Publications by authors named "Yuriy Moklyak"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

New Model for the Assessment of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Devices in Sheep.

J Invest Surg 2020 Dec 28:1-10. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Experimental Surgical Services Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an effective therapy in treating high-risk patients suffering from aortic stenosis. Animal models used to evaluate safety and efficacy of TAVR devices prior to clinical use lack a stenotic aortic annulus, a critical impediment to long-term TAVR device evaluation. We sought to create a reproducible model of aortic stenosis using a modified aortic annuloplasty (MAA) procedure in sheep, followed by deployment and long-term evaluation of TAVR devices using this model.

Methods: Twelve sheep underwent the MAA procedure and were recovered. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was used to monitor changes in the aortic annulus in the postoperative period. At 60 days post-MAA, Test group animals were anesthetized for TAVR insertion and Control animals underwent a necropsy. Test animals were recovered following TAVR insertion and observed for a postoperative period of 140 days.

Results: Twelve sheep survived the annuloplasty procedure and the 60-day recovery period. Gross examination of seven Control group animals revealed the implanted annuloplasty ring segments formed hard protrusions into the aortic annulus. Five sheep in the Test group underwent successful deployment of Abbott's experimental TAVR device without evidence of migration. Examination at 140 days post-TAVR insertion showed all devices tightly anchored within the modified aortic annulus.

Conclusions: The MAA procedure creates stenotic segments in the aortic annulus with adequate rigidity for anchorage and long-term evaluation of TAVR devices. This represents the first model that successfully mimics human aortic stenosis and provides a clinically relevant TAVR deployment platform for long-term evaluation in sheep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941939.2020.1864796DOI Listing
December 2020

Anisotropic Polytetrafluoroethylene Cardiovascular Conduits Spontaneously Expand in a Growing Lamb Model.

J Invest Surg 2020 Aug 14:1-7. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Experimental Surgical Services Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Insertion of conduits from the right ventricle (RV) to the pulmonary artery (PA) is a commonly used technique for repair of congenital heart defects. The vast majority of infants and children will require reoperation and/or re-intervention to replace the conduit. Some children may require multiple reoperations, with the risk of death and morbidity increasing significantly with each subsequent operation. We evaluated the feasibility and performance of a relatively novel anisotropic conduit for cardiovascular repair in the growing lamb model.

Materials And Methods: Lambs were allocated into a control ( = 3) or test ( = 4, anisotropic) conduit group. Control conventional polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) conduits or test anisotropic expanded PTFE (ePTFE) based test conduits measuring 10-11 mm in diameter were sewn as interpositional grafts in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) and followed up to 6 months. Clinical and echocardiographic evaluations were performed monthly with hemodynamic and angiographic assessment at 3 and 6 months.

Results: Control conduits did not expand, all 3 animals developed one or more adverse events including tachypnea, ascites, inappetence, lethargy, and mortality due to severe right heart failure and significantly higher peak trans-conduit gradients (48.5 ± 5.1 p = 0.02). The test conduits spontaneously expanded up to 14.8 ± 0.8 mm in diameter, no adverse events were observed in any animals and trans-conduit gradients were significantly lower (27.0 ± 8.3, p = 0.02).

Conclusions: Anisotropic ePTFE conduits can be safely implanted in growing lambs with stable hemodynamics. This spontaneously expanding anisotropic conduit may represent a novel approach to congenital heart repairs that would avoid the need for reoperation or multiple operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941939.2020.1805056DOI Listing
August 2020

Feasibility Study of Catheter-Based Interventions for Anisotropic Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene Cardiovascular Conduits in a Growing Lamb Model.

J Invest Surg 2020 Jul 20:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Experimental Surgical Services Laboratory, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Cardiovascular repair in children often requires implant of conduits which do not have growth potential and will require reoperation. In the current study we sought to determine the feasibility of catheter-based interventions of anisotropic conduits inserted as interposition grafts in the main pulmonary artery (MPA) of growing lambs.

Methods: Lambs underwent interpositional implant of either an anisotropic expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) (Test) conduit or conventional PTFE (Control) conduit. In the postoperative period, lambs were anesthetized and underwent catheter-based interventions consisting of hemodynamic and angiographic data collection, balloon dilation and/or stenting of the conduit at 3, 6 or 9 month postoperative time point.

Results: At 3 months, control lambs showed significant increases in right ventricular pressures and trans-conduit gradients in comparison to test lambs. Test conduit diameters were significantly larger compared to controls due to spontaneous radial expansion of the anisotropic conduit. Balloon dilation of test conduits at 3 and 6 months showed a reduction in RV pressure and statistically significant improvement in the RV outflow tract gradient as well as significant increase in graft diameter, compared to both control and pre-dilation conditions. Furthermore, the test conduit diameter increased significantly compared to the pre-balloon and control conditions at each time point. Necropsy of test conduits showed no evidence of tears, perforations, or clot and smooth interiors with well-healed anastomoses.

Conclusions: Anisotropic conduits implanted as interposition grafts in the MPA show spontaneous expansion, and can safely and effectively undergo catheter-based interventions, with significant increases in graft diameter occurring after balloon dilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941939.2020.1795324DOI Listing
July 2020