Publications by authors named "Yuri N Naumov"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Incorporating calendar effects to predict influenza seasonality in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 09 11;147:e268. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

Social outings can trigger influenza transmission, especially in children and elderly. In contrast, school closures are associated with reduced influenza incidence in school-aged children. While influenza surveillance modelling studies typically account for holidays and mass gatherings, age-specific effects of school breaks, sporting events and commonly celebrated observances are not fully explored. We examined the impact of school holidays, social events and religious observances for six age groups (all ages, ⩽4, 5-24, 25-44, 45-64, ⩾65 years) on four influenza outcomes (tests, positives, influenza A and influenza B) as reported by the City of Milwaukee Health Department Laboratory, Milwaukee, Wisconsin from 2004 to 2009. We characterised holiday effects by analysing average weekly counts in negative binomial regression models controlling for weather and seasonal incidence fluctuations. We estimated age-specific annual peak timing and compared influenza outcomes before, during and after school breaks. During the 118 university holiday weeks, average weekly tests were lower than in 140 school term weeks (5.93 vs. 11.99 cases/week, P < 0.005). The dampening of tests during Winter Break was evident in all ages and in those 5-24 years (RR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.22-0.41 vs. RR = 0.14; 95% CI 0.09-0.22, respectively). A significant increase in tests was observed during Spring Break in 45-64 years old adults (RR = 2.12; 95% CI 1.14-3.96). Milwaukee Public Schools holiday breaks showed similar amplification and dampening effects. Overall, calendar effects depend on the proximity and alignment of an individual holiday to age-specific and influenza outcome-specific peak timing. Better quantification of individual holiday effects, tailored to specific age groups, should improve influenza prevention measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819001511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6805754PMC
September 2019

Age-Based Dynamics of a Stable Circulating Cd8 T Cell Repertoire Component.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:1717. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Versiti Wisconsin, Blood Research Institute, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

T-cell memory to pathogens can be envisioned as a receptor-based imprint of the pathogenic environment on the naïve repertoire of clonotypes. Recurrent exposures to a pathogen inform and reinforce memory, leading to a mature state. The complexity and temporal stability of this system in man is only beginning to be adequately described. We have been using a rank-frequency approach for quantitative analysis of CD8 T cell repertoires. Rank acts as a proxy for previous expansion, and rank-frequency, the number of clonotypes at a particular rank, as a proxy for abundance, with the relation of the two estimating the diversity of the system. Previous analyses of circulating antigen-experienced cytotoxic CD8 T-cell repertoires from adults have shown a complex two-component clonotype distribution. Here we show this is also the case for circulating CD8 T cells expressing the BV19 receptor chain from five adult subjects. When the repertoire characteristic of clonotype stability is added to the analysis, an inverse correlation between clonotype rank frequency and stability is observed. Clonotypes making up the second distributional component are stable; indicating that the circulation can be a depot of selected clonotypes. Temporal repertoire dynamics was further examined for influenza-specific T cells from children, middle-aged, and older adults. Taken together, these analyses describe a dynamic process of system development and aging, with increasing distributional complexity, leading to a stable circulating component, followed by loss of both complexity and stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6691812PMC
October 2020

Narrowing of human influenza A virus-specific T cell receptor α and β repertoires with increasing age.

J Virol 2015 Apr 21;89(8):4102-16. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA

Unlabelled: Alterations in memory CD8 T cell responses may contribute to the high morbidity and mortality caused by seasonal influenza A virus (IAV) infections in older individuals. We questioned whether memory CD8 responses to this nonpersistent virus, to which recurrent exposure with new strains is common, changed over time with increasing age. Here, we show a direct correlation between increasing age and narrowing of the HLA-A2-restricted IAV Vα and Vβ T cell repertoires specific to M1 residues 58 to 66 (M158-66), which simultaneously lead to oligoclonal expansions, including the usage of a single identical VA12-JA29 clonotype in all eight older donors. The Vα repertoire of older individuals also had longer CDR3 regions with increased usage of G/A runs, whose molecular flexibility may enhance T cell receptor (TCR) promiscuity. Collectively, these results suggest that CD8 memory T cell responses to nonpersistent viruses like IAV in humans are dynamic, and with aging there is a reduced diversity but a preferential retention of T cell repertoires with features of enhanced cross-reactivity.

Importance: With increasing age, the immune system undergoes drastic changes, and older individuals have declined resistance to infections. Vaccinations become less effective, and infection with influenza A virus in older individuals is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Here, we questioned whether T cell responses directed against the highly conserved HLA-A2-restricted M158-66 peptide of IAV evolves with increasing age. Specifically, we postulated that CD8 T cell repertoires narrow with recurrent exposure and may thus be less efficient in response to new infections with new strains of IAV. Detailed analyses of the VA and VB TCR repertoires simultaneously showed a direct correlation between increasing age and narrowing of the TCR repertoire. Features of the TCRs indicated potentially enhanced cross-reactivity in all older donors. In summary, T cell repertoire analysis in older individuals may be useful as one of the predictors of protection after vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.03020-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4442365PMC
April 2015

Selective T cell expansion during aging of CD8 memory repertoires to influenza revealed by modeling.

J Immunol 2011 Jun 22;186(11):6617-24. Epub 2011 Apr 22.

Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

The aging of T cell memory is often considered in terms of senescence, a process viewed as decay and loss of memory T cells. How senescence would affect memory is a function of the initial structure of the memory repertoire and whether the clonotypes that make up the repertoire decay at random. We examine this issue using the T cell memory generated to the conserved influenza A epitope M1(58-66), which induces a strong, focused, but polyclonal CD8 T cell response in HLA-A2 individuals. We analyzed the CD8 T cell memory repertoires in eight healthy middle-aged and eight healthy older blood donors representing an average age difference of ∼ 27 y. Although the repertoires show broadly similar clonotype distributions, the number of observable clonotypes decreases significantly. This decrease disproportionally affects low-frequency clonotypes. Rank frequency analysis shows the same two-component clonotype distribution described earlier for these repertoires. The first component includes lower frequency clonotypes for which distribution can be described by a power law. The slope of this first component is significantly steeper in the older cohort. Generating a representative repertoire for each healthy cohort allowed agent-based modeling of the aging process. Interestingly, simple senescence of middle-aged repertoires is insufficient to describe the older clonotype distribution. Rather, a selective clonotype expansion must be included to achieve the best fit. We propose that responses to periodic virus exposure may drive such expansion, ensuring that the remaining clonotypes are optimized for continued protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1100091DOI Listing
June 2011

Broad cross-reactive TCR repertoires recognizing dissimilar Epstein-Barr and influenza A virus epitopes.

J Immunol 2010 Dec 3;185(11):6753-64. Epub 2010 Nov 3.

Department of Pathology and Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

Memory T cells cross-reactive with epitopes encoded by related or even unrelated viruses may alter the immune response and pathogenesis of infection by a process known as heterologous immunity. Because a challenge virus epitope may react with only a subset of the T cell repertoire in a cross-reactive epitope-specific memory pool, the vigorous cross-reactive response may be narrowly focused, or oligoclonal. We show in this article, by examining human T cell cross-reactivity between the HLA-A2-restricted influenza A virus-encoded M1(58-66) epitope (GILGFVFTL) and the dissimilar Epstein-Barr virus-encoded BMLF1(280-288) epitope (GLCTLVAML), that, under some conditions, heterologous immunity can lead to a significant broadening, rather than a narrowing, of the TCR repertoire. We suggest that dissimilar cross-reactive epitopes might generate a broad, rather than a narrow, T cell repertoire if there is a lack of dominant high-affinity clones; this hypothesis is supported by computer simulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1000812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3738202PMC
December 2010

Disproportional effects in populations of concern for pandemic influenza: insights from seasonal epidemics in Wisconsin, 1967-2004.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2010 Jul;4(4):205-12

UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Influenza infections pose a serious burden of illness in the United States. We explored age, influenza strains, and seasonal epidemic curves in relation to influenza-associated mortality.

Methods: The state of Wisconsin death records for the years 1967-2004 were analyzed for three distinct populations: children, general population, and elderly. Yearly parameters of duration, intensity, and peak timing were obtained from Annual Harmonic Regression coefficients.

Results: Overall, elderly had the highest rate and intensity of influenza mortality. The children and infant subpopulations showed an earlier and wider range in duration of peak timing than elderly. During A/Hong Kong/1/68 pandemic years, the elderly subpopulation showed no change in mortality rates while a sharp increase was observed for the children and infant subpopulations. In epidemic years such as 1966-1969, children and infants showed a dramatic decrease in the severity of influenza outbreaks over time. The elderly had increased baseline mortality in years (1986-1987) where predominant strain was characterized as A/Singapore/6/86.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the younger populations may have benefited from the lack of a major shift in viral strains for a number of decades. Furthermore, we demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in the spread of seasonal influenza across age categories, with implications both for the modeling of influenza seasonality, risk assessment, and effective distribution and timing of vaccine and prophylactic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-2659.2010.00137.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2951388PMC
July 2010

CD8 T cell cross-reactivity networks mediate heterologous immunity in human EBV and murine vaccinia virus infections.

J Immunol 2010 Mar 17;184(6):2825-38. Epub 2010 Feb 17.

Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

In this study, we demonstrate complex networks of CD8 T cell cross-reactivities between influenza A virus and EBV in humans and between lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and vaccinia virus in mice. We also show directly that cross-reactive T cells mediate protective heterologous immunity in mice. Subsets of T cell populations reactive with one epitope cross-reacted with either of several other epitopes encoded by the same or the heterologous virus. Human T cells specific to EBV-encoded BMLF1(280-288) could be cross-reactive with two influenza A virus or two other EBV epitopes. Mouse T cells specific to the vaccinia virus-encoded a11r(198-205) could be cross-reactive with three different lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, one Pichinde virus, or one other vaccinia virus epitope. Patterns of cross-reactivity differed among individuals, reflecting the private specificities of the host's immune repertoire and divergence in the abilities of T cell populations to mediate protective immunity. Defining such cross-reactive networks between commonly encountered human pathogens may facilitate the design of vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0902168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3253758PMC
March 2010

Two compensatory pathways maintain long-term stability and diversity in CD8 T cell memory repertoires.

J Immunol 2009 Aug 27;183(4):2851-8. Epub 2009 Jul 27.

Department of Public Health and Family Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

The time-dependent changes of human memory T cell repertoires are still poorly understood. We define a T cell memory repertoire as the pool of clonotypic lineages participating in a recall response to the influenza M1(58-66) epitope. In HLA-A2 individuals, this response predominantly uses BV19 chains with Arg-Ser (RS) in the CDR3 loop. We previously showed that the repertoire is polyclonal with a large fraction of clonotype that are only observed once. In this study, we perform longitudinal analyses of memory repertoires in three middle-aged individuals at times that spanned from 7 to 10 years. In these individuals, who are well into thymic involution, a substantial number of clonotypes were stable, e.g., detected at two times. The shape of the repertoire was stable over time as reflected by a number of repertoire characteristics, including singletons, i.e., the fraction of clonotypes observed only once, and repertoire diversity. However, the RS-clonotype subset showed a significant decline in the fraction of singletons and in clonotypic diversity. Thus, repertoire structure is maintained over time by a recruitment of non-RS-clonotypes and a shift of existing RS-clonotypes into higher frequencies. The recruitment of new clonotypes into the low-frequency component of the repertoire implies a role for these clonotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0900162DOI Listing
August 2009

A clonotype nomenclature for T cell receptors.

Immunogenetics 2009 Jul 1;61(7):493-502. Epub 2009 Jul 1.

Blood Research Institute, Blood Center of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

T cell receptor (TCR) nucleotide sequences are often generated during analyses of T cell responses to pathogens or autoantigens. The most important region of the TCR is the third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) whose nucleotide sequence is unique to each T cell clone. The CDR3 interacts with the peptide and thus is important for recognizing pathogen or autoantigen epitopes. While conventions exist for identifying the various TCR chains, there is a lack of a concise nomenclature that would identify both the amino acid translation and nucleotide sequence of the CDR3. This deficiency makes the comparison of published TCR genetic and proteomic information difficult. To enhance information sharing among different databases and to facilitate computational assessment of clonotypic T cell repertoires, we propose a clonotype nomenclature. The rules for generating a clonotype identifier are simple and easy to follow, and have a built-in error-checking system. The identifier includes the V and J region, the CDR3 length as well as its human or mouse origin. The framework of this naming system could also be expanded to the B cell receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00251-009-0383-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2706371PMC
July 2009

Multiple glycines in TCR alpha-chains determine clonally diverse nature of human T cell memory to influenza A virus.

J Immunol 2008 Nov;181(10):7407-19

Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

Detailed assessment of how the structural properties of T cell receptors affect clonal repertoires of Ag-specific cells is a prerequisite for a better understanding of human antiviral immunity. Herein we examine the alpha TCR repertoires of CD8 T cells reactive against the influenza A viral epitope M1(58-66), restricted by HLA-A2.1. Using molecular cloning, we systematically studied the impact of alpha-chain usage in the formation of T cell memory and revealed that M1(58-66)-specific, clonally diverse VB19 T cells express alpha-chains encoded by multiple AV genes with different CDR3 sizes. A unique feature of these alpha TCRs was the presence of CDR3 fitting to an AGA(G(n))GG-like amino acid motif. This pattern was consistent over time and among different individuals. Further molecular assessment of human CD4(+)CD8(-) and CD4(-)CD8(+) thymocytes led to the conclusion that the poly-Gly/Ala runs in CDR3alpha were a property of immune, but not naive, repertoires and could be attributed to influenza exposure. Repertoires of T cell memory are discussed in the context of clonal diversity, where poly-Gly/Ala runs in the CDR3 of alpha- and beta-chains might provide high levels of TCR flexibility during Ag recognition while gene-encoded CDR1 and CDR2 contribute to the fine specificity of the TCR-peptide MHC interaction.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2646260PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.181.10.7407DOI Listing
November 2008

Simulation studies for a multistage dynamic process of immune memory response to influenza: experiment in silico.

Ann Zool Fennici 2008 Jan;45(5):369-384

Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA ( ).

This communication provides an illustration for the use of computer simulations in human immunology. When traditional experiments are impossible, unethical, or unfeasible, in silico modeling procedures may help to fill the gaps in our knowledge of an immune system response to a pathogen. In our study, we define terms and properties of modeled entities: "a clonotype", its distribution, and rank-frequency summaries, and describe properties associated with each of these three clonotype-related entities. We simulate a multistage dynamic process of an immune memory response to influenza. We believe that illustrated properties of fractality and self-similarity might arise due to the following process. The memory T cells operate in a complex environment of shifting pathogen concentrations, increasing and then decreasing inflammatory signals, and multiple interactions with other immune cells and their infected targets. Therefore, a fractal structure to such a population would represent an optimization in terms of percolation into immune/inflammatory space.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2922036PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.5735/086.045.0502DOI Listing
January 2008

Quantitative measurement of pathogen-specific human memory T cell repertoire diversity using a CDR3 beta-specific microarray.

BMC Genomics 2007 Sep 19;8:329. Epub 2007 Sep 19.

The Max McGee National Research Center for Juvenile Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, The Medical College of Wisconsin and The Children's Hospital Research Institute of Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

Background: Providing quantitative microarray data that is sensitive to very small differences in target sequence would be a useful tool in any number of venues where a sample can consist of a multiple related sequences present in various abundances. Examples of such applications would include measurement of pseudo species in viral infections and the measurement of species of antibodies or T cell receptors that constitute immune repertoires. Difficulties that must be overcome in such a method would be to account for cross-hybridization and for differences in hybridization efficiencies between the arrayed probes and their corresponding targets. We have used the memory T cell repertoire to an influenza-derived peptide as a test case for developing such a method.

Results: The arrayed probes were corresponded to a 17 nucleotide TCR-specific region that distinguished sequences differing by as little as a single nucleotide. Hybridization efficiency between highly related Cy5-labeled subject sequences was normalized by including an equimolar mixture of Cy3-labeled synthetic targets representing all 108 arrayed probes. The same synthetic targets were used to measure the degree of cross hybridization between probes. Reconstitution studies found the system sensitive to input ratios as low as 0.5% and accurate in measuring known input percentages (R2 = 0.81, R = 0.90, p < 0.0001). A data handling protocol was developed to incorporate the differences in hybridization efficiency. To validate the array in T cell repertoire analysis, it was used to analyze human recall responses to influenza in three human subjects and compared to traditional cloning and sequencing. When evaluating the rank order of clonotype abundance determined by each method, the approaches were not found significantly different (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, p > 0.05).

Conclusion: This novel strategy appears to be robust and can be adapted to any situation where complex mixtures of highly similar sequences need to be quantitatively resolved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-8-329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2039751PMC
September 2007

Complex T cell memory repertoires participate in recall responses at extremes of antigenic load.

J Immunol 2006 Aug;177(3):2006-14

Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

The CD8 T cell memory response to the HLA-A2-restricted influenza epitope M1(58-66) can be an instructive model of immune memory to a nonevolving epitope of a frequently encountered pathogen that undergoes clearance. This memory repertoire can be complex, composed of a large number of clonotypes represented at low copy numbers, while maintaining a focus on the use of VB17 T cell receptors with identified Ag recognition motifs. Such a repertoire structure might provide a panoply of clonotypes whose differential avidity for the epitope would allow responses under varying antigenic loads. This possibility was tested experimentally by characterizing the responding repertoire in vitro while varying influenza Ag concentration over five orders of magnitude. At higher and lower Ag concentrations there was increased cell death, yet a focused but diverse response could still be observed. Thus, one of the characteristics of complex memory repertoires is to provide effector function at extremes of Ag load, a characteristic that is not generally considered in vaccination development but may be important in measuring its efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.177.3.2006DOI Listing
August 2006

Memory of mice and men: CD8+ T-cell cross-reactivity and heterologous immunity.

Immunol Rev 2006 Jun;211:164-81

Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

The main functions of memory T cells are to provide protection upon re-exposure to a pathogen and to prevent the re-emergence of low-grade persistent pathogens. Memory T cells achieve these functions through their high frequency and elevated activation state, which lead to rapid responses upon antigenic challenge. The significance and characteristics of memory CD8+ T cells in viral infections have been studied extensively. In many of these studies of T-cell memory, experimental viral immunologists go to great lengths to assure that their animal colonies are free of endogenous pathogens in order to design reproducible experiments. These experimental results are then thought to provide the basis for our understanding of human immune responses to viruses. Although these findings can be enlightening, humans are not immunologically naïve, and they often have memory T-cell populations that can cross-react with and respond to a new infectious agent or cross-react with allo-antigens and influence the success of tissue transplantation. These cross-reactive T cells can become activated and modulate the immune response and outcome of subsequent heterologous infections, a phenomenon we have termed heterologous immunity. These large memory populations are also accommodated into a finite immune system, requiring that the host makes room for each new population of memory cell. It appears that memory cells are part of a continually evolving interactive network, where with each new infection there is an alteration in the frequencies, distributions, and activities of memory cells generated in response to previous infections and allo-antigens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0105-2896.2006.00394.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7165519PMC
June 2006

Cross-reactive influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cells contribute to lymphoproliferation in Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis.

J Clin Invest 2005 Dec 23;115(12):3602-12. Epub 2005 Nov 23.

Department of Pathology, Program in Immunology and Virology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA.

The marked proliferation of activated CD8+ T cells is pathognomonic of EBV-associated infectious mononucleosis (IM), common in young adults. Since the diversity and size of the memory CD8+ T cell population increase with age, we questioned whether IM was mediated by the reactivation of memory CD8+ T cells specific to previously encountered pathogens but cross-reactive with EBV. Of 8 HLA-A2+ IM patients, 5 had activated T cells specific to another common virus, as evidenced by a significantly higher number of peripheral blood influenza A virus M1(58-66)-specific T cells compared with healthy immune donors. Two patients with an augmented M1 response had tetramer-defined cross-reactive cells recognizing influenza M1 and EBV-BMLF1(280-288), which accounted for up to one-third of their BMLF1-specific population and likely contributed to a skewed M1-specific T cell receptor repertoire. These epitopes, with only 33% sequence similarity, mediated differential effects on the function of the cross-reactive T cells, which may contribute to alterations in disease outcome. EBV could potentially encode an extensive pool of T cell epitopes that activate other cross-reactive memory T cells. Our results support the concept that cross-reactive memory CD8+ T cells activated by EBV contribute to the characteristic lymphoproliferation of IM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI25078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1288832PMC
December 2005

CD1d-restricted T cells regulate dendritic cell function and antitumor immunity in a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent fashion.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003 Jul 7;100(15):8874-9. Epub 2003 Jul 7.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

CD1d-restricted T cells contribute to tumor protection, but their precise roles remain unclear. Here we show that tumor cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor induce the expansion of CD1d-restricted T cells through a mechanism that involves CD1d and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 expression by CD8 alpha-, CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs). The antitumor immunity stimulated by vaccination with irradiated, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting tumor cells was abrogated in CD1d- and J alpha 281-deficient mice, revealing a critical role for CD1d-restricted T cells in this response. The loss of antitumor immunity was associated with impaired tumor-induced T helper 2 cytokine production, although IFN-gamma secretion and cytotoxicity were preserved. DCs from immunized CD1d-deficient mice showed compromised maturation and function. Together, these results delineate a role for CD1d-restricted T cell-DC cross talk in the shaping of antitumor immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1033098100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC166406PMC
July 2003

A fractal clonotype distribution in the CD8+ memory T cell repertoire could optimize potential for immune responses.

J Immunol 2003 Apr;170(8):3994-4001

Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worchester, MA 01655, USA.

The nature of CD8(+) T cell memory is still incompletely understood. We have previously reported that the response to an HLA-A2-restricted influenza-derived peptide results in a complex T cell repertoire. In this study we extend this analysis and describe the repertoire with more rigor. In one individual we defined 141 distinct T cell clonotypes on the basis of the unique DNA sequence of the third complementarity-determining region of the TCR beta-chain. The frequency distribution of the clonotypes is not what is expected of a normal distribution but is characterized by a large low-frequency tail. The existence of a complex population indicates a mechanism for maintaining a large number of Ag-specific clonotypes at a low frequency in the memory pool. Ranking the clonotypes allowed us to describe the population in terms of a power law-like distribution with a parameter of decay of approximately 1.6. If the repertoire is divided into subsets, such as clonotypes that use BJ2.7 or those whose third complementarity-determining region encodes the amino acid sequence IRSS, the clonotype frequencies could also be described by a power law-like distribution. This indicates a self similarity to the repertoire in which smaller pieces are slightly altered copies of the larger piece. The power law-like description is stable with time and was observed in a second individual. The distribution of clonotypes in the repertoire could be mapped onto a polygonal spiral using a recursive algorithm. Self similarity, power laws, and recursive mapping algorithms are associated with fractal systems. Thus, Ag-specific memory CD8 T cell repertoires can be considered as fractal, which could indicate optimized flexibility and robustness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.170.8.3994DOI Listing
April 2003
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