Publications by authors named "Yuqing Zhang"

783 Publications

Suppressing Redox Shuttling with Lithiated Nafion-Modified Separators for Li-O Batteries.

ChemSusChem 2022 Jun 24:e202200769. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Nation & Local United Engineering Laboratory for Power Batteries, Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin, 130024, P. R. China.

Although the employment of redox mediator (RM) is an effective strategy to reduce the overpotential by avoiding the direct electrochemical oxidization of Li O during charging, an unexpected redox shuttling in Li-O system leads to RM degradation and continuous deterioration of Li anode, finally resulting in a limited cycling stability. Here, a functional lithiated Nafion-modified separator was firstly introduced to inhibit the shuttle effect by coulombic/electrostatic interactions in RM-involved Li-O batteries. The fabrication of the separator involved easily accessible raw materials and an easy-to-operate process, which made it suitable for large-scale production. The enhancement of lithiated process on electrochemical properties was systematically investigated. In addition, the influence of decorated amount on cycling stability was also studied. Furthermore, the functional contribution of lithiated Nafion on inhibition of redox shuttling and the working mechanism for cells with and without as-prepared separators were proposed. This work can give an insight into the development of functional separator (i. e., activity issue) and the suppression of parasitic reactions (i. e., selectivity issue) in Li-O batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202200769DOI Listing
June 2022

[The soluble expression and application of human papillomavirus type 58 (HPV58) major capsid protein L1].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Jun;38(6):553-558

School of Life Science, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective The major capsid protein L1 of human papillomavirus type 58 (HPV58 L1) was obtained and identified by prokaryotic expression. Methods The recombinant expression strain pE-SUMO-58 L1 (BL21) was induced by IPTG. The recombinant protein SUMO-58 L1 was expressed in E.coli and identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Then the recombinant protein SUMO-58 L1 was purified by Ni-column and the SUMO-tag was removed by ubiquitin-like protease 1 (ULP1) digestion. Subsequently, the bioactivity of recombinant protein HPV58 L1 was verified by hemagglutination assay (HA). BALB/c mice were immunized with HPV58 L1, and the antibody titers in sera of the immunized mice were detected by ELISA. And then the reaction between the immune serum and the HPV58 L1 protein transiently expressed by HEK293T cells was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Results The soluble expression of the recombinant protein SUMO-58 L1 was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis, with yields of soluble protein SUMO-58 L1 being about 50% of total soluble bacterial proteins. The relative molecular mass (M) of SUMO-58 L1 was about 72 000. After Ni-NTA affinity was purified and the SUMO-tag was removed by ULP1 digestion, M of recombinant protein HPV58 L1 reached about 58 000. The recombinant protein HPV58 L1 showed hemagglutination activity similar to that of natural HPV, with hemagglutination value of 1:16. After immunizing BALB/c mice, the titer of immune serum observed was about 1:10 240 by ELISA; and the sera of the immunized mice reacted specifically with HPV58 L1 proteins which were transiently expressed in HEK293T cells by IFA. Conclusion The recombinant protein HPV58 L1 also has hemagglutination activity, which can be successfully obtained from E. coli. The sera of the HPV58 L1 protein immunized mice can be used for immunocytochemical detection of HPV58 L1 protein expressed in eukaryotic cells.
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June 2022

Combined treatment with Rg1 and adipose-derived stem cells alleviates DSS-induced colitis in a mouse model.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2022 Jun 21;13(1):272. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Colorectal Disease Center of Nanjing Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Affiliated to Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210022, China.

Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases, consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis constitute chronic inflammatory conditions that may compromise the whole gastrointestinal tract as well as the colonic mucosa. Currently, there are no curative interventions for IBD, and all available treatments have side effects that limit their use. Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) treatment is a prospective treatment option for IBD. Previous findings indicated that ginsenoside (Rg1) dampened inflammatory diseases like colitis by inhibiting the binding of LPS to TLR4 on macrophages and restoring the Th17/Treg ratio. The purpose of this work was to investigate whether Rg1 can increase the influence of ADSC in a mouse model of colitis triggered by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS).

Methods: ADSC was intravenously inoculated into mice with DSS-triggered colitis, while Rg1 was delivered via oral gavage. Colon inflammation was assessed via body weight, colon length along with H&E staining. Serum cytokine levels were measured using ELISA. Besides, flow cytometry was adopted to determine the percentage, as well as FMI of immune cells in the spleen. The effects of simultaneous Rg1 and ADSC treatment on TLR4-MyD88 signaling were assessed via immunofluorescence.

Results: Rg1 and ADSC effectively alleviated the impacts of colon inflammation, weight loss, and colon length reduction along with histological score. Treatment with Rg1 and ADSC reduced serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-17A and upregulated the level of immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10. Compared with ADSC or Rg1 alone, combined treatment with Rg1 and ADSC significantly improved the structure of microbial community. Additionally, treatment with Rg1 plus ADSC selectively elevated the level of splenic regulatory T (Treg) cells and downregulated the proportion of T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, indicating restoration of intestinal homeostasis. Besides, we established that the combination of ADSC + Rg1 restored immunological balance more effectively than either ADSC or Rg1 alone, illustrating that Rg1's modulatory function on the gut microbiota may boost the impact of ADSCs in restoration of the immune balance. ADSC combined with Rg1 might downregulate the expression of TLR4 and MyD88, thereby suppressing TLR4-MyD8 signaling. The immunofluorescence results also suggested that co-therapy with Rg-1 and ADSC may optimize treatment strategies of IBD.

Conclusions: Here, we find that the combination of Rg1 and ADSC alleviates DSS-induced colitis in a mouse model more efficiently than ADSC alone, indicating that Rg1 enhances the effect of ADSC against colitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-022-02940-xDOI Listing
June 2022

Dual stromal targeting sensitizes pancreatic adenocarcinoma for anti-PD-1 therapy.

Gastroenterology 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Oncology and the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; The Multidisciplinary Gastrointestinal Cancer Laboratories Program, the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; The Bloomberg-Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; The Pancreatic Cancer Precision Medicine Center of Excellence Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.

Background And Aims: The stroma in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) contributes to its immunosuppressive nature and therapeutic resistance. Herein we sought to modify signaling and enhance immunotherapy efficacy by targeting multiple stromal components through both intracellular and extracellular mechanisms.

Methods: A murine liver metastasis syngeneic model of PDAC was treated with focal adhesion kinase inhibitor (FAKi), anti-PD-1 antibody and stromal hyaluronan (HA) degradation by PEGPH20 to assess immune and stromal modulating effects of these agents and their combinations.

Results: The results showed that HA degradation by PEGPH20 and reduction in phosphorylated FAK expression by FAKi leads to improved survival in PDAC-bearing mice treated with anti-PD-1 antibody. HA degradation in combination with FAKi and anti-PD-1 antibody increases T-cell infiltration and alters T-cell phenotype towards effector memory T-cells. FAKi alters the expression of T-cell modulating cytokines and leads to changes in T-cell metabolism and increases in effector T-cell signatures. HA degradation in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody and FAKi treatments reduces granulocytes including granulocytic-MDSCs and decreases CXCR4 expressing myeloid cells, particularly the CXCR4 expressing granulocytes. Anti-CXCR4 antibody combined with FAKi and anti-PD-1 antibody significantly decreases metastatic rates in the PDAC liver metastasis model.

Conclusion: This represents the first preclinical study to identify synergistic effects of targeting both intracellular and extracellular components within the PDAC stroma and supports testing anti-CXCR4 antibody in combination with FAKi as a PDAC treatment strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2022.06.027DOI Listing
June 2022

The effect of achieving serological remission on subsequent risk of relapse, end-stage renal disease and mortality in ANCA-associated vasculitis: a target trial emulation study.

Ann Rheum Dis 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Clinical Epidemiology Program, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Objective: To evaluate the effect of achieving a negative postinduction antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody ANCA) assay on the risk of relapse, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV).

Methods: We emulated a target trial using observational data from the Mass General Brigham AAV cohort comparing patients who achieved versus did not achieve serological remission (negative ANCA assay) within 180 days of induction. Outcomes were relapse, ESRD or death within 5 years, obtained from medical records, the US Renal Data System and the National Death Index. We placed a 'clone' of each patient in both trial arms, censored those deviating from their assigned protocol and weighted each by the inverse probability of censoring. Outcomes were assessed by pooled logistic regression.

Results: The study included 506 patients with AAV. The mean age was 61 years (SD 18) and the majority were women (58%), white (87%), myeloperoxidase-ANCA+ (72%) and had renal involvement (68%). Rituximab (59%) or cyclophosphamide (33%) was most often used for induction treatment. Within 5 years, 81 (16%) died, 51 (10%) had ESRD and 64 (13%) had relapse. Patients treated to a negative ANCA assay within 180 days had HR 0.55 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.81) for relapse and HR 0.87 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.25) for the composite of ESRD or death within 5 years.

Conclusions: In this emulated target trial from a large AAV cohort, achieving serological remission within 180 days of induction was associated with lower risk of relapse, but no statistically significant difference in ESRD or mortality outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2022-222439DOI Listing
June 2022

A case report of a 4-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2022 Jun 2;32:100582. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi Province Ocular Disease Clinical Research Center, No 17, YongWaiZheng Street, DongHu District, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330006, PR China. Electronic address:

Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a rare genetic disorder, which is a benign nerve tumor resulting from aberrant growth of the cells of nerve sheath. NF1 patients were associated with multisystem involvement, characterized by neurofibroma, of which 50% were associated with plexus neurofibroma. Characteristically benign plexiform neurofibromas can cause pain, disfigurement, compression and functional changes. Although plexiform neurofibroma is common in the head and neck, the orbital plexiform neurofibroma is rare and easily confused with other orbital tumors. There is no consensus with regard to the treatment strategy of plexiform neurofibromas, current treatment has remained largely surgical, but comes with a high recurrence rate after partial removal. We describe a case of a 4-year-old patient with orbital plexiform neurofibroma who has a 3-year history of ptosis in the right eye. At the begining, we misdiagnosed it as hemangioma. After surgical resection, it was confirmed as plexiform neurofibroma by histopathological examination. One year after surgery, the tumor recurred, so surgical resection was performed again, and the ptosis was corrected. After that, the patients were followed up and examined annually, and no recurrence was found so far. This case shows that an infant or a child present with unilateral eye swelling and ptosis of the upper eyelid should be evaluated for orbital neurofibroma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctarc.2022.100582DOI Listing
June 2022

Comprehensive metabolite quantitative assay based on alternate metabolomics and lipidomics analyses.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 Jul 23;1215:339979. Epub 2022 May 23.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, 116023, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, PR China; Liaoning Province Key Laboratory of Metabolomics, Dalian, 116023, PR China. Electronic address:

Metabolomics-based precision medicine is facing several obstacles including cross-platform data comparison issue and the lack of metabolome benchmark values of healthy population, one of main reasons is the shortage of comprehensive metabolome quantitation methods. Here, we developed an alternate reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (RPLC-MS) method to quantitatively determine metabolites and lipids. Assisted by a wide set of reference standards and real samples, up to 397 multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions (239 for positive and 158 for negative ion modes) and 1080 MRM transitions (607 for positive and 473 for negative ion modes) were defined respectively in the metabolomic and lipidomic analyses with more than 1000 metabolites and lipids being quantified. Among them, 144 analytes including amines, amino acids, benzenoids, peptides, nucleobases and related, bile acids, carboxylic acids, fatty acids, hormones, indoles and others were absolutely quantified, while carnitines, lyso-phosphatidylcholines, lyso-phosphatidylethanolamines, free fatty acids, sphingomyelins, phosphatidylcholines (PCs), alkyl and alkenyl substituted PCs, phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), alkyl and alkenyl substituted PEs and triacylglycerols were semiquantified. The developed method was validated to have good analytical characteristics. Analytical results of standard reference material 1950 human plasma had a good agreement with literature data. As a proof of application, this method was used to study serum metabolic pattern changes of patients with hyperuricemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver. This alternate RPLC-MS method for quantitative metabolites and lipids analysis can further be used to provide technology and large-scale data support for precision medicine and life sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2022.339979DOI Listing
July 2022

Evidence mapping and overview of systematic reviews of the effects of acupuncture therapies.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 6;12(6):e056803. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

South China Research Center for Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China

Objective: To provide a route map regarding systematic reviews (SRs) of acupuncture therapies that will meet two goals: (1) to identify areas in which more or better evidence is required and (2) to identify acupuncture applications that, although proven effective, remain underused in practice, and thus warrant more effective knowledge dissemination.

Eligibility Criteria: We included SRs that conducted meta-analyses (MAs) of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for this overview.

Information Sources: We searched for SRs without language restrictions from January 2015 to November 2020 in four Chinese electronic databases and Epistemonikos database. And we also searched for newly published RCTs that were eligible for selected best SRs in PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase and four Chinese electronic databases from its lasted search dates to November 2020.

Synthesis Of Results: We reanalysed the selected MAs if new primary studies were added. We used random-effect model to calculate the overall effect.

Results: Our search identified 120 SRs published in the last 5 years addressing acupuncture therapies across 12 therapeutic areas and 77 diseases and conditions. The SRs included 205 outcomes and involved 138 995 participants from 1402 RCTs. We constructed 77 evidence matrices, including 120 SRs and their included RCTs in the Epistemonikos database. Seventy-seven SRs represented the effect estimate of acupuncture therapies. Finally, we system summarised the areas of possible underutilisation of acupuncture therapies (high or moderate certainty evidence of large or moderate effects), and the areas of warranting additional investigation of acupuncture therapies (low or very low certainty evidence of moderate or large effects).

Conclusion: The evidence maps and overview of SRs on acupuncture therapies identified both therapies with substantial benefits that may require more assertive evidence dissemination and promising acupuncture therapies that require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-056803DOI Listing
June 2022

Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Thermal Stability by Sulfide Treatment.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 3. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China.

The performance degradation of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) under harsh environment (e.g., heat, moisture, light) is one of the greatest challenges for their commercialization. Herein, a conjugated sulfide 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2MBI) is applied to significantly improve the photovoltaic properties and thermal stability of PSCs. When treated with heat, 2MBI cross-links with each other on the perovskite surface to facilitate charge transportation, suppress the escape of volatile species, and guide the rearrangement of surface perovskite grains. PSCs with 2MBI modification reach a PCE as high as 21.7% and maintain high-efficiency output during and after thermodestruction at 85 °C, while the unmodified ones suffer severe degradation. Unencapsulated devices after thermodestruction achieve over 98% of initial efficiency after 40-day storage under ambient conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c05605DOI Listing
June 2022

Zombies Never Die: The Double Life Bub1 Lives in Mitosis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 13;10:870745. Epub 2022 May 13.

The Cancer Institute, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

When eukaryotic cells enter mitosis, dispersed chromosomes move to the cell center along microtubules to form a metaphase plate which facilitates the accurate chromosome segregation. Meanwhile, kinetochores not stably attached by microtubules activate the spindle assembly checkpoint and generate a wait signal to delay the initiation of anaphase. These events are highly coordinated. Disruption of the coordination will cause severe problems like chromosome gain or loss. Bub1, a conserved serine/threonine kinase, plays important roles in mitosis. After extensive studies in the last three decades, the role of Bub1 on checkpoint has achieved a comprehensive understanding; its role on chromosome alignment also starts to emerge. In this review, we summarize the latest development of Bub1 on supporting the two mitotic events. The essentiality of Bub1 in higher eukaryotic cells is also discussed. At the end, some undissolved questions are raised for future study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.870745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9136299PMC
May 2022

Urban ventilation corridors and spatiotemporal divergence patterns of urban heat island intensity: a local climate zone perspective.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 30. Epub 2022 May 30.

School of Earth and Planetary Sciences (EPS), Curtin University, Perth, 65630, Australia.

Urban ventilation corridors introduce fresh air into urban interiors and improve urban livability, while mitigating the urban heat island (UHI) effect. However, few studies have assessed the impact of urban ventilation corridors on UHI intensity (UHII) from the perspective of the local climates of different cities. Therefore, this study integrated multisource data to construct ventilation corridors from the perspective of local climate zone (LCZ) and analyzed its impact on UHII. The results showed the following: (1) the average UHII of constructed LCZs was higher than that of natural LCZs, among which the building type LCZ10 (heavy industry) had the highest intensity (5.77 °C); (2) in extracted ventilation corridors, the pixel number of natural LCZs was substantially larger than that of constructed LCZs, among which LCZE (bare soil/paved) was the largest; and (3) for natural LCZs, the average UHII of each LCZ was lower within the ventilated corridors than within the non-ventilated corridors (except for LCZG [water]), with the UHII of LCZB (scattered trees) exhibiting the greatest mitigation effect. Quantitative research on the composition and function of ventilation corridors can not only assess the ability of ventilation corridors to mitigate UHIs, but also provide a reference for urban ventilation corridor planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21037-9DOI Listing
May 2022

Patient-derived Organoids Pharmacotyping Guides Precision Medicine for Pancreatic Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, United States.

The patient-derived organoids (PDOs) platform recapitulates the phenotype, genotype, and molecular characteristics of primary tumors. High-throughput drug screening in terms of pharmacotyping using standard of care chemotherapy agents in the PDOs platform has shown promising sensitivities to guide precision medicine for individual PDAC patients within a clinically relevant time frame.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-22-1083DOI Listing
May 2022

The development of a colorimetric biosensing assay for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in feces.

Anal Biochem 2022 Aug 18;651:114737. Epub 2022 May 18.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, PR China; West China-PUMC C.C. Chen Institute of Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, PR China. Electronic address:

As Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is closely related to the occurrence of gastric diseases such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer, early detection of H. pylori is an urgent need. In this study, oligonucleotide probes conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used in combination with H. pylori-specific aptamers for the rapid detection of H. pylori in stool samples, which converted the method of detection from proteins to nucleic acids. Therefore, qualitative detection of H. pylori can be achieved by observing color changes through the aggregation (red to purple) or deaggregation (purple to red) of AuNPs, and further quantitative detection can be achieved through UV spectrometry. The detection limit of the colorimetric biosensing method is 25 CFU/mL (S/N = 3), which is favorably comparable to other reported detection methods. Compared with the existing detection methods for H. pylori, this colorimetric biosensing method has no limitations to the test subjects. All these features render the colorimetric biosensing assay a promising method for the clinical field detection of H. pylori.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2022.114737DOI Listing
August 2022

Gut dysbiosis in rheumatic diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 92 observational studies.

EBioMedicine 2022 Jun 17;80:104055. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Orthopaedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; Hunan Key Laboratory of Joint Degeneration and Injury, Changsha, China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging evidence suggests that dysbiosis in gut microbiota may contribute to the occurrence or development of several rheumatic diseases. Since gut microbiota dysbiosis is potentially modifiable, it has been postulated to be a promising preventive or therapeutic target for rheumatic diseases. However, the current understanding on the potential associations between gut microbiota and rheumatic diseases is still inadequate. Therefore, we aimed to synthesise the accumulating evidence for the relation of gut microbiota to rheumatic diseases.

Methods: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to March 11, 2022 to include observational studies evaluating the associations between gut microbiota and rheumatic diseases. Standardised mean difference (SMD) of α-diversity indices between rheumatic diseases and controls were estimated using random-effects model. β-diversity indices and relative abundance of gut microbes were summarised qualitatively.

Findings: Of the included 92 studies (11,998 participants), 68 provided data for α-diversity. Taken together as a whole, decreases in α-diversity indices were consistently found in rheumatic diseases (observed species: SMD = -0.36, [95%CI = -0.63, -0.09]; Chao1: SMD = -0.57, [95%CI = -0.88, -0.26]; Shannon index: SMD = -0.33, [95%CI = -0.48, -0.17]; Simpson index: SMD = -0.32, [95%CI = -0.49, -0.14]). However, when specific rheumatic diseases were examined, decreases were only observed in rheumatoid arthritis (observed species: SMD = -0.51, [95%CI = -0.78, -0.24]; Shannon index: SMD = -0.31, [95%CI = -0.49, -0.13]; Simpson index: SMD = -0.31, [95%CI = -0.54, -0.08]), systemic lupus erythematosus (Chao1: SMD = -1.60, [95%CI = -2.54, -0.66]; Shannon index: SMD = -0.63, [95%CI = -1.08, -0.18]), gout (Simpson index: SMD = -0.64, [95%CI = -1.07, -0.22]) and fibromyalgia (Simpson index: SMD = -0.28, [95%CI = -0.44, -0.11]), whereas an increase was observed in systemic sclerosis (Shannon index: SMD = 1.25, [95%CI = 0.09, 2.41]). Differences with statistical significance in β-diversity were consistently reported in ankylosing spondylitis and IgG4-related diseases. Although little evidence of disease specificity of gut microbes was found, shared alterations of the depletion of anti-inflammatory butyrate-producing microbe (i.e., Faecalibacterium) and the enrichment of pro-inflammatory microbe (i.e., Streptococcus) were observed in rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Interpretation: Gut microbiota dysbiosis was associated with rheumatic diseases, principally with potentially non-specific, shared alterations of microbes.

Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China (81930071, 81902265, 82072502 and U21A20352).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104055DOI Listing
June 2022

Putative involvement of sirtuin modulators in LPS-induced sickness behaviour in mice.

Metab Brain Dis 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, 576104, India.

NAD-dependent histone deacetylases (sirtuins 1-7) have been shown to be involved in various pathophysiological conditions including their involvement in cardiovascular, cancerous, neurodegenerative, immune dysregulation and inflammatory conditions. This study investigates the inflammomodulatory potential of resveratrol (RES), a sirtuin activator and sirtinol (SIR), a sirtuin inhibitor in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model of sickness behaviour in mice. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 6) consisting of saline (SAL), LPS, RES, SIR, and fluoxetine (FLU) respectively, each group except LPS was prepared by intraperitoneally (i.p.) administration of SAL (10 mL/kg), RES (50 mg/kg), SIR (2 mg/kg) and FLU (10 mg/kg). Thirty minutes after the treatments, all the groups, except SAL were administered LPS (2 mg/kg, i.p.). The behavioural assays including, open field test, forced swim test, and tail suspension tests were conducted 1 h after LPS challenge. LPS administration significantly reduced the locomotor activity along with inducing a state of high immobility and that was prevented by pretreatment with RES and SIR. Further, various proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β), and oxidative stress markers (MDA and GSH) were found to be significantly elevated in the brain homogenates after LPS treatment. SIR pretreatment abrogated the LPS-induced neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress changes, whereas RES was only effective in reducing the oxidative stress and TNF-α levels. The results of this study speculate that the role of SIRT modulators in neuroinflammatory conditions could vary with their dose, regimen and chemical properties. Further studies with detailed molecular and pharmacokinetic profiling will be needed to explore their therapeutic potentials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-022-00992-9DOI Listing
May 2022

The Role of Cumulative Mean Arterial Pressure Levels in First Stroke Events Among Adults with Hypertension: A 10-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

Clin Epidemiol 2022 4;14:665-676. Epub 2022 May 4.

School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Mean arterial pressure (MAP) has been proved to be an independent risk factor for stroke. In this study, we explored whether cumulative exposure of MAP in patients with hypertension is more associated with the occurrence of stroke.

Methods: In this prospective follow-up cohort study of hypertension from June 2010 to May 2020, 9136 participants without previous stroke at recruitment were included, of whom 492 (5.4%) had a first incident stroke during the study period (418 ischemic strokes and 74 hemorrhagic strokes). The study exposure factor was cumulative MAP, and was quartered from low to high (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4). We analyzed the risk of first stroke using multivariable adjusted Cox regression models and used stratified analysis to further explore the risk of stroke in hypertensive patients with different characteristics.

Results: Increased cumulative MAP in patients with hypertension were associated with risk for ischemic stroke (HR, Q2, 1.23 [95% CI, 0.91-1.67]; Q3, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.01-1.82]; Q4, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.15-2.10]; P=0.035). Furthermore, this trend persisted after stratified analysis in men (HR, Q3, 1.76[1.10-2.82]; Q4, 2.05[1.28-3.28]), aged 60 or above (HR, Q4, 1.63[1.13-2.35]) and higher body mass index (BMI) populations (HR, Q3, 1.48[1.02-2.14]; Q4, 1.59[1.09-2.32]). In contrast, cumulative MAP was not significantly associated with stroke in women, age under 60, and non-obese individuals.

Conclusion: Increased cumulative MAP is an independent risk factor of ischemic stroke in patients with hypertension. Special attention should also be paid to men, aged 60 or older, or those with a higher BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S359284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9081206PMC
May 2022

miR-99 family is potential target to reverse cerium dioxide nanoparticle-induced placental cell dysfunction.

Ann Transl Med 2022 Apr;10(7):402

Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO NPs) are increasingly used as diesel additive, causing a lot of concern about their toxic effects when released into the atmosphere. To date, there is little knowledge about the toxic effects of CeO NPs on the female reproductive system.

Methods: The morphology and size distribution of CeO NPs was observed by transmission electronic microscope (TEM) and Zetasizer Nano, respectively. The uptake of CeO NPs by cells was also observed by TEM after treatment. The cytotoxicity of CeO NPs was studied by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), the cellular invasive and migratory ability was examined by transwell assay, the cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were studied by flow cytometry (FCM), and the mRNAs and proteins expressions were revealed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. The cytoskeletons and autophagy levels were revealed by immunofluorescence. The target regulation of miR-99 to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was proved by dual luciferase reporter assay after transfection.

Results: We studied the cytotoxic effects of CeO NPs on human trophoblastic cells (HTR-8/Svneo) and found that the invasive and migratory abilities of HTR-8/SVneo cells were decreased after CeO NPs exposure. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the cellular microtubule networks and microfilament arrangement were obviously altered, and although the expression of cytoskeleton proteins (α-tubulin, β-tubulin, actin) did not change, the protein levels of invasion- and migration-related factors [matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), protein kinases B (AKT), mTOR] were decreased in exposed cells. Accordingly, the expression level of miR-99 family members (miR-99a, miR-99b, miR-100), which can regulate mTOR, was significantly increased after CeO NPs exposure. Dual luciferase reporter assay indicated that the miR-99 family members directly targeted mTOR.

Conclusions: CeO NPs impaired the invasive and migratory abilities, which play an important role in embryo implantation, as well as determining placental function and embryonic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-22-508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9073772PMC
April 2022

Spontaneous Formation of Lead-Free Cs Cu I  Quantum Dots in Metal-Organic-Frameworks with Deep-Blue Emission.

Small 2022 Jun 8;18(22):e2107161. Epub 2022 May 8.

State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, P. R. China.

All-inorganic lead-free Cs Cu I  perovskite-derivant quantum dots (QDs) have attracted tremendous attention due to their nontoxicity and unique optoelectronic properties. However, the traditional hot-injection method requires high temperatures and multiple ligands to confine the growth of QDs. Herein, a strategy is reported to spontaneously synthesize ultrasmall Cs Cu I  QDs within metal-organic-frameworks (MOFs) MOF-74 at room temperature (RT) with an average diameter of 4.33 nm. The obtained Cs Cu I  QDs exhibit an evident deep-blue emission with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.17, 0.07), owing to the strong quantum confinement effect. Due to the protection of MOF-74, the Cs Cu I  QDs demonstrate superior stability, and the photoluminescence quantum yield retains 89% of the initial value after the storage of 1440 h under the environment with relative humidity exceeding 70%. Besides, triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion emission is observed within the composite of Cs Cu I @MOF-74, which brings out apparent temperature-dependent photoluminescence. This study reveals a facile method for fabricating ultrasmall lead-free perovskite-derivant QDs at RT without multiple ligands. Besides, the temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Cs Cu I @MOF-74 may open up a new way to develop the applications of temperature sensors or other related optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202107161DOI Listing
June 2022

Mesothelial cell-derived antigen-presenting cancer-associated fibroblasts induce expansion of regulatory T cells in pancreatic cancer.

Cancer Cell 2022 Jun 5;40(6):656-673.e7. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390, USA; Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390, USA; Cancer Biology Graduate Program, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390, USA; Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

Recent studies have identified a unique cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) population termed antigen-presenting CAFs (apCAFs), characterized by the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, suggesting a function in regulating tumor immunity. Here, by integrating multiple single-cell RNA-sequencing studies and performing robust lineage-tracing assays, we find that apCAFs are derived from mesothelial cells. During pancreatic cancer progression, mesothelial cells form apCAFs by downregulating mesothelial features and gaining fibroblastic features, a process induced by interleukin-1 and transforming growth factor β. apCAFs directly ligate and induce naive CD4 T cells into regulatory T cells (Tregs) in an antigen-specific manner. Moreover, treatment with an antibody targeting the mesothelial cell marker mesothelin can effectively inhibit mesothelial cell to apCAF transition and Treg formation induced by apCAFs. Taken together, our study elucidates how mesothelial cells may contribute to immune evasion in pancreatic cancer and provides insight on strategies to enhance cancer immune therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2022.04.011DOI Listing
June 2022

Differences of blood pressure measured at clinic versus at home in the morning and in the evening in Europe and Asia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2022 06 29;24(6):677-688. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Cardiology, Fu Wai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Numerous studies have indicated that there might be great differences among different populations in Europe and Asia in terms of home morning and evening blood pressure (BP). Thus, the authors performed a systematic review to determine the quantitative differences of BP measured at clinic versus at home in the morning and in the evening in Europe and Asia. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched up to October 2021. Studies that compared clinic BP with home morning and (or) home evening BP in European and Asian populations were included. A random effect model was applied to pool the differences between clinic BP and home morning/evening BP. Thirty-five studies, for a total of 49 432 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. Mean clinic systolic blood pressure (SBP) values were significantly higher than home morning SBP values by 3.79 mmHg (95% CI, 2.77-4.80). The differences were much larger in Europe [(6.53 mmHg (95% CI, 4.10-8.97)] than in Asia [(2.70 mmHg (95% CI, 1.74-3.66)], and the region was a significant predictor for the differences. Mean clinic SBP values were also significantly higher than home evening SBP values by 6.59 mmHg (95% CI, 4.98-8.21). The differences were much smaller in Europe [5.85 mmHg (95% CI, 3.24-8.45)] than in Asia [7.13 mmHg (95% CI, 4.92-9.35)], while age and clinic SBP might contribute to it. Our findings showed that the difference between clinic and home morning SBP was much larger in European than Asian populations, whereas the difference between clinic and home evening SBP was the opposite. The differing characteristics of the region, ethnic, age, and clinic BP might explain the diversities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14487DOI Listing
June 2022

The glucocorticoid toxicity index: Measuring change in glucocorticoid toxicity over time.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2022 Apr 15;55:152010. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been the cornerstone of treating dozens of inflammatory conditions for more than seven decades. GC toxicity is ubiquitous in both clinical trials and clinical practice, and toxicities associated with GC use are central to the experience of most patients being treated for immune-mediated conditions. These conditions span the full range of medical specialties, including rheumatology, nephrology, gastroenterology, neurology, pulmonology, ophthalmology, and others. One of the goals of novel therapies for inflammatory disease must be to diminish the effects of GC toxicity in clinically important ways, thereby differentiating these new treatments from existing approaches. Despite the importance of glucocorticoids in the treatment of inflammatory disease for more than 70 years, no reliable means of calculating the degree to which GC toxicity has worsened or improved over the course of treatment has been available. The Glucocorticoid Toxicity Index (GTI), developed by an international group of subspecialty physician experts as a clinician-facing clinical trials outcome measure, is a standardized, validated measure of the phenomenon known as GC toxicity. The purpose of the instrument is to measure change in GC toxicity between two points in time: for example, between the baseline visit and the time of the primary efficacy outcome assessment. The instrument is designed to quantify both worsening and improvement in GC toxicity. The GTI has been validated in both real-world experiences and clinical trials, including a phase 3, label-enabling trial in ANCA associated vasculitis. This article reviews the history and rationale for the development of the GTI, describes key data from validation studies, considers the minimum clinically important difference, and provides instructions for use of the instrument.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2022.152010DOI Listing
April 2022

Thada Is Dispensable for Female Fertility in Mice.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 5;13:787733. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified as one of the susceptibility genes for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene showed significant over-transmission in PCOS and strong correlations with testosterone level. However, there was insufficient evidence to verify the effect of on female reproductive system. In this study, we investigated the impacts of ablation on ovarian function and reproductive outcomes with knockout (KO) mice. The results showed that the deletion was insufficient to affect ovarian folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, and female fertility. Additionally, we stressed the mice with high-fat-high-sugar diet (HFHS). In this case, the KO mice still merely had a negligible impact on ovarian function. These findings indicated that deficiency was dispensable for female fertility in mice, which enriched our knowledge about functions of PCOS susceptibility genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.787733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9037063PMC
April 2022

Modulation effect of substantia nigra iron deposition and functional connectivity on putamen glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease.

Hum Brain Mapp 2022 Apr 26. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Neurodegeneration of the substantia nigra affects putamen activity in Parkinson's disease (PD), yet in vivo evidence of how the substantia nigra modulates putamen glucose metabolism in humans is missing. We aimed to investigate how substantia nigra modulates the putamen glucose metabolism using a cross-sectional design. Resting-state fMRI, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and [ F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (FDG-PET) data were acquired. Forty-two PD patients and 25 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited for simultaneous PET/MRI scanning. The main measurements of the current study were images representing iron deposition (28 PD and 25 HCs), standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) images representing FDG-uptake (33 PD and 25 HCs), and resting state functional connectivity maps from resting state fMRI (34 PD and 25 HCs). An interaction term based on the general linear model was used to investigate the joint modulation effect of nigral iron deposition and nigral-putamen functional connectivity on putamen FDG-uptake. Compared with HCs, we found increased iron deposition in the substantia nigra (p = .007), increased FDG-uptake in the putamen (left: P  < 0.001; right: P  < 0.001), and decreased functional connectivity between the substantia nigra and the anterior putamen (left P  < 0.001, right: P  = 0.007). We then identified significant interaction effect of nigral iron deposition and nigral-putamen connectivity on FDG-uptake in the putamen (p = .004). The current study demonstrated joint modulation effect of the substantia nigra iron deposition and nigral-putamen functional connectivity on putamen glucose metabolic distribution, thereby revealing in vivo pathological mechanism of nigrostriatal neurodegeneration of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25880DOI Listing
April 2022

Direct and indirect regulation of the tumor immune microenvironment by VEGF.

J Leukoc Biol 2022 Jun 25;111(6):1269-1286. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) is the predominant angiogenic factor that is expressed in solid tumors. Besides its critical function in mediating tumor angiogenesis, multiple studies have demonstrated that VEGF also contributes to tumor immunosuppression. VEGF interferes with immune cell trafficking indirectly by promoting a vascular immune barrier through VEGF receptor (VEGFR) activity on endothelial cells. However, VEGFRs are also expressed on multiple immune cell types, including T cells (effector T cells, Tregs) and myeloid cells (DCs, TAMs, MDSCs), where VEGF can have direct effects on immune cell phenotype and function. Thus, it is not surprising that strategies targeting VEGF/VEGFRs have shown efficacy in alleviating tumor-associated immunosuppression and have been combined with immunotherapies, especially immune checkpoint blockade. In this review, we discuss the direct and indirect effects of VEGF on the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment with particular focus on the direct regulation of immune cells through VEGFR2 activity. We also summarize preclinical and clinical observations of combining antiangiogenesis agents with immunotherapies for the treatment of solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.5RU0222-082RDOI Listing
June 2022

Prevalence estimates of osteoarthritis from Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2022 Apr 4. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Arthritis Clinic and Research Center, Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.42134DOI Listing
April 2022

Are TEMs Canceled? Questioning the Functional Relevance of Tie2-Expressing Macrophages.

Cancer Res 2022 04;82(7):1172-1173

Cancer Biology Graduate Program, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Inflammatory cells are a vital component of the tumor stroma and, of these, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are the major cell type. TAMs are recruited early in tumorigenesis and generally promote metastasis, stimulate tumor angiogenesis, and drive immunosuppression. TAMs have been shown to express the endothelial cell markers that enable chemotaxis and proangiogenic capacity. In this issue of Cancer Research, Jakab and colleagues challenge the functional significance of Tie2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEM) in the context of tumor growth and progression. By employing myeloid-specific deletion of the angiopoietin receptor Tie2 and comprehensive analysis of myeloid cell single-cell RNA sequencing datasets, they provide compelling data that Tie2-positive macrophages do not contribute to tumor angiogenesis or relapse after chemotherapy, two major biologic processes previously attributed to tumor-associated TEMs. The study highlights that the concept of macrophage-expressed Tie2 as a therapeutic target or prognostic indicator needs reconsideration. See related article by Jakab et al., p. 1353.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-22-0330DOI Listing
April 2022

The Long-Term Effects of Non-Pharmacological Interventions on Diabetes and Chronic Complication Outcomes in Patients With Hyperglycemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 18;13:838224. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objective: This study aimed at examining the long-term effects of non-pharmacological interventions on reducing the diabetes incidence among patients with prediabetes and chronic complications events among patients with hyperglycemia (pre-diabetes and diabetes) by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science Core Collection were searched for studies published between January 1990 and November 2021, looking for RCTs to evaluate the effects of non-pharmacological interventions on preventing the incidence of diabetes and chronic complications in comparison with medical therapy, placebo, or usual diabetes care. Two independent reviews extracted relevant data and quality assessment. Any discrepancies were resolved by a third reviewer.

Results: In total, 20 articles involved 16 RCTs (follow-up ranged from 2 to 30 years) were included. Pooled analysis of intervention studies demonstrated clearly that non-pharmacological interventions have a significant effect on reducing the diabetes events in patients with prediabetes (RR 0.62; 95% CI 0.54, 0.71). Pooled analysis of extended follow-up studies showed that non-pharmacological interventions could effectively reduce the diabetes incidence in patients with prediabetes (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.63, 0.96). Meta-regression and subgroup analysis indicates that the diabetes incidence of the long-term group (duration > 3 years) was clearly reduced by 0.05% compared with the relatively short-term group (duration ≤ 3 years). The incidence of microvascular complications in patients with hyperglycemia was effectively lowered by non-pharmacological interventions (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.43, 0.83).

Conclusion: Non-pharmacological interventions have a long-term effect on reducing the diabetes incidence among prediabetic patients and effectively preventing microvascular complications on hyperglycemia.

Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.838224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8971720PMC
April 2022

Effect of Chinese Patent Medicines on Ocular Fundus Signs and Vision in Calcium Dobesilate-Treated Persons With Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 14;13:799337. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Endocrinology, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the commonest microvascular complications in diabetic patients, is featured by a series of fundus lesions. Conventional Western medicine therapies for DR are always with modest treatment outcome. This paper is to assess the ocular fundus signs, vision and safety of Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) as an add-on treatment for DR.

Method: 7 electronic databases were searched to determine eligible trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) in which the intervention group received CPMs combined with calcium dobesilate (CD), and the control group received only CD were included for analysis. Two reviewers extracted the data independently. Results expressing as mean differences (MD) and relative risks (RR) were analyzed with a fixed-effects or random-effects models.

Results: 19 RCTs involved 1568 participants with 1622 eyes met our inclusion criteria. The results suggested that compared with CD alone, CPMs plus CD for NPDR was superior at reducing the microaneurysm volume (MD -3.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.59 to -3.14), microaneurysm counts (MD -2.29; 95%CI -2.97 to -1.61), hemorrhage area (MD -0.79; 95%CI -0.83 to -0.75), and macular thickness (MD -59.72; 95%CI -63.24 to -56.20). Participants in CPMs plus CD group also achieved a better vision. No obvious adverse events occurred.

Conclusion: CPMs as an add-on therapy for NPDR have additional benefits and be generally safe. This meta-analysis demonstrated that CPMs combined with CD could improve retinal microaneurysm, hemorrhage, macular thickness, visual acuity, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) compared with CD alone. Further studies are needed to provide more conclusive evidence.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42021257999.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.799337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8967137PMC
April 2022

Hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation activities of hydroxyalkylsulfonates.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 26;830:154767. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization and Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Environmental Pollution and Control, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Deep Earth Science, Guangzhou 510640, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Hydroxyalkylsulfonates may contribute significantly to atmospheric particles; however, their hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities remain unknown. In this study, three complementary techniques were utilized to examine the hygroscopicity of sodium hydroxymethanesulfonate (NaHMS), sodium 2-hydroxyethylsulfonate (NaHES), and ammonium 2-hydroxyethylsulfonate (NHHES) under subsaturated and supersaturated environments. The mass changes in the three hydroxyalkylsulfonates at different relative humidities at 25 °C were examined by a vapor sorption analyzer, and the mass growth factors were measured to be 3.25 ± 0.01 for NaHMS, 3.32 ± 0.02 for NaHES, and 3.34 ± 0.04 for NHHES at 90% RH. Their hygroscopic growth was investigated by a humidity tandem differential mobility analyzer, and hygroscopic growth factors were 1.78 ± 0.02 for NaHMS, 1.71 ± 0.02 for NaHES, and 1.68 ± 0.03 for NHHES at 90% RH. Furthermore, the CCN activities of NaHMS, NaHES, and NHHES were explored, and their single hygroscopicity parameters (κ) were measured to be 0.649 ± 0.097 for NaHMS, 0.559 ± 0.069 for NaHES, and 0.434 ± 0.073 for NHHES. In addition, the hygroscopic growth and CCN activities of binary mixtures of ammonium sulfate with one of the three hydroxyalkylsulfonates were also examined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154767DOI Listing
July 2022

Avian influenza viruses suppress innate immunity by inducing trans-transcriptional readthrough via SSU72.

Cell Mol Immunol 2022 Jun 24;19(6):702-714. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Second Hospital Affiliated with Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518112, China.

Innate immunity plays critical antiviral roles. The highly virulent avian influenza viruses (AIVs) H5N1, H7N9, and H5N6 can better escape host innate immune responses than the less virulent seasonal H1N1 virus. Here, we report a mechanism by which transcriptional readthrough (TRT)-mediated suppression of innate immunity occurs post AIV infection. By using cell lines, mouse lungs, and patient PBMCs, we showed that genes on the complementary strand ("trans" genes) influenced by TRT were involved in the disruption of host antiviral responses during AIV infection. The trans-TRT enhanced viral lethality, and TRT abolishment increased cell viability and STAT1/2 expression. The viral NS1 protein directly bound to SSU72, and degradation of SSU72 induced TRT. SSU72 overexpression reduced TRT and alleviated mouse lung injury. Our results suggest that AIVs infection induce TRT by reducing SSU72 expression, thereby impairing host immune responses, a molecular mechanism acting through the NS1-SSU72-trans-TRT-STAT1/2 axis. Thus, restoration of SSU72 expression might be a potential strategy for preventing AIV pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-022-00843-8DOI Listing
June 2022
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