Publications by authors named "Yuping Wu"

237 Publications

Prey decline leads to diet shift in the largest population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins?

Integr Zool 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Coastal Engineering, Zhuhai Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresource and Environment, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region on the southeast coast of China has long been known as a highly productive fishing ground. Since the late 1980s, fishing pressure in the PRD has been intense, which warrants concerns of potential fishery-related impacts on the food resources and foraging ecology of apex marine predators in this region, such as the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis). In this study, we examined 54 stomachs with food remains, collected from beached carcasses of humpback dolphins recovered during fifteen years between 2003 and 2017. The 6043 identified prey items represent 62 teleost taxa, primarily small estuarine fish, but also larger reef fish. The dolphins appear to be opportunistic foragers, hunting across the water-column, with preference for shoaling and meaty fishes (e.g. Chrysochir aureus IRI% = 38.6%, Johnius belangerii IRI% = 23.1%, Mugil cephalus IRI% = 14.0%). Our findings suggest a dietary shift in recent years, from primarily demersal (as previously reported) to greater intake of neritic and pelagic fish. Dolphin foraging group size has decreased in recent years, which corresponds with declining size and numbers of prey items retrieved from dolphin stomachs. We suggest that these are indicators of declining food resources. Faced with a shortage of preferred prey, humpback dolphins may have broadened their dietary spectrum to maintain their daily energy intake, while their foraging group size decreased in response to the altered tradeoff between the costs and benefits of group foraging. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12548DOI Listing
April 2021

Perceived social support in Chinese family caregivers of patients with dementia.

Int J Nurs Pract 2021 Apr 18:e12945. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

School of Nursing, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Wenzhou, China.

Aim: This study aimed to describe levels of social support and explore the factors predictive of social support for Chinese family caregivers of patients with dementia.

Background: Social support levels and their predictive factors in Chinese dementia caregivers have not been well documented, which need to be further clarified to provide a basis for creating effective social support strategies.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 91 participants who completed a demographic questionnaire and the Social Support Rating Scale from 2015 to 2016.

Results: Chinese family caregivers of patients with dementia received moderate social support. Caregivers' subjective support domain scores and support utilization domain scores were significantly lower than those of the normal Chinese population, whereas caregivers' total social support scores were higher than those of the normal Chinese population. Family caregivers' monthly household income, educational level and place of residence were predictors of their own social support.

Conclusion: Social support in Chinese caregivers of patients with dementia needs to be improved, especially the subjective support and support utilization. Healthcare professionals should pay special attention to caregivers with a lower monthly household income and educational level and caregivers who lived in the suburban area.

Summary Statement: What is already known about this topic? Social support is important for family caregivers of patients with dementia. Social support levels and their predictive factors in Chinese dementia caregivers have not been well documented. What this paper adds? Caregivers' subjective support and support utilization were significantly lower than the normal Chinese population; caregivers' total social support was significantly higher than the normal Chinese population. The best predictors of caregivers' social support were the monthly household income, educational level and place of residence of the caregivers. The implications of this paper: Healthcare professionals should pay special attention to caregivers with a lower monthly household income and educational level and caregivers who lived in the suburban area. Future research is needed to create effective nursing regimes, paying attention to caregivers with a lower educational level and caregivers who lived in the suburban area.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12945DOI Listing
April 2021

The Role of Lipid Metabolism in Influenza A Virus Infection.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

College of Life Science and Basic Medicine/Center for Biotechnology Research, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang 453003, China.

Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause disease in animals such as poultry and pigs, and it can cause infection and even death in humans, posing a serious threat to public health. IAV is an enveloped virus that relies on host cell metabolic systems, especially lipid metabolism systems, to complete its life cycle in host cells. On the other side, host cells regulate their metabolic processes to prevent IAV replication and maintain their normal physiological functions. This review summarizes the roles of fatty acid, cholesterol, phospholipid and glycolipid metabolism in IAV infection, proposes future research challenges, and looks forward to the prospective application of lipid metabolism modification to limit IAV infection, which will provide new directions for the development of anti-influenza drugs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998359PMC
March 2021

Nonporous Gel Electrolytes Enable Long Cycling at High Current Density for Lithium-Metal Anodes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 21;13(12):14258-14266. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM) and School of Energy Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China.

Lithium-metal anodes with high theoretical capacity and ultralow redox potential are regarded as a "holy grail" of the next-generation energy-storage industry. Nevertheless, Li inevitably reacts with conventional liquid electrolytes, resulting in uneven electrodeposition, unstable solid electrolyte interphase, and Li dendrite formation that all together lead to a decrease in active lithium, poor battery performance, and catastrophic safety hazards. Here, we report a unique nonporous gel polymer electrolyte (NP-GPE) with a uniform and dense structure, exhibiting an excellent combination of mechanical strength, thermal stability, and high ionic conductivity. The nonporous structure contributed to a uniform distribution of lithium ions for dendrite-free lithium deposition, and Li/NP-GPE/Li symmetric cells can maintain an extremely low and stable polarization after cycling at a high current density of 10 mA cm. This work provides an insight that the NP-GPE can be considered as a candidate for practical applications for lithium-metal anodes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c00182DOI Listing
March 2021

Photo-identification comparison of four Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin populations off southeast China.

Integr Zool 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Marine Mammal and Marine Bioacoustics Laboratory, Institute of Deep-sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Sanya, China.

Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabit shallow coastal waters of the Indo-Pacific region including southeast China, with at least 6 putative populations identified to date in Chinese waters. However, the connectivity among these populations has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study, we compared and cross-matched photographic catalogs of individual dolphins collected to date in the Pearl River Delta region, Leizhou Bay, Sanniang Bay, and waters southwest of Hainan Island, a total of 3158 individuals, and found no re-sighting of individual dolphins among the 4 study areas. Furthermore, there was a notable difference in the pigmentation pattern displayed by individuals from these 4 regions. We suggest that this may be a phenotypical expression of fine-scale regional differentiation among humpback dolphin groups, possibly distinct populations. Given the considerable conservation management implications it may carry (e.g. definition of management units), further research is much needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12537DOI Listing
March 2021

PET imaging of neural activity, β-amyloid, and tau in normal brain aging.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Laboratory for Pathophysiological and Health Science, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047, Japan.

Normal brain aging is commonly associated with neural activity alteration, β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, and tau aggregation, driving a progressive cognitive decline in normal elderly individuals. Positron emission tomography (PET) with radiotracers targeting these age-related changes has been increasingly employed to clarify the sequence of their occurrence and the evolution of clinically cognitive deficits. Herein, we reviewed recent literature on PET-based imaging of normal human brain aging in terms of neural activity, Aβ, and tau. Neural hypoactivity reflected by decreased glucose utilization with PET imaging has been predominately reported in the frontal, cingulate, and temporal lobes of the normal aging brain. Aβ PET imaging uncovers the pathophysiological association of Aβ deposition with cognitive aging, as well as the potential mechanisms. Tau-associated cognitive changes in normal aging are likely independent of but facilitated by Aβ as indicated by tau and Aβ PET imaging. Future longitudinal studies using multi-radiotracer PET imaging combined with other neuroimaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometry, functional MRI, and magnetoencephalography, are essential to elucidate the neuropathological underpinnings and interactions in normal brain aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-021-05230-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels predict future risk of coronary artery disease in apparently healthy individuals in the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.

Am Heart J 2021 Feb 21. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Center for Microbiome and Human Health, Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Sciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH; Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Heart, Vascular and Thoracic Institute, Cleveland, OH.

Background: Recent studies show a mechanistic link between gut microbiota-dependent formation of the atherosclerosis- and thrombosis-promoting metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The clinical utility of TMAO in apparently healthy subjects for predicting incident CVD risks is unclear.

Methods And Results: In the EPIC-Norfolk community-based study, we examined baseline fasting levels of TMAO and two of its nutrient precursors, choline and betaine, in a case:control design study comparing apparently European healthy middle-aged participants who subsequently develop CVD (Cases, n = 908) vs those who did not (Controls, n = 1,273) over an ensuing average follow-up period of 8 years. In participants who developed CVD vs controls, higher plasma TMAO (3.70 [IQR 2.50-6.41]μM vs 3.25 [IQR 2.19-52,1.15]μM; P < .001) and choline levels (9.09 [IQR 7.87-10.53]μM vs 8.89 [IQR 7.66-10.13]μM; P = .001) were observed. Following adjustments for traditional risk factors, elevated TMAO (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.58 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.06], P < .001) and choline levels (adjusted OR 1.31 [95%CI 1.00-1.72], P < .05) remained predictive of incident CVD development. The clinical prognostic utility of TMAO remained significant and essentially unchanged regardless of the level of cutoff chosen between 1.5 uM (10%ile) to 10.5 uM (90%ile).

Conclusion: In apparently healthy participants of the community-based middle-aged EPIC-Norfolk population, elevated plasma levels of the gut microbe-dependent metabolite TMAO, and its nutrient precursor choline, predict incident risk for CVD development independent of traditional risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.01.020DOI Listing
February 2021

Diagnosing the SEI Layer in a Potassium Ion Battery Using Distribution of Relaxation Time.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Mar 22;12(8):2064-2071. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering and School of Energy, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211816 China.

Understanding the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation process in novel battery systems is of primary importance. Alongside increasingly powerful in situ techniques, searching for readily accessible, noninvasive, and low-cost tools to probe battery chemistry is highly demanded. Here, we applied distribution of relaxation time analysis to interpret in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results during cycling, which is able to distinguish various electrochemical processes based on their time constants. By building a direct link between the SEI layer and the cell performances, it allows us to track the formation and evolution process of the SEI layer, diagnose the failure of the cell, and unveil the reaction mechanisms. For instance, in a K-ion cell using a SnS/N-doped reduced graphene oxide composite electrode, we found that the worsened mass transport in the electrolyte phase caused by the weak SEI layer is the main reason for cell deterioration. In the electrolyte with potassium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, the porous structure of the composite electrode was reinforced by rapid formation of a robust SEI layer at the SnS/electrolyte interface, and thus, the cell delivers a high capacity and good cyclability. This method lowers the barrier of in situ EIS analysis and helps public researchers to explore high-performance electrode materials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00118DOI Listing
March 2021

Interleukin-6 and Outcomes in Acute Heart Failure: An ASCEND-HF Substudy.

J Card Fail 2021 Jan 23. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Kaufman Center for Heart Failure Treatment and Recovery, Heart, Vascular and Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background: The inflammatory cytokine IL-6 has been previously implicated in the pathophysiology of acute decompensated heart failure (HF). Prior observations in acute HF patients have suggested that IL-6 may be associated with outcomes and modulated by nesiritide. We aimed to evaluate the associations between serial IL-6 measurements, mortality and rehospitalization in acute HF.

Methods And Results: We analyzed the associations between IL-6 in acute HF, readmission, and mortality (30 and 180 days) using a cohort of 883 hospitalized patients from the ASCEND-HF trial (nesiritide vs placebo). Plasma IL-6 was measured at randomization (baseline), 48-72 hours, and 30 days. The median IL-6 was highest at baseline (14.1 pg/mL) and decreased at subsequent time points (7.6 pg/mL at 30 days). In a univariable Cox regression analysis, the baseline IL-6 was associated with 30- and 180-day mortality (hazard ratio per log 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.78, P = .021; hazard ratio 3.23, confidence interval 1.18-8.86, P = .022, respectively). However, there was no association after multivariable adjustment. IL-6 at 48-72 hours was found to be independently associated with 30-day mortality (hazard ratio 8.2, confidence interval 1.2-57.5, P= .03), but not 180-day mortality in multivariable analysis that included the ASCEND-HF risk model and amino terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide as covariates. In comparison with placebo, nesiritide therapy was not associated with differences in serial IL-6 levels.

Conclusions: Although elevated IL-6 levels were associated with higher all-cause mortality in acute HF, no independent association with this outcome was identified at baseline or 30-day measurements. In contrast with prior reports, we did not observe any impact of nesiritide over placebo on serial IL-6 levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.01.006DOI Listing
January 2021

Ambient-Stable Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbide (MXene) Enabled by Iodine Etching.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 10;60(16):8689-8693. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed), Faculty of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstrasse 4, 01062, Dresden, Germany.

MXene (e.g., Ti C ) represents an important class of two-dimensional (2D) materials owing to its unique metallic conductivity and tunable surface chemistry. However, the mainstream synthetic methods rely on the chemical etching of MAX powders (e.g., Ti AlC ) using hazardous HF or alike, leading to MXene sheets with fluorine termination and poor ambient stability in colloidal dispersions. Here, we demonstrate a fluoride-free, iodine (I ) assisted etching route for preparing 2D MXene (Ti C T , T=O, OH) with oxygen-rich terminal groups and intact lattice structure. More than 71 % of sheets are thinner than 5 nm with an average size of 1.8 μm. They present excellent thin-film conductivity of 1250 S cm and great ambient stability in water for at least 2 weeks. 2D MXene sheets with abundant oxygen surface groups are excellent electrode materials for supercapacitors, delivering a high gravimetric capacitance of 293 F g at a scan rate of 1 mV s , superior to those made from fluoride-based etchants (<290 F g at 1 mV s ). Our strategy provides a promising pathway for the facile and sustainable production of highly stable MXene materials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202015627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048443PMC
April 2021

Exercise Ventricular Rates, Cardiopulmonary Exercise Performance, and Mortality in Patients With Heart Failure With Atrial Fibrillation.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Feb 22;14(2):e007451. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic (M.B.E., B.L.W., K.T., Y.W., E.D., W.J., O.W., L.C.).

Background: In heart failure (HF) with sinus rhythm, resting and exercise heart rates correlate with exercise capacity and mortality. However, in HF with atrial fibrillation (AF), this correlation is unknown. Our aim is to investigate the association of resting and exercise ventricular rates (VRs) with exercise capacity and mortality in HF with AF.

Methods: We identified 903 patients with HF and AF referred for cardiopulmonary stress testing. AF was defined as history of AF and AF during cardiopulmonary stress testing. We constructed multivariable models to evaluate the association of resting VR, peak exercise VR, VR reserve (peak VR-resting VR), and chronotropic index with (1) peak oxygen consumption (PVO) ≤18 mL/kg per minute, (2) continuous PVO, and (3) 10-year all-cause mortality.

Results: Median (25th-75th percentile) age was 60 (52-67) years, left ventricular ejection fraction was 25 (15-50)%, and 76.1% were males. Patients with lower (quartile 1) compared with higher (quartile 4) peak VR, VR reserve, and chronotropic index were more likely to have PVO ≤18 mL/kg per min (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]: 14.92 [8.07-27.58], 24.60 [12.36-48.98], and 22.31 [11.24-44.27], respectively), and higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [95% CI]: 2.56 [1.62-4.04], 2.29 [1.47-3.59], and 2.30 [1.51-3.49], respectively). For every 10 beats per minute increase in VR reserve, PVO increased by 1.05 mL/kg per minute (B-coefficient [95% CI]: 1.05 [0.94-1.15]) and mortality decreased by 12% (adjusted hazard ratio [95% CI]: 0.88 [0.83-0.94]). Resting VR was associated with PVO (B-coefficient [95% CI]: -0.46 [-0.70 to -0.23]) but not mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [95% CI]: 0.97 [0.88-1.06]).

Conclusions: In patients with HF and AF, higher resting VR and lower peak exercise VR, VR reserve, and chronotropic index were all associated with worse peak exercise capacity, but only lower exercise VR parameters were associated with higher mortality. Dedicated studies are needed to gauge whether modulating exercise VR enhances exercise performance and outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.007451DOI Listing
February 2021

Optimal utilization of fluoroethylene carbonate in potassium ion batteries.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Feb 14;57(13):1607-1610. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, School of Energy Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211816, China.

This work provides a novel strategy of optimal utilization of fluoroethylene carbonate to generate a uniform and compact solid electrolyte interface film, enhancing the cycle life of potassium ion batteries. With K foil being treated with fluoroethylene carbonate prior to use, enhanced cycling performance up to 1200 hours was achieved. Combining in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with the distribution of relaxation time analysis and XPS analysis, the solubility of KF in the electrolyte is proposed as a crucial factor to determine the quality of a solid electrolyte interface. Our work contributes to understanding the role and manipulating the usage of the fluoroethylene carbonate additive in potassium ion batteries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc06467jDOI Listing
February 2021

The optimization of microbial influenced corrosion resistance of HVOF sprayed nanostructured WC-10Co-4Cr coatings by ultrasound-assisted sealing.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Apr 24;72:105438. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, 40 Dianjiangtai Road, Nanjing 210031, PR China; Jiangsu Jinxiang Transmission Equipment Co., Ltd., 1 Qinglonghu Road, Huaian 223001, PR China.

In this study, high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) sprayed nanostructured WC-10Co-4Cr coatings were subjected to seawater with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) for different time. The effect of ultrasound-assisted sealing with aluminum phosphate on the microstructural features and microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) behavior was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the ultrasound-assisted sealing promoted the infiltration of the sealant into as-sprayed coating, enhanced the resistance values of about one order of magnitude, and reduced the corrosion current density. During the whole immersion period, the MIC process of both unsealed and sealed coatings can be divided into two different stages, and the ultrasound-assisted sealing treatment significantly delayed the MIC process, suggesting that the ultrasound-assisted sealing with aluminum phosphate is an effective way for controlling the MIC of SRB on the WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coatings in marine environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.105438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803796PMC
April 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid offspring × .

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Feb 3;5(1):1025-1026. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Laizhou Mingbo Aquatic Co., Ltd, Yantai, China.

The complete mitochondrial genome of hybrid grouper from (♀) × (♂) was obtained by PCR amplification. The circular genome was 16,801 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a control region (D-loop region). The overall base composition was as follows: A: 28.46%, T: 27.27%, C: 27.27%, G: 16.49%. The new results may provide valuable data for the genetic and taxonomic research on artificial hybrid grouper.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1721356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748569PMC
February 2020

An Economical High-Throughput "FP-Tag" Assay for Screening Glycosyltransferase Inhibitors*.

Chembiochem 2021 Apr 21;22(8):1391-1395. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

School of Marine Science, Sun Yat-sen University, 519080, Zhuhai, P. R. China.

O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is involved in many cellular processes, and selective OGT inhibitors are valuable tools to investigate O-GlcNAcylation functions, and could potentially lead to therapeutics. However, high-throughput OGT assays that are suitable for large-scale HTS and can identify inhibitors targeting both acceptor, donor sites, and allosteric binding-sites are still lacking. Here, we report the development of a high-throughput "FP-Tag" OGT assay with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a low-cost and superior "FP-Tag". With this assay, 2-methyleurotinone was identified as a low-micromolar OGT inhibitor. This type of assay with BSA as "FP-Tag" would find more applications with other glycosyltransferases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.202000746DOI Listing
April 2021

Microplastics in the endangered Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Feb 11;270:116057. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Zhuhai Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresources and Environment, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Coastal Engineering, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai 519082, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai 519082, China. Electronic address:

Microplastic pollution is a growing concern worldwide. Despite numerous studies showing the occurrence of microplastics in low-trophic level aquatic organisms, microplastic ingestion and contamination in cetaceans, especially those from Asian waters, has been rarely recorded. Here, we investigated stomach microplastic pollution in twelve Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins stranded along the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China. We also compared microplastic abundances in dolphins stranded near populated urban areas (ZH, n = 6) with those stranded near rural areas (JM, n = 6). Microplastics were detected in all samples, with abundance ranging widely from 11 to 145 items individual (mean ± SD, 53 ± 35.2). Major microplastics were polypropylene and polyethylene fibers, with the size mostly ranging from 1 to 5 mm and the dominant colors of white or transparent. Humpback dolphins from ZH (73 ± 36.8 items individual) exhibited a significantly higher average microplastic abundance than those from JM (33 ± 18.3 items individual, p < 0.05). In particular, the highest microplastic concentration was identified in the dolphin (SC-ZH01) stranded near the mouth of the Pearl River, whereas the dolphin (SC-JM04) collected at the rural site contained the lowest concentration of microplastics, suggesting the important influence of land-based human activities on the accumulation of microplastics in the PRE. The identification of varied microplastic polymers indicated their complex source scenarios. This study suggests that, as one of top predators in the potential microplastic food chains, this cetacean species could likely serve as an endpoint biomonitoring species of microplastic pollution in the PRE or other similar estuarine ecosystems. Our results highlight the need for more studies towards better understanding the potential impacts of microplastics on this endangered species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116057DOI Listing
February 2021

Frequency-Temporal Disagreement Adaptation for Robotic Terrain Classification via Vibration in a Dynamic Environment.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Nov 16;20(22). Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Institute of Artificial Intelligence, Hefei Comprehensive National Science Center, Hefei 230088, China.

The accurate terrain classification in real time is of great importance to an autonomous robot working in field, because the robot could avoid non-geometric hazards, adjust control scheme, or improve localization accuracy, with the aid of terrain classification. In this paper, we investigate the vibration-based terrain classification (VTC) in a dynamic environment, and propose a novel learning framework, named DyVTC, which tackles online-collected unlabeled data with concept drift. In the DyVTC framework, the exterior disagreement (ex-disagreement) and interior disagreement (in-disagreement) are proposed novely based on the feature diversity and intrinsic temporal correlation, respectively. Such a disagreement mechanism is utilized to design a pseudo-labeling algorithm, which shows its compelling advantages in extracting key samples and labeling; and consequently, the classification accuracy could be retrieved by incremental learning in a changing environment. Since two sets of features are extracted from frequency and time domain to generate disagreements, we also name the proposed method feature-temporal disagreement adaptation (FTDA). The real-world experiment shows that the proposed DyVTC could reach an accuracy of 89.5%, but the traditional time- and frequency-domain terrain classification methods could only reach 48.8% and 71.5%, respectively, in a dynamic environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20226550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697547PMC
November 2020

Boosting Capacitive Sodium-Ion Storage in Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphite for Sodium-Ion Capacitors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Nov 13;12(47):52635-52642. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

School of Energy Science and Engineering & Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, Jiangsu Province, China.

Sodium (Na)-ion capacitors possess higher energy density than supercapacitors and higher power density than Na-ion batteries. However, kinetic mismatches between fast capacitive charge storage on the cathode and sluggish battery-type reactions on the anode lead to a poor charge/discharge rate capability and insufficient power output of Na-ion capacitors. Thus, developing suitable anode materials for Na-ion capacitors is urgently desirable. This work demonstrates an electrochemically exfoliated graphite (EEG) anode with enhanced capacitive charge storage, greatly boosting the Na-ion reaction kinetics of co-intercalation. The EEG anode shows a high reversible capacity of 109 mAh g and maintains a good capacity retention of 90% after 1000 cycles. The assembled Na-ion capacitor using the EEG anode can finish the charge/discharge process in less than 10 s, which achieves an ultrahigh power density of 17,500 W kg with an energy density of 17 Wh kg. The high capacitive contributions at both the anode and cathode contribute to the fast rate capability and high power output of the fabricated Na-ion capacitors. This work will promote the development of ultrafast charging sodium-ion storage devices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c14611DOI Listing
November 2020

A defective g-CN/RGO/TiO composite from hydrogen treatment for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H production.

Nanoscale 2020 Nov;12(43):22030-22035

School of Energy Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211816, China.

Photocatalytic H2 evolution is a clean technology to alleviate energy and environmental issues. The limited light absorption and the separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers are the major hurdles constraining the application of numerous photocatalysts. Herein, we report a simple and effective strategy, a multistep heat-treatment method, to synthesise a defective g-C3N4/RGO/TiO2 composite to increase its rate of activity for H2 production. The defects, nitrogen and oxygen vacancies, are simultaneously introduced on the surface of the g-C3N4/RGO/TiO2 composite. The vacancy defects essentially endow g-C3N4/RGO/TiO2 with a boosted photocatalytic H2 evolution rate (4760 μmol h-1 g-1) under visible-light irradiation, which is higher than that of the most of g-C3N4/TiO2 composites. This is attributed to the improved visible-light absorption as well as the separation and transfer rate of photogenerated charge carriers arising from vacancy defects. This study may provide an avenue for preparing defective photocatalysts for efficient H2 evolution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr05141aDOI Listing
November 2020

Diet Shifts Explain Temporal Trends of Pollutant Levels in Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins () from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 10 8;54(20):13110-13120. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

School of Marine Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Zhuhai Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresources and Environment, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Coastal Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, 519000, China.

We examined spatiotemporal trends of diet compositions and their relationship with pollutant accumulation levels in 46 weaning Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins ( = 46) from 2004 to 2017 in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) based on blubber fatty acid signatures using quantitative fatty acid signature analysis in R (QFASAR). Fifty-one potential prey species were tested, among which 13 had a mean relative proportion greater than 1% in dolphin diets. Bombay duck was the predominant prey species, followed by Dussumier's thryssa and mullet, whereas other prey species were present at considerably reduced proportions in diets. The proportion of larger fishes (Bombay duck and mullet) in the diet has exhibited a significant decreasing trend in recent years, whereas the smaller fish (Dussumier's thryssa) steadily increased over the whole period, possibly due to the severe impacts of climate change and other human stressors on large fishes in estuarine waters. The proportions of Bombay duck in the diet were significantly and positively correlated with hepatic Cr levels in dolphins, whereas the temporal change in Bombay duck consumption mirrored that in the hepatic levels of several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, because Bombay duck was the most contaminated species among all the prey fishes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c02299DOI Listing
October 2020

Bio-accumulation of organic contaminants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins: Preliminary unique features of the brain and testes.

Environ Pollut 2020 Dec 27;267:115511. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresources and Environment, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Coastal Engineering, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China. Electronic address:

There is little information about the residue levels and congener composition of organic contaminants (OCs) in cetaceans. In the present study, we investigated the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the blubber, blood, brain and testes of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) stranded in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China. The lowest blubber/tissue partition coefficients were found for sum hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) and ΣPAHs, while the highest were in ΣPCBs and sum dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (ΣDDTs), likely attributing to the octanol-water partition features. The low levels of OCs in brain and testes theoretically resulted from the blood-brain barrier, blood-testes barrier, contaminant molecule dimensions and unique lipid compositions in the brain and testes. Compared with other contaminants, the higher mean brain/blood and testes/blood partition coefficients found for mirex, heptachlor, dieldrin and endrin would increase the risks associated with exposure-related toxicity and the bioavailability of contaminants within these tissues. Observations also suggest that as lipid mobilizes from blubber, contaminants may redistribute, leading to elevated tissue (such as brain) concentrations. Therefore, dolphins with less blubber may be more susceptible to health risks. The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins living in PRE are at great risk due to variety of OCs in indirect contact with non-target organisms, affecting the health of animals (toxic effects and accumulation). Our findings contribute to the knowledge of the potential effects of OCs exposure on developmental neurotoxicity and reproductive damage in marine mammals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115511DOI Listing
December 2020

Nylon-Based Composite Gel Membrane Fabricated via Sequential Layer-by-Layer Electrospinning for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries with High Performance.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Jul 15;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 15.

School of Energy Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China.

With the raw materials of poly(vinylidene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) and polyamide 6 (PA6, nylon 6), a sandwich-structured composite membrane, PA6/P(VDF-HFP)/PA6, is fabricated via sequential layer-by-layer electrospinning. The nylon-based composite exhibits high absorption to organic liquid electrolyte (270 wt%) owing to its high porosity (90.35%), good mechanical property (17.11 MPa), and outstanding shut-down behavior from approximately 145 to 230 °C. Moreover, the dimensional shrink of a wet PA6 porous membrane immersed into liquid electrolyte is cured due to the existence of the P(VDF-HFP) middle layer. After swelling by the LiPF-based organic liquid electrolyte, the obtained PA6/P(VDF-HFP)/PA6-based gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) shows high ionic conductivity at room temperature (4.2 mS cm), a wide electrochemical stable window (4.8 V), and low activation energy for Li ion conduction (4.68 kJ mol). Benefiting from the precise porosity structure made of the interlaced electrospinning nanofibers and the superior physicochemical properties of the nylon-based composite GPE, the reversible Li ion dissolution/deposition behaviors between the GPE and Li anode are successfully realized with the Li/Li symmetrical cells (current density: 1.0 mA cm; areal capacity: 1.0 mAh cm) proceeding over 400 h at a polarization voltage of no more than 70 mV. Furthermore, the nylon-based composite GPE in assembled Li/LiFePO cells displays good electrochemical stability, high discharge capacity, good cycle durability, and high rate capability. This research provides a new strategy to fabricate gel polymer electrolytes via the electrospinning technique for rechargeable lithium batteries with good electrochemical performance, high security, and low cost.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12071572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7407520PMC
July 2020

Well Logging Based Lithology Identification Model Establishment Under Data Drift: A Transfer Learning Method.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;20(13). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, China.

Recent years have witnessed the development of the applications of machine learning technologies to well logging-based lithology identification. Most of the existing work assumes that the well loggings gathered from different wells share the same probability distribution; however, the variations in sedimentary environment and well-logging technique might cause the data drift problem; i.e., data of different wells have different probability distributions. Therefore, the model trained on old wells does not perform well in predicting the lithologies in newly-coming wells, which motivates us to propose a transfer learning method named the data drift joint adaptation extreme learning machine (DDJA-ELM) to increase the accuracy of the old model applying to new wells. In such a method, three key points, i.e., the project mean maximum mean discrepancy, joint distribution domain adaptation, and manifold regularization, are incorporated into extreme learning machine. As found experimentally in multiple wells in Jiyang Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, DDJA-ELM could significantly increase the accuracy of an old model when identifying the lithologies in new wells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20133643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374305PMC
June 2020

Prognostic Value of Functional Capacity in Different Exercise Protocols.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 07 24;9(13):e015986. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Heart and Vascular Institute Cleveland Clinic Cleveland OH.

Background Functional capacity is associated with mortality, although the prognostic value of achieved estimated metabolic equivalents (METs) across various exercise protocols is not established. We sought to determine whether achieved METs had different prognostic implications according to the protocol employed. Methods and Results From 1991 to 2015, we identified 120 705 consecutive patients from a stress testing registry who underwent the following 7 different standardized exercise protocols: Bruce, modified Bruce, Cornell 0%, Cornell 5%, Cornell 10%, Naughton, and modified Naughton. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. There were 74 953 Bruce, 8368 modified Bruce, 2648 Cornell 0%, 9972 Cornell 5%, 20 425 Cornell 10%, 1226 Naughton, and 3113 modified Naughton protocols. During a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, a total of 8426 deaths (6.9%) occurred. When compared with the Bruce protocol, after multivariable adjustment for clinical risk factors, medications, and functional capacity, test protocol was independently associated with mortality (modified Naughton [hazard ratio (HR), 2.51; 95% CI, 2.26-2.8], Naughton [HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.57-2.04], Cornell 0% [HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.59-2.01], modified Bruce [HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.48-1.76], Cornell 5% [HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.47-1.75], and Cornell 10% [HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.22-1.42]). Across all protocols, higher estimated METs were associated with lower mortality, although the equivalent METs achieved were associated with a worse prognosis in less-demanding protocols. Conclusions Higher estimated METs are reliably associated with lower mortality in all exercise protocols, although the prognostic value is not transferable across different tests. Consequently, the prognostic value of METs achieved during a stress test should be considered protocol dependent.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.015986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7670526PMC
July 2020

A Cardiovascular Disease-Linked Gut Microbial Metabolite Acts via Adrenergic Receptors.

Cell 2020 03;180(5):862-877.e22

Department of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Sciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA; Center for Microbiome & Human Health, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA; Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. Electronic address:

Using untargeted metabolomics (n = 1,162 subjects), the plasma metabolite (m/z = 265.1188) phenylacetylglutamine (PAGln) was discovered and then shown in an independent cohort (n = 4,000 subjects) to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death). A gut microbiota-derived metabolite, PAGln, was shown to enhance platelet activation-related phenotypes and thrombosis potential in whole blood, isolated platelets, and animal models of arterial injury. Functional and genetic engineering studies with human commensals, coupled with microbial colonization of germ-free mice, showed the microbial porA gene facilitates dietary phenylalanine conversion into phenylacetic acid, with subsequent host generation of PAGln and phenylacetylglycine (PAGly) fostering platelet responsiveness and thrombosis potential. Both gain- and loss-of-function studies employing genetic and pharmacological tools reveal PAGln mediates cellular events through G-protein coupled receptors, including α2A, α2B, and β2-adrenergic receptors. PAGln thus represents a new CVD-promoting gut microbiota-dependent metabolite that signals via adrenergic receptors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402401PMC
March 2020

A Stimulus-Responsive Zinc-Iodine Battery with Smart Overcharge Self-Protection Function.

Adv Mater 2020 Apr 5;32(16):e2000287. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed) & Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstrasse 4, Dresden, 01069, Germany.

Zinc-iodine aqueous batteries (ZIABs) are highly attractive for grid-scale energy storage due to their high theoretical capacities, environmental friendliness, and intrinsic non-flammability. However, because of the close redox potential of Zn stripping/platting and hydrogen evolution, slight overcharge of ZIABs would induce drastic side reactions, serious safety concerns, and battery failure. A novel type of stimulus-responsive zinc-iodine aqueous battery (SR-ZIAB) with fast overcharge self-protection ability is demonstrated by employing a smart pH-responsive electrolyte. Operando spectroelectrochemical characterizations reveal that the battery failure mechanism of ZIABs during overcharge arises from the increase of electrolyte pH induced by hydrogen evolution as well as the consequent irreversible formation of insulating ZnO at anode and soluble Zn(IO ) at cathode. Under overcharge conditions, the designed SR-ZIABs can be rapidly switched off with capacity degrading to 6% of the initial capacity, thereby avoiding continuous battery damage. Importantly, SR-ZIABs can be switched on with nearly 100% of capacity recovery by re-adjusting the electrolyte pH. This work will inspire the development of aqueous Zn batteries with smart self-protection ability in the overcharge state.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202000287DOI Listing
April 2020

Fatty acid composition analyses of commercially important fish species from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(1):e0228276. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Zhuhai Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresources and Environment, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Coastal Engineering, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, China.

Evaluation of fish nutritional content information could provide essential guidance for seafood consumption and human health protection. This study investigated the lipid contents, fatty acid compositions, and nutritional qualities of 22 commercially important marine fish species from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), South China Sea. All the analyzed species had a low to moderate lipid content (0.51-7.35% fat), with no significant differences in fatty acid profiles among fishes from different lipid categories (p > 0.05). Compared with previous studies from other regions, the examined fish species exhibited higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, 39.1 ± 4.00%) and lower contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, 21.6 ± 5.44%), presumably due to the shifted diet influence from increased diatoms and decreased dinoflagellate over the past decades in the PRE. This study further revealed that there was a significantly negative correlation between the trophic levels and levels of PUFAs in the examined species (Pearson's r = -0.42, p = 0.04), likely associated with their differed dietary composition. Considering the health benefit of PUFAs, a few marine fish in PRE with low levels of PUFAs might have no significant contribution to the cardiovascular disease prevention, although fish with different fatty acid profiles most likely contribute differently towards human health. Additional studies are needed in order to comprehensively analyze the nutritional status of fish species in the PRE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228276PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6992182PMC
May 2020

A high voltage aqueous zinc-manganese battery using a hybrid alkaline-mild electrolyte.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Feb;56(13):2039-2042

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Energy Science and Engineering, and College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, Jiangsu Province, China.

A high-voltage aqueous zinc-manganese battery using an alkaline-mild hybrid electrolyte is reported. The operation voltage of the battery can reach 2.2 V. The energy density is 487 W h kg-1 at 200 mA g-1, calculated based on the positive electrode material, higher than that of a Zn-MnO2 battery in mild electrolyte and those of other Zn-based aqueous batteries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc08604hDOI Listing
February 2020

Iron Plaque Prevents Partitioning of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Rice (Oryza sativa) Root Surface.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2020 May 20;16(3):392-399. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Hangzhou Jinjiang Group, Hangzhou, China.

Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on root surfaces has essential impacts on PAH phytoremediation. An Fe plaque is commonly formed on the root surface of aquatic plants. Therefore, it is worth investigating the impact of the Fe plaque on PAH adsorption on rice root surfaces. Using Bayesian linear water-methanol cosolvent models, we estimated accurate water-biosorbent partition coefficient values for phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene between water and rice root biosorbent fractions, including rice root materials with Fe plaque, removed Fe plaque, and removed Fe plaque and lipids. Our results showed that Fe plaque inhibited the adsorption of PAHs on rice root surface; the inhibition impacts increased with hydrophobicity of PAHs. This result highlights the need for considering the impact of Fe plaque on PAH adsorption during phytoremediation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2020;16:392-399. © 2020 SETAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4242DOI Listing
May 2020

Methods to Improve Lithium Metal Anode for Li-S Batteries.

Front Chem 2019 10;7:827. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, School of Energy Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China.

The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has received a lot of attention because it is characterized by high theoretical energy density (2,600 Wh/kg) and low cost. Though many works on the "shuttle effect" of polysulfide have been investigated, lithium metal anode is a more challenging problem, which leads to a short life, low coulombic efficiency, and safety issues related to dendrites. As a result, the amelioration of lithium metal anode is an important means to improve the performance of lithium sulfur battery. In this paper, improvement methods on lithium metal anode for lithium sulfur batteries, including adding electrolyte additives, using solid, and/or gel polymer electrolyte, modifying separators, applying a protective coating, and providing host materials for lithium deposition, are mainly reviewed. In addition, some challenging problems, and further promising directions are also pointed out for future research and development of lithium metal for Li-S batteries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2019.00827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6914760PMC
December 2019