Publications by authors named "Yuwen Zhou"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Patterns of heavy metal resistant bacterial community succession influenced by biochar amendment during poultry manure composting.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 2;420:126562. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China; Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, Borås 50190, Sweden. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the heavy metal resistant bacteria (HMRB) community succession and bacterial activity in poultry manure (PM) composting. Five different concentration of chicken manure biochar (CMB) at 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 10% on a dry weight basis was applied with initial feedstock (poultry manure + wheat straw) and indicated with T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. In addition, high-throughput sequencing, principal coordinate analysis, and correlation analysis were used to analyze the evolution of HMRB communities during composting. The study indicated that crucial phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The bacterial diversity in the CMB amendment treatment was higher than in the control treatment, and T4 treatment has the highest among all CMB applied treatments. Moreover, results from CCA indicated that T4 and T5 treatments quickly enters the high-temperature period which is maintained for 5 days, and is significantly positively correlated with Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. These findings offer insight into potential strategies to understand the succession of HMRBs during PM reuse. Overall, the above results show the addition of 6% biochar (T4) was potentially beneficial to enrich the abundance of bacterial community to improve composting environment quality and composting efficiency. In addition, effective to immobilized the heavy metals and HMRB in the end product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126562DOI Listing
July 2021

Production and beneficial impact of biochar for environmental application: A comprehensive review.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 24;337:125451. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China; Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, Borås 50190, Sweden. Electronic address:

This review focuses on a holistic view of biochar, production from feedstock's, engineering production strategies, its applications and future prospects. This article reveals a systematic emphasis on the continuation and development of biochar and its production methods such as Physical engineering, chemical and bio-engineering techniques. In addition, biochar alternatives such as nutrient formations and surface area made it a promising cheap source of carbon-based products such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and pyrolysis, commercially available wastewater treatment, carbons, energy storage, microbial fuel cell electrodes, and super-capacitors repair have been reviewed. This paper also covers the knowledge blanks of strategies and ideas for the future in the field of engineering biochar production techniques and application as well as expand the technology used in the circular bio-economy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125451DOI Listing
June 2021

Deep sequencing of 1320 genes reveals the landscape of protein-truncating variants and their contribution to psoriasis in 19,973 Chinese individuals.

Genome Res 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Dermatology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China.

Protein-truncating variants (PTVs) have important impacts on phenotype diversity and disease. However, their population genetics characteristics in more globally diverse populations are not well defined. Here, we describe patterns of PTVs in 1320 genes sequenced in 10,539 healthy controls and 9434 patients with psoriasis, all of Han Chinese ancestry. We identify 8720 PTVs, of which 77% are novel, and estimate 88% of all PTVs are deleterious and subject to purifying selection. Furthermore, we show that individuals with psoriasis have a significantly higher burden of PTVs compared to controls ( = 0.02). Finally, we identified 18 PTVs in 14 genes with unusually high levels of population differentiation, consistent with the action of local adaptation. Our study provides insights into patterns and consequences of PTVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.267963.120DOI Listing
June 2021

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Associated Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Understanding in Characteristics, Diagnosis, and Management.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:663986. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Immunotherapy that includes programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), programmed cell death- ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors has revolutionized the therapeutic strategy in multiple malignancies. Although it has achieved significant breakthrough in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) including checkpoint inhibitor pneumonitis (CIP), are widely reported. As the particularly worrisome and potentially lethal form of irAEs, CIP should be attached more importance. Especially in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, the features of CIP may be more complicated on account of the overlapping respiratory signs compromised by primary tumor following immunotherapy. Herein, we included the previous relevant reports and comprehensively summarized the characteristics, diagnosis, and management of CIP. We also discussed the future direction of optimal steroid therapeutic schedule for patients with CIP in NSCLC based on the current evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.663986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195248PMC
May 2021

Phase I clinical trial of HC-1119: A deuterated form of enzalutamide.

Int J Cancer 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, GCP center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The purpose of our study was to investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and initial antitumor efficacy of HC-1119 in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Eligible mCRPC patients were included in our study (NCT03774056) with two parts. Part A was a dose escalation study in which patients received a dose escalation of HC-1119 (40, 80, 160 and 200 mg/day). Part B was a dose expansion study in which patients received HC-1119 at the dose of 80 and 160 mg. Safety assessment and pharmacokinetic samplings were performed for all patients at the given time points; preliminary tumor response was also assessed. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in part A and 19 patients in part B, respectively. HC-1119 was safe, well tolerated and no dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Fatigue was the most common treatment-related adverse event and no seizures were observed. At the dose levels of 40, 80 and 160 mg, the AUC and C of HC-1119 in plasma increased almost dose-proportionally at the steady state in mCRPC patients. Maximum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rates (≥50% reduction from the baseline) in dose escalation and dose expansion cohorts were 77% and 75%, respectively; the overall disease control rate (22 patients available for imaging analysis) was 72.7%, with PR in 4 patients, SD in 12 patients and PD in 6 patients; the 2-year overall survival rate in patients from Part B was 56.8%. HC-1119 was safe, well tolerated and efficacious and HC-1119 at 80 mg/day is recommended for further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33706DOI Listing
June 2021

Fungal dynamics during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge combined with food waste at high organic loading rates in immersed membrane bioreactors.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Sep 17;335:125296. Epub 2021 May 17.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, China; Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 50190 Borås, Sweden. Electronic address:

In this study, the influence of distinct hydraulic retention times (HRT) and organic loading rates (OLRs) on fungal dynamics during food waste anaerobic digestion in immersed membrane-based bio-reactors (iMBR) were investigated. The organic loading rate 4-8 g VS/L/d (R1) and 6-10 g VS/L/d (R2) were set in two iMBR. T1 (1d), T2 (15d) and T3 (34d) samples collected from each bioreactor were analyzed fungal community by using 18s rDNA. In R2, T2 had the most abundant Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota. As for R1, T3 also had the richest Cryptomycota except above four kinds of fungi. Subsequently, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Non-Metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (NMDS) indicated that fungal diversity was varied among the all three phases (T1, T2, and T3) and each treatment (R1 and R2). Finally, the results showed that different OLRs and HRT have significantly influenced the fungal community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125296DOI Listing
September 2021

Distribution of heavy metal resistant bacterial community succession in cow manure biochar amended sheep manure compost.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Sep 12;335:125282. Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, China; Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 50190 Borås, Sweden. Electronic address:

The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of cow manure biochar (CMB) on the distribution of heavy metal resistant bacterial (HMRB) community succession during sheep manure (SM) composting. The experiments were conducted with six different ratio of CMB (0%(T1), 2.5%(T2), 5%(T3),7.5%(T4),10%(T5) and 12%(T6)onadryweightbasis) and 0% is used as control. The results showed that the most dominant phylum were Proteobacteria (40.89%-5.65%) and Firmicutes (0.16%-93.18%), and 7.5% CMB mixed with sheep manure for best results. Thus, significant correlation was noticed among the analyzed physicochemical factors, gaseous emission and bacterial phylum in used 7.5-10% CMB applied for SM composting. Overall, the application of biochar increased the diversity of the bacterial community and promoted the degradation of organic matter. In addition, 7.5-10% CMB applied treatments showed greater immobilization of HMRB community succession during SM composting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125282DOI Listing
September 2021

Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach: Current Perspectives and New Developments.

Front Oncol 2021 12;11:633916. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biotherapy, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) is a rare malignant tumor, accounting for only 0.17-15% of gastric cancers. Patients are often diagnosed at an advanced disease stage, and their symptoms are similar to conventional gastric cancer (CGC) without specific clinical manifestation. Morphologically, HAC has identical morphology and immunophenotype compared to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This is considered to be an underestimation in diagnosis due to its rare incidence, and no consensus is reached regarding therapy. HAS generally presents with more aggressive behavior and worse prognosis than CGC. The present review summarizes the current literature and relevant knowledge to elaborate on the epidemic, potential mechanisms, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and prognosis to help clinicians accurately diagnose and treat this malignant tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.633916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071951PMC
April 2021

Sustainable blueberry waste recycling towards biorefinery strategy and circular bioeconomy: A review.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 16;332:125181. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China; Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, Borås 50190, Sweden. Electronic address:

Waste valorization using biological methods for value addition as well as environmental management is becoming popular approach for sustainable development. The present review addresses the availability of blueberry crop residues (BCR), applications of this feedstock in bioprocess for obtaining range of value-added products, to offer economic viability, business development and market potential, challenges and future perspectives. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first article addressing the blueberry waste valorization for a sustainable circular bioeconomy. Furthermore, it covers the information on the alternative BCR valorization methods and production of biochar for environmental management through removal or mitigation of organic and inorganic pollutants from contaminated sites. The review also discusses the ample opportunities of strategic utilization of BCR to offer solutions for environmental sustenance, covers the emerging trends to produce multi-products and techno-economic prospective for sustainable agronomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125181DOI Listing
July 2021

Gallbladder carcinosarcoma: current perspectives and new development.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 11:1-8. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Abdominal Cancer, Cancer Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

: Gallbladder carcinosarcoma (GBCS) is a rare neoplasm, and previous studies regarding to GBCS were case reports/case series, absence of large retrospective analyses, or systemic review. This review summarizes the current literature on accurate information of GBCS to assist clinicians to accurately diagnose and treat this malignancy.: The authors retrieved relevant documents of GBCS from PubMed and Medline. This review elaborates on the knowledge of GBCS covering epidemiology, potential mechanism, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.: The majority of GBCS patients are easily misdiagnosed as GBC and usually treated as GBC. However, the biological behavior and outcome of GBCS is different from that of GBC. GBCS should be considered as a separate disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2021.1919509DOI Listing
May 2021

Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor: A Potential Combination Strategy With Immunotherapy in Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:637504. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Lung Cancer Center, Lung Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The clinical application of immunotherapy is the milestone of cancer treatment. However, some patients have bad reaction. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently expressed in multiple cancer cells and is associated with poor prognosis. It is the key enzyme of prostaglandin E (PGE2) that has been proved to promote the development, proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. Recent studies further find the PGE2 in tumor microenvironment (TME) actively triggers tumor immune evasion many ways, leading to poor response of immunotherapy. COX-2 inhibitor is suggested to restrain the immunosuppression of PGE2 and may enhance or reverse the response of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). This review provides insight into the mechanism of COX-2/PGE2 signal in immunosuppressive TME and summarizes the clinical application and trials in cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.637504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952860PMC
February 2021

Conversion food waste and sawdust into compost employing black soldier fly larvae (diptera: Stratiomyidae) under the optimized condition.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 11;272:129931. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

The increasing number of food waste (FW) had led to an urgent methods to recycle, black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) was a potential quick waste manager. To assess the impact of BSFL on conversion FW and sawdust into compost via the parameters of maturity, nutrient transformation and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Meanwhile, the artificial of FW contained noodles, cabbages, rice and pork. FW and sawdust were employed by BSFL (6.5:0.5:1.2 ratio on fresh weight basis) as T1 and without BSFL called control (T2), while moisture content for FW and sawdust was 86.57% and 5.98%. Results illustrated that BSFL declined the composting time and only 9 d. Compared with initial mixture materials, T1 decreased organic matter, total kjeldahl nitrogen and VFAs from 97.41 to 85.96%, 23.01 to 17.77 g kg and 3.25 to 1.69 g kg, respectively. However, T1 increased the total phosphorous and total potassium in 3.8 folds and 5 folds. The value of pH and EC reached at 4.27 and 1100 μS cm, and the germination index attained to 70.69%. In addition, redundancy analysis was used to analysis the correlation between factors under composting employed with different additive ratio of BSFL. Therefore, BSFL played a vital role in FW and sawdust recycling, especially reduced composting time and made the final separation of larvae and substrate easily, saving labor costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129931DOI Listing
June 2021

Changes of fungal diversity in fine coal gasification slag amendment pig manure composting.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 15;325:124703. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to investigate fungal diversity and relative abundance (RA) during pig manure composting via high-throughput sequencing approach. Fine coal gasification slag (FCGS) (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) were added into composting raw materials as additive and performed 42 days. Adjust C/N and moisture to 30 and 65%. Results showed that dominant phyla were Ascomycota (99.62%) and Basidiomycota (0.38%). The main genera were Epicoccum (1.26%), Alternaria (83.35%), Aspergillus (12.08%) and Gibberella (1.69%). 10% treatment got the higher abundance and operational taxonomic units number from rank abundance curve and petals diagram. Compared with control, FCGS amendment composting could increase the sanitary time (3-7 d) and total nitrogen (0.05-12.03%). The principal component analysis was considered that FCGS treatments and control had significantly difference. The RA of fungi varied among all treatments. Therefore, 10% treatment was a potential candidate to enhance fungal diversity and composting quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124703DOI Listing
April 2021

Thyroid function abnormality induced by PD-1 inhibitors have a positive impact on survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Feb 23;91:107296. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Biotherapy, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Background: Thyroid function abnormality (TFA) is a common immune-related adverse event (irAEs), but the association between it and the efficacy of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is finitely understood.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a single center, retrospective study of advanced NSCLC patients who were treated with PD-1 inhibitors between 10 October 2016 and 1 April 2020. TFA was characterized as new onset subclinical hypothyroidism, overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism. Frequency of development of TFA-irAEs, and its relationship with overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were evaluated.

Results: In our study, 191 patients were treated with PD-1 inhibitors. Among them, forty patients (20.9%) developed TFA, of whom 10 (5.2%) presented with subclinical hypothyroidism, 15 (7.9%) with overt hypothyroidism, 6 (3.1%) with subclinical hyperthyroidism and 9 (4.7%) with overt hyperthyroidism. Survival analysis showed that the OS (16.8 months vs. 11.1 months, p < 0.001) and PFS (10.4 months vs. 5.5 months, p < 0.001) were significantly longer in patients with TFA-irAEs than in those without TFA-irAEs. In subgroup analysis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism groups, similar trends were also obtained for both OS and PFS. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, patients with TFA-irAEs had a lower mortality risk (HR 0.334, 95%CI 0.196-0.571) than those without TFA-irAEs.

Conclusions: TFA-irAEs is associated with enhanced PD-1 inhibitor efficacy in advanced NSCLC patients and it may be a biomarker for antitumor immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107296DOI Listing
February 2021

Initial whole-genome sequencing and analysis of the host genetic contribution to COVID-19 severity and susceptibility.

Cell Discov 2020 Nov 10;6(1):83. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

The Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518112, China.

The COVID-19 pandemic has accounted for millions of infections and hundreds of thousand deaths worldwide in a short-time period. The patients demonstrate a great diversity in clinical and laboratory manifestations and disease severity. Nonetheless, little is known about the host genetic contribution to the observed interindividual phenotypic variability. Here, we report the first host genetic study in the Chinese population by deeply sequencing and analyzing 332 COVID-19 patients categorized by varying levels of severity from the Shenzhen Third People's Hospital. Upon a total of 22.2 million genetic variants, we conducted both single-variant and gene-based association tests among five severity groups including asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, and critical ill patients after the correction of potential confounding factors. Pedigree analysis suggested a potential monogenic effect of loss of function variants in GOLGA3 and DPP7 for critically ill and asymptomatic disease demonstration. Genome-wide association study suggests the most significant gene locus associated with severity were located in TMEM189-UBE2V1 that involved in the IL-1 signaling pathway. The p.Val197Met missense variant that affects the stability of the TMPRSS2 protein displays a decreasing allele frequency among the severe patients compared to the mild and the general population. We identified that the HLA-A*11:01, B*51:01, and C*14:02 alleles significantly predispose the worst outcome of the patients. This initial genomic study of Chinese patients provides genetic insights into the phenotypic difference among the COVID-19 patient groups and highlighted genes and variants that may help guide targeted efforts in containing the outbreak. Limitations and advantages of the study were also reviewed to guide future international efforts on elucidating the genetic architecture of host-pathogen interaction for COVID-19 and other infectious and complex diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-00231-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653987PMC
November 2020

Safety and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with HBV/HCV infection and advanced-stage cancer: A systematic review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jan;99(5):e19013

Lung Cancer Center of West China Hospital.

Background: Cancer patients with hepatitis B or C virus (HBV/HCV) infection are commonly seen in clinical practice, however, the data of safety and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) among them are sparse, because active HBV/HCV infected patients were generally excluded by clinical trials and the correlation between previous infection and treatment-related adverse events was rarely reported. This review is the first to summarize the results on the safety and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in HBV/HCV infected cancer patients.

Method: We searched literature and conference abstracts in PubMed and Embase followed the PRISMA guideline, using the keywords hepatitis B, hepatitis C, immune checkpoint inhibitor, ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, avelumab, tremelimumab. Studies described patients with HBV/HCV infection treated with ICIs for advanced stage cancer were included.

Findings: One hundred eighty six patients were identified from 14 articles (8 case reports, 4 case series, 2 trials). Eighty nine patients had HBV infection and 98 had HCV infection (1 both had HBV and HCV). The majority of patients were treated with PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy (140 of 186, 75.3%) and anti-CTLA-4 monotherapy (36 of 186, 19.4%). No treatment-related death was reported. The incidence of grade 3 or 4 hepatic transaminase elevating (HTE) in HBV and HCV infected patients were 3.4% (3/89) and 17.3% (17/98), respectively. 2.8% patients without antivirus therapy experienced virus load increasing, and 1.9% presented virus-related hepatitis. In terms of efficacy, 22 of 118 (18.6%) patients with liver cancer, 11 of 34 (32.4%) with melanoma, 1 of 6 (16.7%) with NSCLC showed objective responses (CR and PR) to ICIs in spite of lines of therapies.

Conclusion: ICIs is considered to be safe and effective in advanced cancer patients with hepatitis B or C infection, but still has possibilities to reactive hepatitis virus due to uncertain mechanisms. We recommend that those with viral hepatitis be monitored closely and treated with antiviral therapy if indicated before or during ICIs treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004734PMC
January 2020

The Role of Long Non-coding RNAs in Immunotherapy Resistance.

Front Oncol 2019 28;9:1292. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Department of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

T-cell-based immunotherapies, particularly immune checkpoint inhibitors, are promising treatments for various cancers. However, a large subset of patients develop primary or secondary resistance upon treatment. Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, immune escape via alterations in both cancer and tumor microenvironment has been identified as critical causes of immune resistance. Moreover, some long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), named as immune-related lncRNAs, have been recognized as regulators of immune cell-specific gene expression that mediate immune processes. These immune-related lncRNAs may play a vital role in immunotherapy resistance. Herein, we summarize current immune-related lncRNAs and their underlying roles in immune resistance to provide strategies for future research and therapeutic alternatives to overcome immunotherapy resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.01292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6892777PMC
November 2019

[Prediction of the therapeutic response after target-combined chemotherapy treatment for patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer using computed tomography texture analysis].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2018 12;35(6):914-920

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041,

This study aims to investigate the value of pre-treatment computed tomography (CT) texture analysis in predicting therapeutic response of liver metastasis from colorectal cancer after combined targeting chemotherapy. A total of 82 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases who underwent chemotherapy combined with targeted therapy (cetuximab) between March 2011 and October 2017 comprised this retrospective study population. According to the RECIST1.1, the best curative effect evaluation of patients was recorded. Complete response (CR) and partial response (PR) were assigned to the response group, and the stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD) were assigned to the non-response group. The CT texture analysis was based on the Omini-Kinetics software, and the three-dimensional (3D) texture analysis was performed on the marked lesion on portal phase. The differences of texture parameters between the response group and the non-response group were compared. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were depicted on the parameters which with statistically difference, to characterize value in predicting the response to target-combined chemotherapy. The differences of Entropy, Energy, Variance, std. Deviation, Quantile95 and sumEntropy between the two groups in pre-treatment lesions were significant ( < 0.05). And lesions with higher Entropy, lower Energy, higher Variance, higher std Deviation and higher sumEntropy seemed to indicate a better therapeutic response. When sumEntropy > 0.867, good diagnostic efficiency could be obtained, with sensitivity of 60.5% and specificity of 79.5%, respectively. In conclusion, texture parameters derived from baseline CT images of colorectal cancer liver metastasis have the potential value acting as imaging biomarkers in predicting tumor response to combined target chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.201801062DOI Listing
December 2018

Tumor calcification as a prognostic factor in cetuximab plus chemotherapy-treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

Anticancer Drugs 2019 02;30(2):195-200

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center.

This study aimed to explore the correlation between survival and tumor calcification in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who received cetuximab combined with chemotherapy. The study was a single-center retrospective analysis that enrolled 111 patients who had received therapy between April 2011 and October 2016. Tumor calcification and treatment efficacy were evaluated independently by radiologists on the basis of computed tomography scans. Clinical characteristics and follow-up data were collected from electronic medical records. Correlations between tumor calcification and clinical characteristics, tumor response rate, and patient survival were analyzed. Among the 111 enrolled patients, 27 had tumor calcification [27/111 (24.3%)]. The median progression-free survival was significantly longer for patients with tumor calcification than for those without calcification (9.3 vs. 6.2 months, P=0.022). Patients with tumor calcification also had a higher objective response rate (55.6 vs. 31%, P=0.021) and better overall survival (21.9 vs. 16.5 months, P=0.084). The correlation between calcification features and prognosis showed that patients with an increasing number of calcifications after treatment had a significantly longer median overall survival (22.9 vs. 9.1 months, P=0.033). Simultaneously, new liver metastases and multiple calcifications also showed a trend toward better overall survival. There were also no significant correlations between clinical characteristics (sex, age, gene mutation, primary tumor location, pathological type, blood test result) and survival (Supplementary Table 1, Supplemental digital content 1, http://links.lww.com/ACD/A280). Tumor calcification is associated with a better treatment outcome and is a potential prognostic marker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0000000000000726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6365256PMC
February 2019

Genomic Analyses from Non-invasive Prenatal Testing Reveal Genetic Associations, Patterns of Viral Infections, and Chinese Population History.

Cell 2018 10;175(2):347-359.e14

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, Guangdong, China.

We analyze whole-genome sequencing data from 141,431 Chinese women generated for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). We use these data to characterize the population genetic structure and to investigate genetic associations with maternal and infectious traits. We show that the present day distribution of alleles is a function of both ancient migration and very recent population movements. We reveal novel phenotype-genotype associations, including several replicated associations with height and BMI, an association between maternal age and EMB, and between twin pregnancy and NRG1. Finally, we identify a unique pattern of circulating viral DNA in plasma with high prevalence of hepatitis B and other clinically relevant maternal infections. A GWAS for viral infections identifies an exceptionally strong association between integrated herpesvirus 6 and MOV10L1, which affects piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) processing and PIWI protein function. These findings demonstrate the great value and potential of accumulating NIPT data for worldwide medical and genetic analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.08.016DOI Listing
October 2018

Multivariate frequency analysis of urban rainfall characteristics using three-dimensional copulas.

Water Sci Technol 2017 Apr;2017(1):206-218

Institute of Groundwater and Earth Sciences, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China E-mail:

Urban runoff is a major cause of urban flooding and is difficult to monitor in the long term. In contrast, long term continuous rainfall data are generally available for any given region. As a result, it has become customary to use design rainfall depth as a proxy for runoff in urban hydrological analyses, with an assumption of the same frequency for runoff and rainfall. However, this approach has lack of overall coordination and cannot fully reflect the variability of rainfall characteristics. To address this issue, this study presents a three-dimensional copula-based multivariate frequency analysis of rainfall characteristics based on a long term (1961-2012) rainfall data from Guangzhou, China. Firstly, continuous rainfall data were divided into individual rainfall events using the rainfall intensity method. Then the characteristic variables of rainfall (design rainfall depth, DRD; total rainfall depth, TRD; peak rainfall depth, PRD) were sampled using the annual maximum method. Finally, a copula method was used to develop the multivariate joint probability distribution and the conditional probability distribution of rainfall characteristics. The results showed that the copula-based method is easy to implement and can better reflect urban rainstorm characteristics. It can serve a scientific reference for urban flood control and drainage planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2018.103DOI Listing
April 2017

Direct saturation-corrected chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI of glioma: Simplified decoupling of amide proton transfer and nuclear overhauser effect contrasts.

Magn Reson Med 2017 Dec 13;78(6):2307-2314. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose: Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI has shown promise in tissue characterization in diseases like stroke and tumor. However, in vivo CEST imaging such as amide proton transfer (APT) MRI is challenging because of concomitant factors such as direct water saturation, macromolecular magnetization transfer, and nuclear overhauser effect (NOE), which lead to a complex contrast in the commonly used asymmetry analysis (MTRasym). Here, we propose a direct saturation-corrected CEST (DISC-CEST) analysis for simplified decoupling and quantification of in vivo CEST effects.

Methods: CEST MRI and relaxation measurements were carried out on a classical 2-pool creatine-gel CEST phantom and normal rat brains (N = 6) and a rat model of glioma (N = 8) at 4.7T. The proposed DISC-CEST quantification was carried out and compared with conventional MTRasym and the original three-offset method.

Results: We demonstrated that the DISC-CEST contrast in the phantom had much stronger correlation with MTRasym than the three-offset method, which showed substantial underestimation. In normal rat brains, the DISC-CEST approach revealed significantly stronger APT effect in gray matter and higher NOE effect in white matter. Furthermore, the APT and NOE maps derived from DISC-CEST showed significantly higher APT effect in the tumors than contralateral normal tissue but no apparent difference in NOE.

Conclusion: The proposed DISC-CEST method, by correction of nonlinear direct water saturation effect, serves as a promising alternative to both the commonly used MTRasym and the simplistic three-offset analyses. It provides simple yet reliable in vivo CEST quantification such as APT and NOE mapping in brain tumor, which is promising for clinical translation. Magn Reson Med 78:2307-2314, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.26959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5744877PMC
December 2017

The protection of salidroside of the heart against acute exhaustive injury and molecular mechanism in rat.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2013 18;2013:507832. Epub 2013 Dec 18.

Department of Cardiology, Geriatric Cardiovascular Disease Research and Treatment Center, No. 252 Hospital of PLA, Baoding 071000, China.

Objective: To investigate the protection of salidroside of the heart against acute exhaustive injury and its mechanism of antioxidative stress and MAPKs signal transduction.

Method: Adult male SD rats were divided into four groups randomly. Cardiomyocytes ultrastructure was observed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The contents of CK, CK-MB, LDH, MDA, and SOD were determined by ELISA method, and the phosphorylation degrees of ERK and p38 MAPK were assayed by Western blotting. Cardiac function of isolated rat heart ischemia/reperfusion was detected by Langendorff technique.

Results: Salidroside reduced the myocardium ultrastructure injury caused by exhaustive swimming, decreased the contents of CK, CK-MB, and LDH, improved the LVDP, ±LV dp/dt(max) under the basic condition, reduced the content of MDA and the phosphorylation degree of p38 MAPK, and increased the content of SOD and the phosphorylation degree of ERK in acute exhaustive rats.

Conclusion: Salidroside has the protection of the heart against acute exhaustive injury. The cardioprotection is mainly mediated by antioxidative stress and MAPKs signal transduction through reducing the content of MDA, increasing the content of SOD, and increasing p-ERK and decreasing p-p38 protein expressions in rat myocardium, which might be the mechanisms of the cardioprotective effect of salidroside.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/507832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3880758PMC
July 2014

Identifying potential RNAi targets in grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) based on transcriptome profiling of its alimentary canal after feeding on wheat plants.

BMC Genomics 2013 Aug 16;14:560. Epub 2013 Aug 16.

Background: The grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) is a major agricultural pest which causes significant yield losses of wheat in China, Europe and North America annually. Transcriptome profiling of the grain aphid alimentary canal after feeding on wheat plants could provide comprehensive gene expression information involved in feeding, ingestion and digestion. Furthermore, selection of aphid-specific RNAi target genes would be essential for utilizing a plant-mediated RNAi strategy to control aphids via a non-toxic mode of action. However, due to the tiny size of the alimentary canal and lack of genomic information on grain aphid as a whole, selection of the RNAi targets is a challenging task that as far as we are aware, has never been documented previously.

Results: In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analyses of the alimentary canals of grain aphids before and after feeding on wheat plants using Illumina RNA sequencing. The transcriptome profiling generated 30,427 unigenes with an average length of 664 bp. Furthermore, comparison of the transcriptomes of alimentary canals of pre- and post feeding grain aphids indicated that 5490 unigenes were differentially expressed, among which, diverse genes and/or pathways were identified and annotated. Based on the RPKM values of these unigenes, 16 of them that were significantly up or down-regulated upon feeding were selected for dsRNA artificial feeding assay. Of these, 5 unigenes led to higher mortality and developmental stunting in an artificial feeding assay due to the down-regulation of the target gene expression. Finally, by adding fluorescently labelled dsRNA into the artificial diet, the spread of fluorescence signal in the whole body tissues of grain aphid was observed.

Conclusions: Comparison of the transcriptome profiles of the alimentary canals of pre- and post-feeding grain aphids on wheat plants provided comprehensive gene expression information that could facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying feeding, ingestion and digestion. Furthermore, five novel and effective potential RNAi target genes were identified in grain aphid for the first time. This finding would provide a fundamental basis for aphid control in wheat through plant mediated RNAi strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-14-560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751716PMC
August 2013

Structure-biodegradability relationship of nonylphenol isomers during biological wastewater treatment process.

Chemosphere 2009 May 28;75(8):987-94. Epub 2009 Feb 28.

College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022, China.

The relationship between nonylphenol (NP) isomer structure and its biodegradability within the wastewater treatment process of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated. The GC-MS method was used for detecting the NP isomers existing in the SBR influent, activated sludge and effluent. Fifteen NP isomers were detected in the influent, with significant biodegradability variations being observed among these isomers. It was found that the NP isomers associated with retention time of 10.553, 10.646, 10.774, and 10.906 min in the GC-MS analysis showed higher biodegradability, while the isomers with retention time of 10.475, 10.800, and 10.857 min illustrated lower biodegradability. Through analyzing the mass spectrograms, the chemical structures of four selected NP isomers in the wastewater were further deduced. The higher correlation coefficients of 0.9421 and 0.9085 were observed between the NP isomer biodegradation rates and the molecular connectivity indexes with the order of two and four, respectively. Such correlation analysis indicated that a more complex side branch structure (such as a larger side carbon-chain branch or more branches in the nonyl) of NP isomer would lead to lower biodegradability, and a longer nonyl chain of the isomer would result in a higher biodegradability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.01.069DOI Listing
May 2009