performed multi-omics associations of gut metagenome, intestinal transcriptome, and host obesity phenotypes in divergently selected obese-lean broiler lines. Metagenomic shotgun sequencing generated a total of 450 gigabases of clean data from 80 intestinal segment contents of 20 broilers (10 of each line). The microbiome comparison showed that microbial diversity and composition in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca were altered variously between the lean- and fat-line broilers. We identified two jejunal microbes ( and ) and four cecal microbes ( sp. , , , and sp. ), which were significantly different between the two lines (FDR < 0.05). When comparing functional metagenome, the fat-line broilers had an intensive microbial metabolism in the duodenum and jejunum but degenerative microbial activities in the ileum and ceca. mRNA-sequencing identified a total of 1,667 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the four intestinal compartments between the two lines (| log2FC| > 1.5 and FDR < 0.05). Multi-omics associations showed that the 14 microbial species with abundances that were significantly related with abdominal fat relevant traits (AFRT) also have significant correlations with 155 AFRT-correlated DEG ( < 0.05). These DEG were mainly involved in lipid metabolism, immune system, transport and catabolism, and cell growth-related pathways. The present study constructed a gut microbial gene catalog of the obese-lean broiler lines. Intestinal transcriptome and metagenome comparison between the two lines identified candidate DEG and differential microbes for obesity, respectively. Multi-omics associations suggest that abdominal fat deposition may be influenced by the interactions of specific gut microbiota abundance and the expression of host genes in the intestinal compartments in which the microbes reside. Our study explored the interactions between gut microbiome and host intestinal gene expression in lean and obese broilers, which may expand knowledge on the relationships between obesity and gut microbiome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.815538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8892104PMC
February 2022

Genetic parameters estimation and genome-wide association studies for internal organ traits in an F chicken population.

J Anim Breed Genet 2022 Jul 28;139(4):434-446. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Key Laboratory of Chicken Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Harbin, P.R. China.

Chicken internal organs are indispensable parts of the body, but their genetic architectures have not been commonly understood. Herein, we estimated the genetic parameters for heart weight (HW), liver weight (LW), spleen weight (SpW), testis weight (TW), glandular stomach weight (GSW), muscular stomach weight (MSW) and identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and potential candidate genes associated with internal organ weights in an F population constructed by crossing broiler cocks derived from Arbor Acres with high abdominal fat content and Baier layer dams (a Chinese native breed). The restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method was applied for genetic parameters estimation of internal organ weights using GCTA software. The results showed that heritabilities of internal organ traits ranged from 0.336 to 0.673 and most of the genetic and phenotypic correlations amongst internal organs weights were positive. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed based on a mixed linear model (MLM) in GEMMA software. Genotypic data were produced from the whole genome re-sequenced (26 F individuals were re-sequenced at 10 × coverage; 519 F individuals were re-sequenced at 3 × coverage). A total of 7,890,258 SNPs remained to be analysed after quality control and genotype imputation. The GWAS results indicated that significant SNPs responsible for internal organ traits were scattered on the different chicken chromosomes 1-5, 8, 11, 14, 16, 18, 19 and 27. Amongst the annotated genes, fibronectin type III domain containing 3A (FNDC3A), LOC101748122, membrane palmitoylated protein 6 (MPP6), LOC107049584 and KAT8 regulatory NSL complex subunit 1 (KANSL1) were the most promising candidates for internal organ traits. The findings will provide instrumental information for understanding the genetic basis of internal organ development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jbg.12674DOI Listing
July 2022

Modulation format identification using the Calinski-Harabasz index.

Appl Opt 2022 Jan;61(3):851-857

Modulation format identification (MFI) is a key technology in optical performance monitoring for the next-generation optical network, such as the intelligent cognitive optical network. An MFI scheme based on the Calinski-Harabasz index for a polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) optical fiber communication system is proposed. The numerical simulations were carried out on a 28 Gbaud PDM communication system. The results show that the required minimum optical signal-to-noise ratio values of each modulation format to achieve 100% identification accuracy are all equal to or lower than their corresponding 7% forward error correction thresholds, and the proposed scheme is robust to residual chromatic dispersion. Meanwhile, the proposed scheme was further verified by 20 Gbaud PDM-QPSK/16QAM/32QAM long-haul fiber transmission experiments. The results show that the scheme has a good reliability when fiber non-linear impairments exist. In addition, the complexity of the scheme is significantly lower than that of other clustering-based MFI schemes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.448043DOI Listing
January 2022

Aggregated Structures of Two-Dimensional Covalent Organic Frameworks.

J Am Chem Soc 2022 Feb 14;144(7):3192-3199. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117585, Singapore.

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have found wide applications due to their crystalline structures. However, it is still challenging to quantify crystalline phases in a COF sample. This is because COFs, especially 2D ones, are usually obtained as mixtures of polycrystalline powders. Therefore, the understanding of the aggregated structures of 2D COFs is of significant importance for their efficient utilization. Here we report the study of the aggregated structures of 2D COFs using C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (C SSNMR). We find that C SSNMR can distinguish different aggregated structures in a 2D COF because COF layer stacking creates confined spaces that enable intimate interactions between atoms/groups from adjacent layers. Subsequently, the chemical environments of these atoms/groups are changed compared with those of the nonstacking structures. Such a change in the chemical environment is significant enough to be captured by C SSNMR. After analyzing four 2D COFs, we find it particularly useful for C SSNMR to quantitatively distinguish the AA stacking structure from other aggregated structures. Additionally, C SSNMR data suggest the existence of offset stacking structures in 2D COFs. These offset stacking structures are not long-range-ordered and are eluded from X-ray-based detections, and thus they have not been reported before. In addition to the dried state, the aggregated structures of solvated 2D COFs are also studied by C SSNMR, showing that 2D COFs have different aggregated structures in dried versus solvated states. These results represent the first quantitative study on the aggregated structures of 2D COFs, deepen our understanding of the structures of 2D COFs, and further their applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c12708DOI Listing
February 2022

Accelerate treatment planning process using deep learning generated fluence maps for cervical cancer radiation therapy.

Med Phys 2022 Apr 25;49(4):2631-2641. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Engineering and Applied Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui, China.

Purpose: This study aims to develop a deep learning method that skips the time-consuming inverse optimization process for automatic generation of machine-deliverable intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans.

Methods: Ninety cervical cancer clinical IMRT plans were collected to train a two-stage convolution neural network, of which 66 plans were assigned for training, 11 for validation, and 13 for test. The neural network took patients' computed tomography (CT) anatomy as the input and predicted the fluence map for each radiation beam. The predicted fluence maps were then imported into a treatment planning system and converted to multileaf collimators motion sequences. The automatic plan was evaluated against its corresponding clinical plan, and its machine deliverability was validated by patient-specific IMRT quality assurance (QA).

Results: There were no significant differences in dose parameters between automatic and clinical plans for all 13 test patients, indicating a good prediction of fluence maps and a decent quality of automatic plans. The average dice similarity coefficient of isodose volumes encompassed by 0%-100% isodose lines ranged from 0.94 to 1. In patient-specific IMRT QA, the mean gamma passing rate of automatic plans achieved 99.5% under 3%/3 mm criteria, and 97.3% under 2%/2 mm criteria, with a low dose threshold of 10%.

Conclusions: The proposed deep learning framework can produce machine-deliverable IMRT plans with quality similar to the clinical plans in the test set. It skips the inverse plan optimization process and provides an effective and efficient method to accelerate treatment planning process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15530DOI Listing
April 2022

High-Z-Sensitized Radiotherapy Synergizes with the Intervention of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway for In Situ Tumor Vaccination.

Adv Mater 2022 Apr 20;34(13):e2109726. Epub 2022 Feb 20.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Medical School and School of Life Science, and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Nano Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China.

In situ tumor vaccination is preliminarily pursued to strengthen antitumor immune response. Immunogenic tumor cell death spontaneously releases abundant antigens and adjuvants for activation of dendritic cells, providing a paragon opportunity for establishing efficient in situ vaccination. Herein, [email protected] nanosheets are constructed by integrating physcion (Phy, an inhibitor of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)) with layered gadolinium hydroxide (PLGdH) nanosheets to boost radiation-therapy (RT)-induced immunogenic cell death (ICD) for potent in situ tumor vaccination. It is first observed that sheet-like PLGdH can present superior X-ray deposition and tumor penetrability, exhibiting improved radiosensitization in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the destruction of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and nucleotide homeostasis by Phy-mediated PPP intervention can further amplify PLGdH-sensitized RT-mediated oxidative stress and DNA damage, which correspondingly results in effective ICD and enhance the immunogenicity of irradiated tumor cells. Consequently, [email protected] RT successfully primes robust CD8 -T-cell-dependent antitumor immunity to potentiate checkpoint blockade immunotherapies against primary and metastatic tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202109726DOI Listing
April 2022

Bak interacts with AKT and is involved in TNFα/CHX-induced apoptosis.

Mol Cell Biochem 2022 Mar 30;477(3):939-949. Epub 2022 Jan 30.

Edmond H. Fischer Signal Transduction Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.

Bak is important for TNFα/CHX-induced neuronal death, but the precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. At the same time, TNFα/CHX concomitantly activates the phosphorylation of the MAPK and PI3K/AKT kinases. This study for the first time clarified the association between the MAPK and AKT under the TNFα/CHX stimulation upon addition of different kinase inhibitors to show whether Bak is associated with the kinase activation. The bioinformatics software HDOCK predicted the interaction between Bak and AKT. The addition of TNFα/CHX was proposed to destroy the complex, such that the dissociated Bak would exert a proapoptosis effect AKT can influence the inhibition of cell apoptosis. There was no cell death upon inducing TNFα/CHX for 3 h. AKT was less obvious with apoptosis but in the Bak knockout cells, the anti-apoptotic effect of AKT was very obvious. This study, therefore, provides the theoretical basis for the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by TNFα/CHX, providing a new target and direction for studying drug resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-021-04348-2DOI Listing
March 2022

Enhanced Biological Imaging via Aggregation-Induced Emission Active Porous Organic Cages.

ACS Nano 2022 02 27;16(2):2355-2368. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117585, Singapore.

Porous organic cages (POCs) have many advantages, including superior microenvironments, good monodispersity, and shape homogeneity, excellent molecular solubility, high chemical stability, and intriguing host-guest chemistry. These properties enable POCs to overcome the limitations of extended porous networks such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs). However, the applications of POCs in bioimaging remain limited due to the problems associated with their rigid and hydrophobic structures, thus leading to strong aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) in aqueous biological media. To address this challenge, we report the preparation of aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active POCs capable of stimuli responsiveness for enhanced bioimaging. We rationally design a hydrophilic, structurally flexible tetraphenylethylene (TPE)-based POC that is almost entirely soluble in aqueous solutions. This POC's conformationally flexible superstructure allows the dynamic rotation of the TPE-based phenyl rings, thus endowing impressive AIE characteristics for responses to environmental changes such as temperature and viscosity. We employ these notable features in the bioimaging of living cells and obtain good performance, demonstrating that the present AIE-active POCs are suitable candidates for further biological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c08605DOI Listing
February 2022

Individual Performance in Compliance Discrimination is Constrained by Skin Mechanics but Improved under Active Control.

World Haptics Conf 2021 07 23;2021:445-450. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA.

Tactile acuity differs between individuals, likely a function of several interrelated factors. The extent of the impact of skin mechanics on individual differences is unclear. Herein, we investigate if differences in skin elasticity between individuals impact their ability to distinguish compliant spheres near limits of discriminability. After characterizing hyperelastic material properties of their skin in compression, the participants were asked to discriminate spheres varying in elasticity and curvature, which generate non-distinct cutaneous cues. Simultaneous biomechanical measurements were used to dissociate the relative contributions from skin mechanics and volitional movements in modulating individuals' tactile sensitivity. The results indicate that, in passive touch, individuals with softer skin exhibit larger gross contact areas and higher perceptual acuity. In contrast, in active touch, where exploratory movements are behaviorally controlled, individuals with harder skin evoke relatively larger gross contact areas, which improve and compensate for deficits in their acuity as observed in passive touch. Indeed, these participants exhibit active control of their fingertip movements that improves their acuity, amidst the inherent constraints of their less elastic finger pad skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/whc49131.2021.9517269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8763326PMC
July 2021
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