Publications by authors named "Yutao Li"

102 Publications

Programmable Bloch polaritons in graphene.

Sci Adv 2021 May 7;7(19). Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

Efficient control of photons is enabled by hybridizing light with matter. The resulting light-matter quasi-particles can be readily programmed by manipulating either their photonic or matter constituents. Here, we hybridized infrared photons with graphene Dirac electrons to form surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and uncovered a previously unexplored means to control SPPs in structures with periodically modulated carrier density. In these periodic structures, common SPPs with continuous dispersion are transformed into Bloch polaritons with attendant discrete bands separated by bandgaps. We explored directional Bloch polaritons and steered their propagation by dialing the proper gate voltage. Fourier analysis of the near-field images corroborates that this on-demand nano-optics functionality is rooted in the polaritonic band structure. Our programmable polaritonic platform paves the way for the much-sought benefits of on-the-chip photonic circuits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe8087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104864PMC
May 2021

Influence Factors of Sexual Intercourse Frequency in Infertile Couples without Sexual Dysfunction in Southwest China: A Retrospective Study.

Urol Int 2021 May 5:1-7. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Assisted Reproduction Center, Sichuan Academy of Medical Science & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the sexual intercourse frequency (SIF) of infertile couples without sexual dysfunction and analyze its related influencing factors.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of a total number of 4,923 infertile couples without sexual dysfunction who received treatment in our assisted reproductive center from October 2016 to October 2018. Both partners of couples were inquired about their information of demographic statistics, occupations, lifestyles, education backgrounds, psychological characteristics, and testostrone levels of male patients. The multivariable linear regression analysis was applied to evaluate the influence of various variables on SIF.

Results: The median (interquartile range) SIF of infertile couples without sexual dysfunction was 7 (6.5-8) times per month. Lower academic qualification and younger age were predictive of increased SIF in both partners. The SIF of Chinese Han women and Chinese Zang women is higher than that of other ethnic groups. Men with lower testosterone (<10 nmol/L) were associated with lower SIF. The BMI, occupation, alcohol consumption, races of both partners of couples, and smoking status of males were not associated with SIF. Multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that only the age and the education level of men played an important role in SIF, and educational level of men had the greatest impact, followed by men's age.

Conclusion: In our study, we analyzed demographics data, occupational characteristics, and lifestyle behaviors of both partners, as well as men's testosterone levels; we also reported the related SIF. According to our research, men's education level was the most important factor in predicting SIF, followed by men's age. Testosterone levels of men do not appear to play a substantial role in predicting SIF in infertile couples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513320DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of music stimulus on behavior response, cortisol level, and horizontal immunity of growing pigs.

J Anim Sci 2021 May;99(5)

Key Laboratory of Swine Facilities Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, P.R. China.

An enriched environment is widely used to improve domestic animals' welfare and promote their natural behaviors. Music can reduce abnormal behavior in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents. However, little is known about the effects of music on pigs. This study aims to explore the effects of repeated music stimulation on the behavior, physiology, and immunity of growing pigs. A total of 72 hybrid piglets (Large White × Duroc × Minpig) were randomly divided into three groups, including music (Mozart K.448, 60 to 70 dB), noise (recorded mechanical noise, 80 to 85 dB), and control (natural background sound, <40 dB), and 6 h sound stimulation was given per day (1000 to 1600 hours) from 40 to 100 d of age. The behavioral activities of the pigs were observed during the music stimulation, and their serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, and serum immune indices were also measured. Compared with the control group, the music group and noise group increased activity but decreased lying of pigs (P < 0.05). A significant increase in tail-wagging, playing, and exploring behaviors of pigs was found in the music group (P < 0.05), and the noise significantly increased the aggressive behavior of the pigs (P < 0.05). Tail-wagging, playing, exploring, manipulating, and aggressive behaviors decreased over time. Short-term (8 d) music stimulus had a lower cortisol level than that of the noise and control groups (P < 0.05), whereas long-term (60 d) music stimulus increased immunoglobulin G (IgG), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels (P < 0.05) and decreased interleukin-4 (IL-4) level (P < 0.05). Long-term noise stimulus significantly reduced the level of IgG (P < 0.05) but did not affect the level of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels (P > 0.05). In conclusion, short-term music stimulus (8 d) reduced the stress response, whereas long-term music stimulus (60 d) enhanced the immune responses. In addition, the noise increased the aggressive behavior, and long-term noise reduced the immunity of the growing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092926PMC
May 2021

Interfacial Chemistry Enables Stable Cycling of All-Solid-State Li Metal Batteries at High Current Densities.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 27;143(17):6542-6550. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Materials Science and Engineering Program and Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, United States.

The application of flexible, robust, and low-cost solid polymer electrolytes in next-generation all-solid-state lithium metal batteries has been hindered by the low room-temperature ionic conductivity of these electrolytes and the small critical current density of the batteries. Both issues stem from the low mobility of Li ions in the polymer and the fast lithium dendrite growth at the Li metal/electrolyte interface. Herein, Mg(ClO) is demonstrated to be an effective additive in the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based composite electrolyte to regulate Li ion transport and manipulate the Li metal/electrolyte interfacial performance. By combining experimental and computational studies, we show that Mg ions are immobile in a PEO host due to coordination with ether oxygen and anions of lithium salts, which enhances the mobility of Li ions; more importantly, an - formed Li-conducting LiMgCl/LiF interfacial layer homogenizes the Li flux during plating and increases the critical current density up to a record 2 mA cm. Each of these factors contributes to the assembly of competitive all-solid-state Li/Li, LiFePO/Li, and LiNiMnCoO/Li cells, demonstrating the importance of surface chemistry and interfacial engineering in the design of all-solid-state Li metal batteries for high-current-density applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c00752DOI Listing
May 2021

Excessive ammonia inhalation causes liver damage and dysfunction by altering gene networks associated with oxidative stress and immune function.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 17;217:112203. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Swine Facilities Engineering, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Harbin, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ammonia (NH) is a major gaseous pollutant in livestock production and has adverse effects on production, health and welfare of animals. The liver is one of the target organs of NH, and excessive NH inhalation can induce liver damage. However, the toxicity assessment of NH on pig liver and its mechanism have not been reported yet. Recently, transcriptome analysis has become a major method to study the toxic mechanism of pollutants in environmental toxicology. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effects of excessive NH inhalation on the liver of fattening pig through chemical analysis, ELISA, transcriptome analysis and real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that the transcriptome analysis database of fattening pig liver under excessive NH exposure, and 449 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (including 181 up-regulated DEGs and 168 down-regulated DEGs) were found. Some genes associated with the 3 Gene Ontology (GO) terms (liver function, immune, antioxidant defense) were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, the activities of GPT and GOT in NH group were significantly increased by 63.5% and 37.4% (P < 0.05), respectively. Our results indicated that NH exposure could cause changes in transcriptional profiles and liver function, and induce liver damage in fattening pigs through oxidative stress and immune dysfunction. Our study results not only provide a new perspective for the toxicity assessment of NH, but also enrich the toxicological mechanism of NH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112203DOI Listing
July 2021

The Electrolysis of Anti-Perovskite Li OHCl for Prelithiation of High-Energy-Density Batteries.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 28;60(23):13013-13020. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China.

Anti-perovskite type Li OHCl was previously studied as a solid-state Li conductor. Here, we report that the Li OHCl can be electrolyzed at 3.3 V or 4.0 V, with the creation of O /HCl gases and the release of 2 equiv. Li via two different decomposition routes, depending on the acidity of electrolyte. In the electrolyte with trace acid, the Li OHCl is oxidized at a constant voltage of 3.3 V. In neutral electrolyte, the oxidization of Li OHCl starts at 4.0 V, but the produced HCl will increase the acidity of electrolyte and lead to a voltage drop to 3.3 V for the electrolysis of Li OHCl. The electrolysis of Li OHCl delivers a lithium releasing capacity as high as 810 mAh g , with an equivalent Li-deposition or Li-intercalation on anode, making it a promising candidate as a Li reservoir for prelithiation of anode. Using Li OHCl as the lithium source, silicon-carbon ([email protected]) composite anode can be effectively prelithiated. The full cells composed of LiNi Mn Co O (NMC811) cathode and prelithiated [email protected] anode exhibited increased capacities with the increment of prelithiation dosages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202102605DOI Listing
June 2021

ImmuneDEX: a strategy for the genetic improvement of immune competence in Australian Angus cattle.

J Anim Sci 2021 Mar;99(3)

CSIRO Agriculture & Food, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

In animal breeding and genetics, the ability to cope with disease, here defined as immune competence (IC), with minimal detriment to growth and fertility is a desired objective which addresses both animal production and welfare considerations. However, defining and objectively measuring IC phenotypes using testing methods which are practical to apply on-farm has been challenging. Based on previously described protocols, we measured both cell-mediated immune response (Cell-IR) and antibody-mediated immune response (Ab-IR) and combined these measures to determine an animal's IC. Using a population of 2,853 Australian Angus steers and heifers, we compared 2 alternative methods to combine both metrics into a single phenotype to be used as a tool for the genetic improvement of IC. The first method, named ZMEAN, is obtained by taking the average of the individual metrics after subjecting each to a Z-score standardization. The second, ImmuneDEX (IDEX), is a weighted average that considers the correlation between Cell-IR and Ab-IR, as well as the difference in ranking of individuals by each metric, and uses these as weights in the averaging. Both simulation and real data were used to understand the behavior of ZMEAN and IDEX. To further ascertain the relationship between IDEX and other traits of economic importance, we evaluated a range of traits related to growth, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics. We report estimates of heritability of 0.31 ± 0.06 for Cell-IR, 0.42 ± 0.06 for Ab-IR, 0.42 ± 0.06 for ZMEAN and 0.370 ± 0.06 for IDEX, as well as a unity genetic correlation (rg) between ZMEAN and IDEX. While a moderately positive rg was estimated between Cell-IR and Ab-IR (rg = 0.33 ± 0.12), strongly positive estimates were obtained between IDEX and Cell-IR (rg = 0.80 ± 0.05) and between IDEX and Ab-IR (rg = 0.85 ± 0.04). We obtained a moderately negative rg between IC traits and growth including an rg = -0.38 ± 0.14 between IDEX and weaning weight, and negligible with carcass fat measurements, including an rg = -0.03 ± 0.12 between IDEX and marbling. Given that breeding with a sole focus on production might inadvertently increase susceptibility to disease and associated antibiotic use, our analyses suggest that ImmuneDEX will provide a basis to breed animals that are both highly productive and with an enhanced ability to resist disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936916PMC
March 2021

Identification of Predictor Genes for Feed Efficiency in Beef Cattle by Applying Machine Learning Methods to Multi-Tissue Transcriptome Data.

Front Genet 2021 16;12:619857. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

CSIRO Agriculture and Food, St Lucia, QLD, Australia.

Machine learning (ML) methods have shown promising results in identifying genes when applied to large transcriptome datasets. However, no attempt has been made to compare the performance of combining different ML methods together in the prediction of high feed efficiency (HFE) and low feed efficiency (LFE) animals. In this study, using RNA sequencing data of five tissues (adrenal gland, hypothalamus, liver, skeletal muscle, and pituitary) from nine HFE and nine LFE Nellore bulls, we evaluated the prediction accuracies of five analytical methods in classifying FE animals. These included two conventional methods for differential gene expression (DGE) analysis (-test and edgeR) as benchmarks, and three ML methods: Random Forests (RFs), Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), and combination of both RF and XGBoost (RX). Utility of a subset of candidate genes selected from each method for classification of FE animals was assessed by support vector machine (SVM). Among all methods, the smallest subsets of genes (117) identified by RX outperformed those chosen by -test, edgeR, RF, or XGBoost in classification accuracy of animals. Gene co-expression network analysis confirmed the interactivity existing among these genes and their relevance within the network related to their prediction ranking based on ML. The results demonstrate a great potential for applying a combination of ML methods to large transcriptome datasets to identify biologically important genes for accurately classifying FE animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.619857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921797PMC
February 2021

Advances in Analytical Technologies for Extracellular Vesicles.

Anal Chem 2021 03 26;93(11):4739-4774. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00693DOI Listing
March 2021

Anisotropic band flattening in graphene with one-dimensional superlattices.

Nat Nanotechnol 2021 May 15;16(5):525-530. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Patterning graphene with a spatially periodic potential provides a powerful means to modify its electronic properties. In particular, in twisted bilayers, coupling to the resulting moiré superlattice yields an isolated flat band that hosts correlated many-body phases. However, both the symmetry and strength of the effective moiré potential are constrained by the constituent crystals, limiting its tunability. Here, we have exploited the technique of dielectric patterning to subject graphene to a one-dimensional electrostatic superlattice (SL). We observed the emergence of multiple Dirac cones and found evidence that with increasing SL potential the main and satellite Dirac cones are sequentially flattened in the direction parallel to the SL basis vector, behaviour resulting from the interaction between the one-dimensional SL electric potential and the massless Dirac fermions hosted by graphene. Our results demonstrate the ability to induce tunable anisotropy in high-mobility two-dimensional materials, a long-desired property for novel electronic and optical applications. Moreover, these findings offer a new approach to engineering flat energy bands where electron interactions can lead to emergent properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-021-00849-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Associations between immune competence phenotype and feedlot health and productivity in Angus cattle.

J Anim Sci 2021 Feb;99(2)

F.D. McMaster Laboratory, Agriculture and Food, CSIRO, Armidale, NSW, Australia.

Genetic strategies aimed at improving general immune competence (IC) have the potential to reduce the incidence and severity of disease in beef production systems, with resulting benefits of improved animal health and welfare and reduced reliance on antibiotics to prevent and treat disease. Implementation of such strategies first requires that methodologies be developed to phenotype animals for IC and demonstration that these phenotypes are associated with health outcomes. We have developed a methodology to identify IC phenotypes in beef steers during the yard weaning period, which is both practical to apply on-farm and does not restrict the future sale of tested animals. In the current study, a total of 838 Angus steers, previously IC phenotyped at weaning, were categorized as low (n = 98), average (n = 653), or high (n = 88) for the IC phenotype. Detailed health and productivity data were collected on all steers during feedlot finishing, and associations between IC phenotype, health outcomes, and productivity were investigated. A favorable association between IC phenotype and number of mortalities during feedlot finishing was observed with higher mortalities recorded in low IC steers (6.1%) as compared with average (1.2%, P < 0.001) or high (0%, P = 0.018) IC steers. Disease incidence was numerically highest in low IC steers (15.3 cases/100 animals) and similar in average IC steers (10.1 cases/100 animals) and high IC steers (10.2 cases/100 animals); however, differences between groups were not significant. No significant influence of IC phenotype on average daily gain was observed, suggesting that selection for improved IC is unlikely to incur a significant penalty to production. The potential economic benefits of selecting for IC in the feedlot production environment were calculated. Health-associated costs were calculated as the sum of lost production costs, lost capital investment costs, and disease treatment costs. Based on these calculations, health-associated costs were estimated at AUS$103/head in low IC steers, AUS$25/head in average IC steers, and AUS$4/head in high IC steers, respectively. These findings suggest that selection for IC has the potential to reduce mortalities during feedlot finishing and, as a consequence, improve the health and welfare of cattle in the feedlot production environment and reduce health-associated costs incurred by feedlot operators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901007PMC
February 2021

Exposure to the environmental pollutant ammonia causes changes in gut microbiota and inflammatory markers in fattening pigs.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 10;208:111564. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

College of Life Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, People's Republic of China; College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ammonia (NH) is a major pollutant in livestock houses and atmospheric environment. It has been demonstrated that NH can cause a series of damage to animals and human. However, toxicity evaluation of NH on farm animals was rarely reported, especially in the intestinal microflora. Therefore, in this study, twenty-four 125-day-old fattening pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, NH group (88.2 mg m < NH concentration < 90.4 mg m), Se group (Se content: 0.5 mg kg), and NH + Se group (88.2 mg m < NH concentration < 90.4 mg m, Se content: 0.5 mg kg), and the effects of NH and L-Selenomethionine on the microbiota composition in the jejunum and the levels of inflammatory markers in feces of fattening pigs were examined by 16S rDNA and ELISA, respectively. Our results showed that the content of Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), Myeloperoxidase (MPO), Lactoferrin (LTF) and Calprotectin in the ammonia group (A group) were significantly elevated compared to the control group, and the content of MMP-9, MPO, LTF and Calprotectin in the A + Se group were significantly reduced. A significant difference in microbiota composition in the phylum, class, family and genus levels was found in the A group and the NH + Se group. There was a negative correlation between Streptococcus and Calprotectin. Our results indicated that excessive NH inhalation could cause changes in inflammatory markers and beta diversity of intestinal microflora in fattening pigs. We found there was a positive correlation between MPO and Pseudomonas. In addition, we first proposed that L-Selenomethionine could improve the imbalance of microbial flora and the inflammatory injury caused by NH. Changes in intestinal microflora and inflammatory markers can be used as important indicators to evaluate NH toxicity, and studying changes in intestinal microflora is also an important mechanism to reveal NH toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111564DOI Listing
January 2021

Enhanced Performance of LiLaZrTaO Solid Electrolyte by the Regulation of Grain and Grain Boundary Phases.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Dec 1;12(50):56118-56125. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. China.

The application of Li-ion conducting garnet electrolytes is challenged by their large interfacial resistance with the metallic lithium anode and the relative small critical current density at which the lithium dendrites short-circuit the battery. Both of these challenges are closely related to the morphology and the structure of the garnet membranes. Here, we prepared four polycrystalline garnet LiLaZrTaO (LLZTO) pellets with different particle sizes (nano/micro) and grain boundary additive (with/without AlO) to investigate the influence of grain size, the composition of the grain boundary, and the mechanical strength of the pellet on the total Li-ion conduction of the pellet, Li/garnet interfacial transfer, and lithium dendrite growth in all-solid-state Li-metal cells. The results showed that the garnet pellets prepared with nanoparticles and LiAlO-related grain boundary phase had decreased total Li-ion conductivity because of the increased resistance of the grain boundary; however, these pellets showed higher mechanical strength and improved capability to suppress lithium dendrite growth at high current densities. By controlling the grain size and optimizing the grain boundary with AlO sintering additive, the hot-pressing sintered LLZTO solid electrolytes can reach up to 1.01 × 10 S cm in Li conductivity and 0.29 eV in activation energy. LLZTO with nanosized grain and LiAlO-modified grain boundary showed the highest critical current density, which is 0.6 mA cm at room temperature and 1.7 mA cm at 60 °C. This study offers a useful guideline for preparing a high-performance LLZTO solid electrolyte.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c18674DOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of rs13181 and rs1799793 polymorphisms and environmental factors on the prognosis of patients with lung cancer.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(10):6941-6953. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Center of Physical Examination, Navy Military Medical University Affiliated Changhai Hospital Shanghai, China.

Purpose: The 5-year survival rate of patients with lung cancer in China is < 20%, and predicting their prognosis is difficult. Here, we investigated the association between two common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the excision repair cross-complementing 2 () genes (rs13181 and rs1799793) and the prognosis of patients with lung cancer.

Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples of 839 patients with lung cancer and genotyped using the SNPscan technique. The association between patient prognosis and the genotype was analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for multiple potential confounders.

Results: The presence of rs13181 T>G significantly increased the risk of death (adjust hazard ratio (HR) = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06-1.56, P = 0.009). Patients with the rs13181 TG genotype (adjust HR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.08-1.65, P = 0.007) and rs13181 dominant mode TG+GG (adjust HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.08-1.63, P = 0.007) had significantly worse overall survival. Moreover, stratified analyses showed that patients with the TG and TG+GG rs13181 genotypes who were male, elderly (≥60 years), had a history of smoking, or without family history of malignant tumors had a significantly increased risk of death. In patients with adenocarcinoma lung cancer (ADC), the rs1799793 genotype CT (adjust HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.06-2.09, P = 0.023) and dominant model CT+TT (adjust HR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.04-2.02, P = 0.027) were associated with an increased risk of death.

Conclusion: rs13181 and rs1799793 SNPs may be significant prognostic factors for the risk of death among patients with lung cancer.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653631PMC
October 2020

A Multilayer Ceramic Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Li Batteries.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Feb 16;60(7):3781-3790. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China.

Despite of the good stability with Li-metal, Li La Zr Ta O (LLZTO) suffers from large interfacial resistance and severe Li-metal penetration. Herein, a dual layer ceramic electrolyte of Ti-doped LLZTO(Ti-LLZTO)/LLZTO was developed, with the reducible Ti-LLZTO layer contacting Li-metal and the LLZTO layer contacting cathode. The identical crystal structures of Ti-LLZTO and LLZTO enables a seamless contact and a barrierless Li transport between them. The densities of Ti-LLZTO pellets are higher than that of LLZTO. With an in situ reduction of Ti-LLZTO by Li-metal, the interfacial wettability was improved and a mixed ion-electron conducting layer was created. Both features help to reduce defects/pores on interface and homogenize the interfacial ionic/electronic flux, facilitating the reduction of interfacial resistance and suppression of dendrites. With the help of Ti-LLZTO layer, long-term stable lithium plating/stripping was reached in an areal capacity of 3.0 mAh cm .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202014265DOI Listing
February 2021

Improvements in Flow Cytometry-Based Cytotoxicity Assay.

Cytometry A 2020 Oct 17. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Department of Integrated Oncology, CIO Bonn, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, D-53105, Germany.

The flow cytometry-based assay has been increasingly used to assess the cell-mediated cytotoxicity since the 1980s due to its advantages over the conventional radioactive Cr release assay (CRA), such as higher sensitivity at the single-cell level and nonradioactivity. The basic principle of this assay is the usage of two dyes, one nontoxic dye for labeling targets or effector cells to distinguish one from another, one viability dye for discrimination of dead from live cells. Due to the problem of spontaneous release or leakage of the nontoxic dye, the concern about the cross-staining has not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) was utilized to label target cells and Hoechst 33258 was used as the viability dye. We confirmed that no cross-staining occurred between the effector and target cells after 4 h of coculture. We also found that the cytotoxicity would be overestimated if effector cells instead of target cells were labeled due to the exclusion of viable targets in effector-target conjugates. Using EDTA at the end of culture or labeling targets can solve this problem. Furthermore, the gating strategy could be improved by plotting CFSE against forward scatter (FSC) to discriminate some early apoptotic events. Due to the loss of target cells lysed by effector cells, counting beads are normally preferable in this assay. Here, we found an alternative to the use of beads in standardizing the flow cytometry-based assay. Instead of using beads, sample acquisition in a fixed time was shown to have the same effect in specific lysis evaluation as the beads application but have a greater stability than the latter. With a good quality control, the acquisition time for each sample could be shortened to 15 s, thus making this work to be done efficiently, especially in the case of larger sample sizes. Collectively, the findings in this study can improve the flow cytometric cytotoxicity assay to be carried out in a more accurate, efficient, and cost-effective way. © 2020 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.24242DOI Listing
October 2020

A low-density SNP genotyping panel for the accurate prediction of cattle breeds.

J Anim Sci 2020 Nov;98(11)

CSIRO Agriculture & Food, Chiswick, New England Highway, Armidale, NSW, Australia.

Genomic tools to better define breed composition in agriculturally important species have sparked scientific and commercial industry interest. Knowledge of breed composition can inform multiple scientifically important decisions of industry application including DNA marker-assisted selection, identification of signatures of selection, and inference of product provenance to improve supply chain integrity. Genomic tools are expensive but can be economized by deploying a relatively small number of highly informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) scattered evenly across the genome. Using resources from the 1000 Bull Genomes Project we established calibration (more stringent quality criteria; N = 1,243 cattle) and validation (less stringent; N = 864) data sets representing 17 breeds derived from both taurine and indicine bovine subspecies. Fifteen successively smaller panels (from 500,000 to 50 SNP) were built from those SNP in the calibration data that increasingly satisfied 2 criteria, high differential allele frequencies across the breeds as measured by average Euclidean distance (AED) and high uniformity (even spacing) across the physical genome. Those SNP awarded the highest AED were in or near genes previously identified as important signatures of selection in cattle such as LCORL, NCAPG, KITLG, and PLAG1. For each panel, the genomic breed composition (GBC) of each animal in the validation dataset was estimated using a linear regression model. A systematic exploration of the predictive accuracy of the various sized panels was then undertaken on the validation population using 3 benchmarking approaches: (1) % error (expressed relative to the estimated GBC made from over 1 million SNP), (2) % breed misassignment (expressed relative to each individual's breed recorded), and (3) Shannon's entropy of estimated GBC across the 17 target breeds. Our analyses suggest that a panel of just 250 SNP represents an adequate balance between accuracy and cost-only modest gains in accuracy are made as one increases panel density beyond this point.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa337DOI Listing
November 2020

Low-operating temperature quasi-solid-state potassium-ion battery based on commercial materials.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jan 6;582(Pt B):932-939. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Key Laboratory of Luminescence Analysis and Molecular Sensing (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China; Chongqing Key Lab for Advanced Materials and Clean Energies of Technologies, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China. Electronic address:

Quasi-solid-state potassium-ion batteries (QSPIBs) are regarded as one of the most promising safety-enhanced energy storage devices. Herein, a facile method for preparing a potassium-ion composite electrolyte membrane on a large scale is presented for the first time. The as-synthesized membrane displays excellent electrochemical stability, good mechanical flexibility, and high ionic conductivity (9.31 × 10 S cm at 25 °C). Furthermore, QSPIBs prepared with this membrane and commercial raw material-based electrodes show superior electrochemical performance even at low temperatures (99.7 mAh g at -20 °C for half QSPIBs and 90.7 mAh g at -15 °C for full QSPIBs), and a promising rate performance (115.6 mAh g for half QSPIBs and 90.9 mAh g for full QSPIBs at 800 mA g). The reaction mechanism and structure evolution of a 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylicacid-dianhydride (PTCDA) cathode is also systematically studied. The promising characteristics of the prepared low-cost quasi-solid-state potassium-ion batteries in this work open up new possibilities for safer and more durable batteries and a wide range of practical applications in the electronics industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.08.069DOI Listing
January 2021

Electrolytes for Lithium- and Sodium-Metal Batteries.

Chem Asian J 2020 Nov 14;15(22):3584-3598. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan, P. R. China.

High-energy-density batteries have attracted significant attention due to the huge demand in electric transportation in future. Metal-based batteries, especially lithium metal batteries (LMBs) and sodium metal batteries (SMBs), have been hot research topics nowadays. The uncontrolled growth of metal dendrites has retarded the development of LMBs and SMBs. Various electrolytes have been explored to meet the demand of high-performance metal-based batteries, such as additives-contained electrolytes, polymer electrolytes, and solid-state electrolytes. To guide the development of electrolytes in LMBs and SMBs, we organize this roadmap to give out the status of present research and future challenges in this field. We also hope that the readers can get the knowledge and ideas from this roadmap.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202000851DOI Listing
November 2020

Increase of Antitumoral Effects of Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells by Antibody-Mediated Inhibition of MICA Shedding.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Integrated Oncology, CIO Bonn, University Hospital Bonn, D-53105 Bonn, Germany.

Natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays a pivotal role in cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity against malignancies, and the expression of NKG2D ligands might allow targets to be more susceptible to the CIK cell-mediated destruction. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effects of CIK cells antitumor activity and antibody-mediated inhibition of MICA/B shedding. This monoclonal antibody (7C6) has been previously shown to be able to specifically target MICA/B a3 domain on tumor cells, resulting in the increase in cell surface MICA/B expression by inhibition of their shedding. In the current study, we show that 7C6 antibody could substantially inhibit MICA shedding and stabilize the expression of MICA/B on Hela cells and MDA-MB-231 cells. In combination with 7C6, CIK cells showed higher degranulation rate, more IFN-γ production and elevated cytotoxic capacity against tumor cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NKG2D-MICA/B ligation could lead to activation of both CD3+ CD56- T cells and CD3+CD56+ NKT subset cells of CIK culture and NKT subset was more sensitive to NKG2D signaling than the counterpart T cells. 7C6-mediated inhibition of MICA shedding could strengthen this signal and eventually enhance the antitumor activity of CIK cells. With multiple advantages of easy ex vivo expansion, minor GVHD, natural tumor trafficking and non-MHC restricted, CIK cell-based therapy may serve as a potent combination partner with MICA antibody-mediated immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408690PMC
July 2020

Gene Networks Driving Genetic Variation in Milk and Cheese-Making Traits of Spanish Assaf Sheep.

Genes (Basel) 2020 06 27;11(7). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Departamento de Producción Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de León, Campus de Vegazana s/n, 24071 León, Spain.

Most of the milk produced by sheep is used for the production of high-quality cheese. Consequently, traits related to milk coagulation properties and cheese yield are economically important to the Spanish dairy industry. The present study aims to identify candidate genes and their regulators related to 14 milk and cheese-making traits and to develop a low-density panel of markers that could be used to predict an individual's genetic potential for cheese-making efficiency. In this study, we performed a combination of the classical genome-wide association study (GWAS) with a stepwise regression method and a pleiotropy analysis to determine the best combination of the variants located within the confidence intervals of the potential candidate genes that may explain the greatest genetic variance for milk and cheese-making traits. Two gene networks related to milk and cheese-making traits were created using the genomic relationship matrices built through a stepwise multiple regression approach. Several co-associated genes in these networks are involved in biological processes previously found to be associated with milk synthesis and cheese-making efficiency. The methodology applied in this study enabled the selection of a co-association network comprised of 374 variants located in the surrounding of genes showing a potential influence on milk synthesis and cheese-making efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11070715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7397207PMC
June 2020

Overexpressed circ-RPL15 predicts poor survival and promotes the progression of gastric cancer via regulating miR-502-3p/OLFM4/STAT3 pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Jul 20;127:110219. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of General Surgery, Linyi People's Hospital, Linyi, Shandong, 276003, China. Electronic address:

Background: Increasing studies have revealed that circular RNAs (circRNAs) contribute to gastric cancer (GC) progression. The circular RNA ribosomal protein L15 (circ-RPL15) is involved in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, its expression and functions in GC remain elusive.

Methods: The expression of circ-RPL15 in human GC tissues and adjacent normal tissues, human gastric cancer cell lines (MGC-803, BGC-823, MGN-28, SGC-7901, AGS) and normal gastric mucosal epithelial cell line (GES-1) were detected by RT-PCR. The relationship between circ-RPL15 level and clinical-pathological indicators were also analyzed. Gain- of function experiments of circ-RPL15 and miR-502-3p were conducted to verify their roles in mediating GC cell proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. Also, the downstream mechanisms of circ-RPL15 were predicted by bioinformatics analysis, and the interactions between circ-RPL15 and miR-502-3p, miR-502-3p and OLFM4 were verified by dual luciferase reporter gene assay and RNA FISH.

Results: circ-RPL15 was upregulated in GC tissues and cell lines, and the overexpressed circ-RPL15 was correlated with poorer survival of GC patients. Functionally, circ-RPL15 upregulation distinctly promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of GC cells and inhibited apoptosis. Mechanistically, circ-RPL15 functioned as a competitive endogenous RNA via sponging miR-502-3p and activated OLFM4/STAT3 pathway.

Conclusion: circ-RPL15 promotes GC progression and predicts poor prognosis of GC patients, and regulates the malignant phenotypes of GC cells by mediating the miR-502-3p/OLFM4/STAT3 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110219DOI Listing
July 2020

Quantitative Genetic Assessment of Female Reproductive Traits in a Domesticated Pacific White Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) Line in China.

Sci Rep 2020 05 12;10(1):7840. Epub 2020 May 12.

Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia.

Seed production can be improved if genetic selection is applied to key reproductive traits when a substantial amount additive genetic variation is present that can be exploited in a selective breeding program. Despite the commercial importance of reproductive traits to the seed production sector currently, few quantitative genetic studies have been conducted to address these traits in farmed penaeid shrimp culture lines. Here, we investigated genetic parameters for a number of key reproductive traits that directly impact nauplii production in Pacific white shrimp (P. vannamei) hatcheries in China. Our objectives were to determine the additive genetic variance associated with reproductive traits, and to anticipate any potential impacts on reproductive performance when selecting for increased body weight by assessing genetic correlations between post-spawning body weight and specific female reproductive traits. Data were collected on 595 females from 78 full-sib families over 30 days, with a total of 1,113 spawning events recorded. Traits studied included: body weight after spawning (WAS), number of eggs per spawn (NE), number of nauplii per spawn (NN), egg hatching rate per spawn (HR), number of eggs produced relative to female weight (g) (FE), and spawn frequency over 30 days (SF). Estimated heritability was high  for WAS (h = 0.64 ± 0.10) and moderate for NE (0.26 ± 0.07), NN (0.18 ± 0.06), and SF (0.15 ± 0.06), respectively. In contrast, h for HR (0.04 ± 0.03) and FE (0.05 ± 0.04) were low. The genetic correlations between growth trait (WAS) with NE, NN and SF were 0.93 ± 0.10, 0.84 ± 0.10, and 0.57 ± 0.18, respectively. While the genetic correlation between WAS and HR was low (0.02 ± 0.33), a negative genetic correlation was found between WAS and FE (-0.50 ± 0.27). Overall, we concluded that it is possible to improve the key female reproductive traits (i.e. NE, NN, and SF) in cultured white shrimp lines via genetic selection, but not for HR or FE. The genetic relationship between the growth trait and reproductive traits predicts that selection on fast growth would increase the production in the seed sector, with little or no compromise on the eggs quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64597-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217875PMC
May 2020

Increase in Efficacy of Checkpoint Inhibition by Cytokine-Induced-Killer Cells as a Combination Immunotherapy for Renal Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 27;21(9). Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Integrated Oncology, CIO Bonn, University Hospital Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, D 53127 Bonn, Germany.

Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are heterogeneous, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted T lymphocytes that have acquired the expression of several natural killer (NK) cell surface markers following the addition of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), OKT3 and interleukin-2 (IL-2). Treatment with CIK cells demonstrates a practical approach in cancer immunotherapy with limited, if any, graft versus host disease (GvHD) toxicity. CIK cells have been proposed and tested in many clinical trials in cancer patients by autologous, allogeneic or haploidentical administration. The possibility of combining them with specific monoclonal antibodies nivolumab and ipilimumab will further expand the possibility of their clinical utilization. Initially, phenotypic analysis was performed to explore CD3, CD4, CD56, PD-1 and CTLA-4 expression on CIK cells and PD-L1/PD-L2 expression on tumor cells. We further treated CIK cells with nivolumab and ipilimumab and measured the cytotoxicity of CIK cells cocultured to renal carcinoma cell lines, A-498 and Caki-2. We observed a significant decrease in viability of renal cell lines after treating with CIK cells ( < 0.0001) in comparison to untreated renal cell lines and anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 treatment had no remarkable effect on the viability of tumor cells. Using CCK-8, Precision Count Beads™ and Cell Trace™ violet proliferation assays, we proved significant increased proliferation of CIK cells in the presence of a combination of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies compared to untreated CIK cells. The IFN-γ secretion increased significantly in the presence of A-498 and combinatorial blockade of PD-1 and CTLA-4 compared to nivolumab or ipilimumab monotreatment ( < 0.001). In conclusion, a combination of immune checkpoint inhibition with CIK cells augments cytotoxicity of CIK cells against renal cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246811PMC
April 2020

Effects of increased scrotal temperature on semen quality and seminal plasma proteins in Brahman bulls.

Mol Reprod Dev 2020 05 21;87(5):574-597. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Environmental temperature has effects on sperm quality with differences in susceptibility between cattle subspecies and breeds, but very little is known about the seminal plasma protein (SPP) changes resulting from testicular heat stress. Scrotal insulation (SI) for 48 hr was applied to Brahman (Bos indicus) bulls. Semen was collected at 3-day intervals from before, until 74 days post-SI. The changes in sperm morphology and motility following SI were comparable to previously reported and differences were detected in measures of sperm chromatin conformation as early as 8 days post-SI. New proteins spots, in the SPP two-dimensional (2-D) gels, were apparent when comparing pre-SI with 74 days post-SI, and SPP identified as associated with mechanisms of cellular repair and protection. Similar trends between 2-D gel and Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Mass Spectra (SWATH-MS) data was observed, with SWATH-MS able to quantify individual SPP that otherwise were not resolved on 2-D gel. The SPP assessment at peak sperm damage (21-24 days) showed a significant difference in 29 SPP (adjusted p < .05), and identified six proteins with change in abundance in the SI group. In conclusion both spermatozoa and SPP composition of bulls are susceptible to temperature change incurred by SI, and SPP markers for testicular heat insults may be detected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrd.23328DOI Listing
May 2020

Association analysis of loci implied in "buffering" epistasis.

J Anim Sci 2020 Mar;98(3)

INRA/INPT, UMR 1388 GenPhySE, Castanet-Tolosan, France.

The existence of buffering mechanisms is an emerging property of biological networks, and this results in the buildup of robustness through evolution. So far, there are no explicit methods to find loci implied in buffering mechanisms. However, buffering can be seen as interaction with genetic background. Here we develop this idea into a tractable model for quantitative genetics, in which the buffering effect of one locus with many other loci is condensed into a single statistical effect, multiplicative on the total additive genetic effect. This allows easier interpretation of the results and simplifies the problem of detecting epistasis from quadratic to linear in the number of loci. Using this formulation, we construct a linear model for genome-wide association studies that estimates and declares the significance of multiplicative epistatic effects at single loci. The model has the form of a variance components, norm reaction model and likelihood ratio tests are used for significance. This model is a generalization and explanation of previous ones. We test our model using bovine data: Brahman and Tropical Composite animals, phenotyped for body weight at yearling and genotyped at high density. After association analysis, we find a number of loci with buffering action in one, the other, or both breeds; these loci do not have a significant statistical additive effect. Most of these loci have been reported in previous studies, either with an additive effect or as footprints of selection. We identify buffering epistatic SNPs present in or near genes reported in the context of signatures of selection in multi-breed cattle population studies. Prominent among these genes are those associated with fertility (INHBA, TSHR, ESRRG, PRLR, and PPARG), growth (MSTN, GHR), coat characteristics (KIT, MITF, PRLR), and heat resistance (HSPA6 and HSPA1A). In these populations, we found loci that have a nonsignificant statistical additive effect but a significant epistatic effect. We argue that the discovery and study of loci associated with buffering effects allow attacking the difficult problems, among others, of the release of maintenance variance in artificial and natural selection, of quick adaptation to the environment, and of opposite signs of marker effects in different backgrounds. We conclude that our method and our results generate promising new perspectives for research in evolutionary and quantitative genetics based on the study of loci that buffer effect of other loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7067535PMC
March 2020

General Strategy for Synthesis of Ordered Pt M Intermetallics with Ultrasmall Particle Size.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 May 18;59(20):7857-7863. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510641, China.

Controllable synthesis of atomically ordered intermetallic nanoparticles (NPs) is crucial to obtain superior electrocatalytic performance for fuel cell reactions, but still remains arduous. Herein, we demonstrate a novel and general hydrogel-freeze drying strategy for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported Pt M (M=Mn, Cr, Fe, Co, etc.) intermetallic NPs (Pt M/rGO-HF) with ultrasmall particle size (about 3 nm) and dramatic monodispersity. The formation of hydrogel prevents the aggregation of graphene oxide and significantly promotes their excellent dispersion, while a freeze-drying can retain the hydrogel derived three-dimensionally (3D) porous structure and immobilize the metal precursors with defined atomic ratio on GO support during solvent sublimation, which is not afforded by traditional oven drying. The subsequent annealing process produces rGO supported ultrasmall ordered Pt M intermetallic NPs (≈3 nm) due to confinement effect of 3D porous structure. Such Pt M intermetallic NPs exhibit the smallest particle size among the reported ordered Pt-based intermetallic catalysts. A detailed study of the synthesis of ordered intermetallic Pt Mn/rGO catalyst is provided as an example of a generally applicable method. This study provides an economical and scalable route for the controlled synthesis of Pt-based intermetallic catalysts, which can pave a way for the commercialization of fuel cell technologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201916260DOI Listing
May 2020

Li metal deposition and stripping in a solid-state battery via Coble creep.

Nature 2020 02 3;578(7794):251-255. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Solid-state lithium metal batteries require accommodation of electrochemically generated mechanical stress inside the lithium: this stress can be up to 1 gigapascal for an overpotential of 135 millivolts. Maintaining the mechanical and electrochemical stability of the solid structure despite physical contact with moving corrosive lithium metal is a demanding requirement. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we investigated the deposition and stripping of metallic lithium or sodium held within a large number of parallel hollow tubules made of a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC). Here we show that these alkali metals-as single crystals-can grow out of and retract inside the tubules via mainly diffusional Coble creep along the MIEC/metal phase boundary. Unlike solid electrolytes, many MIECs are electrochemically stable in contact with lithium (that is, there is a direct tie-line to metallic lithium on the equilibrium phase diagram), so this Coble creep mechanism can effectively relieve stress, maintain electronic and ionic contacts, eliminate solid-electrolyte interphase debris, and allow the reversible deposition/stripping of lithium across a distance of 10 micrometres for 100 cycles. A centimetre-wide full cell-consisting of approximately 10 MIEC cylinders/solid electrolyte/LiFePO-shows a high capacity of about 164 milliampere hours per gram of LiFePO, and almost no degradation for over 50 cycles, starting with a 1× excess of Li. Modelling shows that the design is insensitive to MIEC material choice with channels about 100 nanometres wide and 10-100 micrometres deep. The behaviour of lithium metal within the MIEC channels suggests that the chemical and mechanical stability issues with the metal-electrolyte interface in solid-state lithium metal batteries can be overcome using this architecture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-1972-yDOI Listing
February 2020

The Pre-Registry Commercial Driver Medical Examination: Screening Sensitivity and Certification Lengths for Two Safety-Related Medical Conditions.

J Occup Environ Med 2020 03;62(3):237-245

Division of Social Science, University of Minnesota Morris (UMN Morris) (Burks, Panda, R Haider, Shi, Li, Cagle, Sun, Zaharick), Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), Bonn, DE (Burks), Region Five Roadway Safety Institute, University of Minnesota Twin Cities (Burks), Division of Science and Math, University of Minnesota Morris (UMN Morris) (Anderson, HS Haider, Ostroushko), Virginia Tech Transportation Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia (Hickman, Mabry), Precision Pulmonary Diagnostics, Houston, Texas (Berger), Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (Czeisler), Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (Czeisler, Kales), Department of Environmental & Occupational Medicine & Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (Kales) and Occupational Medicine, Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Kales).

Objective: Use independent diagnostic data to analyze the screening effectiveness of the pre-Registry commercial driver medical examination (CDME) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and its sensitivity for hypertension; analyze certification lengths where relevant.

Methods: CDME screening results for 1668 drivers were compared to polysomnogram diagnostic test results, and CDME screening results were evaluated for 1155 drivers with at least one insurance claim with a hypertension diagnostic code. Any CDME documentation of the medical condition was considered as detection by screening.

Results: CDME sensitivity was 20.7% for moderate OSA (AHI ≥ 15). While sensitivity was 77.5% for hypertension, 93.3% of drivers with Stage 3 hypertension were certified, contrary to Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration standards.

Conclusions: The pre-Registry CDME was ineffective in screening commercial drivers for OSA. Screening was better for hypertension; incorrect certifications were given to many hypertensive drivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001816DOI Listing
March 2020

Fast Li Conduction Mechanism and Interfacial Chemistry of a NASICON/Polymer Composite Electrolyte.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 Feb 23;142(5):2497-2505. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Materials Science and Engineering Program and Texas Materials Institute , The University of Texas at Austin , Austin , Texas 78712 , United States.

The unclear Li local environment and Li conduction mechanism in solid polymer electrolytes, especially in a ceramic/polymer composite electrolyte, hinder the design and development of a new composite electrolyte. Moreover, both the low room-temperature Li conductivity and large interfacial resistance with a metallic lithium anode of a polymer membrane limit its application below a relatively high temperature. Here we have identified the Li distribution and Li transport mechanism in a composite polymer electrolyte by investigating a new solid poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based NASICON-LiZr(PO) composite with Li relaxation time and Li → Li trace-exchange NMR measurements. The Li population of the two local environments in the composite electrolytes depends on the Li-salt concentration and the amount of ceramic filler. A composite electrolyte with a [EO]/[Li] ratio = 10 and 25 wt % LZP filler has a high Li conductivity of 1.2 × 10 S cm at 30 °C and a low activation energy owing to the additional Li in the mobile A2 environment. Moreover, an in situ formed solid electrolyte interphase layer from the reaction between LiZr(PO) and a metallic lithium anode stabilized the Li/composite-electrolyte interface and reduced the interfacial resistance, which provided a symmetric Li/Li cell and all-solid-state Li/LiFePO and Li/LiNiCoMnO cells a good cycling performance at 40 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b12233DOI Listing
February 2020