Publications by authors named "Yuqing Sun"

122 Publications

Effect of low wall shear stress on the morphology of endothelial cells and its evaluation indicators.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 May 2;208:106082. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Objective: This study is designed to explore the morphological changes of endothelial cells (ECs) under different levels of shear stress and find the effective evaluation indicators with in vivo and in vitro experiments.

Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Sprague-Dawley rats were used to study the effect of different shear stress which applied by means of parallel plate-flow chamber and abdominal aorta banding model on the morphology of endothelial cells. Then, fluorescence images were acquired by means of a confocal laser-scanning microscope. Finally, Cell morphological indicators were extracted by SRAD-MCW computer image processing algorithm for quantitative analysis.

Results: 1) The morphological changes of HUVECs were observed after exposure to shear stress for 6 h, the HUVECs were elongated and spindle-shaped. And the degree of cell deformability was different while the exposure time was different, then it became stable after 18 h. The HUVECs exposure to high shear stress (HSS) exhibited an ordered cell arrangement, while the HUVECs exposure to low shear stress (LSS) showed a disordered cell arrangement. 2) Traditional cell morphological indicators such as area, perimeter, long axis diameter, short axis diameter and orientation angle were not significantly different between the normal shear stress (NSS) group and the LSS group (P > 0.05), but the intercellular space characteristics such as the junction length per unit area and the triple points per unit area were significantly different (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the size and duration of shear stress can affect the morphology and arrangement of endothelial cells. The commonly used evaluation indicators for studying the effect of shear stress on the morphology of endothelial cells, including area, perimeter, long axis diameter, short axis diameter and orientation angle, etc., had no significant statistical significance, while the intercellular space characteristics including the junction length per unit area and the triple points per unit area can be used as effective indicator to study the effect of shear stress on the morphology of endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106082DOI Listing
May 2021

Distribution, behaviour, bioavailability and remediation of poly- and per-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in solid biowastes and biowaste-treated soil.

Environ Int 2021 May 5;155:106600. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA; Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

Aqueous film-forming foam, used in firefighting, and biowastes, including biosolids, animal and poultry manures, and composts, provide a major source of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) input to soil. Large amounts of biowastes are added to soil as a source of nutrients and carbon. They also are added as soil amendments to improve soil health and crop productivity. Plant uptake of PFAS through soil application of biowastes is a pathway for animal and human exposure to PFAS. The complexity of PFAS mixtures, and their chemical and thermal stability, make remediation of PFAS in both solid and aqueous matrices challenging. Remediation of PFAS in biowastes, as well as soils treated with these biowastes, can be achieved through preventing and decreasing the concentration of PFAS in biowaste sources (i.e., prevention through source control), mobilization of PFAS in contaminated soil and subsequent removal through leaching (i.e., soil washing) and plant uptake (i.e., phytoremediation), sorption of PFAS, thereby decreasing their mobility and bioavailability (i.e., immobilization), and complete removal through thermal and chemical oxidation (i.e., destruction). In this review, the distribution, bioavailability, and remediation of PFAS in soil receiving solid biowastes, which include biosolids, composts, and manure, are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106600DOI Listing
May 2021

Critical Impact of Nitrogen Vacancies in Nonradical Carbocatalysis on Nitrogen-Doped Graphitic Biochar.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 29;55(10):7004-7014. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon 852, Hong Kong, China.

Nitrogen-doped graphitic biochar (NBC) has boosted the development of nonradical peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation in environmental remediation. However, the specific role of nitrogen species played in NBC-based nonradical carbocatalysis remains vaguely interpreted. To pinpoint the critical nitrogen speciation, a sophisticated thermo-mechanochemical manipulation was exploited to prepare a series of NBCs with similar dimensional structures and oxygen levels but different nitrogen species (.., dopants and vacancies). Different from conventional perspectives, nonradical NBC-based carbocatalysis was found to be preferably determined by the nitrogen vacancies more than their parent nitrogen dopants. Raman depth analysis evidenced that a complete transformation of nitrogen dopants into nitrogen vacancies could be achieved at 800 °C, where an excellent nonradical abatement of 4-chlorophenol (4-CH, 90.9% removal) was found for the NBC800 with a low PMS consumption (1.24 mM). According to PMS adsorption experiments, nitrogen vacancies exhibited the highest affinity toward the PMS molecules compared to nitrogen dopants, which accounted for the superior carbocatalysis. Electron paramagnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopic analyses indicated that the original PMS molecules were bound to positively charged nitrogen vacancies, and a robust metastable complex (*HSO) evolved subsequently hydrogen abstraction by adjacent persistent free radicals. Raman techniques could be adopted to estimate the level of nitrogen vacancies associated with the polarization of electron distribution. The flexible feature and practical prospects of nitrogen vacancy-based carbocatalysis were also observed in the remediation of simulated phenolic industrial wastewater. Overall, this study unravels the dilemma in the current NBC-based nonradical carbocatalysis and advances our understanding of nitrogen doping technology for next-generation biochar design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08531DOI Listing
May 2021

Cluster Synchronization of Coupled Neural Networks With Lévy Noise via Event-Triggered Pinning Control.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Apr 22;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Cluster synchronization means that all multiagents are divided into different clusters according to the equations or roles of nodes in a complex network, and by designing an appropriate algorithm, each cluster can achieve synchronization to a certain value or an isolated node. However, the synchronization values between different clusters are different. With a feedback controller based on the calculation of the control input value and a trigger condition leading to the updating instants, this article introduces the trigger mechanism and designs a new data sampling strategy to achieve cluster synchronization of the coupled neural networks (CNNs), which reduces the number of updates of the controller, thereby reducing unnecessary waste of limited resources. In addition, an example proposes a synchronization algorithm and gives iterative procedures to calculate the trigger instants and prove the validity of the theoretical results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3072475DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of ε-polylysine and rosemary extract on quality attributes and microbial communities in vacuum-packaged large yellow croaker () during ice storage.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 Mar 19;30(3):465-474. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Shanghai Ocean University College of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai, 201306 China.

The effects of vacuum package combined with 0.1% ε-polylysine and 0.2% rosemary extract (V + RP) on the quality attributes and microbial communities of large yellow croaker () during ice storage were investigated. The quality was evaluated by chemical characteristics (total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), K-value and biogenic amines (BAs)), microbiological indexes (Total viable counts (TVC), bacteria counts, bacteria counts, Psychrophilic bacteria counts (PBC)), changes in microbial composition were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that the increase of TVB-N, K-value, microorganisms and BAs could be inhibited by V + RP. and were detected in all samples. increases rapidly in the middle of storage. and were related to the decomposition of ATP, the formation of BAs, and TVB-N, respectively. In conclusion, V + RP presented the optimal effects, which could extend the shelf life of large yellow croaker for another 9 days compared with the control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-021-00880-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017032PMC
March 2021

Complete chloroplast genome of (Ulvales: Ulvaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 11;6(3):720-722. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

College of Marine Ecology and Environment, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China.

is one of the causal green macroalgae in many countries. In this study, complete chloroplast genome sequence of was reported, and the total length of this species was 94,226 bp (GenBank accession number MT916929). The overall base composition of chloroplast genome was A (37.2%), T (37.0%), C (12.7%) and G (13.1%), and the percentage of A + T (74.2%) was higher than C + G (25.8%). chloroplast genome encoded 90 genes, including 63 protein-coding genes, 23 transfer RNAs genes, and 4 ribosomal RNAs genes. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis showed that is the closest sister species of . This study will be helpful to understand the genetic diversity of species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1860696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954497PMC
March 2021

Size-activity threshold of titanium dioxide-supported Cu cluster in CO oxidation.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 10;279:116899. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand.

Development of non-noble metal cluster catalysts, aiming at concurrently high activity and stability, for emission control systems has been challenging because of sintering and overcoating of clusters on the support. In this work, we reported the role of well-dispersed copper nanoclusters supported on TiO in CO oxidation under industrially relevant operating conditions. The catalyst containing 0.15 wt% Cu on TiO (0.15 CT) exhibited a high dispersion (59.1%), a large specific surface area (381 m/g), a small particle size (1.77 nm), and abundant active sites (75.8% CuO). The CO oxidation activity measured by the turnover frequency (TOF) was found to be enhanced from 0.60 × 10 to 3.22 × 10 mol·mol·s as the copper loading decreased from 5 to 0.15 wt%. A CO conversion of approximately 60% was still observed in the supported cluster catalyst with a Cu loading of 5 wt% at 240 °C. No deactivation was observed for catalysts with low copper loading (0.15 and 0.30 CT) after 8 h of time-on-stream, which compares favorably with less stable Au cluster-based catalysts reported in the literature. In contrast, catalysts with high copper loading (0.75 and 5 CT) showed deactivation over time, which was ascribed to the increase in copper particle size due to metal cluster agglomeration. This study elucidated the size-activity threshold of TiO-supported Cu cluster catalysts. It also demonstrated the potential of the supported Cu cluster catalyst at a typical temperature range of diesel engines at light-load. The supported Cu cluster catalyst could be a promising alternative to noble metal cluster catalysts for emission control systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116899DOI Listing
June 2021

Posterior fixation can further improve the segmental alignment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis with oblique lumbar interbody fusion.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Feb 23;22(1):218. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Spine Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, No. 31, Xinjiekou East Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100035, People's Republic of China.

Background: For patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, whether additional posterior fixation can further improve segmental alignment is unknown, compared with stand-alone cage insertion in oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) procedure. The aim of this study was to compare changes of the radiographical segmental alignment following stand-alone cage insertion and additional posterior fixation in the same procedure setting of OLIF for patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis.

Methods: A retrospective observational study. Selected consecutive patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis underwent OLIF procedure from July 2017 to August 2019. Five radiographic parameters of disc height (DH), DH-Anterior, DH-Posterior, slip ratio and segmental lordosis (SL) were measured on preoperative CT scans and intraoperative fluoroscopic images. Comparisons of those radiographic parameters prior to cage insertion, following cage insertion and following posterior fixation were performed.

Results: A total of thirty-three patients including six males and twenty-seven females, with an average age of 66.9 ± 8.7 years, were reviewed. Totally thirty-six slipped levels were assessed with thirty levels at L4/5, four at L3/4 and two at L2/3. Intraoperatively, with only anterior cage support, DH was increased from 8.2 ± 1.6 mm to 11.8 ± 1.7 mm (p < 0.001), DH-Anterior was increased from 9.6 ± 2.3 mm to 13.4 ± 2.1 mm (p < 0.001), DH-Posterior was increased from 6.1 ± 1.9 mm to 9.1 ± 2.1 mm (p < 0.001), the slip ratio was reduced from 11.1 ± 4.6% to 8.3 ± 4.4% (p = 0.020) with the slip reduction ratio 25.6 ± 32.3%, and SL was slightly changed from 8.7 ± 3.7° to 8.3 ± 3.0°(p = 1.000). Following posterior fixation, the DH was unchanged (from 11.8 ± 1.7 mm to 11.8 ± 2.3 mm, p = 1.000), DH-Anterior and DH-Posterior were slightly changed from 13.4 ± 2.1 mm and 9.1 ± 2.1 mm to 13.7 ± 2.3 mm and 8.4 ± 1.8 mm respectively (P = 0.861, P = 0.254), the slip ratio was reduced from 8.3 ± 4.4% to 2.1 ± 3.6% (p < 0.001) with the slip reduction ratio 57.9 ± 43.9%, and the SL was increased from 8.3 ± 3.0° to 10.7 ± 3.6° (p = 0.008).

Conclusions: Compared with stand-alone cage insertion, additional posterior fixation provides better segmental alignment improvement in terms of slip reduction and segmental lordosis in OLIF procedures in the treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04086-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903758PMC
February 2021

Analysis of Syk/PECAM-1 signaling pathway in low shear stress induced atherosclerosis based on ultrasound imaging.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 27;201:105953. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Research Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Low shear stress (LSS) has been demonstrated to be involved in function of vascular endothelial cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that activation of Syk played an important in LSS-induced atherosclerosis via PECAM-1 signaling pathway.

Methods: In vitro, primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were stimulated with parallel plate flow chamber system for 12h under normal shear stress (NSS, 15dyne/cm), LSS (5dyne/cm) and high shear stress (HSS, 25dyne/cm), respectively, followed by inflammatory response analysis. In vivo, animal models of rat fed atherogenic diet were treated with LSS stimulation by constricting abdominal aorta with a blunted needle (0.6mm in diameter). The spatial distribution of WSS of blood vessels was generated by WSS quantitative analysis software through color Doppler flow imaging with a high-frequency small animal ultrasound system. Small molecule R406, a well-demonstrated Syk inhibitor, was applied to animals as well as HUVEC cells.

Results: In vivo, comparison with the control group was performed, the mean value of WSS distribution of blood vessels was lower in LSS model rat. LSS promoted expression of phosphorylated PECAM-1 (p-PECAM-1) and Syk in LSS model rats. Compared with control group, endothelial cells of the abdominal aorta become less elongated and more polygonal in LSS group, and had a slender shape in LSS with R406 group. In vitro, LSS increased the expression of p-PECAM-1, Syk and NF-κB in HUVECs. Inhibition of Syk attenuated LSS-induced inflammatory response.

Conclusions: Activation of Syk resulted in LSS-induced inflammatory response via PECAM-1 signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Syk might be involved in morphological changes of ECs under the influence of LSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.105953DOI Listing
April 2021

Risk factors for cage retropulsion after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in older patients.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Dec;8(24):1660

Department of Spine Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, The Fourth Medical College of Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: To investigate the incidence of cage retropulsion (CR) following transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and the associated risk factors in older patients with lumbar disorders.

Methods: Between January 2015 and December 2017, 1,880 older patients (aged >60 years) who underwent open TLIF were preliminarily enrolled in this retrospective study. The patients' medical records were reviewed, and the risk factors potentially associated with CR were analyzed.

Results: A total of 1,662 patients (692 males and 970 females, with an average age of 68.7±5.2 years) who met the eligibility criteria were finally enrolled in this study. Following TLIF, 29 older patients (1.74%) developed CR including 12 patients with spinal stenosis, 7 patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 5 patients had degenerative disc diseases, 3 patients had surgical history, and 2 patients suffered isthmic spondylolisthesis. Of the 29 patients, 21 patients suffered lower back pain and/or sciatica (72.4%), while 8 patients were asymptomatic (27.6%). In multivariate analysis, screw loosening [odds ratio (OR) =7.315; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4-15.7] and endplate injury (OR =4.947; 95% CI: 2.3-10.6) were found to be independently associated with CR in older patients after TLIF.

Conclusions: The incidence of CR following TLIF in older patients is 1.74%. Screw loosening and endplate injury are risk factors for CR in older patients with TLIF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-7416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812186PMC
December 2020

Boosting thermo-photocatalytic CO conversion activity by using photosynthesis-inspired electron-proton-transfer mediators.

Nat Commun 2021 Jan 5;12(1):123. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

Natural photosynthesis proceeded by sequential water splitting and CO reduction reactions is an efficient strategy for CO conversion. Here, mimicking photosynthesis to boost CO-to-CO conversion is achieved by using plasmonic Bi as an electron-proton-transfer mediator. Electroreduction of HO with a Bi electrode simultaneously produces O and hydrogen-stored Bi (Bi-H). The obtained Bi-H is subsequently used to generate electron-proton pairs under light irradiation to reduce CO to CO; meanwhile, Bi-H recovers to Bi, completing the catalytic cycle. This two-step strategy avoids O separation and enables a CO production efficiency of 283.8 μmol g h without sacrificial reagents and cocatalysts, which is 9 times that on pristine Bi in H gas. Theoretical/experimental studies confirm that such excellent activity is attributed to the formed Bi-H intermediate that improves charge separation and reduces reaction barriers in CO reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20444-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785748PMC
January 2021

Iron-crosslinked alginate derived Fe/C composites for atrazine removal from water.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 27;756:143866. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Fe/C composite is emerging as a promising nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) based material for wastewater treatment to counteract the limitations of nZVI, while its preparation method, structure-activity relationship, and working mechanisms and conditions still need to be studied. In this study, Fe/C composites derived from iron-crosslinked alginate was successfully achieved via high temperature pyrolysis. Ferric ions were only transformed into FeO/γ-FeO at low pyrolysis temperature (≤500 °C), whereas Fe/FeC became the primary Fe species with the formation of graphitic carbon at elevated pyrolysis temperature (≥700 °C). Fe/C composites from higher pyrolysis temperature presented better performance in atrazine (ATZ) removal, and the optimal pyrolysis temperature was 800 °C (Fe/C-800). Batch experiments showed that the removal kinetics of ATZ (10 mg L) by Fe/C-800 (0.2 g L) followed pseudo-second-order model, and 24-h ATZ removal efficiency maintained at 93.5 ± 1.0% within pH 3-9. The adsorption by the graphitic carbon phase of Fe/C-800 was the principal contributor to the pH-independent superior performance in ATZ removal, and the Langmuir model fitted adsorption capacity was 64.8 mg g at pH 6. Although the carbon-phase adsorbed ATZ was basically unavailable for degradation, Fe/FeC-mediated ATZ degradation contributed to the great reactivity of Fe/C-800 at pH 3. Fe/FeC in Fe/C-800 was more efficient for ATZ degradation than commercial nZVI, and oxidative dealkylation by Fe/FeC mediated Fenton reaction was the predominant ATZ degradation pathway rather than reductive dechlorination. Moreover, the produced ATZ degradation intermediates could be further adsorbed by Fe/C-800, mitigating potential secondary pollution. Thus, iron-crosslinked alginate derived Fe/C composites can be an excellent alternative for nZVI in organics-polluted water treatment with great reactivity and wide pH applicability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143866DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of Ag on Properties, Microstructure, and Thermostability of Cu-Cr Alloy.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Nov 27;13(23). Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing (MOE), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

Cu-Cr-based alloys exhibit excellent electrical conductivity and strength, but their poor thermal stability limits their application in industry. In this paper, Cu-0.2Cr (at. %) and Cu-0.2Cr-0.12Ag (at. %) alloys were prepared to study the effect of Ag on the properties, microstructure, and thermal stability of the Cu-Cr alloy. Microstructure and precipitation were observed by an optical microscope (OM) and a transmission-electron microscope (TEM). After cold-drawing by 99.9% and aging at 450 °C for 2 h, the peak hardness and electric conductivity of the Cu-Cr alloy were 120.3 HV and 99.5% IACS, respectively, and those of the Cu-Cr-Ag alloy were 135.8 HV and 98.3% IACS, respectively. The softening temperature of the Cu-Cr alloy was 500~525 °C, and that of the Cu-Cr-Ag alloy was about 550 °C. The creep strains of the Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-Ag alloys at 40 MPa and 400 ℃ for 50 h were 0.18% and 0.05%, respectively. Ag elements improved the thermal stability of the Cu-Cr alloy. Recovery and recrystallization occurred before the coarsening of precipitates during the softening process. Ag atoms mainly improved the softening resistance of the alloy by delaying recrystallization, and mainly increased creep resistance by preventing the increase in mobile-dislocation density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13235386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730119PMC
November 2020

A compound plant extract and its antibacterial and antioxidant properties in vitro and in vivo.

3 Biotech 2020 Dec 13;10(12):532. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, 310021 Zhejiang People's Republic of China.

The present study was conducted to prepare a compound plant extract as a candidate animal feed additive. Firstly, (ER), (SS), (PG) and (AA) were screened out from 17 plants as materials of candidate compound plant extracts by measuring the antibacterial rate on and , and the scavenging capability on 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine radical in vitro. Secondly, proportions of the four materials were optimized with an L (4) orthogonal experiment. By range analysis of experimental results, two compound extracts (named as F1 and F2) with the strongest antibacterial and antioxidant functions were obtained. The ratio of ER: SS: PG: AA is 9:9:1:3 in F1 and 9:9:9:3 in F2, respectively. Finally, the effects of F1 and F2 on security and efficacy in vivo were evaluated. In healthy mice, F1 had no significant effects ( > 0.05) on all blood parameters and viscera indices, and at 1000 mg/kg bw dose significantly increased ( < 0.05) the average daily gain (ADG). F2 decreased ( < 0.05) white blood cell count at 3000 mg/kg bw and increased ( < 0.05) red blood cell count at 333 mg/kg bw. In immunosuppressed mice, both F1 and F2 improved ADG ( < 0.05) and the feed intake to gain ratio ( < 0.01), and increased the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase ( < 0.05), catalase ( < 0.05) and total antioxygen capacity ( < 0.05), and the content of malonaldehyde ( < 0.01). In mice challenged with , the antidiarrhea and reducing mortality effects of F1 were equivalent to the antibiotic. F2 failed to protect the experimental mice. These results suggested F1, a compound plant extract, show a great potential as a substitute for antibiotics in animal feed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-020-02529-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666253PMC
December 2020

A sequence embedding method for enzyme optimal condition analysis.

BMC Bioinformatics 2020 Nov 10;21(1):512. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

School of Software, Shandong University, Shunhua Road, Jinan, 250101, China.

Background: An enzyme activity is influenced by the external environment. It is important to have an enzyme remain high activity in a specific condition. A usual way is to first determine the optimal condition of an enzyme by either the gradient test or by tertiary structure, and then to use protein engineering to mutate a wild type enzyme for a higher activity in an expected condition.

Results: In this paper, we investigate the optimal condition of an enzyme by directly analyzing the sequence. We propose an embedding method to represent the amino acids and the structural information as vectors in the latent space. These vectors contain information about the correlations between amino acids and sites in the aligned amino acid sequences, as well as the correlation with the optimal condition. We crawled and processed the amino acid sequences in the glycoside hydrolase GH11 family, and got 125 amino acid sequences with optimal pH condition. We used probabilistic approximation method to implement the embedding learning method on these samples. Based on these embedding vectors, we design a computational score to determine which one has a better optimal condition for two given amino acid sequences and achieves the accuracy 80% on the test proteins in the same family. We also give the mutation suggestion such that it has a higher activity in an expected environment, which is consistent with the previously professional wet experiments and analysis.

Conclusion: A new computational method is proposed for the sequence based on the enzyme optimal condition analysis. Compared with the traditional process that involves a lot of wet experiments and requires multiple mutations, this method can give recommendations on the direction and location of amino acid substitution with reference significance for an expected condition in an efficient and effective way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-020-03851-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653822PMC
November 2020

Association between right ventricular strain and outcomes in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

Heart 2020 Nov 2. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

Objective: To explore the association between three-dimensional (3D) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) feature tracking (FT) right ventricular peak global longitudinal strain (RVpGLS) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with stage C or D heart failure (HF) with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) but without atrial fibrillation (AF).

Methods: Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Comprehensive clinical and biochemical analysis and CMR imaging were performed. All patients were followed up for MACEs.

Results: A total of 192 patients (age 53±14 years) were eligible for this study. A combination of cardiovascular death and cardiac transplantation occurred in 18 subjects during the median follow-up of 567 (311, 920) days. Brain natriuretic peptide, creatinine, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume, right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume and RVpGLS from CMR were associated with the outcomes. The multivariate Cox regression model adjusting for traditional risk factors and CMR variables detected a significant association between RVpGLS and MACEs in patients with stage C or D HF with NIDCM without AF. Kaplan-Meier analysis based on RVpGLS cut-off value revealed that patients with RVpGLS <-8.5% showed more favourable clinical outcomes than those with RVpGLS ≥-8.5% (p=0.0037). Subanalysis found that this association remained unchanged.

Conclusions: RVpGLS-derived from 3D CMR FT is associated with a significant prognostic impact in patients with NIDCM with stage C or D HF and without AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317949DOI Listing
November 2020

Finite- and Fixed-Time Cluster Synchronization of Nonlinearly Coupled Delayed Neural Networks via Pinning Control.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2020 Oct 14;PP. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

In this article, the cluster synchronization problem for a class of the nonlinearly coupled delayed neural networks (NNs) in both finite- and fixed-time cases are investigated. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and pinning control strategy, some criteria are provided to ensure the cluster synchronization of the nonlinearly coupled delayed NNs in both finite- and fixed-time aspects. Then, the settling time for stabilization that is dependent on the initial value and independent of the initial value is estimated, respectively. Finally, we illustrate the feasibility and practicality of the results via a numerical example.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3027312DOI Listing
October 2020

Prescribed-time cluster lag consensus control for second-order non-linear leader-following multiagent systems.

ISA Trans 2021 Mar 7;109:49-60. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China.

Prescribed-time Lag consensus, as a special case of prescribed-time cluster lag consensus, is first investigated. The task is to design a control protocol for each follower so that the multiagent system (MAS) achieves lag consensus in any specified time. To achieve this goal, we propose a new distributed controller, in which the control gains are designed as time-varying functions related to the pre-specified time. In addition, a state transformation is introduced to tackle the technical difficulty caused by time-varying functions of different powers in the theoretical proof process. Then, a solution for the cluster lag consensus problem of the MAS is provided, so that under the proposed control protocol, each subsystem composed of followers from the same group and the leader achieves lag consensus with a different lag time in the specified time. By using a state transformation, Graph theory and generalized Lyapunov stability theory, the validity of the designed schemes is verified theoretically and sufficient conditions for the two conclusions are given respectively. Finally, we give two simulation examples to show performances of the proposed solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2020.09.012DOI Listing
March 2021

The Gut Microbiota-Produced Indole-3-Propionic Acid Confers the Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Mulberry-Derived 1-Deoxynojirimycin.

mSystems 2020 Oct 6;5(5). Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Research Center, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Hyperlipidemia is a worldwide epidemic with an obvious gender disparity in incidence. Modulations on gut microbiota by traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are emerging as a potential rationale governing the profitable effects of drugs on hyperlipidemia. However, it is unclear how gut microbes regulate the progression of hyperlipidemia. Here, we found that mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and its active component 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) diminished hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia with similar efficacy in male and female mice but preferentially alleviated hypercholesterolemia in female mice. Further investigations showed that DNJ sex-specifically downregulated the expression of lipogenic genes, especially cholesterol-biosynthetic genes. Oral administration of DNJ imposed more profound modulation on gut microbiota in female mice than in male ones, as estimated by 16S rRNA metatranscriptomic analysis. DNJ markedly enriched and group XIVa and promoted the production of indole-3-propionic acid (IPA) in a sexually dimorphic way. Importantly, IPA tightly associates with the antihyperlipidemic effect of DNJ and exhibited a potent lipid-lowering effect both and Together, our results have established a regulatory mechanism by which DNJ sex-specifically improves hyperlipidemia, offering an in-depth theoretical basis for therapeutic exploitation of DNJ as a sex-specific intervention against hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia has been intensively focused on by researchers around the world owing to its major contribution to cardiovascular diseases. Various evidence reveals that women are more susceptible than male counterparts to dyslipidemia, making sex-dependent therapeutic strategies and drugs urgently needed. In the present work, we demonstrate that DNJ, the main active component of mulberry leaves, exerts an obvious female-preferential antihyperlipidemic effect through specifically enriching and XIVa and elevating an active microbial metabolite, indole-3-propionic acid (IPA), in female mice. Moreover, we have corroborated the potent lipid-lowering efficacy of IPA both and These findings not only indicate a potential mechanism by which gut microbes and their metabolites confer the beneficial role of DNJ in ameliorating hyperlipidemia but also provide an in-depth theoretical basis for therapeutic exploitation of DNJ as a female-specific intervention against hyperlipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00313-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7542557PMC
October 2020

Safety evaluation of aqueous extracts of fruiting body in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Sep 5;8(9):5107-5113. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Sericultural Research Institute Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences Hangzhou China.

, called "Sanghuang," is orally used for health care, tumor, and inflammation treatment in Asia. However, the safety of has not been evaluated. The major compounds analysis showed that aqueous extracts of fruiting body were rich in polysaccharides, nucleotides, and polyphenols. Then, the aqueous was given orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for toxical test. In acute toxicity study, the maximum tolerated dose was 21 g/kg. In 17-week repeated dose toxicity experiment, all rats had no abnormal reaction among control group, low dose group (0.15 g/kg) and middle dose group (1.00 g/kg). At high dose group (6.00 g/kg), the feces began to darken on 16th day (D16), and turned to drug stained stool on D21, all rats recovered on the 3rd day (D92) of recovery period. During the whole experiment, there were no animal death and no treatment-related changes in any of the parameters under the all doses. These results indicated the No-Observed Adverse Effect Level of aqueous extract of fruiting body was 1.0 g/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7500762PMC
September 2020

Beneficial effects of sappanone A on lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Dec 14;888:173558. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, China; Key Laboratory of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Compatibility Toxicology, Beijing, 100191, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Toxicological Research and Risk Assessment for Food Safety, Beijing, 100191, China. Electronic address:

Sappanone A (SA) is a homoisoflavonoid compound isolated from Caesalpinia sappan L. that selectively binds to inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 2, a protein involved in aging. It is unknown if SA has an anti-aging effect and what is it mechanism. This study aimed to investigate the lifespan-extending and health-enhancing effects of SA, and the potential pharmacological mechanism in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The worms were exposed to 0-50 μM SA. The effect on the lifespan was observed, and health status was evaluated by detecting motility, feeding, reproduction, thermotolerance, lipofuscin and ROS accumulation. To explore a possible mechanism, the transcription of the genes of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signalling pathway and heat stress response was detected by RT-qPCR. Moreover, subcellular distribution of green fluorescent protein-labeled DAF-16 was determined, and the interaction between SA and HSP-90 protein was simulated by molecular docking. We found that SA prolonged lifespan in C. elegans and enhanced motility and thermotolerance. The feeding and reproduction were not impacted. The ROS and lipofuscin accumulation was declined. Mechanistic study revealed that the gene expression levels of daf-16 and hsp-90 were up-regulated. Moreover, DAF-16 was translocated into the nucleus. SA was docked into the active pocket of HSP-90 in the simulation. SA (50 μM) can extend lifespan in C. elegans and decelerate aging by regulating the IIS pathway, and daf-16 is specifically important for the regulation of longevity. HSP-90 was involved in the enhancement of thermotolerance. Thus, SA may act as a promising candidate for the development of an anti-aging agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173558DOI Listing
December 2020

Efficiency of Different Treatment Regimens Combining Anti-tumor and Anti-inflammatory Liposomes for Metastatic Breast Cancer.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2020 Sep 10;21(7):259. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education (Fudan University), Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Nanomedicines such as liposomes have been widely exploited in the treatment of tumors, and are also involved in combination therapies to enhance anti-tumor efficacy and reduce side effects. However, few studies have systematically discussed the significance and optimized regimens for nanomedicine-based combination therapy. In this study, we used anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor liposomes for co-administration, and compared three regimens: intermittent, metronomic, or sequential administration (IA, MA, and SA). The anti-inflammatory liposome HA/TN-CCLP was constructed in our previous research, which co-loaded curcumin (CUR) and celecoxib (CXB), modified with TAT-NBD peptide (TN) and finally coated with hyaluronic acid (HA), thereby inhibiting NF-κB and STAT3 pathways in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, doxorubicin liposomes with and without TN modification (namely TN-DOXLP and DOXLP) were constructed and administrated with HA/TN-CCLP. The anti-tumor and anti-metastasis efficacy of different regimens was investigated. Results showed that in vitro cytotoxicity of DOXLP and TN-DOXLP was significantly enhanced when combined with HA/TN-CCLP. In vivo experiments also revealed the superiority of three combination therapies in inhibiting tumor growth, prolonging the survival of tumor-bearing mice, inducing apoptosis, and reducing lung metastases. In particular, the combination therapy could reduce MDSCs (Gr-1/CD11b) and CSCs (CD44/CD24) infiltration, which are two important factors in tumor metastasis and recurrence. Among three regimens, sequential administration (SA) showed the best therapeutic outcome and was especially effective for the inhibition of CSCs. In general, the results demonstrated that combination therapy, particularly the sequential administration of anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor liposome, was superior to monotherapy in inhibiting the development and metastasis of inflammation-related tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-020-01792-zDOI Listing
September 2020

The influx/efflux mechanisms of d-peptide ligand of nAChRs across the blood-brain barrier and its therapeutic value in treating glioma.

J Control Release 2020 11 11;327:384-396. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Minhang Hospital & Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

A d-peptide ligand of the nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), termed CDX, enables drug delivery to the brain when incorporated into liposomes and has shown promise as a nanocarrier for treating brain diseases. However, few reports have described the mechanisms whereby CDX-modified liposomes traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms enabling CDX (and its associated liposomes) to cross an in vitro BBB using a simulated cerebral endothelium monolayer formed by brain capillary endothelial cells (bEnd.3 cells). We also examined the mechanisms whereby CDX-modified liposomes cross the BBB in vivo using the brain efflux-index method. Transport of CDX and its modified liposomes was dominantly mediated via the lipid raft/caveolae endocytic pathway. Both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex participated in delivering CDX-modified liposomes to the plasma membrane (PM). CDX-modified liposomes also participated in the endosome/lysosome pathway (with high-efficiency BBB crossing observed in vitro), while competing for the ER/Golgi/PM pathway. In addition, nAChR α7 did not promote the transportation of CDX-modified liposomes in vivo or in vitro, as assessed with α7-knockout mice and by performing α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt) binding-competition experiments. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was identified as the main efflux transporter across the BBB, in vivo and in vitro. Using a xenograft nude mouse model of human glioblastoma multiforme, blocking the efflux function of P-gp with verapamil enhanced the therapeutic efficiency of CDX-modified liposomes that were formulated with doxorubicin against glioblastoma. The findings of this study reveal novel mechanisms underlying crossing of the BBB by CDX-modified liposomes, suggesting that CDX-modified liposomes can potentially serve as a powerful therapeutic tool for treating glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.08.010DOI Listing
November 2020

Performance indicators for a holistic evaluation of catalyst-based degradation-A case study of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs).

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 12;402:123460. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.

Considerable efforts have been made to develop effective and sustainable catalysts, e.g., carbon-/biochar-based catalyst, for the decontamination of organic pollutants in water/wastewater. Most of the published studies evaluated the catalytic performance mainly upon degradation efficiency of parent compounds; however, comprehensive and field-relevant performance assessment is still in need. This review critically analysed the performance indicators for carbon-/biochar-based catalytic degradation from the perspectives of: (1) degradation of parent compounds, i.e., concentrations, kinetics, reactive oxidative species (ROS) analysis, and residual oxidant concentration; (2) formation of intermediates and by-products, i.e., intermediates analysis, evolution of inorganic ions, and total organic carbon (TOC); and (3) impact assessment of treated samples, i.e., toxicity evolution, disinfection effect, and biodegradability test. Five most frequently detected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) (sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, diclofenac, and acetaminophen) were selected as a case study to articulate the performance indicators for a holistic evaluation of carbon-/biochar-based catalytic degradation. This review also encourages the development of alternative performance indicators to facilitate the rational design of catalysts in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123460DOI Listing
January 2021

Ball milling as a mechanochemical technology for fabrication of novel biochar nanomaterials.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Sep 1;312:123613. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Korea Biochar Research Centre & Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea.

Mechanochemical synthesis of nano-biochar by ball-milling technology is gaining attention for the sake of its low-cost and eco-friendly nature. Ball milling as a non-/less-solvent technology can propel environmental sustainability and waste valorization into engineered biochar for advanced applications. Scalable production of biochar nanomaterials with superior properties (e.g., 400-500 m g surface area and 0.5-1000 nm pore sizes) enables diverse applications in the field of energy and environment. This review critically evaluates the synthesis, characterization, and application of ball-milled biochar nanomaterials based on the latest findings. Limitations such as feedstock selection, process optimization, product homogeneity and reusability, environmental risks, and sustainability assessment remain challenging for further studies. This work highlights the recent advances on mechanochemical biochar technology and offer insights into opportunities and future prospects related to sustainable and facile synthesis of biochar-based novel materials for achieving sustainable development goals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123613DOI Listing
September 2020

Whole-genome sequence of (mulberry Sanghuang) reveals its unique medicinal values.

J Adv Res 2020 Jul 28;24:325-335. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Sericultural Research Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, People's Republic of China.

(Schwein.) Pat, a species of 'Sanghuang', has been well-documented for various medicinal uses, but the genome information and active constituents are largely unknown. Here, we sequenced the whole-genome of , identified phenylpropanoids as its key anti-cancer components, and deduced their biosynthesis pathways. A 41.11-Mb genome sequence was assembled and the heatmap created with high-throughput chromosome conformation capture techniques data suggested all bins could be clearly divided into 11 pseudochromosomes. Cellular experiments showed that fruiting body was more effective to inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cells than mycelia. High resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS) analysis revealed fruiting body was rich in phenylpropanoids, and several unique phenylpropanoids in spp. exhibited potent anti-carcinogenesis activity. Based on genomic, HR-ESI-MS information and differentially expressed genes in transcriptome analysis, we deduced the biosynthesis pathway of four major phenylpropanoids in . Transcriptome analysis revealed the deduced genes expressions were synergistically changed with the production of phenylpropanoids. The optimal candidate genes of phenylpropanoids' synthesis pathway were screened by molecular docking analysis. Overall, our results provided a high-quality genomic data of and inferred biosynthesis pathways of four phenylpropanoids with potent anti-carcinogenesis activities. These will be a valuable resource for further genetic improvement and effective use of the .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.04.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235939PMC
July 2020

Nkx2.1 downregulation is involved in brain abnormality induced by excess retinoic acid.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2020 Jun;52(6):683-690

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanxi Key Laboratory of Birth Defect and Cell Regeneration, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China.

Abnormal development of central nervous system (CNS) caused by neural tube defects is not only a major contributor in the prevalence of stillbirths and neonatal deaths but also causes lifelong physical disability in surviving infants. Due to insufficient known investigated causes, CNS developmental abnormality has brought sever burden on health around the world. From previous results of high throughput transcriptome sequencing, we selected transcription factor Nkx2.1 as a candidate to investigate its role on brain abnormalities induced by excessive retinoic acid. The result of in situ hybridization showed that Nkx2.1 was mainly expressed in mouse brain. After the Nkx2.1 gene was silenced, retarded proliferation and accelerated apoptosis were found in mouse Neuro-2a (N2a) cells. Furthermore, our results indicated that the main components of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway were affected in Nkx2.1-silenced cells, implying that Nkx2.1 plays an important role in the development of mouse brain by regulating Shh signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abbs/gmaa037DOI Listing
June 2020

Impact of mycelia on growth, immunity and fecal microbiota in weaned piglets.

PeerJ 2020 28;8:e9067. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Sericultural Research Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Antibiotics are the most commonly used growth-promoting additives in pig feed especially for weaned piglets. But in recent years their use has been restricted because of bacterial resistance. , a genus of medicinal fungi, is widely used in Asia to treat gastroenteric dysfunction, hemrrhage, and tumors. is reported to improve body weight on mice with colitis. Therefore, we hypothesize that it could benefit the health and growth of piglets, and could be used as an alternative to antibiotic. Here, the effect of mycelia (SH) and antibiotic growth promoter (ATB) were investigated on weaned piglets.

Methods: A total of 72 crossbred piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups ( = 4 pens per treatment group with six piglets per pen). The control group was fed basal diet; the SH treatment group was fed basal diet containing 5 g/kg SH; the ATB treatment group was feed basal diet containing 75 mg/kg aureomycin and 20 mg/kg kitasamycin. The experiment period was 28 days. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed intake to gain ratio were calculated. The concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in serum were assessed. Viable plate counts of in feces were measured. Fecal microbiota was analyzed via the 16S rRNA gene sequencing method.

Results: The ADG (1-28 day) of piglets was significantly higher in SH and ATB treatment groups ( < 0.05) compared to the control, and the ADG did not show significant difference between SH and ATB treatment groups ( > 0.05). Both SH and ATB treatments increased the MPO, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels in serum compared to the control ( < 0.05), but the levels in SH group were all significantly higher than in the ATB group ( < 0.05). Fecal microbiological analysis showed that viable counts were dramatically decreased by SH and ATB. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed that ATB shifted the microbiota structure drastically, and significantly increased the relative abundance of , , and genera. But SH slightly influenced the microbiota structure, and only increased the relative abundance of genus.

Conclusion: Our work demonstrated that though SH slightly influenced the microbiota structure, it markedly reduced the fecal population, and improved growth and innate immunity in piglets. Our finding suggested that SH could be an alternative to ATB in piglet feed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194088PMC
April 2020

Fabrication of L-cysteine stabilized α-FeOOH nanocomposite on porous hydrophilic biochar as an effective adsorbent for Pb removal.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 28;720:137415. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Lead (Pb) pollution has caused worldwide attention as it can cause hazards to humans and the environment. Chemical properties and structures of the adsorbent greatly influence the Pb removal efficiency. L-cysteine (L-cy) stabilized porous hydrophilic biochar-supported α-FeOOH nanocomposites (L-cy/[email protected]) are prepared as an efficient adsorbent via a cheap and simple one-step hydrothermal method for removing Pb from aqueous solution. Characterizations of the synthesized L-cy/[email protected] revealed that the iron particles distributed uniformly on the surface of porous hydrophilic biochar. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the L-cy/[email protected] reaches up to 103.04 mg gfor Pb removal, higher than other typical materials reported preiously. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model and the Freundlich model, respectively, suggesting chemical adsorption on the heterogeneous surface and pores of L-cy/[email protected] The introduction of L-cysteine provides abundant surface N- and S-containing functional groups as active sites for Pb adsorption and also plays an important role in altering the porous structure, distribution of α-FeOOH nanoparticles, affinity of iron species to biochar, and surface functional groups, which determined the performance of the resultant composites. Notably, regeneration experiments show that Pb adsorption capacity still maintains at 77.3 mg g on L-cy/[email protected] after five successive utilizations, indicating the potential applicability for removing Pb from aqueous solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137415DOI Listing
June 2020