Publications by authors named "Yunn-Yi Chen"

68 Publications

Assessment of Residual Cancer Burden and Event-Free Survival in Neoadjuvant Treatment for High-risk Breast Cancer: An Analysis of Data From the I-SPY2 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Medical Oncology, Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, Washington.

Importance: Residual cancer burden (RCB) distributions may improve the interpretation of efficacy in neoadjuvant breast cancer trials.

Objective: To compare RCB distributions between randomized control and investigational treatments within subtypes of breast cancer and explore the relationship with survival.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The I-SPY2 is a multicenter, platform adaptive, randomized clinical trial in the US that compares, by subtype, investigational agents in combination with chemotherapy vs chemotherapy alone in adult women with stage 2/3 breast cancer at high risk of early recurrence. Investigational treatments graduated in a prespecified subtype if there was 85% or greater predicted probability of higher rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) in a confirmatory, 300-patient, 1:1 randomized, neoadjuvant trial in that subtype. Evaluation of a secondary end point was reported from the 10 investigational agents tested in the I-SPY2 trial from March 200 through 2016, and analyzed as of September 9, 2020. The analysis plan included modeling of RCB within subtypes defined by hormone receptor (HR) and ERBB2 status and compared control treatments with investigational treatments that graduated and those that did not graduate.

Interventions: Neoadjuvant paclitaxel plus/minus 1 of several investigational agents for 12 weeks, then 12 weeks of cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin chemotherapy followed by surgery.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Residual cancer burden (pathological measure of residual disease) and event-free survival (EFS).

Results: A total of 938 women (mean [SD] age, 49 [11] years; 66 [7%] Asian, 103 [11%] Black, and 750 [80%] White individuals) from the first 10 investigational agents were included, with a median follow-up of 52 months (IQR, 29 months). Event-free survival worsened significantly per unit of RCB in every subtype of breast cancer (HR-positive/ERBB2-negative: hazard ratio [HZR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.45-2.16; HR-positive/ERBB2-positive: HZR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.18-2.05; HR-negative/ERBB2-positive: HZR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.64-3.49; HR-negative/ERBB2-negative: HZR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.71-2.31). Prognostic information from RCB was similar from treatments that graduated (HZR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.57-2.55; 254 [27%]), did not graduate (HZR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.61-2.17; 486 [52%]), or were control (HZR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.42-2.26; 198 [21%]). Investigational treatments significantly lowered RCB in HR-negative/ERBB2-negative (graduated and nongraduated treatments) and ERBB2-positive subtypes (graduated treatments), with improved EFS (HZR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.41-0.93) in the exploratory analysis.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, the prognostic significance of RCB was consistent regardless of subtype and treatment. Effective neoadjuvant treatments shifted the distribution of RCB in addition to increasing pCR rate and appeared to improve EFS. Using a standardized quantitative method to measure response advances the interpretation of efficacy.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01042379.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.3690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446908PMC
September 2021

Matrix compliance permits NF-κB activation to drive therapy resistance in breast cancer.

J Exp Med 2021 05;218(5)

Center for Bioengineering and Tissue Regeneration, Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are associated with poor survival mediated by treatment resistance. TNBCs are fibrotic, yet little is known regarding how the extracellular matrix (ECM) evolves following therapy and whether it impacts treatment response. Analysis revealed that while primary untreated TNBCs are surrounded by a rigid stromal microenvironment, chemotherapy-resistant residual tumors inhabit a softer niche. TNBC organoid cultures and xenograft studies showed that organoids interacting with soft ECM exhibit striking resistance to chemotherapy, ionizing radiation, and death receptor ligand TRAIL. A stiff ECM enhanced proapoptotic JNK activity to sensitize cells to treatment, whereas a soft ECM promoted treatment resistance by elevating NF-κB activity and compromising JNK activity. Treatment-resistant residual TNBCs residing within soft stroma had elevated activated NF-κB levels, and disengaging NF-κB activity sensitized tumors in a soft matrix to therapy. Thus, the biophysical properties of the ECM modify treatment response, and agents that modulate stiffness-dependent NF-κB or JNK activity could enhance therapeutic efficacy in patients with TNBC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025243PMC
May 2021

Association of mammographic density measures and breast cancer "intrinsic" molecular subtypes.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 May 4;187(1):215-224. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First St. SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Purpose: We evaluated the association of percent mammographic density (PMD), absolute dense area (DA), and non-dense area (NDA) with risk of "intrinsic" molecular breast cancer (BC) subtypes.

Methods: We pooled 3492 invasive BC and 10,148 controls across six studies with density measures from prediagnostic, digitized film-screen mammograms. We classified BC tumors into subtypes [63% Luminal A, 21% Luminal B, 5% HER2 expressing, and 11% as triple negative (TN)] using information on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and tumor grade. We used polytomous logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for density measures (per SD) across the subtypes compared to controls, adjusting for age, body mass index and study, and examined differences by age group.

Results: All density measures were similarly associated with BC risk across subtypes. Significant interaction of PMD by age (P = 0.001) was observed for Luminal A tumors, with stronger effect sizes seen for younger women < 45 years (OR = 1.69 per SD PMD) relative to women of older ages (OR = 1.53, ages 65-74, OR = 1.44 ages 75 +). Similar but opposite trends were seen for NDA by age for risk of Luminal A: risk for women: < 45 years (OR = 0.71 per SD NDA) was lower than older women (OR = 0.83 and OR = 0.84 for ages 65-74 and 75 + , respectively) (P < 0.001). Although not significant, similar patterns of associations were seen by age for TN cancers.

Conclusions: Mammographic density measures were associated with risk of all "intrinsic" molecular subtypes. However, findings of significant interactions between age and density measures may have implications for subtype-specific risk models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-06049-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216504PMC
May 2021

Tumour-associated macrophages drive stromal cell-dependent collagen crosslinking and stiffening to promote breast cancer aggression.

Nat Mater 2021 04 30;20(4):548-559. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

UCSF Helen Diller Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Stromal stiffening accompanies malignancy, compromises treatment and promotes tumour aggression. Clarifying the molecular nature and the factors that regulate stromal stiffening in tumours should identify biomarkers to stratify patients for therapy and interventions to improve outcome. We profiled lysyl hydroxylase-mediated and lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen crosslinks and quantified the greatest abundance of total and complex collagen crosslinks in aggressive human breast cancer subtypes with the stiffest stroma. These tissues harbour the highest number of tumour-associated macrophages, whose therapeutic ablation in experimental models reduced metastasis, and decreased collagen crosslinks and stromal stiffening. Epithelial-targeted expression of the crosslinking enzyme, lysyl oxidase, had no impact on collagen crosslinking in PyMT mammary tumours, whereas stromal cell targeting did. Stromal cells in microdissected human tumours expressed the highest level of collagen crosslinking enzymes. Immunohistochemical analysis of biopsies from a cohort of patients with breast cancer revealed that stromal expression of lysyl hydroxylase 2, an enzyme that induces hydroxylysine aldehyde-derived collagen crosslinks and stromal stiffening, correlated significantly with disease specific mortality. The findings link tissue inflammation, stromal cell-mediated collagen crosslinking and stiffening to tumour aggression and identify lysyl hydroxylase 2 as a stromal biomarker.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-00849-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005404PMC
April 2021

Clinicopathologic Study of Gleason Pattern 5 Prostatic Adenocarcinoma With "Single-cell" Growth Reveals 2 Distinct Types, One With "Plasmacytoid" Features.

Am J Surg Pathol 2020 12;44(12):1635-1642

Robert J. Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Each Gleason score category of prostatic adenocarcinoma (or Grade Group) may encompass a diverse group of architectural patterns such as well-formed glands, poorly formed glands, cribriform structures, single cells, and/or solid sheets. We have noted heterogeneity within the single-cell subtype of Gleason pattern 5 prostatic adenocarcinoma that has not been fully addressed. Therefore, we retrospectively reviewed a series of radical prostatectomies with high-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma (Grade Group 4 or 5), identifying tumors with a component of single-cell infiltration. Additional cases identified prospectively were also included. TNM status, association with other histologic patterns, and clinical follow-up status were determined. Immunohistochemistry for NKX3.1, E-cadherin, p120 catenin, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were performed in each case. Eighteen cases with a component of well-developed Gleason pattern 5 characterized by single infiltrative cells that comprised ≥5% of the tumor were identified (15/202 retrospective radical prostatectomies with the high-grade disease [7.5%]). The single-cell pattern ranged from 5% to 50% of the tumor volume, with 5 cases containing ≥40%, and variable secondary architecture included diffuse infiltrating single cells with targetoid growth pattern around benign glands, solid expansive nests of noncohesive cells, and corded/single file growth pattern. Further morphologic analysis demonstrated 2 distinct histologic subtypes: (1) (subtype 1; n=9) monomorphic "plasmacytoid" tumor cells with eccentrically placed nuclei and variable intracytoplasmic vacuoles with bland cytology and discohesion and (2) (subtype 2; n=9) more cohesive tumor cells with greater cytologic atypia characterized by prominent nucleoli, greater variability in nuclear size/shape, occasional mitotic figures, and more irregular infiltration. By immunohistochemistry, NKX3.1 nuclear expression and PSA cytoplasmic expression was retained in all cases. Concomitant membranous E-cadherin loss and strong cytoplasmic p120 catenin expression were present in 5 of the 18 (28%) cases, all in subtype 1 (5/9, 56%). Overall, 56% (10/18) of patients had advanced-stage disease (≥pT3b), and 70% (7/10) of these patients had associated lymphovascular invasion. All patients had concomitant cribriform patterns of carcinoma. The outcome was available for 14 patients: 4 died of unknown cause; 6 had biochemical recurrence with distant bone metastasis in 5 of the 6; and 4 patients with <3 years of follow-up currently have undetectable serum PSA levels (2 patients received salvage radiotherapy with androgen deprivation and 2 remain on routine follow-up). In summary, the single-cell pattern of Gleason pattern 5 prostatic adenocarcinoma is uniformly associated with other high-risk histologic patterns (eg, cribriform growth), and high-stage disease with distant metastasis is not uncommon. Our data suggest that the "single-cell" Gleason pattern 5 prostatic adenocarcinoma contains 2 distinct subtypes. Somatic CDH1 alterations may play a role in the development of the "plasmacytoid" pattern characterized by monomorphic cytology with concomitant E-cadherin loss and aberrant p120 catenin expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001550DOI Listing
December 2020

Stiff stroma increases breast cancer risk by inducing the oncogene ZNF217.

J Clin Invest 2020 11;130(11):5721-5737

Department of Surgery.

Women with dense breasts have an increased lifetime risk of malignancy that has been attributed to a higher epithelial density. Quantitative proteomics, collagen analysis, and mechanical measurements in normal tissue revealed that stroma in the high-density breast contains more oriented, fibrillar collagen that is stiffer and correlates with higher epithelial cell density. microRNA (miR) profiling of breast tissue identified miR-203 as a matrix stiffness-repressed transcript that is downregulated by collagen density and reduced in the breast epithelium of women with high mammographic density. Culture studies demonstrated that ZNF217 mediates a matrix stiffness- and collagen density-induced increase in Akt activity and mammary epithelial cell proliferation. Manipulation of the epithelium in a mouse model of mammographic density supported a causal relationship between stromal stiffness, reduced miR-203, higher levels of the murine homolog Zfp217, and increased Akt activity and mammary epithelial proliferation. ZNF217 was also increased in the normal breast epithelium of women with high mammographic density, correlated positively with epithelial proliferation and density, and inversely with miR-203. The findings identify ZNF217 as a potential target toward which preexisting therapies, such as the Akt inhibitor triciribine, could be used as a chemopreventive agent to reduce cancer risk in women with high mammographic density.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI129249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598051PMC
November 2020

Association of Event-Free and Distant Recurrence-Free Survival With Individual-Level Pathologic Complete Response in Neoadjuvant Treatment of Stages 2 and 3 Breast Cancer: Three-Year Follow-up Analysis for the I-SPY2 Adaptively Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2020 09;6(9):1355-1362

Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, San Francisco.

Importance: Pathologic complete response (pCR) is a known prognostic biomarker for long-term outcomes. The I-SPY2 trial evaluated if the strength of this clinical association persists in the context of a phase 2 neoadjuvant platform trial.

Objective: To evaluate the association of pCR with event-free survival (EFS) and pCR with distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) in subpopulations of women with high-risk operable breast cancer treated with standard therapy or one of several novel agents.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Multicenter platform trial of women with operable clinical stage 2 or 3 breast cancer with no prior surgery or systemic therapy for breast cancer; primary tumors were 2.5 cm or larger. Women with tumors that were ERBB2 negative/hormone receptor (HR) positive with low 70-gene assay score were excluded. Participants were adaptively randomized to one of several different investigational regimens or control therapy within molecular subtypes from March 2010 through 2016. The analysis included participants with follow-up data available as of February 26, 2019.

Interventions: Standard-of-care neoadjuvant therapy consisting of taxane treatment with or without (as control) one of several investigational agents or combinations followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Pathologic complete response and 3-year EFS and DRFS.

Results: Of the 950 participants (median [range] age, 49 [23-77] years), 330 (34.7%) achieved pCR. Three-year EFS and DRFS for patients who achieved pCR were both 95%. Hazard ratios for pCR vs non-pCR were 0.19 for EFS (95% CI, 0.12-0.31) and 0.21 for DRFS (95% CI, 0.13-0.34) and were similar across molecular subtypes, varying from 0.14 to 0.18 for EFS and 0.10 to 0.20 for DRFS.

Conclusions And Relevance: The 3-year outcomes from the I-SPY2 trial show that, regardless of subtype and/or treatment regimen, including 9 novel therapeutic combinations, achieving pCR after neoadjuvant therapy implies approximately an 80% reduction in recurrence rate. The goal of the I-SPY2 trial is to rapidly identify investigational therapies that may improve pCR when validated in a phase 3 confirmatory trial. Whether pCR is a validated surrogate in the sense that a therapy that improves pCR rate can be assumed to also improve long-term outcome requires further study.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01042379.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.2535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378873PMC
September 2020

Mitotic score and pleomorphic histology in invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: impact on disease-free survival.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 May 2;181(1):23-29. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: Pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) has long been thought to have worse outcomes than classic ILC and is therefore often treated with chemotherapy. However, recent data question the utility of the pleomorphic designation, as the poor outcomes seen may be related to other associated high-risk features. Importantly, mitotic count may better define a subset of ILC with high risk of recurrence. We sought to determine the impact of pleomorphic histology versus mitotic count on disease-free survival (DFS) in pure ILC. Additionally, we evaluated whether pleomorphic histology was associated with receipt of chemotherapy when adjusting for other factors.

Methods: We analyzed a cohort of 475 patients with stage I-III pure ILC. We used Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression for multivariate analyses. Pleomorphic histology was confirmed by central pathology review.

Results: In a multivariate model, pleomorphic histology was not associated with reduced DFS. Only mitotic score, receptor subtype, and pathologic stage were independently and significantly associated with DFS. Patients with pleomorphic ILC were significantly more likely to receive chemotherapy than patients with classic ILC (adjusted odds ratio 2.96, p = 0.026).

Conclusions: The pleomorphic designation in ILC does not have clinical utility and should not be used to determine therapy. Rather, mitotic count identified clear prognostic groups in this cohort of pure ILC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05606-5DOI Listing
May 2020

Phase II Single-Arm Study of Preoperative Letrozole for Estrogen Receptor-Positive Postmenopausal Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: CALGB 40903 (Alliance).

J Clin Oncol 2020 04 3;38(12):1284-1292. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Purpose: Primary endocrine therapy for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as a potential alternative to surgery has been understudied. This trial explored the feasibility of a short-term course of letrozole and sought to determine whether treatment results in measurable radiographic and biologic changes in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive DCIS.

Patients And Methods: A phase II single-arm multicenter cooperative-group trial was conducted in postmenopausal patients diagnosed with ER-positive DCIS without invasion. Patients were treated with letrozole 2.5 mg per day for 6 months before surgery. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The primary end point was change in 6-month MRI enhancement volume compared with baseline.

Results: Overall, 79 patients were enrolled and 70 completed 6 months of letrozole. Of these, 67 patients had MRI data available for each timepoint. Baseline MRI volumes ranged from 0.004 to 26.3 cm. Median reductions from baseline MRI volume (1.4 cm) were 0.6 cm (61.0%) at 3 months ( < .001) and 0.8 cm (71.7%) at 6 months ( < .001). Consistent reductions were seen in median baseline ER H-score (228; median reduction, 15.0; = .005), progesterone receptor H-score (15; median reduction, 85.0; < .001), and Ki67 score (12%; median reduction, 6.3%; = .007). Of the 59 patients who underwent surgery per study protocol, persistent DCIS remained in 50 patients (85%), invasive cancer was detected in six patients (10%), and no residual DCIS or invasive cancer was seen in nine patients (15%).

Conclusions: In a cohort of postmenopausal women with ER-positive DCIS, preoperative letrozole resulted in significant imaging and biomarker changes. These findings support future trials of extended endocrine therapy as primary nonoperative treatment of some DCIS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.00510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7164489PMC
April 2020

Primary mammary angiosarcomas harbor frequent mutations in KDR and PIK3CA and show evidence of distinct pathogenesis.

Mod Pathol 2020 08 2;33(8):1518-1526. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Angiosarcoma (AS) is the most frequent primary sarcoma of the breast but nevertheless remains uncommon, accounting for <0.05% of breast malignancies. Secondary mammary AS arise following radiation therapy for breast cancer, in contrast to primary AS which occur sporadically. Essentially all show aggressive clinical behavior independent of histologic grade and most are treated by mastectomy. MYC amplification is frequently identified in radiation-induced AS but only rarely in primary mammary AS (PMAS). As a heterogeneous group, AS from various anatomic sites have been shown to harbor recurrent alterations in TP53, MAP kinase pathway genes, and genes involved in angiogenic signaling including KDR (VEGFR2) and PTPRB. In part due to its rarity, the pathogenesis of PMAS has not been fully characterized. In this study, we examined the clinical, pathologic, and genomic features of ten cases of PMAS, including one patient with bilateral disease. Recurrent genomic alterations were identified in KDR (70%), PIK3CA/PIK3R1 (70%), and PTPRB (30%), each at higher frequencies than reported in AS across all sites. Six tumors harbored a KDR p.T771R hotspot mutation, and all seven KDR-mutant cases showed evidence suggestive of biallelism (four with loss of heterozygosity and three with two aberrations). Of the seven tumors with PI3K alterations, six harbored pathogenic mutations other than in the canonical PIK3CA residues which are most frequent in breast cancer. Three AS were hypermutated (≥10 mutations/megabase (Mb)); hypermutation was seen concurrent with KDR or PIK3CA mutations. The patient with bilateral disease demonstrated shared alterations, indicative of contralateral metastasis. No MYC or TP53 aberrations were detected in this series. Immunohistochemistry for VEGFR2 was unable to discriminate between KDR-mutant tumors and benign vascular lesions of the breast. These findings highlight the underrecognized frequency of KDR and PIK3CA mutation in PMAS, and a significant subset with hypermutation, suggesting a pathogenesis distinct from other AS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-0511-6DOI Listing
August 2020

American Registry of Pathology Expert Opinions: The Spectrum of Lobular Carcinoma in Situ: Diagnostic Features and Clinical Implications.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2020 Apr 15;45:151481. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

University of Queensland and Pathology Queensland, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Australia.

This review reflects a collaboration between the American Registry of Pathology (the publisher of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Fascicles) and Annals of Diagnostic Pathology. It is part of a series of expert recommendations on topics encountered in daily practice. The authors, 4 pathologists with expertise in breast pathology and a breast surgeon with a clinical and research interest in lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), met by conference call in September 2019 to develop recommendations for evaluating and reporting LCIS. Herein, we summarize the diagnostic criteria of classic LCIS and LCIS subtypes according to the most recent WHO criteria, discuss how best to distinguish LCIS from ductal carcinoma in situ in problematic cases (including the uses and limitations of E-cadherin immunohistochemistry), and review outcome and management issues for patients with LCIS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2020.151481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7401835PMC
April 2020

Genetic analysis of pleomorphic and florid lobular carcinoma in situ variants: frequent ERBB2/ERBB3 alterations and clonal relationship to classic lobular carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular carcinoma.

Mod Pathol 2020 06 6;33(6):1078-1091. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA.

Pleomorphic (PLCIS) and florid (FLCIS) lobular carcinoma in situ are rare histologic variants of LCIS that are considered more aggressive than classic LCIS (CLCIS), but optimal treatment is controversial. The genetic drivers of these lesions and their clonal relationships to paired CLCIS and ILC have not been characterized. We used capture-based next-generation sequencing to profile 16 LCIS variants (ten PLCIS, six FLCIS), including paired synchronous ILC and CLCIS in 11 and nine cases, respectively. Recurrent pathogenic alterations included CDH1 (9/10 PLCIS, 6/6 FLCIS), PIK3CA (7/10 PLCIS, 2/6 FLCIS), ERBB2 (6/10 PLCIS, 2/6 FLCIS; six mutations, two amplifications), ERBB3 (1/10 PLCIS, 2/6 FLCIS), FOXA1 (4/10 PLCIS, 1/6 FLCIS), TP53 (3/10 PLCIS), and CCND1 (2/10 PLCIS, 1/6 FLCIS). Mutational profiles and mean copy number alterations (CNA) were similar between LCIS variants with and without ILC. Compared with ILC in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), PLCIS, FLCIS, and associated ILC were enriched for ERBB2 mutations, and PLCIS was enriched for TP53 and FOXA1 mutations. Shared pathogenic mutations and CNA were identified between the LCIS variant and ILC in all cases, and between CLCIS and the LCIS variant/ILC in 89%. CLCIS to PLCIS progression was associated with increased mean nonsynonymous mutations and additional pathogenic alterations and/or CNA in 80%. Mean nonsynonymous mutations and CNA were similar between PLCIS and ILC, although additional pathogenic mutations were associated with invasion in a subset (43%). FLCIS harbored additional clonal pathogenic mutations in only 1/3 cases, and these were not shared with ILC, which was genetically divergent. In another case, ILC was genetically more similar to CLCIS than FLCIS. The results highlight clonal relationships between PLCIS/FLCIS and CLCIS, and implicate PLCIS as a genetically advanced ILC precursor. Frequent ERBB2/ERBB3 alterations in PLCIS and FLCIS are consistent with more aggressive behavior and may have prognostic and therapeutic implications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-019-0449-8DOI Listing
June 2020

Immunohistochemical analysis of IDH2 R172 hotspot mutations in breast papillary neoplasms: applications in the diagnosis of tall cell carcinoma with reverse polarity.

Mod Pathol 2020 06 2;33(6):1056-1064. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Tall cell carcinoma with reverse polarity is a rare subtype of breast carcinoma with solid and papillary growth and nuclear features reminiscent of those of the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. These tumors harbor recurrent IDH2 R172 hotspot mutations or TET2 mutations, co-occurring with mutations in PI3K pathway genes. Diagnosis of tall cell carcinomas with reverse polarity is challenging in view of their rarity and the range of differential diagnosis. We sought to determine the sensitivity and specificity of IDH2 R172 immunohistochemistry for the detection of IDH2 R172 hotspot mutations in this entity. We evaluated 14 tall cell carcinomas with reverse polarity (ten excision and five core needle biopsy specimens), 13 intraductal papillomas, 16 solid papillary carcinomas, and 5 encapsulated papillary carcinomas by Sanger sequencing of the IDH2 R172 hotspot locus and of exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA, and by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies (11C8B1) to the IDH2 R172S mutation. The 14 tall cell carcinomas with reverse polarity studied harbored IDH2 R172 hotspot mutations, which co-occurred with PIK3CA hotspot mutations in 50% of cases. None of the other papillary neoplasms analyzed displayed IDH2 R172 mutations, however PIK3CA hotspot mutations were detected in 54% of intraductal papillomas, 6% of solid papillary carcinomas, and 20% of encapsulated papillary carcinomas tested. Immunohistochemical analysis with anti-IDH2 R172S antibodies (11C8B1) detected IDH2 R172 mutated protein in 93% (14/15) of tall cell carcinomas with reverse polarity samples including excision (n = 9/10) and core needle biopsy specimens (n = 5), whereas the remaining papillary neoplasms (n = 34) were negative. Our findings demonstrate that immunohistochemical analysis of IDH2 R172 is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of IDH2 R172 hotspot mutations, and likely suitable as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of excision and core needle biopsy material of tall cell carcinomas with reverse polarity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-019-0442-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7286791PMC
June 2020

Pan-TRK Immunohistochemistry: A Useful Diagnostic Adjunct For Secretory Carcinoma of the Breast.

Am J Surg Pathol 2019 12;43(12):1693-1700

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital.

Secretory carcinoma is a special-type breast carcinoma underpinned by a recurrent t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation resulting in ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a pan-TRK antibody has been recently shown to help identify NTRK rearrangements in other tumor types. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic utility of pan-TRK IHC in secretory carcinoma of the breast. Pan-TRK IHC was performed using a rabbit monoclonal antibody on whole sections of 24 breast secretory carcinomas and tissue microarray sections of other breast carcinoma types (n=203) and histologic mimics (n=15). Cases were assessed for staining intensity and localization. The 24 patients with secretory carcinoma had a median age of 44 years and a median tumor size of 1.0 cm. ETV6 fluorescence in situ hybridization was positive in all cases tested (n=20). Twenty-three cases (95.8%) showed staining with pan-TRK, which was exclusively nuclear in 19, primarily nuclear with weak cytoplasmic staining in 3, and primarily cytoplasmic with focal nuclear staining in 1. The nuclear staining was diffuse in 17 and at least focally strong in 17. The only pan-TRK negative case was a core biopsy with limited tumor. Among the 203 nonsecretory carcinomas, 21 (10.3%) showed focal, weak nuclear staining in <5% of tumor cells and 1 (0.5%) showed focal membranous staining. All histologic mimics were negative. In conclusion, diffuse and/or at least focally strong nuclear pan-TRK staining is a sensitive and specific marker for secretory carcinoma of the breast.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001366DOI Listing
December 2019

High-grade neuroepithelial tumor with BCOR exon 15 internal tandem duplication-a comprehensive clinical, radiographic, pathologic, and genomic analysis.

Brain Pathol 2020 01 10;30(1):46-62. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

High-grade neuroepithelial tumor with BCOR exon 15 internal tandem duplication (HGNET BCOR ex15 ITD) is a recently proposed tumor entity of the central nervous system (CNS) with a distinct methylation profile and characteristic genetic alteration. The complete spectrum of histologic features, accompanying genetic alterations, clinical outcomes, and optimal treatment for this new tumor entity are largely unknown. Here, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 10 new cases of HGNET BCOR ex15 ITD. The tumors mostly occurred in young children and were located in the cerebral or cerebellar hemispheres. On imaging all tumors were large, well-circumscribed, heterogeneous masses with variable enhancement and reduced diffusion. They were histologically characterized by predominantly solid growth, glioma-like fibrillarity, perivascular pseudorosettes, and palisading necrosis, but absence of microvascular proliferation. They demonstrated sparse to absent GFAP expression, no synaptophysin expression, variable OLIG2 and NeuN positivity, and diffuse strong BCOR nuclear positivity. While BCOR exon 15 internal tandem duplication was the solitary pathogenic alteration identified in six cases, four cases contained additional alterations including CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion, TERT amplification or promoter hotspot mutation, and damaging mutations in TP53, BCORL1, EP300, SMARCA2 and STAG2. While the limited clinical follow-up in prior reports had indicated a uniformly dismal prognosis for this tumor entity, this cohort includes multiple long-term survivors. Our study further supports inclusion of HGNET BCOR ex15 ITD as a distinct CNS tumor entity and expands the known clinicopathologic, radiographic, and genetic features.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6859193PMC
January 2020

Pleomorphic and Florid Lobular Carcinoma In Situ Variants of the Breast: A Clinicopathologic Study of 85 Cases With and Without Invasive Carcinoma From a Single Academic Center.

Am J Surg Pathol 2019 03;43(3):399-408

Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

The natural history and optimal treatment of pleomorphic (PLCIS) and florid (FLCIS) lobular carcinoma in situ variants remains uncertain. We reviewed the clinicopathologic features and management of LCIS variants at our institution over a 20-year period. Of 85 cases (61 PLCIS, 24 FLCIS), 77% were associated with invasive carcinoma (84% lobular, 13% ductal/lobular, 3% ductal) and only 17% (9 PLCIS, 5 FLCIS) were pure. Most (81%) invasive carcinomas were grade 2, with all grade 3/pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinomas (ILC) associated with PLCIS, and all grade 1 tumors associated with FLCIS. PLCIS-associated invasive carcinomas were more often ER- (21%) or HER2+ (14%) than FLCIS-associated tumors (100% ER+, 6% HER2+). LCIS variants were unifocal and co-localized with invasive carcinoma in 20/20 selected spatially mapped cases, whereas classic LCIS (CLCIS) was multifocal with wider distribution (10/17). Of 21 pure LCIS variants on core biopsy, all represented the radiographic (95%) or palpable (5%) target. The excisional upgrade rate was similar for PLCIS (38%) and FLCIS (33%). Pure LCIS variants on core biopsy were often (20%) HER2+ and had a higher Ki-67-index than synchronous CLCIS (P=0.002). Lower ER expression in LCIS variants versus CLCIS was due to ER- apocrine PLCIS. ER and HER2 were consistently concordant between LCIS variants and upgraded ILC but discordant between synchronous CLCIS and LCIS variants in 5/14 (36%). Pure LCIS variants were excised to negative margins and frequently (58%) treated with endocrine but not radiation therapy without recurrences. In summary, PLCIS and FLCIS demonstrate features of direct precursor lesions warranting surgical excision.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001191DOI Listing
March 2019

CRTC1-MAML2 fusion in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the breast.

Histopathology 2019 Feb 5;74(3):463-473. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA.

Aims: Mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) are the most common malignant neoplasms of salivary glands, but are uncommon in other sites. Salivary gland MEC are most frequently associated with CRTC1-MAML2 translocations. Exceedingly rare MEC of the breast demonstrate a basal-like and often triple (oestrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2)-negative immunophenotype, with a single case previously reported to show MAML2 rearrangement, although the fusion partner was not known. Comprehensive genomic studies of breast MEC are lacking. In this study, we analysed the immunophenotype and molecular landscape of two breast MEC to elucidate the pathogenesis of these rare tumours.

Methods And Results: Two breast MEC were subjected to capture-based next-generation DNA sequencing of 479 cancer-related genes. The presence of the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion transcript was interrogated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the immunoprofiles of breast MEC were compared to salivary gland MEC. Both breast MEC harboured CRTC1-MAML2 fusions. In contrast to most triple-negative breast carcinomas of no special type, the mutational burden of MEC was very low, with one case demonstrating only an inactivating SETD2 mutation, and the other harbouring no somatic variants in genes on the panel. No copy number alterations were identified. The immunoprofiles of breast and salivary gland MEC were overlapping, but not identical.

Conclusions: The findings highlight MEC as a breast cancer subtype more closely related to its salivary gland counterpart than to basal-like/triple-negative breast cancers of no special type.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.13779DOI Listing
February 2019

Large Scale Semi-Automated Labeling of Routine Free-Text Clinical Records for Deep Learning.

J Digit Imaging 2019 02;32(1):30-37

Institute for Computational Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among women in the USA. Screening mammography is effective in reducing mortality, but has a high rate of unnecessary recalls and biopsies. While deep learning can be applied to mammography, large-scale labeled datasets, which are difficult to obtain, are required. We aim to remove many barriers of dataset development by automatically harvesting data from existing clinical records using a hybrid framework combining traditional NLP and IBM Watson. An expert reviewer manually annotated 3521 breast pathology reports with one of four outcomes: left positive, right positive, bilateral positive, negative. Traditional NLP techniques using seven different machine learning classifiers were compared to IBM Watson's automated natural language classifier. Techniques were evaluated using precision, recall, and F-measure. Logistic regression outperformed all other traditional machine learning classifiers and was used for subsequent comparisons. Both traditional NLP and Watson's NLC performed well for cases under 1024 characters with weighted average F-measures above 0.96 across all classes. Performance of traditional NLP was lower for cases over 1024 characters with an F-measure of 0.83. We demonstrate a hybrid framework using traditional NLP techniques combined with IBM Watson to annotate over 10,000 breast pathology reports for development of a large-scale database to be used for deep learning in mammography. Our work shows that traditional NLP and IBM Watson perform extremely well for cases under 1024 characters and can accelerate the rate of data annotation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10278-018-0105-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6382632PMC
February 2019

Genomic profiling of metaplastic breast carcinomas reveals genetic heterogeneity and relationship to ductal carcinoma.

Mod Pathol 2018 11 26;31(11):1661-1674. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA.

Metaplastic breast carcinomas comprise a histologically heterogenous group of tumors. Although most are triple (estrogen/progesterone receptor, HER2) negative, these rare tumors are clinicopathologically distinct from other triple negative carcinomas and may be aggressive with worse chemotherapy responses. On the other hand, metaplastic carcinomas are histologically diverse, which is reflected in gene expression differences among subtypes. Whether metaplastic carcinomas are genetically distinct from other triple negative cancers and whether genetic differences underlie histologic subtypes remains poorly understood. We sequenced 408 cancer-related genes in 28 metaplastic carcinomas, including chondroid matrix-producing carcinomas (n = 10), spindle cell carcinomas (n = 5), and carcinomas with squamous (n = 5), mixed spindle/squamous (n = 5), and mixed metaplastic (n = 3) differentiation. Metaplastic carcinomas were highly enriched for PIK3CA/PIK3R1 (61%) and Ras-Map kinase (25%) pathway aberrations compared to other triple negative carcinomas (TCGA dataset 14%, p < 0.001 and 7%, p = 0.005, respectively) and harbored a high frequency of TP53 (64%) and TERT promoter (25%) mutations, but this varied among subtypes. Chondroid-matrix producing carcinomas lacked PI-3 kinase and Ras-Map kinase aberrations and TERT promoter mutations, compared to 100%, 39%, and 39% of non-matrix-producing tumors, respectively. TERT promoter mutations were enriched (47%) in spindle cell carcinomas and tumors with squamous or spindle/squamous differentiation. Spindle cell carcinomas lacked TP53 mutations, in contrast to other subtypes (78%, p = 0.003). Separate analysis of paired ductal carcinoma in situ and metaplastic carcinoma revealed shared clonality in all cases (n = 8). Activating PI-3 kinase and Ras pathway mutations were early events, and inactivating mutations in tumor suppressors including RB1, CDKN2A, and TP53 were associated with invasion in individual cases. Metaplastic components of two tumors showed genetic progression from separately sequenced paired invasive ductal carcinoma. The findings suggest that metaplastic carcinomas are genetically distinct from other triple negative breast cancers and highlight genetic heterogeneity that broadly correlates with histologic subtype. Heterologous elements progress from associated ductal carcinoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-018-0081-zDOI Listing
November 2018

Does mammographic density mediate risk factor associations with breast cancer? An analysis by tumor characteristics.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2018 Jul 3;170(1):129-141. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Though mammographic density (MD) has been proposed as an intermediate marker of breast cancer risk, few studies have examined whether the associations between breast cancer risk factors and risk are mediated by MD, particularly by tumor characteristics.

Methods: Our study population included 3392 cases (1105 premenopausal) and 8882 (3192 premenopausal) controls from four case-control studies. For established risk factors, we estimated the percent of the total risk factor association with breast cancer that was mediated by percent MD (secondarily, by dense area and non-dense area) for invasive breast cancer as well as for subtypes defined by the estrogen receptor (ER+/ER-), progesterone receptor (PR+/PR-), and HER2 (HER2+/HER2-). Analyses were conducted separately in pre- and postmenopausal women.

Results: Positive associations between prior breast biopsy and risk of invasive breast cancer as well as all subtypes were partially mediated by percent MD in pre- and postmenopausal women (percent mediated = 11-27%, p ≤ 0.02). In postmenopausal women, nulliparity and hormone therapy use were positively associated with invasive, ER+ , PR+ , and HER2- breast cancer; percent MD partially mediated these associations (percent mediated ≥ 31%, p ≤ 0.02). Further, among postmenopausal women, percent MD partially mediated the positive association between later age at first birth and invasive as well as ER+ breast cancer (percent mediated = 16%, p ≤ 0.05).

Conclusion: Percent MD partially mediated the associations between breast biopsy, nulliparity, age at first birth, and hormone therapy with risk of breast cancer, particularly among postmenopausal women, suggesting that these risk factors at least partially influence breast cancer risk through changes in breast tissue composition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-018-4735-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5994184PMC
July 2018

Intratumor Heterogeneity of the Estrogen Receptor and the Long-term Risk of Fatal Breast Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 07;110(7):726-733

Department of Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Background: Breast cancer patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease have a continuous long-term risk for fatal breast cancer, but the biological factors influencing this risk are unknown. We aimed to determine whether high intratumor heterogeneity of ER predicts an increased long-term risk (25 years) of fatal breast cancer.

Methods: The STO-3 trial enrolled 1780 postmenopausal lymph node-negative breast cancer patients randomly assigned to receive adjuvant tamoxifen vs not. The fraction of cancer cells for each ER intensity level was scored by breast cancer pathologists, and intratumor heterogeneity of ER was calculated using Rao's quadratic entropy and categorized into high and low heterogeneity using a predefined cutoff at the second tertile (67%). Long-term breast cancer-specific survival analyses by intra-tumor heterogeneity of ER were performed using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling adjusting for patient and tumor characteristics.

Results: A statistically significant difference in long-term survival by high vs low intratumor heterogeneity of ER was seen for all ER-positive patients (P < .001) and for patients with luminal A subtype tumors (P = .01). In multivariable analyses, patients with high intratumor heterogeneity of ER had a twofold increased long-term risk as compared with patients with low intratumor heterogeneity (ER-positive: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31 to 3.00; luminal A subtype tumors: HR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.18 to 4.99).

Conclusions: Patients with high intratumor heterogeneity of ER had an increased long-term risk of fatal breast cancer. Interestingly, a similar long-term risk increase was seen in patients with luminal A subtype tumors. Our findings suggest that intratumor heterogeneity of ER is an independent long-term prognosticator with potential to change clinical management, especially for patients with luminal A tumors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djx270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037086PMC
July 2018

Fibroepithelial lesions; The WHO spectrum.

Semin Diagn Pathol 2017 Sep 28;34(5):438-452. Epub 2017 May 28.

Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA.

Fibroepithelial lesions of the breast comprise a morphologically and biologically heterogeneous group of biphasic tumors with epithelial and stromal components that demonstrate widely variable clinical behavior. Fibroadenomas are common benign tumors with a number of histologic variants, most of which pose no diagnostic challenge. Cellular and juvenile fibroadenomas can have overlapping features with phyllodes tumors and should be recognized. Phyllodes tumors constitute a spectrum of lesions with varying clinical behavior and are graded as benign, borderline or malignant based on a set of histologic features according to recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO). Recent developments have significantly expanded our understanding of the pathogenesis of fibroepithelial lesions, highlighting fibroadenomas as true neoplasms and underscoring a commonality with phyllodes tumors in the form of recurrent MED12 exon 2 mutations. In addition, sequencing studies have elucidated pathways associated with phyllodes tumor progression. Accurate diagnosis and grading of phyllodes tumors are important for patient management and prognosis, as grade broadly correlates with increasing local recurrence risk, and essentially only malignant tumors metastasize. However, classification of fibroepithelial lesions in many cases remains challenging on both core biopsy and excision specimens. A commonly encountered problem at the benign end of the spectrum is the distinction of benign phyllodes tumor from cellular fibroadenoma, which is largely due to the subjective nature of histologic features used in diagnosis and histologic overlap between lesions. Grading is further complicated by the requirement to integrate multiple subjective and ill-defined parameters. On the opposite end of the histologic spectrum, malignant phyllodes tumors must be distinguished from more common metaplastic carcinomas and from primary or metastatic sarcomas, which can be especially difficult in core biopsies. Immunohistochemistry can be useful in the differential diagnosis but should be interpreted with attention to caveats. This review provides an overview and update on the spectrum of fibroepithelial lesions, with special emphasis on common problems and practical issues in diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semdp.2017.05.006DOI Listing
September 2017

Interaction of mammographic breast density with menopausal status and postmenopausal hormone use in relation to the risk of aggressive breast cancer subtypes.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2017 Sep 17;165(2):421-431. Epub 2017 Jun 17.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Purpose: We examined the associations of mammographic breast density with breast cancer risk by tumor aggressiveness and by menopausal status and current postmenopausal hormone therapy.

Methods: This study included 2596 invasive breast cancer cases and 4059 controls selected from participants of four nested case-control studies within four established cohorts: the Mayo Mammography Health Study, the Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II, and San Francisco Mammography Registry. Percent breast density (PD), absolute dense (DA), and non-dense areas (NDA) were assessed from digitized film-screen mammograms using a computer-assisted threshold technique and standardized across studies. We used polytomous logistic regression to quantify the associations of breast density with breast cancer risk by tumor aggressiveness (defined as presence of at least two of the following tumor characteristics: size ≥2 cm, grade 2/3, ER-negative status, or positive nodes), stratified by menopausal status and current hormone therapy.

Results: Overall, the positive association of PD and borderline inverse association of NDA with breast cancer risk was stronger in aggressive vs. non-aggressive tumors (≥51 vs. 11-25% OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.94-3.22 vs. OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.70-2.43, p-heterogeneity = 0.03; NDA 4th vs. 2nd quartile OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.41-0.70 vs. OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59-0.85, p-heterogeneity = 0.07). However, there were no differences in the association of DA with breast cancer by aggressive status. In the stratified analysis, there was also evidence of a stronger association of PD and NDA with aggressive tumors among postmenopausal women and, in particular, current estrogen+progesterone users (≥51 vs. 11-25% OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.75-6.00 vs. OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.25-2.98, p-heterogeneity = 0.01; NDA 4th vs. 2nd quartile OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.85 vs. OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.89, p-heterogeneity = 0.01), even though the interaction was not significant.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that associations of mammographic density with breast cancer risk differ by tumor aggressiveness. While there was no strong evidence that these associations differed by menopausal status or hormone therapy, they did appear more prominent among current estrogen+progesterone users.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-017-4341-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5773252PMC
September 2017

Comparison of residual cancer burden, American Joint Committee on Cancer staging and pathologic complete response in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: results from the I-SPY 1 TRIAL (CALGB 150007/150012; ACRIN 6657).

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2017 Aug 2;165(1):181-191. Epub 2017 Jun 2.

University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: Several pathologic staging systems characterize residual tumor in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Pathologic complete response (pCR) is now accepted by the Food and Drug Administration as an endpoint for granting accelerated drug approval. Two other systems of post-neoadjuvant pathologic tumor staging-residual cancer burden (RCB) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer post-neoadjuvant therapy staging system (yAJCC)-have been developed to characterize residual tumors when patients do not achieve pCR. The optimal system and the ways in which these systems complement each other have not been fully determined.

Methods: Using data from the I-SPY 1 TRIAL, we compared pCR, RCB, and yAJCC as predictors of early recurrence-free survival (RFS) to identify ways to improve post-neoadjuvant pathologic evaluation.

Results: Among 162 patients assessed, pCR identified patients at lowest risk of recurrence, while RCB and yAJCC identified patients at highest risk. Hormone-receptor (HR) and HER2 subtypes further improved risk prediction. Recursive partitioning indicated that triple-negative or HER2+ patients with yAJCC III or RCB 3 have the highest recurrence risk, with an RFS of 27%. Our analysis also highlighted discrepancies between RCB and yAJCC stratification: 31% of patients had discrepant RCB and yAJCC scores. We identified differential treatment of lymph node involvement and tumor cellularity as drivers of these discrepancies.

Conclusions: These data indicate that there is benefit to reporting both RCB and yAJCC for patients in order to identify those at highest risk of relapse.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-017-4303-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5653207PMC
August 2017

Genomic profiling of breast secretory carcinomas reveals distinct genetics from other breast cancers and similarity to mammary analog secretory carcinomas.

Mod Pathol 2017 08 26;30(8):1086-1099. Epub 2017 May 26.

Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA.

Secretory carcinomas of the breast are rare tumors with distinct histologic features, recurrent t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation resulting in ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion and indolent clinical behavior. Mammary analog secretory carcinomas arising in other sites are histopathologically similar to the breast tumors and also harbor ETV6-NTRK3 fusions. Breast secretory carcinomas are often triple (estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2) negative with a basal-like immunophenotype. However, genomic studies are lacking, and whether these tumors share genetic features with other basal and/or triple negative breast cancers is unknown. Aside from shared ETV6-NTRK3 fusions, the genetic relatedness of secretory carcinomas arising in different sites is also uncertain. We immunoprofiled and sequenced 510 cancer-related genes in nine breast secretory carcinomas and six salivary gland mammary analog secretory carcinomas. Immunoprofiles of breast and salivary gland secretory carcinomas were similar. All the tumors showed strong diffuse MUC4 expression (n=15), and SOX10 was positive in all nine breast and in five out of six salivary gland tumors. All breast secretory carcinomas were triple negative or weakly ER-positive, and all tumors at both the sites expressed CK5/6 and/or EGFR, consistent with a basal-like phenotype. Sequencing revealed classic ETV6-NTRK3 fusion genes in all cases, including in carcinoma in situ of one breast tumor. Translocations were reciprocal and balanced in six out of nine breast and three out of six salivary gland tumors and were complex in three others. In contrast to most breast basal carcinomas, the mutational burden of secretory carcinomas was very low, and no additional pathogenic aberrations were identified in genes typically mutated in breast cancer. Five (56%) breast and two (33%) salivary gland tumors had simple genomes without copy number changes; the remainder had very few changes, averaging 1.3 per tumor. The ETV6-NTRK3 derivative chromosome was duplicated in one breast and one salivary gland tumor, and was the only copy number change in the latter. The findings highlight breast secretory carcinoma as a subtype more closely related to mammary analog secretory carcinoma than to basal/triple negative breast cancers of no special type. Lack of pathogenic mutations in common cancer-related genes suggests that ETV6-NTRK3 alone may suffice to drive these tumors and likely helps explain their indolent behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2017.32DOI Listing
August 2017

The molecular basis of breast cancer pathological phenotypes.

J Pathol 2017 Feb 29;241(3):375-391. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

Cancer Research Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Cancer Center, Boston, MA, USA.

The histopathological evaluation of morphological features in breast tumours provides prognostic information to guide therapy. Adjunct molecular analyses provide further diagnostic, prognostic and predictive information. However, there is limited knowledge of the molecular basis of morphological phenotypes in invasive breast cancer. This study integrated genomic, transcriptomic and protein data to provide a comprehensive molecular profiling of morphological features in breast cancer. Fifteen pathologists assessed 850 invasive breast cancer cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Morphological features were significantly associated with genomic alteration, DNA methylation subtype, PAM50 and microRNA subtypes, proliferation scores, gene expression and/or reverse-phase protein assay subtype. Marked nuclear pleomorphism, necrosis, inflammation and a high mitotic count were associated with the basal-like subtype, and had a similar molecular basis. Omics-based signatures were constructed to predict morphological features. The association of morphology transcriptome signatures with overall survival in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative breast cancer was first assessed by use of the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) dataset; signatures that remained prognostic in the METABRIC multivariate analysis were further evaluated in five additional datasets. The transcriptomic signature of poorly differentiated epithelial tubules was prognostic in ER-positive breast cancer. No signature was prognostic in ER-negative breast cancer. This study provided new insights into the molecular basis of breast cancer morphological phenotypes. The integration of morphological with molecular data has the potential to refine breast cancer classification, predict response to therapy, enhance our understanding of breast cancer biology, and improve clinical management. This work is publicly accessible at www.dx.ai/tcga_breast. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.4847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5499709PMC
February 2017

Genomic profiling of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma reveals recurrent alterations in epigenetic regulatory genes BAP1, SETD2, and DDX3X.

Mod Pathol 2017 02 4;30(2):246-254. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare cancer that arises from the mesothelial cells that line the pleural cavity and less commonly from the peritoneal lining of the abdomen and pelvis. Most pleural mesotheliomas arise in patients with a history of asbestos exposure, whereas the association of peritoneal mesotheliomas with exposure to asbestos and other potential carcinogens is less clear, suggesting that the genetic alterations that drive malignant peritoneal mesothelioma may be unique from those in pleural mesothelioma. Treatment options for all malignant mesotheliomas are currently limited, with no known targeted therapies available. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, we sequenced 510 cancer-related genes in 13 patients with malignant mesothelioma arising in the peritoneal cavity. The most frequent genetic alteration was biallelic inactivation of the BAP1 gene, which occurred in 9/13 cases, with an additional two cases demonstrating monoallelic loss of BAP1. All 11 of these cases demonstrated loss of BAP1 nuclear staining by immunohistochemistry, whereas two tumors without BAP1 alteration and all 42 cases of histologic mimics in peritoneum (8 multilocular peritoneal inclusion cyst, 6 well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma of the peritoneum, 16 adenomatoid tumor, and 12 low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary) demonstrated intact BAP1 nuclear staining. Additional recurrently mutated genes in this cohort of malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas included NF2 (3/13), SETD2 (2/13), and DDX3X (2/13). While these genes are known to be recurrently mutated in pleural mesotheliomas, the frequencies are distinct in peritoneal mesotheliomas, with nearly 85% of peritoneal tumors harboring BAP1 alterations versus only 20-30% of pleural tumors. Together, these findings demonstrate the importance of epigenetic modifiers including BAP1, SETD2, and DDX3X in mesothelial tumorigenesis and suggest opportunities for targeted therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2016.188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5288276PMC
February 2017

'Non-classical' HER2 FISH results in breast cancer: a multi-institutional study.

Mod Pathol 2017 02 14;30(2):227-235. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

The 2013 CAP/ASCO HER2 Testing Guidelines Update modified HER2 FISH categories such that some cases with 'monosomy', 'co-amplification/polysomy', low-level increased HER2 signals or clustered heterogeneity now are considered amplified or equivocal. This study examines the frequency and clinico-pathologic characteristics of breast cancers with equivocal or 'non-classical' HER2 FISH results. Breast cancers (2001-2014) with HER2 FISH results, HER2 immunohistochemistry, ER, grade, and age from three institutions (Stanford, UCSF, UWMC) were collected. HER2 FISH was interpreted using the updated recommendations. Amplified cases with non-classical results were grouped into the following categories: (1) 'monosomy' (ratio ≥2.0, mean HER2/cell<4.0); (2) 'co-amplified' (ratio<2.0, mean HER2/cell ≥6.0); (3) 'low amplified' (ratio ≥2.0, mean HER2/cell 4.0-5.9). Heterogeneous cases with clustered HER2-positive cells were also included. Of 8068 cases, 5.2% were equivocal and 4.6% had a 'non-classical' HER2 amplified result; 1.4% 'monosomy', 0.8% 'co-amplified', 2.1% 'low amplified', and 0.3% clustered heterogeneity. These cancers had a high frequency of ER positive (80.4%), Nottingham grade 3 (52.1%) results. The highest percentage of grade 3 cancers (66.7%) and positive HER2 immunohistochemistry (31.7%) was in the 'co-amplified' group. The 'monosomy' group had the highest percent grade 1 cancers (13.3%) and was most frequently HER2 immunohistochemistry negative (30.1%). Equivocal cases had very similar characteristics to the 'low-amplified' category. Cases with non-classical HER2 amplification or equivocal results are typically ER positive, higher grade cancers. 'Co-amplified' cases have the highest frequencies of aggressive characteristics and 'monosomy' cases the highest frequencies of lower risk features. With little clinical outcomes data currently available on these non-classical HER2 results, these results support the current classification scheme for HER2 FISH, with case-by-case correlation with additional clinical-pathologic factors when evaluating whether to offer HER2-targeted therapies in these non-classical cases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2016.175DOI Listing
February 2017

Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression in breast cancer FNA cell blocks and paired histologic specimens: A large retrospective study.

Cancer Cytopathol 2016 Nov 17;124(11):828-835. Epub 2016 Jun 17.

Department of Pathology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: Molecular analysis represents an increasingly important component of the pathologic examination of tumor specimens. Notably, the characterization of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression in breast cancer specimens provides critical prognostic and predictive information. The objective of the current study was to compare the concordance of these markers as determined on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cell blocks compared with tissue blocks prepared from surgical specimens.

Methods: A total of 134 cases of breast carcinoma were identified from 2002 through 2014 with both FNA cell blocks (fixed in 10% formalin) and corresponding available tissue blocks and ER, PR, and HER2 were characterized in both specimens. Negative and positive concordances were determined for ER and PR in cell blocks compared with tissue blocks, and for HER2 immunohistochemistry on cell blocks and tissue blocks versus the corresponding reference method, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

Results: Concordance for ER expression evaluated on a cell block compared with the corresponding tissue block was 96.2%. Concordance for PR expression was 77.5%. Overall agreement of HER2 FISH testing between cell blocks and tissue blocks was 96.7%. For both cell blocks and tissue blocks, HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry demonstrated ≥98% positive and negative concordance with the FISH reference method.

Conclusions: ER, PR, and HER2 determination on FNA-acquired cell block (fixed exclusively in 10% formalin) showed excellent agreement for ER and HER2 and moderate agreement for PR with the corresponding tissue block. These findings support the equivalency of ER and HER2 evaluation performed on FNA cell blocks compared with surgical tissue blocks. Cancer Cytopathol 2016;124:828-35. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncy.21745DOI Listing
November 2016

Genomic profiling of malignant phyllodes tumors reveals aberrations in FGFR1 and PI-3 kinase/RAS signaling pathways and provides insights into intratumoral heterogeneity.

Mod Pathol 2016 09 3;29(9):1012-27. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, USA.

Malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are poorly understood rare neoplasms with potential for aggressive behavior. Few efficacious treatment options exist for progressed or metastatic disease. The molecular features of malignant phyllodes tumors are poorly defined, and a deeper understanding of the genetics of these tumors may shed light on pathogenesis and progression and potentially identify novel treatment approaches. We sequenced 510 cancer-related genes in 10 malignant phyllodes tumors, including 5 tumors with liposarcomatous differentiation and 1 with myxoid chondrosarcoma-like differentiation. Intratumoral heterogeneity was assessed by sequencing two separate areas in 7 tumors, including non-heterologous and heterologous components of tumors with heterologous differentiation. Activating hotspot mutations in FGFR1 were identified in 2 tumors. Additional recurrently mutated genes included TERT promoter (6/10), TP53 (4/10), PIK3CA (3/10), MED12 (3/10), SETD2 (2/10) and KMT2D (2/10). Together, genomic aberrations in FGFR/EGFR PI-3 kinase and RAS pathways were identified in 8 (80%) tumors and included mutually exclusive and potentially actionable activating FGFR1, PIK3CA and BRAF V600E mutations, inactivating TSC2 mutation, EGFR amplification and PTEN loss. Seven (70%) malignant phyllodes tumors harbored TERT aberrations (six promoter mutations, one amplification). For comparison, TERT promoter mutations were identified by Sanger sequencing in 33% borderline (n=12) and no (0%, n=8) benign phyllodes tumors (P=0.391 and P=0.013 vs malignant tumors, respectively). Genetic features specific to liposarcoma, including CDK4/MDM2 amplification, were not identified. Copy number analysis revealed intratumoral heterogeneity and evidence for divergent tumor evolution in malignant phyllodes tumors with and without heterologous differentiation. Tumors with liposarcomatous differentiation revealed more chromosomal aberrations in non-heterologous components compared with liposarcomatous components. EGFR amplification was heterogeneous and present only in the non-heterologous component of one tumor with liposarcomatous differentiation. The results identify novel pathways involved in the pathogenesis of malignant phyllodes tumors, which significantly increase our understanding of tumor biology and have potential clinical impact.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2016.97DOI Listing
September 2016
-->