Publications by authors named "Yuri Miyamoto"

45 Publications

Valuation of emotion underlies cultural variation in cardiovascular stress responses.

Emotion 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Cultural context shapes individuals' valuation of emotions. Although studies have documented cultural differences in beliefs about the utility of negative emotions, little is known about how such cultural valuation is associated with physiological stress responses. In the present work, we examined whether East Asians and European Americans differ in how they value nervousness in a demanding situation and whether such valuation predicts acute cardiovascular responses. We found that East Asians were more likely than European Americans to believe feeling nervous in a demanding situation was useful. Furthermore, greater valuation of negative emotion predicted attenuated cardiovascular responses to a laboratory mental stressor and partially mediated the relationship between culture and cardiovascular stress responses. The present results highlight the importance of valuation of emotions as a psychological mechanism underlying cultural as well as individual differences in stress-evoked cardiovascular responses. We discuss one implication for this line of research, unpacking how cross-cultural differences in valuation of negative emotions may lead to cultural variation in physiological patterns related to health outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000964DOI Listing
April 2021

A cyclic lipopeptide surfactin is a species-selective Hsp90 inhibitor that suppresses cyanobacterial growth.

J Biochem 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan.

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is essential for eukaryotic cells, whereas bacterial homologs play a role under stresses and in pathogenesis. Identifying species-specific Hsp90 inhibitors is challenging because Hsp90 is evolutionarily conserved. We found that a cyclic lipopeptide surfactin inhibits the ATPase activity of Hsp90 from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus (S. elongatus) PCC 7942 but does not inhibit Escherichia coli (E. coli), yeast and human Hsp90s. Molecular docking simulations indicated that surfactin could bind to the N-terminal dimerization interface of the cyanobacterial Hsp90 in the ATP- and ADP-bound states, which provided molecular insights into the species-selective inhibition. The data suggest that surfactin inhibits a rate-limiting conformational change of S. elongatus Hsp90 in the ATP hydrolysis. Surfactin also inhibited the interaction of the cyanobacterial Hsp90 with a model substrate, and suppressed S. elongatus growth under heat stress, but not that of E. coli. Surfactin did not show significant cellular toxicity toward mammalian cells. These results indicate that surfactin inhibits the cellular function of Hsp90 specifically in the cyanobacterium. The present study shows that a cyclic peptide has a great specificity to interact with a specific homolog of a highly conserved protein family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jb/mvab037DOI Listing
March 2021

Cultural and life style practices associated with low inflammatory physiology in Japanese adults.

Brain Behav Immun 2020 11 14;90:385-392. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States; Institute on Aging, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States.

Japan is an exceptionally healthy East Asian country with extended longevity. In addition, the typical levels of several proinflammatory proteins, including both C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), are often reported to be low when compared to American and European populations. This analysis determined if blood levels of CRP and IL-6 were associated with 4 cultural practices reflective of Japanese behavior and customs -- drinking tea, eating seafood, consuming vegetables, and partaking in relaxing baths regularly - among 382 adults living in Tokyo. Regression models controlled for demographic factors, adiposity (BMI), physical exercise, smoking, alcohol use, and chronic illness (e.g., diabetes). Consuming a Japanese diet was associated with significantly lower CRP and IL-6 levels. More frequent bathing was associated with lower IL-6, but not specifically predictive of low CRP. This study has confirmed prior evidence for low inflammatory activity in Japanese adults and its association with several behavioral practices common in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.08.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7544652PMC
November 2020

Socio-Ecological Hypothesis of Reconciliation: Cultural, Individual, and Situational Variations in Willingness to Accept Apology or Compensation.

Front Psychol 2020 23;11:1761. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Psychology, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.

The main goal of the present research is to examine socio-ecological hypothesis on apology and compensation. Specifically, we conducted four studies to test the idea that an apology is an effective means to induce reconciliation in a residentially stable community, whereas compensation is an effective means in a residentially mobile community. In Studies 1, 2a, and 2b, American and Japanese participants (national difference in mobility; Study 1) or non-movers and movers (within-nation difference in mobility; Studies 2a and 2b) imagined the situations in which they were hurt by their friends and rated to what extent they would be willing to maintain their friendships upon receipt of apology or compensation. The results showed that compensation was more effective in appeasing residentially mobile people (i.e., Americans and movers) than stable people (i.e., Japanese and non-movers), while apology was slightly more effective appeasing residentially stable people than residentially mobile people (significant in Study 1; not significant in Studies 2a and 2b). In Study 3, by conducting an economics game experiment, we directly tested the hypothesis that mobility would impair the effectiveness of apology and enhance the effectiveness of compensation. The results again partially supported our hypothesis: In the high mobility condition, compensation increased one's willingness to continue the relationship with the offender, when compared to willingness in the low mobility condition. The importance of socio-ecological perspective on the forgiveness literature is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7390922PMC
July 2020

A Cultural Perspective on Functional Limitations and Well-Being.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2020 09 15;46(9):1378-1391. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.

Functional limitations-difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living-have been linked to poorer well-being in Western cultures. This might be partly due to the lower personal control associated with functional limitations. However, compared with the West, in Asian cultural contexts (e.g., Japan) where agency and control are based less predominantly on individual attributes, the link between functional limitations and well-being may be weaker. Using cross-sectional probability samples from the United States and Japan (Study 1), functional limitations were associated with lower well-being in both cultures, though the association was weaker in Japan than in the United States and personal control played a mediating role. Furthermore, analyses of longitudinal data (Study 2) showed the cross-cultural patterns generally consistent with the cross-sectional analyses of Study 1, though the cultural moderation was found for fewer well-being measures. Such findings enrich our understanding of how health status and well-being are related across cultures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167220905712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416449PMC
September 2020

Feeling bad is not always unhealthy: Culture moderates the link between negative affect and diurnal cortisol profiles.

Emotion 2020 Aug 22;20(5):721-733. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology.

Prior research has demonstrated that the daily experience of negative affect is associated with increased levels of proinflammatory activity as evidenced by higher interleukin-6 among Americans but not among Japanese. This cultural difference may be driven by culturally divergent beliefs about negative affect as a source of threat to self-image versus as natural and integral to life. Here, we examined whether culture may moderate the relationship between negative affect and biological stress responses, with a focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. By using culturally matched surveys of Americans (N = 761) and Japanese (N = 328), we found that negative affect was associated with a flattening of the diurnal cortisol slope among Americans after controlling for demographic variables, personality traits, sleep patterns, and health behaviors. In contrast, the association between negative affect and the HPA axis activity was negligible among Japanese. Moreover, we assessed biological health risk with biomarkers of both inflammation (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels) and cardiovascular function (higher systolic blood pressure and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio) and found that the relationship between negative affect and increased biological health risk, which was observed only among Americans, was mediated by the flattening of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. These findings suggest that cultural differences in how emotions are construed may make the experience of negative affect more or less stressful and differentially consequential for health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6810750PMC
August 2020

Protestant and Buddhist differences in noninfluence strategies of emotion regulation and their links to depressive symptoms.

Emotion 2020 Aug 21;20(5):804-817. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

The present research proposes that Buddhist teachings involve a noninfluence emotion regulation strategy, an emotion regulation strategy that consists of individuals not influencing their emotions in any way, more so than do Protestant teachings. We examined religious teachings surrounding the strategy, practitioners' use of the strategy, and its links with depression. Further, the nature of this noninfluence strategy was explored. Across 3 studies that used student, community, and online samples, results showed that in fact Buddhist practitioners were more likely than were Protestant practitioners to report that their religion teaches them to use noninfluence strategies of emotion regulation, and that they use noninfluence strategies of emotion regulation. Moreover, the use of noninfluence emotion regulation strategies was predictive of lower depressive symptoms across both religions (Studies 1 and 2). In addition, it was found that to practitioners, noninfluence strategies of emotion regulation are active, purposeful strategies and, especially to Buddhist practitioners, they involve acceptance of emotions (Study 2). Furthermore, religion was indirectly linked to the behavioral preference for a noninfluence strategy through the self-reported general use of a noninfluence emotion regulation strategy (Study 3). Implications for research on religion, self-regulation, and mental health are briefly discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000591DOI Listing
August 2020

Feeling excited or taking a bath: Do distinct pathways underlie the positive affect-health link in the U.S. and Japan?

Emotion 2020 Mar 24;20(2):164-178. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University.

Feeling good is linked to better health in Western contexts. Recent studies show, however, that the affect-health link is not consistent across cultures. We suggest two reasons for such inconsistency. The first follows from research showing that North American (vs. East Asian) cultures tend to value high arousal positive (HAP) states, for example, excited, more than low arousal positive (LAP) states, for example, calm. The second is one we propose for the first time. Positive affective experience is manifest in internal feelings but also in affective practices, such as taking a bath (a highly valued affective experience in Japan) or a fitness workout (a highly valued affective experience in the United States). We hypothesized that the HAP feelings/practices-health link would be stronger in the United States versus Japan, and the LAP feelings/practices-health link would be stronger in Japan versus the United States. Using survey samples from the United States (N = 640) and Japan (N = 382), we examined how health outcomes are shaped by positive affective feelings and practices varying in arousal. In a first set of analyses, HAP feelings predicted better physical and biological health in the United States but not in Japan. No cultural differences were consistently found for the effect of LAP feelings on health. In addition, engaging in HAP practices predicted better physical and biological health in the United States whereas engaging in LAP practices predicted better physical health in Japan but not in the United States. These findings suggest that the pathways underlying the culture-health link are culturally variable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6656630PMC
March 2020

Culture and social hierarchy: Self- and other-oriented correlates of socioeconomic status across cultures.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Sep 17;115(3):427-445. Epub 2018 May 17.

Institute on Aging, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Current theorizing on socioeconomic status (SES) focuses on the availability of resources and the freedom they afford as a key determinant of the association between high SES and stronger orientation toward the self and, by implication, weaker orientation toward others. However, this work relies nearly exclusively on data from Western countries where self-orientation is strongly sanctioned. In the present work, we predicted and found that especially in East Asian countries, where other-orientation is strongly sanctioned, high SES is associated with stronger other-orientation as well as with self-orientation. We first examined both psychological attributes (Study 1, N = 2,832) and socialization values (Study 2a, N = 4,675) in Japan and the United States. In line with the existent evidence, SES was associated with greater self-oriented psychological attributes and socialization values in both the U.S. and Japan. Importantly, however, higher SES was associated with greater other orientation in Japan, whereas this association was weaker or even reversed in the United States. Study 2b (N = 85,296) indicated that the positive association between SES and self-orientation is found, overall, across 60 nations. Further, Study 2b showed that the positive association between SES and other-orientation in Japan can be generalized to other Confucian cultures, whereas the negative association between SES and other-orientation in the U.S. can be generalized to other Frontier cultures. Implications of the current findings for modernization and globalization are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6095715PMC
September 2018

Behavioral Adjustment Moderates the Link Between Neuroticism and Biological Health Risk: A U.S.-Japan Comparison Study.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2018 06 30;44(6):809-822. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

3 University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.

Neuroticism, a broad personality trait linked to negative emotions, is consistently linked to ill health when self-report is used to assess health. However, when health risk is assessed with biomarkers, the evidence is inconsistent. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the association between neuroticism and biological health risk is moderated by behavioral adjustment, a propensity to flexibly adjust behaviors to environmental contingencies. Using a U.S.-Japan cross-cultural survey, we found that neuroticism was linked to lower biological health risk for those who are high, but not low, in behavioral adjustment. Importantly, Japanese were higher in behavioral adjustment than European Americans, and as predicted by this cultural difference, neuroticism was linked to lower biological health risk for Japanese but not for European Americans. Finally, consistent with prior evidence, neuroticism was associated with worse self-reported health regardless of behavioral adjustment or culture. Discussion focused on the significance of identifying sociocultural correlates of biological health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167217748603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5940540PMC
June 2018

Contributions of the layer topology and mineral content to the elastic modulus and strength of fish scales.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2018 02 7;78:56-64. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Fish scales are an interesting natural structural material and their functionality requires both flexibility and toughness. Our previous studies identified that there are spatial variations in the elastic properties of fish scales corresponding to the anatomical regions, and that they appear to be attributed to changes in the microstructure. In the present study, a model is proposed that describes the elastic behavior of elasmoid fish scales in terms of the relative contributions of the limiting layer and both the internal and external elasmodine. The mechanical properties of scales from the Megalops atlanticus (i.e. tarpon) were characterized in tension and compared with predictions from the model. The average error between the predicted and the experimental properties was 7%. It was found that the gradient in mineral content and aspect ratio of the apatite crystals in the limiting layer played the most important roles on the elastic modulus of the scales. Furthermore, misalignment of plies in the external elasmodine from the longitudinal direction was shown to reduce the elastic modulus significantly. This is one approach for modulating the fish scale flexibility for a high mineral content that is required to increase the resistance to puncture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.11.010DOI Listing
February 2018

Intraoperative Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation During Thoracic Surgery That Requires 1-Lung Ventilation: A Case Report.

A A Pract 2018 Feb;10(4):79-82

From the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.

We report 3 cases of thoracic surgery that required 1-lung ventilation where venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was prophylactically used because severe hypoxemia and ventilatory failure were anticipated intraoperatively. The surgery was successfully completed in all 3 cases. However, we had to withdraw the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in 1 case because of uncontrollable hemorrhage. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a feasible option when severe hypoxemia and/or ventilatory failure is anticipated during 1-lung ventilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/XAA.0000000000000637DOI Listing
February 2018

Culture and social class.

Authors:
Yuri Miyamoto

Curr Opin Psychol 2017 12 8;18:67-72. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

University of Wisconsin - Madison, USA. Electronic address:

A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.07.042DOI Listing
December 2017

Negative Affect during a Collective (but Not an Individual) Task Is Associated with Holistic Attention in East Asian Cultural Context.

Front Psychol 2017 4;8:1283. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Department of Psychology, Osaka Shoin Women's UniversityHigashi-Osaka, Japan.

Previous studies have suggested that individuals from East Asian cultures are more likely to show holistic attention-a pattern of attention that incorporates contextual information into focal stimuli-than individuals from North American cultures. Holistic attention is also prevalent in communities that require close cooperation. However, it is not yet known how cooperation is related to holistic attention. We theorized that holistic attention increases when people experience negative affect (e.g., worry, sadness, and frustration) during collective tasks (but not during individual tasks) because negative affect in social contexts signals the existence of potential threats to social harmony, thus indicating a need to restore social harmony. To examine this hypothesis, an experiment was conducted in which participants performed a musical duet either with another participant (a collective task requiring cooperation), or individually with a computer (an individual task). After the musical task, the Framed Line Task (FLT) was administered to examine their holistic attention. Participants also reported their emotional states both before and after the music task. Results suggested that negative affect in the collective task-but not the individual task-was positively correlated with a holistic pattern of attention. The function of negative affect in social contexts as motivation to restore relationships and how this enhances holistic attention is discussed. The moderating effect of social context on the link between negative affect and cognition is also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5543282PMC
August 2017

Linking Positive Affect to Blood Lipids: A Cultural Perspective.

Psychol Sci 2017 Oct 17;28(10):1468-1477. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

1 Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Higher levels of positive affect have been associated with better physical health. While positive affect is seen as highly desirable among Westerners, East Asians tend to deemphasize positive affect. Using large probability samples of Japanese and U.S. adult populations, the present study examined the relations of positive affect with serum lipid profiles, known to be strongly predictive of risk for cardiovascular disease, and tested whether their associations depend on cultural contexts. As predicted, positive affect was associated with healthier lipid profiles for Americans but not for Japanese. Further analyses showed that this cultural moderation was mediated by body mass index. This study highlights the role of culture in the link between positive emotions and key biological risk factors of cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797617713309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5633496PMC
October 2017

A socio-cultural instrumental approach to emotion regulation: Culture and the regulation of positive emotions.

Emotion 2018 02 17;18(1):138-152. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

We propose a sociocultural instrumental approach to emotion regulation. According to this approach, cultural differences in the tendency to savor rather than dampen positive emotions should be more pronounced when people are actively pursuing goals (i.e., contexts requiring higher cognitive effort) than when they are not (i.e., contexts requiring lower cognitive efforts), because cultural beliefs about the utility of positive emotions should become most relevant when people are engaging in active goal pursuit. Four studies provided support for our theory. First, European Americans perceived more utility and less harm of positive emotions than Japanese did (Study 1). Second, European Americans reported a stronger relative preference for positive emotions than Asians, but this cultural difference was larger in high cognitive effort contexts than in moderate or low cognitive effort contexts (Study 2). Third, European Americans reported trying to savor rather than dampen positive emotions more than Asians did when preparing to take an exam, a typical high cognitive effort context (Studies 3-4), but these cultural differences were attenuated when an exam was not expected (Study 3) and disappeared when participants expected to interact with a stranger (Study 4). These findings suggest that cultural backgrounds and situational demands interact to shape how people regulate positive emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000315DOI Listing
February 2018

Psychological resources and glucoregulation in Japanese adults: Findings from MIDJA.

Health Psychol 2017 05 13;36(5):449-457. Epub 2017 Feb 13.

Department of Psychology, and Institute on Aging, University of Wisconsin.

Objective: To examine associations between glucoregulation and 3 categories of psychological resources: hedonic well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect), eudaimonic well-being (i.e., personal growth, purpose in life, ikigai), and interdependent well-being (i.e., gratitude, peaceful disengagement, adjustment) among Japanese adults. The question is important given increases in rates of type 2 diabetes in Japan in recent years, combined with the fact that most prior studies linking psychological resources to better physical health have utilized Western samples.

Method: Data came from the Midlife in Japan Study involving randomly selected participants from the Tokyo metropolitan area, a subsample of whom completed biological data collection (N = 382; 56.0% female; M(SD)age = 55.5(14.0) years). Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was the outcome. Models adjusted for age, gender, educational attainment, smoking, alcohol, chronic conditions, body mass index (BMI), use of antidiabetic medication, and negative affect.

Results: Purpose in life (β = -.104, p = .021) was associated with lower HbA1c, and peaceful disengagement (β = .129, p = .003) was associated with higher HbA1c in fully adjusted models. Comparable to the effects of BMI, a 1 standard deviation change in well-being was associated with a .1% change in HbA1c.

Conclusions: Associations among psychological resources and glucoregulation were mixed. Healthy glucoregulation was evident among Japanese adults with higher levels of purpose in life and lower levels of peaceful disengagement, thereby extending prior research from the United States. The results emphasize the need for considering sociocultural contexts in which psychological resources are experienced in order to understand linkages to physical health. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5398939PMC
May 2017

Culture and Healthy Eating: The Role of Independence and Interdependence in the United States and Japan.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2016 10 11;42(10):1335-48. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.

Healthy eating is important for physical health. Using large probability samples of middle-aged adults in the United States and Japan, we show that fitting with the culturally normative way of being predicts healthy eating. In the United States, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes independence, being independent predicts eating a healthy diet (an index of fish, protein, fruit, vegetables, reverse-coded sugared beverages, and reverse-coded high fat meat consumption; Study 1) and not using nonmeat food as a way to cope with stress (Study 2a). In Japan, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes interdependence, being interdependent predicts eating a healthy diet (Studies 1 and 2b). Furthermore, reflecting the types of agency that are prevalent in each context, these relationships are mediated by autonomy in the United States and positive relations with others in Japan. These findings highlight the importance of understanding cultural differences in shaping healthy behavior and have implications for designing health-promoting interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167216658645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5023492PMC
October 2016

To Accept One's Fate or Be Its Master: Culture, Control, and Workplace Choice.

Front Psychol 2016 21;7:936. Epub 2016 Jun 21.

Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University Kyoto, Japan.

Utilizing three student (Study 1) and non-student samples (Study 2), we examined cultural differences in workplace choice for North Americans, Germans, and Japanese. We focused on the desire for control as a potential mediator (i.e., the underlying mechanism) to explain cultural differences in this important life decision. Given culturally divergent embodiments of independent vs. interdependent models of agency, we expected and found that, compared to North Americans and Germans, Japanese were more likely to prefer a workplace with a payment system that maintains social order rather than one that rewards individual achievement. Furthermore, we found that Japanese tend to give greater consideration to family opinions in their choice of workplace. As predicted, desire for control (i.e., the motivation to have control over various events) was stronger for North Americans and Germans than Japanese, and explained cultural differences in choice of workplace.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914556PMC
July 2016

Positive affect, social connectedness, and healthy biomarkers in Japan and the U.S.

Emotion 2016 12 27;16(8):1137-1146. Epub 2016 Jun 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin.

Previous studies have shown that positive affect (PA) and social connectedness predict better health in the United States (U.S.). However, the relevance of such findings for other cultural contexts has been largely ignored. The present study investigated the interplay of PA, social connectedness, and health using large probability samples of Japanese and U.S. adults. Health was measured objectively with biomarkers that represent well-functioning physiological systems: HDL (high-density lipoprotein) and DHEA-S (dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate). Lower levels of both biomarkers (i.e., less healthy biomarker profile) were found among those in Japan who reported high PA in combination with low social connectedness. In the U.S., the general pattern was that those with greater PA showed healthier HDL levels regardless of social connectedness. The findings highlight cultural variations in the health implications of how PA and social connectedness come together. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5125886PMC
December 2016

Perioperative considerations in adult mitochondrial disease: A case series and a review of 111 cases.

Mitochondrion 2016 Jan 19;26:26-32. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

Department of Anesthesiology, Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama City, Japan. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial disease has been uncommon conditions, still results in death during childhood in many cases. The ideal anesthetic pharmacological management strategy for adult patients with mitochondrial disease is currently unclear. In this study, we presented features of the anesthesia methods employed and the perioperative complications of patients in our institution and in previously published case reports. We report the use of general anesthesia 7 times in 6 adult patients with mitochondrial disease during 2004-2014. All cases were performed with maintained intravenous anesthesia. One case was reintubated on the day after surgery, but the cause of death was not directly related to anesthesia. One hundred and eleven general anesthesia cases in 97 adult patients with mitochondrial disease were described in 83 the literature. Although several severe perioperative complications and deaths have been reported, malignant hyperthermia had not been reported in adult cases, and metabolic disorder called propofol infusion syndrome had also not been reported in adult patients undergone total intravenous anesthesia. Perioperative complications of lactic acidosis were reported more in inhalation anesthesia than intravenous anesthesia. Therefore we recommended intravenous anesthesia rather than inhalation anesthesia for adult mitochondrial disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mito.2015.11.004DOI Listing
January 2016

Heterogeneity of long-history migration explains cultural differences in reports of emotional expressivity and the functions of smiles.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 May 20;112(19):E2429-36. Epub 2015 Apr 20.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1969;

A small number of facial expressions may be universal in that they are produced by the same basic affective states and recognized as such throughout the world. However, other aspects of emotionally expressive behavior vary widely across culture. Just why do they vary? We propose that some cultural differences in expressive behavior are determined by historical heterogeneity, or the extent to which a country's present-day population descended from migration from numerous vs. few source countries over a period of 500 y. Our reanalysis of data on cultural rules for displaying emotion from 32 countries [n = 5,340; Matsumoto D, Yoo S, Fontaine J (2008) J Cross Cult Psychol 39(1):55-74] reveals that historical heterogeneity explains substantial, unique variance in the degree to which individuals believe that emotions should be openly expressed. We also report an original study of the underlying states that people believe are signified by a smile. Cluster analysis applied to data from nine countries (n = 726), including Canada, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States, reveals that countries group into "cultures of smiling" determined by historical heterogeneity. Factor analysis shows that smiles sort into three social-functional subtypes: pleasure, affiliative, and dominance. The relative importance of these smile subtypes varies as a function of historical heterogeneity. These findings thus highlight the power of social-historical factors to explain cross-cultural variation in emotional expression and smile behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1413661112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4434713PMC
May 2015

Culture, inequality, and health: evidence from the MIDUS and MIDJA comparison.

Cult Brain 2015;3(1):1-20. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 6118 Institute for Social Research, 426 Thompson Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48106 USA.

This article seeks to forge scientific connections between three overarching themes (culture, inequality, health). Although the influence of cultural context on human experience has gained notable research prominence, it has rarely embraced another large arena of science focused on the influence social hierarchies have on how well and how long people live. That literature is increasingly focused psychosocial factors, working interactively with biological and brain-based mechanisms, to account for why those with low socioeconomic standing have poorer health. Our central question is whether and how these processes might vary by cultural context. We draw on emerging findings from two parallel studies, Midlife in the U.S. and Midlife in Japan, to illustrate the cultural specificity evident in how psychosocial and neurobiological factors are linked with each other as well as how position in social hierarchies matters for psychological experience and biology. We conclude with suggestions for future multidisciplinary research seeking to understand how social hierarchies matter for people's health, albeit in ways that may possibly differ across cultural contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40167-015-0025-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4342505PMC
January 2015

Expression of anger and ill health in two cultures: an examination of inflammation and cardiovascular risk.

Psychol Sci 2015 Feb 6;26(2):211-20. Epub 2015 Jan 6.

University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Expression of anger is associated with biological health risk (BHR) in Western cultures. However, recent evidence documenting culturally divergent functions of the expression of anger suggests that its link with BHR may be moderated by culture. To test this prediction, we examined large probability samples of both Japanese and Americans using multiple measures of BHR, including pro-inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) and indices of cardiovascular malfunction (systolic blood pressure and ratio of total to HDL cholesterol). We found that the link between greater expression of anger and increased BHR was robust for Americans. As predicted, however, this association was diametrically reversed for Japanese, among whom greater expression of anger predicted reduced BHR. These patterns were unique to the expressive facet of anger and remained after we controlled for age, gender, health status, health behaviors, social status, and reported experience of negative emotions. Implications for sociocultural modulation of bio-physiological responses are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797614561268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4323672PMC
February 2015

Subjective and Objective Hierarchies and Their Relations to Psychological Well-Being: A U.S/Japan Comparison.

Soc Psychol Personal Sci 2014 Nov;5(8):855-864

University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Hierarchy can be conceptualized as objective social status (e.g., education level) or subjective social status (i.e., one's own judgment of one's status). Both forms predict well-being. This is the first investigation of the relative strength of these hierarchy-well-being relationships in the U.S. and Japan, cultural contexts with different normative ideas about how social status is understood and conferred. In probability samples of Japanese (N=1027) and U.S. (N=1805) adults, social status more strongly predicted life satisfaction, positive affect, sense of purpose, and self acceptance in the U.S. than in Japan. In contrast, social status more strongly predicted life satisfaction, positive relations with others, and self acceptance in Japan than in the U.S. These differences reflect divergent cultural models of self. The emphasis on independence characteristic of the U.S. affords credence to one's own judgment (subjective status) and the interdependence characteristic of Japan to what others can observe (objective status).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1948550614538461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4266948PMC
November 2014

Just how bad negative affect is for your health depends on culture.

Psychol Sci 2014 Dec 10;25(12):2277-80. Epub 2014 Oct 10.

Institute on Aging, University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797614543802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4267914PMC
December 2014

Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

Emotion 2014 Aug 7;14(4):804-15. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

Department of Psychology, Stanford University.

Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036257DOI Listing
August 2014

Physical objects as vehicles of cultural transmission: maintaining harmony and uniqueness through colored geometric patterns.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2014 Feb 10;40(2):175-88. Epub 2013 Oct 10.

1Kobe University, Japan.

We examined how cultural values of harmony and uniqueness are represented and maintained through physical media (i.e., colorings of geometric patterns) and how individuals play an active role in selecting and maintaining such cultural values. We found that colorings produced by European American adults and children were judged as more unique, whereas colorings produced by Japanese adults and children were judged as more harmonious, reflecting cultural differences in values. Harmony undergirded Japanese participants' preferences for colorings, whereas uniqueness undergirded European American participants' preferences for colorings. These cultural differences led participants to prefer own-culture colorings over other-culture colorings. Moreover, bicultural participants' preferences acculturated according to their identification with their host culture. Furthermore, child rearers in Japan and Canada gave feedback about the children's colorings that were consistent with their culture's values. These findings suggest that simple geometric patterns can embody cultural values that are socialized and reinforced from an early age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167213508151DOI Listing
February 2014

Social status and anger expression: the cultural moderation hypothesis.

Emotion 2013 Dec 7;13(6):1122-1131. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Institute on Aging, University of Wisconsin.

Individuals with lower social status have been reported to express more anger, but this evidence comes mostly from Western cultures. Here, we used representative samples of American and Japanese adults and tested the hypothesis that the association between social status and anger expression depends on whether anger serves primarily to vent frustration, as in the United States, or to display authority, as in Japan. Consistent with the assumption that lower social standing is associated with greater frustration stemming from life adversities and blocked goals, Americans with lower social status expressed more anger, with the relationship mediated by the extent of frustration. In contrast, consistent with the assumption that higher social standing affords a privilege to display anger, Japanese with higher social status expressed more anger, with the relationship mediated by decision-making authority. As expected, anger expression was predicted by subjective social status among Americans and by objective social status among Japanese. Implications for the dynamic construction of anger and anger expression are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0034273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3859704PMC
December 2013

Varieties of Resilience in MIDUS.

Soc Personal Psychol Compass 2012 Nov;6(11):792-806

University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Population-based studies of health typically focus on psychosocial contributors to illness and disease. We examine findings from a national longitudinal study of American adults, known as MIDUS (Midlife in the U.S.) to examine the role of psychosocial factors in promoting resilience, defined as the maintenance, recovery, or improvement in health following challenge. Classic studies of resilience are briefly noted, followed by a look at three categories of resilience in MIDUS. The first pertains to having good health and well-being in the face of low socioeconomic standing. The second pertains to maintaining good health and well-being despite the challenges that accompany aging. The third pertains to resilience in the face of targeted life challenges such as abuse in childhood, loss of spouse in adulthood, or having cancer. Across each area, we summarize evidence of positive health, and where possible, highlight protective influences that account for such salubrious outcomes. We conclude with opportunities for future research in MIDUS such as examining cultural and genetic influences on resilience as well as utilizing laboratory challenge data to illuminate underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2012.00462.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3775270PMC
November 2012