Publications by authors named "Yung-Shyeng Tsao"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Statistical analysis of data from limiting dilution cloning to assess monoclonality in generating manufacturing cell lines.

Biotechnol Prog 2016 07 17;32(4):1061-8. Epub 2016 May 17.

Department of Bioprocess Technology Expression, Biologics and Vaccines, Merck Research Laboratories, Kenilworth, NJ, 07033, USA.

Assurance of monoclonality of recombinant cell lines is a critical issue to gain regulatory approval in biological license application (BLA). Some of the requirements of regulatory agencies are the use of proper documentations and appropriate statistical analysis to demonstrate monoclonality. In some cases, one round may be sufficient to demonstrate monoclonality. In this article, we propose the use of confidence intervals for assessing monoclonality for limiting dilution cloning in the generation of recombinant manufacturing cell lines based on a single round. The use of confidence intervals instead of point estimates allow practitioners to account for the uncertainty present in the data when assessing whether an estimated level of monoclonality is consistent with regulatory requirements. In other cases, one round may not be sufficient and two consecutive rounds are required to assess monoclonality. When two consecutive subclonings are required, we improved the present methodology by reducing the infinite series proposed by Coller and Coller (Hybridoma 1983;2:91-96) to a simpler series. The proposed simpler series provides more accurate and reliable results. It also reduces the level of computation and can be easily implemented in any spreadsheet program like Microsoft Excel. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1061-1068, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/btpr.2290DOI Listing
July 2016

Transcriptome dynamics of transgene amplification in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2014 Mar 18;111(3):518-28. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, 421 Washington Avenue S.E., Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455-0132.

Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) system is used to amplify the product gene to multiple copies in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells for generating cell lines which produce the recombinant protein at high levels. The physiological changes accompanying the transformation of the non-protein secreting host cells to a high producing cell line is not well characterized. We performed transcriptome analysis on CHO cells undergoing the selection and amplification processes. A host CHO cell line was transfected with a vector containing genes encoding the mouse DHFR (mDHFR) and a recombinant human IgG (hIgG). Clones were isolated following selection and subcloned following amplification. Control cells were transfected with a control plasmid which did not have the hIgG genes. Although methotrexate (MTX) amplification increased the transcript level of the mDHFR gene significantly, its effect on both hIgG heavy and light chain genes was more modest. The subclones appeared to retain the transcriptome signatures of their parental clones, however, their productivity varied among those derived from the same clone. The transcript levels of hIgG transgenes of all subclones fall in a narrower range than the product titer, alluding to the role of many functional attributes, other than transgene transcript, on productivity. We cross examined functional class enrichment during selection and amplification as well as between high and low producers and discerned common features among them. We hypothesize that the role of amplification is not merely increasing transcript levels, but also enriching survivors which have developed the cellular machinery for secreting proteins, leading to an increased frequency of isolating high-producing clones. We put forward the possibility of assembling a hyper-productivity gene set through comparative transcriptome analysis of a wide range of samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.25117DOI Listing
March 2014

A high-throughput automated platform for the development of manufacturing cell lines for protein therapeutics.

J Vis Exp 2011 Sep 22(55). Epub 2011 Sep 22.

Merck Research Laboratory, Merck & Co., Inc.

The fast-growing biopharmaceutical industry demands speedy development of highly efficient and reliable production systems to meet the increasing requirement for drug supplies. The generation of production cell lines has traditionally involved manual operations that are labor-intensive, low-throughput and vulnerable to human errors. We report here an integrated high-throughput and automated platform for development of manufacturing cell lines for the production of protein therapeutics. The combination of BD FACS Aria Cell Sorter, CloneSelect Imager and TECAN Freedom EVO liquid handling system has enabled a high-throughput and more efficient cell line development process. In this operation, production host cells are first transfected with an expression vector carrying the gene of interest (1), followed by the treatment with a selection agent. The stably-transfected cells are then stained with fluorescence-labeled anti-human IgG antibody, and are subsequently subject to flow cytometry analysis (2-4). Highly productive cells are selected based on fluorescence intensity and are isolated by single-cell sorting on a BD FACSAria. Colony formation from single-cell stage was detected microscopically and a series of time-laps digital images are taken by CloneSelect Imager for the documentation of cell line history. After single clones have formed, these clones were screened for productivity by ELISA performed on a TECAN Freedom EVO liquid handling system. Approximately 2,000 - 10,000 clones can be screened per operation cycle with the current system setup. This integrated approach has been used to generate high producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines for the production of therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) as well as their fusion proteins. With the aid of different types of detecting probes, the method can be used for developing other protein therapeutics or be applied to other production host systems. Comparing to the traditional manual procedure, this automated platform demonstrated advantages of significantly increased capacity, ensured clonality, traceability in cell line history with electronic documentation and much reduced opportunity in operator error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/3010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3230188PMC
September 2011

Fluorinert, an oxygen carrier, improves cell culture performance in deep square 96-well plates by facilitating oxygen transfer.

Biotechnol Prog 2012 Jan-Feb;28(1):171-8. Epub 2011 Sep 26.

Protein Expression Technologies, Biotechnology Process Development, Merck Research Laboratories, 1011 Morris Avenue, Union, NJ 07083, USA.

In bioprocess development, the 96-well plate format has been widely used for high-throughput screening of production cell line or culture conditions. However, suspension cell cultures in conventional 96-well plates often fail to reach high cell density under normal agitation presumably due to constraints in oxygen transfer. Although more vigorous agitation can improve gas transfer in 96-well plate format, it often requires specialized instruments. In this report, we employed Fluorinert, a biologically inert perfluorocarbon, to improve oxygen transfer in 96-well plate and to enable the growth of a Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line expressing a recombinant monoclonal antibody. When different amounts of Fluorinert were added to the cell culture medium, a dose-dependent improvement in cell growth was observed in both conventional and deep square 96-well plates. When sufficient Fluorinert was present in the culture, the cell growth rate, the peak cell density, and recombinant protein production levels achieved in deep square 96-wells were comparable to cultures in ventilated shake flasks. Although Fluorinert is known to dissolve gases such as oxygen and CO(2), it does not dissolve nor extract medium components, such as glucose, lactate, or amino acids. We conclude that mixing Fluorinert with culture media is a suitable model for miniaturization of cell line development and process optimization. Proper cell growth and cellular productivity can be obtained with a standard shaker without the need for any additional aeration or vigorous agitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/btpr.712DOI Listing
May 2012

mRNA stability and antibody production in CHO cells: improvement through gene optimization.

Biotechnol J 2010 Apr;5(4):393-401

Schering-Plough Research Institute, Biological and Sterile Products Development, Union, NJ 07083, USA.

The productivity of stably transfected cell lines is of critical importance for the manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Various methods have been successfully implemented to increase the production output of mammalian cell cultures. Increasing evidence suggests that optimization of the gene coding sequences of an expression vector can improve specific cell line yield of the recombinant protein. Here we demonstrate that gene optimization substantially enhances antibody production in Chinese hamster ovary cells. When gene optimization was applied to the heavy and light chain genes of a therapeutic antibody, we observed increased antibody production in transient transfection. Elevated heavy chain mRNA level was associated with the increase of antibody production. Further analysis suggested that the increased antibody expression is attributable to enhanced mRNA stability resulting from gene optimization. Gene optimization also led to increased antibody production in stable clones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.200900192DOI Listing
April 2010

Development of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line for recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene expression.

Biotechnol Prog 2003 Jan-Feb;19(1):137-43

Schering-Plough Research Institute, Biotechnology Development, 1011 Morris Avenue, Union, New Jersey 07083, USA.

Recombinant human adenovirus (rhAd) has been used extensively for functional protein expression in mammalian cells including those of human and nonhuman origin. High-level protein production by rhAd vectors is expected in their permissive host cells, such as the human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cell line. This is attributed primarily to the permissiveness of HEK293 to rhAd infection and their ability to support viral DNA replication by providing the missing El proteins. However, the HEK293 cells tend to suffer from cytopathic effect (CPE) as a result of virus replication. Under these circumstances, the host cell function is compromised and the culture viability will be reduced. Consequently, newly synthesized polypeptides may not be processed properly at posttranslational levels. Therefore, the usefulness of HEK293 cells for the expression of complex targets such as secreted proteins could be limited. In the search for a more robust cell line as a production host for rhAd expression vectors, a series of screening experiments was performed to isolate clones from Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO-K1) cells. First, multiple rounds of infection of CHO-K1 cells were performed utilizing an rhAd expressing GFP. After each cycle of infection, a small population of CHO cells with high GFP levels was enriched by FACS. Second, individual clones more permissive to human adenovirus infection were isolated from the highly enriched subpopulation by serial dilution. A single clone, designated CHO-K1-C5, was found to be particularly permissive to rhAd infection than the parental pool and has served as a production host in the successful expression of several secreted proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bp0200696DOI Listing
October 2003