Publications by authors named "Yuwei Yuan"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Stable Isotope Effects of Biogas Slurry Applied as an Organic Fertilizer to Rice, Straw, and Soil.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, Hangzhou 310021, China.

Biogas slurry (BS) is now increasingly used for organic rice production in China. However, the isotopic response and fractionation of different BS application rates to characterize organic rice cultivation have not yet been investigated. In this study, different fertilizer treatments were applied to rice paddy soil including urea, BS with five different application rates and a control with no fertilizer added. Multiproxy analyses (% C, % N, δC, δN, δH, and δO) of rice, rice straw, and soil were undertaken using elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Rice, straw, and soil showed only minor isotopic and elemental variations across all fertilizer treatments except for δN. δN values of rice and straw became more positive (+6.1 to +11.2‰ and +6.1 to +12.2‰, respectively) with increasing BS application rates and became more negative with urea fertilization (+2.8 and +3.0‰, respectively). The soil had more positive δN values after BS application but showed no significant change with different application rates. No obvious δN isotopic differences were found between the control soil and soils fertilized with urea. N fractionation was observed between rice, straw, and soil (Δ -2.0 to +4.3‰, Δ -1.9 to +5.3‰) and their isotopic values were strongly correlated to each other ( > 0.94, < 0.01). Results showed that % C, % N, δC, δH, and δO in rice displayed only minor variations for different fertilizers. However, δN values increased in response to BS application, confirming that BS leaves an enriched N isotopic marker in soil, straw, and rice, indicating its organically cultivated status. Results from this study will enhance the stable isotope δN databank for assessing organic practices using different fertilizer sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01740DOI Listing
July 2021

The Comprehensive Analyses of Genomic Variations and Assessment of TMB and PD-L1 Expression in Chinese Lung Adenosquamous Carcinoma.

Front Genet 2020 17;11:609405. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Respiratory Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

The poor prognosis and fewer treatment option is a current clinical challenge for patients with lung adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC). The previous studies reported that tumor mutational burden (TMB, numbers of mutation per Megabase) is a predictor of clinical response in trials of multiple cancer types, while fewer studies assessed the relationship between TMB level and clinical features and outcomes of lung ASC. Herein, the present study enrolled Chinese patients with lung ASC. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples and subjected to next generation sequencing (NGS), and the 457 cancer related genes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that 95 unique genes with somatic variations were identified in the enrolled patients. The top three of high frequency gene mutations were with rates of 62% (13 cases), 48% (10 cases), and 14% (3 cases), respectively. We identified TMB value was significantly correlated with pathological stages ( < 0.05) and invasion of lymph node ( < 0.05). However, TMB value was not significantly correlated to other clinicopathologic indexes, for examples, age, sex, smoking history, tumor size, as well as and mutations in lung ASC. Moreover, TMB value was associated with the overall survival ( < 0.01), but not with the relapse-free survival ( = 0.23). In conclusion, this study indicated that lung ASC with high TMB might be associated with the invasion of lymph node and short overall survival. Immunotherapy might be a promising treatment option for lung ASC patients with high TMB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.609405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925901PMC
February 2021

Authenticating bioplastics using carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes - An alternative analytical approach.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 May;35(9):e9051

Scion, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua, New Zealand.

Rationale: A combination of stable carbon (δ C) and hydrogen (δ H) isotope ratios and carbon content (% C) was evaluated as a rapid, low-cost analytical approach to authenticate bioplastics, complementing existing radiocarbon ( C) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analytical methods.

Methods: Petroleum- and bio-based precursor materials and in-market plastics were analysed and their δ C, δ H and % C values were used to establish isotope criteria to evaluate plastic claims, and the source and biocontent of the samples. C was used to confirm the findings of the isotope approach and FTIR analysis was used to vertify the plastic type of the in-market plastics.

Results: Distinctive carbon and hydrogen stable isotope ratios were found for authentic bio-based and petroleum-based precursor plastics, and it was possible to classify in-market plastics according to their source materials (petroleum, C3, C4, and mixed sources). An estimation of C4 biocontent was possible from a C4-petroleum isotope mixing model using δ C which was well correlated (R  = 0.98) to C. It was not possible to establish a C3-petroleum isotope mixing model due to δ C isotopic overlap with petroleum plastics; however, the addition of δ H and % C was useful to evaluate if petroleum-bioplastic mixes contained C3 bioplastics, and PLS-DA modelling reliably clustered each plastic type.

Conclusions: A combined dual stable isotope and carbon content approach was found to rapidly and accurately identify C3 and C4 bio-based products from their petroleum counterparts, and identify instances of petroleum and bio-based mixes frequently found in mislabelled bioplastics. Out of 37 in-market products labelled as bioplastic, 19 were found to contain varying amounts of petroleum-based plastic and did not meet their bio-based claims.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.9051DOI Listing
May 2021

Isotope chemometrics determines farming methods and geographical origin of vegetables from Yangtze River Delta Region, China.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 15;342:128379. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, Hangzhou 310021, China; Institute of Quality and Standard for Agricultural Products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China. Electronic address:

Shanghai city has encountered possible food fraud regarding the geographical mislabeling of vegetables for economic gain. A combination of δC, δN, δH and δO values and partial least squares discrimination analysis and support vector machine (SVM) methods were used for the first time to assess farming methods and determine the origin of vegetables from Shanghai city, Anhui and Zhejiang provinces. The results showed that 65.8% of Shanghai vegetables, 38.2% of Anhui vegetables and 23.6% of Zhejiang vegetables appeared to be grown using green or organic farming methods. The optimal discriminant model was obtained using SVM with a predictive accuracy of 100% for Shanghai vegetables. Zhejiang vegetables had a predictive accuracy of 91.7%, while it was difficult to distinguish Anhui vegetables from Shanghai or Zhejiang vegetables. Therefore, this study provided a useful method to identify vegetable farming methods and discriminate vegetables from Shanghai and Zhejiang.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128379DOI Listing
April 2021

Differentiating wild, lake-farmed and pond-farmed carp using stable isotope and multi-element analysis of fish scales with chemometrics.

Food Chem 2020 Oct 21;328:127115. Epub 2020 May 21.

National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt 5040, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Stable carbon (δC) and nitrogen (δN) isotope ratios and multi-element signatures of pooled fish scales were used to differentiate wild, lake-farmed and pond-farmed carp from Dongting Lake, China. Fish scales were found to be important archives for the dietary history and trophic level of wild and farmed fish, indicating their food sources. δC and δN values of pond-farmed carp scales were comparatively enriched to wild and lake-farmed carp due to their animal protein-derived feeds. Multi-element compositions of fish scales also showed significant differences between wild and farmed fish. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model correctly discriminated the three carp groups. Discrimination accuracies of wild, lake-farmed and pond-farmed carp were 100%, 95%, and 100% for the training set, and 100% for the testing set. This strategy provides a promising non-lethal alternative method to combat mislabeling of freshwater carp from different farming methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127115DOI Listing
October 2020

Stable isotopes verify geographical origin of yak meat from Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

Meat Sci 2020 Jul 14;165:108113. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Institute of Quality and Standard of Agricultural Product, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China; National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt 5040, New Zealand. Electronic address:

High-value yak meat from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was investigated using stable isotopes (δC, δH, δO, δN and δS) to identify attributes which could verify and protect its geographical origin. Supervised PLS-DA was applied to the isotope data to discriminate four geographical locations. δC, δH, and δO values showed significant differences according to origin while δN and δS values did not show any change across the different regions. Isotope values of different body tissues from the same animal showed no statistical difference for the five stable isotopes. In addition, the δH and δO values of defatted yak meat was highly correlated to farm altitude and associated drinking water. This yak meat traceability method is particularly useful to protect the Product of Geographical Indication (PGI) status of Gannan yak meat and verify the farming origin of yak meat sold in markets for food safety purposes, especially when excessive hormones, pesticides or heavy metals are found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108113DOI Listing
July 2020

Facile synthesis of a core-shell structured magnetic covalent organic framework for enrichment of organophosphorus pesticides in fruits.

Anal Chim Acta 2020 Mar 9;1101:65-73. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

College of Agriculture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, PR China. Electronic address:

A facile strategy was developed for the fabrication of a magnetic covalent organic framework (COF) via grafting of the monomers, 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalaldehyde (Dt) and 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl) benzene (Tb) onto surface-modified FeO nanoparticles. The magnetic COF, named as magnetic COF-DtTb, was readily fabricated without high temperature or harsh reaction conditions. The synthesized magnetic COF-DtTb nanoparticles were fully characterized, presenting a regular core-shell spherical structure, large specific surface area, superparamagnetism, and good thermal stability. Their potential as an enrichment adsorbent was investigated to establish an efficient magnetic solid-phase extraction method for the determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits. Systematic method validation revealed good linearity in the concentration range of 1-200 μg L (correlation coefficient >0.9957). The method limits of detection were in the range of 0.002-0.063 μg kg, the method limit of quantification was 1.00 μg kg and recoveries ranged from 72.8% to 111% with RSDs lower than 12.3%. The results indicated that magnetic COF-DtTb possesses superior trace enrichment properties for organophosphorus pesticides in fruits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2019.12.012DOI Listing
March 2020

Long-Term Agricultural Effects on the Authentication Accuracy of Organic, Green, and Conventional Rice Using Isotopic and Elemental Chemometric Analyses.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Feb 24;68(5):1213-1225. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

China National Rice Research Institute , Hangzhou 310006 , China.

Organically farmed rice is believed to be healthier, safer, and eco-friendlier than its conventionally farmed counterparts and sells for a premium price in global markets. Deliberate mislabeling of organic rice has become a critical consumer concern in China and elsewhere, and there is an increased risk of buying fraudulent organic rice in the market place. In this study, stable isotopic and multielemental analysis combined with chemometrics was used to differentiate organically farmed rice from green and conventional rice in a 4-year experimental field trial from 2014 to 2017. A total of 108 rice samples and their associated soils were collected during the study from three farming (fertilization) systems to investigate whether there are long-term changes in the rice farming classification accuracy from climate effects. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios (i.e., δC and δN) and 27 elemental contents (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Fe, and Zn) of rice and soil samples were determined and then evaluated using statistical analysis [i.e., one-way analysis of variance, multivariable correlation analysis, and modeling of partial least-squares discriminant analysis]. Although δN values can be an effective indicator for organic rice authentication during one crop rotation, both δC and δN values of rice were easily affected by rice cultivar and interannual soil fertilization and localized agroclimatic variations. These two isotopes were not able to separate organic rice from green and conventional rice accurately. Elemental contents of green and conventional rice (especially K and Ca) were found at higher levels due to the abundant application of synthetic fertilizers (e.g., KNO, KHPO, and CaHPO), unlike organically farmed rice, which primarily used animal manure and composts. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis modeling combined isotopic and elemental signatures to correctly differentiate organic rice from green and conventional counterparts, with an accuracy up to 100% over the 4-year study. Therefore, this multi-isotope and -element strategy proposes a more rigorous, alternative tool to combat fraudulent mislabeling of organic rice, increasing the trust of organically labeled rice products and supporting the integrity of the organic sector worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b06847DOI Listing
February 2020

Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms of and genes and their genetic associations with milk production traits in dairy cows.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2019 6;10:81. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

1Department of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, College of Animal Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100193 China.

Background: Previously, phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 () and dual specificity phosphatase 1 () were identified as promising candidate genes for milk production traits due to their being differentially expressed between the dry period and the peak of lactation in livers of dairy cows. Hence, in this study, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of and genes were identified and their genetic associations with milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, protein yield, and protein percentage, were investigated using 1067 Chinese Holstein cows from 40 sire families.

Results: By re-sequencing the entire coding region and 2000 bp of the 5' and 3' flanking regions of the two genes, one SNP in the 5' untranslated region (UTR), three in the 3' UTR, and two in the 3' flanking region of were identified, and one in the 5' flanking region, one in the 3' UTR, and two in the 3' flanking region of were found. Subsequent single-locus association analyses showed that five SNPs in , rs42590258, rs210389799, rs208819656, rs41255622, rs133655926, and rs211408208, and four SNPs in , rs207593520, rs208460068, rs209154772, and rs210000760, were significantly associated with milk, fat and protein yields in the first or second lactation ( values ≤ 0.0001 and 0.0461). In addition, by the Haploview 4.2 software, the six and four SNPs in and respectively formed one haplotype block, and the haplotype-based association analyses showed significant associations between their haplotype combinations and the milk traits in both two lactations ( values ≤ 0.0001 and 0.0364). One SNP, rs207593520(T/G), was predicted to alter the transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in the 5' flanking region of . Further, the dual-luciferase assay showed that the transcription activity of allele T in rs207593520 was significantly higher than that of allele G, suggesting the activation of transcriptional activity of gene by allele T of rs207593520. Thus, the rs207593520 SNP was highlighted as a potential causal mutation that should be further verified.

Conclusions: We demonstrated novel and significant genetic effects of the and genes on milk production traits in dairy cows, and our findings provide information for use in dairy cattle breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-019-0392-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6833155PMC
November 2019

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of and their Genetic Associations with Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cows.

Genes (Basel) 2019 06 13;10(6). Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Department of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, College of Animal Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

We previously used the RNA sequencing technique to detect the hepatic transcriptome of Chinese Holstein cows among the dry period, early lactation, and peak of lactation, and implied that the nucleobindin 2 () gene might be associated with milk production traits due to its expression being significantly increased in early lactation or peak of lactation as compared to dry period ( value < 0.05). Hence, in this study, we detected the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of and analyzed their genetic associations with milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, protein yield, and protein percentage. We re-sequenced the entire coding and 2000 bp of 5' and 3' flanking regions of by pooled sequencing, and identified ten SNPs, including one in 5' flanking region, two in 3' untranslated region (UTR), and seven in 3' flanking region. The single-SNP association analysis results showed that the ten SNPs were significantly associated with milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, protein yield, or protein percentage in the first or second lactation ( values <= 1 × 10 and 0.05). In addition, we estimated the linkage disequilibrium (LD) of the ten SNPs by Haploview 4.2, and found that the SNPs were highly linked in one haplotype block (D' = 0.98-1.00), and the block was also significantly associated with at least one milk traits in the two lactations ( values: 0.0002-0.047). Further, we predicted the changes of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) that are caused by the SNPs in the 5' flanking region of , and considered that g.35735477C>T might affect the expression of by changing the TFBSs for ETS transcription factor 3 (ELF3), caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), mammalian C-type LTR TATA box (VTATA), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG) (matrix similarity threshold, MST > 0.85). However, the further study should be performed to verify the regulatory mechanisms of and its polymorphisms on milk traits. Our findings first revealed the genetic effects of on the milk traits in dairy cows, and suggested that the significant SNPs could be used in genomic selection to improve the accuracy of selection for dairy cattle breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes10060449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627143PMC
June 2019

Genetic Effects of Polymorphisms on Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle.

Genes (Basel) 2019 04 2;10(4). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, College of Animal Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Our initial RNA sequencing work identified that lipin 1 () was differentially expressed during dry period, early lactation, and peak of lactation in dairy cows, and it was enriched into the fat metabolic Gene Ontology (GO) terms and pathways, thus we considered as the candidate gene for milk production traits. In this study, we detected the polymorphisms of and verified their genetic effects on milk yield and composition in a Chinese Holstein cow population. We found seven SNPs by re-sequencing the entire coding region and partial flanking region of , including one in 5' flanking region, four in exons, and two in 3' flanking region. Of these, four SNPs, c.637T > C, c.708A > G, c.1521C > T, and c.1555A > C, in the exons were predicted to result in the amino acid replacements. With the Haploview 4.2, we found that seven SNPs in formed two haplotype blocks (D' = 0.98-1.00). Single-SNP association analyses showed that SNPs were significantly associated with milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, or protein yield in the first or second lactation ( = < 0.0001-0.0457), and only g.86049389C > T was strongly associated with protein percentage in both lactations ( = 0.0144 and 0.0237). The haplotype-based association analyses showed that the two haplotype blocks were significantly associated with milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, or protein percentage ( = < 0.0001-0.0383). By quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we found that had relatively high expression in mammary gland and liver tissues. Furthermore, we predicted three SNPs, c.637T > C, c.708A > G, and c.1521C > T, using SOPMA software, changing the LPIN1 protein structure that might be potential functional mutations. In summary, we demonstrated the significant genetic effects of on milk production traits, and the identified SNPs could serve as genetic markers for dairy breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes10040265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6523124PMC
April 2019

Geographical traceability of Chinese green tea using stable isotope and multi-element chemometrics.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2019 Apr;33(8):778-788

Institute of Quality and Standards for Agricultural Products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, 310021, China.

Rationale: Deliberate and fraudulent origin mislabeling of Chinese green tea motivated by large price differences often brings significant food safety risks and damages consumer trust. Currently, there is no reliable method to verify the origin of green tea produced in China. Stable isotope and multi-element analyses combined with statistical models are widely acknowledged as useful traceability techniques for many agro-products, and could be developed to confirm the geographical origin of Chinese green tea and, more importantly, combat illegal green tea mislabeling and fraud.

Methods: An analytical strategy combining elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) and inductively plasma coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with chemometrics tools was used to confirm the origin of green tea grown in the main tea production provinces around China. Stable C, N, H, O isotope ratios and twenty elements were measured to build mathematical discriminant models using unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Two main problems: (i) tracing the origin of Chinese green tea from different tea growing provinces (Zhejiang, Shandong, and other provinces); (ii) authentication of high-value Westlake Longjing tea from the Westlake region and surrounding areas in Zhejiang province, were investigated and assessed.

Results: The results demonstrated that PCA and follow-up LDA based on stable isotope and multi-element signatures can verify the geographical origin of Chinese green tea from different provinces, and even localized zones in the same province could be distinguishable, with discrimination accuracies higher than 92.3% and 87.8%, respectively.

Conclusions: Geochemical fingerprinting techniques coupled with chemometric tools offer an accurate and effective verification method for the geographical origin of Chinese green tea, providing a promising tool to combat fraudulent mislabeling of high-value green tea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8405DOI Listing
April 2019

Influence of leaf age, species and soil depth on the authenticity and geographical origin assignment of green tea.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2019 Apr;33(7):625-634

National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt, 5040, New Zealand.

Rationale: Stable isotope fractionation occurring during leaf growth provides internal characteristics for identifying the geographical origin, traceability and authentication of tea. Studying the influence of leaf age, species and the relationship with the cultivated soil may reveal previously undocumented stable isotope fractionation mechanisms, and provide a deeper understanding of the physiological isotopic effects on the tractability and authentication accuracy of green tea to combat mislabeling and fraudulent conduct.

Methods: A total of 36 pairs of young (one bud with one leaf) and mature growth (older leaf) samples from two species of Longjing tea (Longjing #43 and Colonial cultivar) and corresponding cultivation soil samples from two different depth layers (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) were collected in Westlake district, Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Four stable isotope ratios (δ C, δ N, δ H, and δ O values) were measured using an elemental analyzer coupled with an isotope ratio spectrometer. Linear correlation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical analyses were performed to investigate isotopic fractionation mechanisms during plant growth, and reflect the dynamic physiological processes from soil to leaf.

Results: The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ C and δ N values) reflected the absorption, migration and fractionation of carbon dioxide and nitrogenous nutrients during photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, nitrogen fixation and leaf respiration. The water isotope ratios (δ H and δ O values) reflected the use and fractionation of water by tea plants at different growth stages.

Conclusions: Considerable differences were found for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios according to leaf age, revealing complex isotopic fractionation mechanisms and possible interference factors. Leaf maturity effects should be considered, as they will influence the precision and accuracy of models when assigning the geographical origin, traceability and authentication of tea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8387DOI Listing
April 2019

Differentiating Organically Farmed Rice from Conventional and Green Rice Harvested from an Experimental Field Trial Using Stable Isotopes and Multi-Element Chemometrics.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Mar 28;66(11):2607-2615. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

National Isotope Centre , GNS Science , 30 Gracefield Road , Lower Hutt 5040 , New Zealand.

Chemometric methods using stable isotopes and elemental fingerprinting were used to characterize organically grown rice from green and conventionally grown rice in experimental field trials in China. Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotopes as well as 26 other elements were determined. Organic rice was found to be more depleted in C than green or conventionally grown rice because of the uptake of enriched C from carbon dioxide and methane respiring bacteria and more enriched in N because of the volatilization of the nitrogen from the urea and ammonium of the animal manures used to manufacture the organic composts. Chemometrics (principal-component analysis and linear-discriminant analysis) were used to separate the three farming methods and provided a promising scientific tool to authenticate the farming methods of different rice cultivars fertilized with animal manures, green composts, and synthetic fertilizers in China or elsewhere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b05422DOI Listing
March 2018

Tracking Changes of Hexabromocyclododecanes during the Refining Process in Peanut, Corn, and Soybean Oils.

J Agric Food Chem 2017 Nov 1;65(45):9880-9886. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Quality and Standards for Agricultural Products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310021, People's Republic of China.

Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are harmful compounds, which could be taken up by plants and occur in vegetable oils. In this study, we systematically tracked the changes of HBCDs during different refining processes in peanut, corn, and soybean oils in China. The refining processes were efficient at removing the concentrations of total HBCDs (∑HBCDs), although the levels did increase for peanut and corn oils during the neutralization and bleaching steps. Quite significant reductions in the ∑HBCD concentrations were observed for soybean oils (71-100%) through refining. α-HBCD and ∑HBCD levels were significantly and positively correlated with the peroxidation value (PV), suggesting that PV might be an indicator reflecting the changes of α-HBCD and ∑HBCDs during the oil-refining processes. HBCD intakes from vegetable oils represented a low concern for public health. The results might be helpful for quality and process control with a view to minimize the levels of HBCDs in vegetable oils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03606DOI Listing
November 2017

Health risk assessment of Chinese consumers to Cadmium via dietary intake.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017 Dec 16;44:137-145. Epub 2017 Jul 16.

Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China; Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-products (Hangzhou), Ministry of Agriculture, Hangzhou, China.

This paper investigated the concentration of Cd in foods via surveys and a literature review. The concentration of Cd in different food groups was in the decreasing order of meat > aquatic products > cereal > vegetable > bean > egg > dairy > fruit. More precisely, on average the weekly Cd intake for men, women, 2-3-year-old children and 4-17-year-old children were 0.0039, 0.0041, 0.0069 and 0.0064mgkg bw week, respectively. Among all food groups, cereal was the most significant contributor to the dietary intake of Cd, followed by vegetable, aquatic products and meat. For Chinese consumers, the results of risk assessment for all groups by the deterministic method and the probabilistic method showed the mean weekly Cd intake via dietary exposure was lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) proposed by WHO. However, the 95th and 97.5th percentile THQ values all exceeded 1, and the probability of dietary Cd exposure greater than the weekly intake tolerance (THQ >1) were 15.9%, 17.1%, 42.3% and 28.4% for men, women, 2-3-year-old children and 4-17-year-old children, indicating a potential risk from Cd exposure via dietary intake, especially for children. It appeared that dietary Cd exposure should deserve our attention, and positive measures must be taken to reduce the concentration of Cd in food at once.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2017.07.003DOI Listing
December 2017

Using RNA sequencing to identify putative competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) potentially regulating fat metabolism in bovine liver.

Sci Rep 2017 07 25;7(1):6396. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

Department of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, College of Animal Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding of Ministry of Agriculture, National Engineering Laboratory of Animal Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

RNA sequencing has been extensively used to study specific gene expression patterns to discover potential key genes related to complex traits of interest in animals. Of note, a new regulatory mechanism builds a large-scale regulatory network among transcriptome, where lncRNAs act as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) to sponge miRNAs to regulate the expression of miRNA target genes post-transcriptionally. In this study, we sequenced the cDNA and sRNA libraries of nine liver samples from three Holstein cows during dry period, early lactation, and peak of lactation with HiSeq platform. As a result, we identified 665 genes, 57 miRNAs and 33 lncRNAs that displayed differential expression patterns across periods. Subsequently, a total of 41ceRNA pairs (lncRNA-mRNA) sharing 11 miRNAs were constructed including 30 differentially expressed genes. Importantly, 12 among them were presented in our large metabolic networks, and predicted to influence the lipid metabolism through insulin, PI3K-Akt, MAPK, AMPK, mTOR, and PPAR signaling pathways, thus, these genes were considered as the most promising candidates for milk fat formation. To our knowledge, this is first investigation to profile the ceRNA regulatory networks of liver transcriptome that could affect milk fat synthesis in bovine, providing a new view of the regulatory mechanism of RNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-06634-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5527063PMC
July 2017

Exploiting pH-Regulated Dimer-Tetramer Transformation of Concanavalin A to Develop Colorimetric Biosensing of Bacteria.

Sci Rep 2017 05 3;7(1):1452. Epub 2017 May 3.

State Key Lab Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Plant Pest Control; Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab for Pesticide Residue Detection; Key Laboratory of Detection for Pesticide Residues and Control of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, 310021, P.R. China.

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) aggregation-based colorimetric biosensing remains a challenge for bacteria due to their large size. Here we propose a novel colorimetric biosensor for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) in milk samples based on pH-regulated transformation of dimer/tetramer of Concanavalin A (Con A) and the Con A-glycosyl recognition. Briefly, antibody-modified magnetic nanoparticles was used to capture and concentrate E. coli O157:H7 and then to label with Con A; pH adjusted to 5 was then applied to dissociate Con A tetramer to release dimer, which was collected and re-formed tetramer at pH of 7 to cause the aggregation of dextran-modified AuNPs. The interesting pH-dependent conformation-transformation behavior of Con A innovated the design of the release from the bacteria surface and then the reconstruction of Con A. Therefore, we realized the sensitive colorimetric biosensing of bacteria, which are much larger than AuNPs that is generally not suitable for this kind of method. The proposed biosensor exhibited a limit of detection down to 41 CFU/mL, short assay time (~95 min) and satisfactory specificity. The biosensor also worked well for the detection in milk sample, and may provide a universal concept for the design of colorimetric biosensors for bacteria and virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01371-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5431225PMC
May 2017

Improved Discrimination for Brassica Vegetables Treated with Agricultural Fertilizers Using a Combined Chemometric Approach.

J Agric Food Chem 2016 Jul 11;64(28):5633-43. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

National Isotope Centre, GNS Science , 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt 5040, New Zealand.

Multielement and stable isotope (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(2)H, δ(18)O, (207)Pb/(206)Pb, and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) analyses were combined to provide a new chemometric approach to improve the discrimination between organic and conventional Brassica vegetable production. Different combinations of organic and conventional fertilizer treatments were used to demonstrate this authentication approach using Brassica chinensis planted in experimental test pots. Stable isotope analyses (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) of B. chinensis using elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry easily distinguished organic and chemical fertilizer treatments. However, for low-level application fertilizer treatments, this dual isotope approach became indistinguishable over time. Using a chemometric approach (combined isotope and elemental approach), organic and chemical fertilizer mixes and low-level applications of synthetic and organic fertilizers were detectable in B. chinensis and their associated soils, improving the detection limit beyond the capacity of individual isotopes or elemental characterization. LDA shows strong promise as an improved method to discriminate genuine organic Brassica vegetables from produce treated with chemical fertilizers and could be used as a robust test for organic produce authentication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00453DOI Listing
July 2016

Use of liquid chromatography- quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for enantioselective separation and determination of pyrisoxazole in vegetables, strawberry and soil.

J Chromatogr A 2016 Jun 23;1449:62-70. Epub 2016 Apr 23.

Institute of Quality and Standard of Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, PR China; State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Hangzhou 310021, PR China; Agricultural Ministry Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection, Hangzhou 310021, PR China; Key Laboratory of Detection for Pesticide Residues and Control of Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310021, PR China. Electronic address:

The present work firstly described the enantio-separation and determination of pyrisoxazole enantiomers in vegetables, strawberry and soil samples by chiral liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS). Pyrisoxazole has two chiral carbon atoms and consists of four stereoisomers. Taking the specific optical rotation measurement and MS analysis data into consideration, the four enantiomers were discriminated as (-)-A, (+)-A, (+)-B and (-)-B corresponding to their elution order under the optimum chromatographic condition. Influences of the mobile phase and column temperature on the enantio-separation selectivity of pyrisoxazole were explored. The perfect baseline separation of pyrisoxazole enantiomers can be achieved within 10min using methanol- water (70:30, v/v) as mobile phase on chiral Lux Cellulose-3 column. The thermodynamic analysis demonstrated that the enantioseparation of (-)-A and (+)-A, (+)-A and (+)-B were enthalpy driven separation, while the enantioseparation of (+)-B and (-)-B was entropy driven separation. Under the optimum method, method validation including matrix effect, linearity, sensitivity and precision were performed. At the spiked concentration of 10, 50 and 100μgkg(-1), the recoveries of the pyrisoxazole enantiomers in cucumber, tomato, pakchoi, pepper and strawberry samples were 64.2-100% (RSD≤14%); While they were relatively higher in soil samples and all around 120% (RSD ≤10%). The limits of detection are in the range from 0.2 to 1.0μgkg(-1) for cucumber, tomato, pakchoi, pepper, strawberry and soil samples. The developed method was then utilized for monitoring the degradation kinetics of pyrisoxazole enantiomers in strawberry under field trials, which provided the environmental behavior data of chiral pyrisoxazole enantiomers and consequently for further health risk assessment of the chiral pesticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2016.04.051DOI Listing
June 2016

Evaluation of chlorpyrifos transferred from contaminated feed to duck commodities and dietary risks to Chinese consumers.

J Agric Food Chem 2015 Jun 22;63(21):5296-304. Epub 2015 May 22.

†State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Plant Pest Control, Agricultural Ministry Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection, Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory for Food Safety, and Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, People's Republic of China.

The present study describes chlorpyrifos residues in duck commodities through the duck food chain, transfer factors, and dietary risks to Chinese consumers. After duck feeding experiments with pellet feed that lasted for 42 days, chlorpyrifos residues found in all samples collected from the ducks on maximum estimated dose group (3.20 mg/kg level) were from <0.0005 to 0.019 mg/kg. The residue levels of the fat, intestine, and tongue were obviously higher than those of the meat and other edible tissues. The transfer factors of all duck commodities were from 0.0001 to 0.0049 among different contamination levels, which indicated that chlorpyrifos had a low persistency in duck meat and metabolism organs. The chronic exposure assessment revealed that only 0.034-0.150% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 0-0.01 mg/kg/bw/day) of chlorpyrifos was consumed via the duck commodities for different age and gender groups in China. The acute exposure assessments of different age and gender groups were only 0.019-0.082% of the acute reference dose (ARfD; 0-0.1 mg/kg/bw). The results show that the single dietary exposure risk of chlorpyrifos raised by the intake of duck commodities was quite low in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01839DOI Listing
June 2015

Variations in the natural ¹⁵N abundance of Brassica chinensis grown in uncultivated soil affected by different nitrogen fertilizers.

J Agric Food Chem 2014 Nov 17;62(47):11386-92. Epub 2014 Nov 17.

Institute of Quality and Standards for Agricultural Products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Hangzhou 310021, P.R. China.

To further investigate the method of using δ(15)N as a marker for organic vegetable discrimination, the effects of different fertilizers on the δ(15)N in different growing stages of Brassica chinensis (B. chinensis) grown in uncultivated soil were investigated with a pot experiment. B. chinensis was planted with uncultivated soil and different fertilizer treatments and then harvested three times in three seasons consecutively. For the spring experiments in the years of 2011 and 2012, the δ(15)N value of B. chinensis, which increased due to organic manure application and decreased due to chemical fertilizer application, was significantly different (p < 0.05) with manure treatment and chemical treatment. The δ(15)N value of vegetables varied among three growing stages and ranged from +8.6‰ to +11.5‰ for the control, from +8.6‰ to +12.8‰ for the compost chicken manure treatment, from +2.8‰ to +7.7‰ for the chemical fertilizer urea treatment, and from +7.7‰ to +10.9‰ for the compost-chemical fertilizer treatment. However, the δ(15)N values observed in the autumn experiment of 2011 without any fertilizer application increased ranging from +13.4‰ to +15.4‰, + 11.2‰ to +17.7‰, +10.7‰ to +17.1‰, and +10.6‰ to +19.1‰, respectively, for the same treatments mentioned above. This result was not significantly different between manure treatment and chemical treatment. The δ(15)N values of soil obtained in the spring of 2011 during three growing stages were slightly affected by fertilizers and varied in the range of +1.6‰ to +2.5‰ for CK, +4.7‰ to +6.5‰ for compost treatment, +2.1‰ to +2.4‰ for chemical treatment, and +2.7‰ to +4.6‰ for chemical-compost treatment, respectively. High δ(15)N values of B. chinensis were observed in these experiments, which would be useful to supplement a δ(15)N database for discriminating organic vegetables. Although there was a significant difference between manure treatment and chemical treatment, it was still difficult to discriminate whether a labeled organic vegetable was really grown without chemical fertilizer just with a fixed high δ(15)N value, especially for the vegetables planted simultaneously with chemical and compost fertilizer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf502627cDOI Listing
November 2014

A preliminary risk assessment of potential exposure to naturally occurring estrogens from Beijing (China) market milk products.

Food Chem Toxicol 2014 Sep 6;71:74-80. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Key Laboratory of Agro-Product Quality and Safety, Institute of Quality Standards & Testing Technology for Agro-Products, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing, China.

This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of the natural steroid hormones estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2), 17β-estradiol (βE2) and estriol (E3) in 38 commercial milk samples obtained from markets in Beijing, China. Liquid Chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed to determine estrogens levels. The concentrations of E1, αE2, βE2 and E3 in different milk products varied from 0-146.12 ng/L, 0-70.12 ng/L, 0-31.85 ng/L to 0-2.18 ng/L, respectively. We compared exposures to estrogens through milk consumption with acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and threshold for toxicological concern (TTC) to determine whether estrogen intakes from milk consumption are larger or smaller than the toxicity-based benchmarks. The combined margin of safety MOS (MOST) for total estrogens are about 72-99, 118-161, 539-1104, for 2-4, 4-7 year-old residential children, and adults, respectively. The lowest MOST for children of 2-4 years old result from comparing total of estrogens with the lowest TTC value (0.15 μg/person/day) (MOS=3.5). The MOS values suggest that the individual and total estrogens that may present in milk are not causing a health risk for the local residents, including young children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2014.05.028DOI Listing
September 2014

Comparison of greenhouse and field degradation behaviour of isoprocarb, hexaflumuron and difenoconazole in Perilla frutescens.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2012 Oct 8;89(4):868-72. Epub 2012 Aug 8.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Plant Pest Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, People's Republic of China.

Isoprocarb, hexaflumuron and difenoconazole were used in Perilla frutescens at 600, 60 and 75 g a.i./ha respectively. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for residue determination because of high selectivity and simple treatment. The results showed that the half-lives of isoprocarb, hexaflumuron and difenoconazole at greenhouse condition were 0.71, 1.63 and 1.21 days respectively, and at field condition, the values were 1.13, 1.07 and 0.92 days respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0765-xDOI Listing
October 2012

Effect of different fertilizers on nitrogen isotope composition and nitrate content of Brassica campestris.

J Agric Food Chem 2012 Feb 2;60(6):1456-60. Epub 2012 Feb 2.

Institute of Quality and Standards for Agricultural Products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China.

The effect of different fertilizers on the δ(15)N value, nitrate concentration, and nitrate reductase activity of Brassica campestris and the δ(15)N value of soil has been investigated through a pot experiment. The δ(15)N mean value of B. campestris at the seedling stage observed in the composted chicken treatment (+8.65‰) was higher than that of chemical fertilizer treatment (+5.73‰), compost-chemical fertilizer (+7.53‰), and control check treatment (+7.86‰). There were significantly different δ(15)N values (p < 0.05) between B. campestris cultivated with composted chicken manure treatment and with chemical fertilizer treatment. The similar results were also found at the middle stage and the terminal stage. The variation of δ(15)N value in soil for different treatments was smaller than that of B. campestris, which was +6.71-+8.12‰, +6.83-+8.24‰, and +6.85-8.4‰, respectively, at seedling stage, middle stage, and terminal stage. With the growth of B. campestris, the nitrate content decreased in all treatments, and the nitrate reductase activity in B. campestris increased except for the CK. Results suggested that the δ(15)N values of B. campestris and soil were more effected by the fertilizer than by the dose level, and the δ(15)N value analysis could be used as a tool to discriminate the B. campestris cultivated with composted manure or chemical fertilizer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf203105tDOI Listing
February 2012