Publications by authors named "Yunfei Yang"

67 Publications

Epigenetic variation associated with responses to different habitats in the context of genetic divergence in .

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 30;11(17):11874-11889. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics Ministry of Education Northeast Normal University Changchun China.

The mechanisms underlying heritable phenotypic divergence associated with adaptation in response to environmental stresses may involve both genetic and epigenetic variations. Several prior studies have revealed even higher levels of epigenetic variation than genetic variation. However, few population-level studies have explored the effects of epigenetic variation on species with high levels of genetic diversity distributed across different habitats. Using AFLP and methylation-sensitive AFLP markers, we tested the hypothesis that epigenetic variation may contribute to differences in plants occupying different habitats when genetic variation alone cannot fully explain adaptation. As a cosmopolitan invasive species, (common reed) together with high genetic diversity and remarkable adaptability has been suggested as a model for responses to global change and indicators of environmental fluctuations. We found high levels of genetic and epigenetic diversity and significant genetic/epigenetic structure within each of 12 studied populations sampled from four natural habitats of . . Possible adaptive epigenetic variation was suggested by significant correlations between DNA methylation-based epigenetic differentiation and adaptive genetic divergence in populations across the habitats. Meanwhile, various AMOVAs indicated that some epigenetic differences may respond to various local habitats. A partial Mantel test was used to tease out the correlations between genetic/epigenetic variation and habitat after controlling for the correlation between genetic and epigenetic variations. We found that epigenetic diversity was affected mostly by soil nutrient availability, suggesting that at least some epigenetic differentiation occurred independently of genetic variation. We also found stronger correlations between epigenetic variation and phenotypic traits than between genetic variation and such traits. Overall, our findings indicate that genetically based differentiation correlates with heterogeneous habitats, while epigenetic variation plays an important role in ecological differentiation in natural populations of . . In addition, our results suggest that when assessing global change responses of plant species, intraspecific variation needs to be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427615PMC
September 2021

Oxygen-enriched fermentation improves the taste of black tea by reducing the bitter and astringent metabolites.

Food Res Int 2021 Oct 20;148:110613. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Tea Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Oxygen involved fermentation is generally recognized as the critical process for the formation of quality of black tea. However, the specific role of oxygen plays in taste-related metabolites' alteration has not been illustrated clearly. In the present work, a series of fermentation systems with different oxygen concentrations were used to investigate the mechanism of the effects of oxygen on the quality and nonvolatile metabolites in black tea. The results showed that oxygen-enriched fermentation significantly improved the taste of black tea. And sixty-six metabolites, including catechins, theaflavins (TFs), proanthocyanidins, amino acids, flavonoid glycosides, and phenolic acids, were significantly different in the black teas fermented by three oxygen concentrations. Meanwhile, a 10-30% decrease in catechins, flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids and a 5% increase in TFs, glutamate and glutamine in oxygen-enriched group, when compared to the control group, reduced astringency and bitterness and enhanced umami intensity. Furthermore, increased oxygen concentrations promoted the oxidation of catechins, flavonoid glycosides and some phenolic acids. And catechins oxidation in turn could accelerate the degradation of amino acids to form volatile aldehydes and also promote phenolic acids oxidation. Our results reveal the potential role of oxygen plays in the metabolites' alteration in black tea during fermentation, which gives a new insight into understanding the quality formation of black tea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110613DOI Listing
October 2021

Construction of Ni-Zn bimetal sulfides Heterostructured-hybrids for High-performance electromagnetic wave absorption.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 18;606(Pt 2):1410-1420. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250061, China.

Utilizing the synergistic effect of multiple components in heterostructured composites has been regarded as a promising strategy for achieving high-performance electromagnetic wave absorption. Nonetheless, rationally collocate the components of absorbers in order to legitimately achieve synergy remains an intractable problem. By adjusting the NiS and ZnS composition ratios in the ZnS/NiS/C composites, the optimal impedance matching and dissipation capability can be obtained. The formation of a ZnS/NiS heterostructure is found to significantly enhance polarization relaxation, and the relative ratios of ZnS and NiS have a significant effect on the electromagnetic properties. The optimal performance was obtained on Z1N2, with a minimum reflection loss of -51.45 dB at 4.72 GHz and -56.69 dB at 11.12 GHz, respectively, and an effective absorption bandwidth of up to 3.68 GHz at 1.16 mm. The potential of heterogeneous bimetal sulfides as high-performance absorbers is demonstrated in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.08.095DOI Listing
August 2021

The Value of China's Legislation on Plastic Pollution Prevention in 2020.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

School of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

It has taken 12 years since 2008, but China is finally strengthening plastic pollution prevention and control through legislation. In an effort to regulate and control plastic products, China's government amended and released a series of laws and regulations in 2020, possibly heralding the end of China's plastic pollution. China's plastic pollution legislation, while late, is a viable and right response to the severe environmental and ecology problem. Legislative progress in plastic pollution prevention has extended beyond China government's administrative capability but has also been an important step in the protection of the environment in the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03366-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418295PMC
September 2021

Effect of red light on the composition of metabolites in tea leaves during the withering process using untargeted metabolomics.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Red light withering significantly improves the sensory flavor qualities of tea, although changes in metabolites during this process have not been systematically studied until now. The present study comprehensively analyzes metabolites in withered tea leaves at 2-h intervals up to 12 h under red light (630 nm) and dark conditions using ultra performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (untargeted metabolomics).

Results: Ninety-four non-volatile compounds are identified and relatively quantified, including amino acids, catechins, dimeric catechins, flavonol glycosides, glycosidically-bound volatiles, phenolic acids and nucleosides. The results show that amino acids, catechins and dimeric catechins are most affected by red light treatment. Ten free amino acids, theaflavins and theasinensin A increase after red light irradiation, whereas epigallocatechin gallate and catechin fall.

Conclusion: The present study provides a comprehensive and systematic profile of the dynamic effects of red light on withering tea and a rationale for its use in tea processing quality control. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11500DOI Listing
August 2021

Exosomal miR-100-5p inhibits osteogenesis of hBMSCs and angiogenesis of HUVECs by suppressing the BMPR2/Smad1/5/9 signalling pathway.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 07 13;12(1):390. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Background: Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (NONFH) is a common, progressive, and refractory orthopaedic disease. Decreased osteogenesis and angiogenesis are considered the main factors in the pathogenesis of NONFH. We aimed to figure out whether exosomes and exosomal miRNA from necrotic bone tissues of patients with NONFH are involved in the pathogenesis of NONFH and reveal the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: RT-PCR and western blotting (WB) were used to detect the expression of osteogenic, adipogenic, and angiogenic markers. ALP staining and Alizarin Red S (ARS) staining were used to evaluate osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Oil Red O staining was performed to assess the adipocyte deposition. A tube formation assay was used to study angiogenesis of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). H&E staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining were used to detect the effect of the NONFH exosomes in vivo. MicroRNA sequencing was conducted to identify potential regulators in the NONFH exosomes. The target relationship between miR-100-5p and BMPR2 was predicted and confirmed by a dual luciferase reporter assay and WB.

Results: The NONFH exosomes reduced the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs and angiogenesis of HUVECs. In addition, the injection of the NONFH exosomes caused thinning and disruption of bone trabeculae in the femoral heads of rats. MiR-100-5p expression was upregulated in the NONFH exosomes and inhibited the osteogenesis of hBMSCs and angiogenesis of HUVECs by targeting BMPR2 and suppressing the BMPR2/SMAD1/5/9 signalling pathway. Silencing miR-100-5p expression rescued the reduction in osteogenesis and angiogenesis caused by the NONFH exosomes by activating the BMPR2/SMAD1/5/9 signalling pathway.

Conclusion: The NONFH exosomal miR-100-5p can lead to NONFH-like damage by targeting BMPR2 and suppressing the BMPR2/SMAD1/5/9 signalling pathway, which may be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (NONFH).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02438-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278698PMC
July 2021

The effects of water control on the survival and growth of Alternanthera philoxeroides in the vegetative reproduction and seedling stages.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 30;11(1):13556. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Key Laboratory of Vegetation Ecology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Grassland Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024, People's Republic of China.

Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) is an infamous invasive alien plant that is widely distributed in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. To investigate the vegetative reproduction, growth, survival strategy, and the function of leaves in fragment of A. philoxeroides under different water conditions, two water control experiments were conducted with different leaf treatments: (1) water control with stolon fragments, and (2) water control with plants. The water control was subjected to five levels: I 30% soil water content, II 70% soil water content, III 97% soil water content, IV water depth of 5 cm, and V water depth of 10 cm in combination with the two leaf treatments, fragments with two leaves and fragments without leaves. Based on the results, A. philoxeroides produced a significantly higher stem length, node number, leaf number, stem biomass, leaf biomass, and total biomass in the 97% soil water content and in treatments with leaves. Additionally, the stem mass ratio increased and the root mass ratio decreased with the increase of the water content. In Exp. 1, the survival rate was the highest in the 97% water content and was 0 in the 30% water content. Therefore, the leaves of stolon fragments contribute to the vegetative reproduction and growth of A. philoxeroides. In response to different water conditions, A. philoxeroides adopts different strategies according to the resource reserves by itself, which are conducive to its survival and widespread occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92674-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245590PMC
June 2021

Non-Magnetic Bimetallic MOF-Derived Porous Carbon-Wrapped TiO/ZrTiO Composites for Efficient Electromagnetic Wave Absorption.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Feb 17;13(1):75. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250061, People's Republic of China.

Highlights: Non-magnetic bimetallic MOF-derived porous carbon-wrapped TiO/ZrTiO composites are firstly used for efficient electromagnetic wave absorption. The electromagnetic wave absorption mechanisms including enhanced interfacial polarization and essential conductivity are intensively discussed. Modern communication technologies put forward higher requirements for electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorption materials. Metal-organic framework (MOF) derivatives have been widely concerned with its diverse advantages. To break the mindset of magnetic-derivative design, and make up the shortage of monometallic non-magnetic derivatives, we first try non-magnetic bimetallic MOFs derivatives to achieve efficient EMW absorption. The porous carbon-wrapped TiO/ZrTiO composites derived from PCN-415 (TiZr-MOFs) are qualified with a minimum reflection loss of - 67.8 dB (2.16 mm, 13.0 GHz), and a maximum effective absorption bandwidth of 5.9 GHz (2.70 mm). Through in-depth discussions, the synergy of enhanced interfacial polarization and other attenuation mechanisms in the composites is revealed. Therefore, this work confirms the huge potentials of non-magnetic bimetallic MOFs derivatives in EMW absorption applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-021-00606-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187513PMC
February 2021

Fucoxanthin rescues dexamethasone induced C2C12 myotubes atrophy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 14;139:111590. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Geriatrics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, China. Electronic address:

Muscle atrophy and weakness are the adverse effects of long-term or high dose usage of glucocorticoids. In the present study, we explored the effects of fucoxanthin (10 μM) on dexamethasone (10 μM)-induced atrophy in C2C12 myotubes and investigated its underlying mechanisms. The diameter of myotubes was observed under a light microscope, and the expression of myosin heavy chain (MyHC), proteolysis-related, autophagy-related, apoptosis-related, and mitochondria-related proteins was analyzed by western blots or immunoprecipitation. Fucoxanthin alleviates dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in C2C12 myotubes, indicated by increased myotubes diameter and expression of MyHC, decreased expression of muscle atrophy F-box (Atrogin-1) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1). Through activating SIRT1, fucoxanthin inhibits forkhead box O (FoxO) transcriptional activity to reduce protein degradation, induces autophagy to enhance degraded protein clearance, promotes mitochondrial function and diminishes apoptosis. In conclusion, we identified fucoxanthin ameliorates dexamethasone induced C2C12 myotubes atrophy through SIRT1 activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111590DOI Listing
July 2021

First-Principles Study of Mechanical and Thermodynamic Properties of Binary and Ternary CoX (X = W and Mo) Intermetallic Compounds.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 13;14(6). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Education Ministry of China, Faculty of Materials and Manufacturing, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China.

In this study, the structural, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of DO and L1 structured CoX (X = W, Mo or both W and Mo) and μ structured CoX were investigated using the density functional theory implemented in the pseudo-potential plane wave. The obtained lattice constants were observed to be in good agreement with the available experimental data. With respect to the calculated mechanical properties and Poisson's ratio, the DO-CoX, L1-CoX, and μ-CoX compounds were noted to be mechanically stable and possessed an optimal ductile behavior; however, L1-CoX exhibited higher strength and brittleness than DO-CoX. Moreover, the quasi-harmonic Debye-Grüneisen approach was confirmed to be valid in describing the temperature-dependent thermodynamic properties of the CoX and CoX compounds, including heat capacity, vibrational entropy, and Gibbs free energy. Based on the calculated Gibbs free energy of DOCoX and L1-CoX, the phase transformation temperatures for DOCoX to L1-CoX were determined and obtained values were noted to match well with the experiment results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14061404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998609PMC
March 2021

IgM paraprotein and anti-MAG sensory polyneuropathy associated with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Feb 23;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Neurology, James Paget University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Great Yarmouth, UK.

A previously fit and well 76-year-old man, presented with distal lower limb sensory symptoms suggestive of peripheral sensory neuropathy, associated with positive anti-MAG antibodies (myelin associated glycoprotein) and IgM paraprotein. Bone marrow biopsy showed lymphoplasmocytoid lymphoma (Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia, WM), consequently positive for MYD88 mutation. He subsequently developed medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, most likely secondary to WM. He underwent a successful total thyroidectomy and four treatment doses of rituximab, which proved beneficial. He is currently stable and under multidisciplinary monitoring. His sensory symptoms have improved following rituximab treatment and his WM is under control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-240242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907858PMC
February 2021

An Environmental Dilemma for China During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Explosion of Disposable Plastic Wastes.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Feb 29;106(2):237-240. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

School of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Plastic pollution control has been on top of the political agenda in China. In January 2020, China announced a phased ban on the production and usage of various types of single-use plastics as a solution to environmental pollution problems. However, the outbreak of COVID-19 seems to be a new obstacle to the ban on single-use plastic products. To basically satisfied the daily necessities and contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 under the background of the regular epidemic prevention and control in China, online ordering, contactless delivery and wearing mask have become an important and feasible way of daily life. However, the unrestrained use of disposable plastic bags, lunch boxes and masks within the nationwide quarantine leads to hundreds of millions of plastics wastes every day. The potential environmental pollution caused by the use of disposable plastic products during the pandemic should arouse social concern. The Chinese government should manage environmental protection in parallel with anti-pandemic endeavors as the situation of the pandemic evolves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03121-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7845788PMC
February 2021

Physiological Integration Increases Sexual Reproductive Performance of the Rhizomatous Grass .

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 19;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Key Laboratory of Vegetation Ecology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Grassland Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China.

Clonal plants usually reproduce asexually through vegetative propagation and sexually by producing seeds. Physiological integration, the translocation of essential resources between ramets, usually improves vegetative reproduction. However, how physiological integration affects sexual reproduction has been less studied in clonal grasses. Here, we chose , a major early spring forage of the eastern Eurasian steppe, and conducted a series of field experiments, including sampling reproductive ramets connected by tillering nodes to different numbers of vegetative ramets and N leaf labeling of ramet pairs at the seed-filling stage. In the natural populations of , vegetative ramets were taller, had more and larger leaves, and greater biomass than reproductive ramets. Except for reproductive ramet biomass, sexual reproductive characteristics significantly increased with an increase in the number and biomass of vegetative ramets connected to tillering nodes. N labeling showed that vegetative ramets supplied nutrients to reproductive ramets through tillering nodes. Overall, our results indicate that significant differences in morphological characteristics and biomass allocation underlie resources translocation from vegetative ramets towards reproductive ramets. Physiological integration between different functional ramets can increase sexual reproductive performance, which will be beneficial to population persistence in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699368PMC
November 2020

Effects of Flag Leaf and Number of Vegetative Ramets on Sexual Reproductive Performance in the Clonal Grass .

Front Plant Sci 2020 30;11:534278. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Key Laboratory of Vegetation Ecology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Grassland Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

Sexual reproduction is vital for population adaptation in clonal plants. The flag leaf is considered to be the primary contributor to sexual reproduction in cereal crops, and there is no unified conclusion on the effect of the number of vegetative ramets on grain yield. However, what effects of the flag leaf and the number of vegetative ramets on sexual reproductive performance of clonal grasses are largely unknown. To test this, under field natural conditions, we grew the rhizomatous grass in a homogeneous environment and conducted studies concerning the growth, reproduction and physiology of reproductive ramets in clonal populations. We measured the growth characteristics of different aged leaves, dynamically measured the net photosynthetic rate of different aged leaves and organ biomass, measured the sexual reproductive characteristics of reproductive ramets that had different numbers of connecting vegetative ramets, and performed isotope (N) labeling of ramet pairs at the seed-filling stage. In clonal populations, from the heading stage, the photosynthetic contribution of the functional leaves to seed production was much greater than that of the flag leaf; the photosynthetic capacity of both the functional leaves and the flag leaf all gradually declined. Vegetative ramets translocated their own resources to the connected reproductive ramets, and a large proportion of translocated resources were allocated to the leaf and stem to sustain life activities; increase in the number of connecting vegetative ramets increased floret number, seed number, seed-setting rate, inflorescence biomass, seed biomass, and reproductive allocation of reproductive ramets, and these parameters significantly and positively correlated with the biomass of connecting vegetative ramets. We conclude that the functional leaf rather than the flag leaf of is the primary contributor to seed production. Reproductive ramets adopt a strategy of growth first and reproduction later to allocate the translocated resources between the organs, but vegetative ramets are very advantageous for sexual reproduction under the tillering node connection form in . Overall, our study implies that vegetative ramets not only play an important role in the spatial expansion but also in the sexual reproduction of clonal plant populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.534278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661390PMC
October 2020

Constructing 1T/2H MoS nanosheets/3D carbon foam for high-performance electromagnetic wave absorption.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Mar 5;586:613-620. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, PR China. Electronic address:

Three-dimensional (3D) carbon-based materials have attracted growing attention in the field of electromagnetic wave absorption applications. However, their high conductivity results in high dielectric constant, leading to impedance mismatching, and this characteristic finally weakens their electromagnetic wave absorption performance. In this work, 3D carbon foam (3DCF) was successfully prepared by calcining the melamine foam as the carbon framework precursor under N atmosphere. Subsequently, 1T-2H MoS nanosheets were uniformly assembled on the surface of the 3DCF skeleton through a solvothermal process. The diameter of the 3DCF skeleton was about 1 μm and the thickness of the 1T-2H MoS on the surface was about 150 nm. The 3D network brings in many advantages for microwave attenuation, including numerous conductive pathways, excellent impedance matching and multi-polarization processes. The composites exhibited a maximum reflection loss (RL) of -45.88 dB at 10.2 GHz with the thickness of 2.2 mm, and the effective absorbing bandwidth (E) was as wide as 5.68 GHz, implying their superb microwave absorption behavior. This work is believed to offer a strategy for the design of efficient 3D electromagnetic wave absorbers with low density in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.10.129DOI Listing
March 2021

Protrudin functions from the endoplasmic reticulum to support axon regeneration in the adult CNS.

Nat Commun 2020 11 5;11(1):5614. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

John van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Adult mammalian central nervous system axons have intrinsically poor regenerative capacity, so axonal injury has permanent consequences. One approach to enhancing regeneration is to increase the axonal supply of growth molecules and organelles. We achieved this by expressing the adaptor molecule Protrudin which is normally found at low levels in non-regenerative neurons. Elevated Protrudin expression enabled robust central nervous system regeneration both in vitro in primary cortical neurons and in vivo in the injured adult optic nerve. Protrudin overexpression facilitated the accumulation of endoplasmic reticulum, integrins and Rab11 endosomes in the distal axon, whilst removing Protrudin's endoplasmic reticulum localization, kinesin-binding or phosphoinositide-binding properties abrogated the regenerative effects. These results demonstrate that Protrudin promotes regeneration by functioning as a scaffold to link axonal organelles, motors and membranes, establishing important roles for these cellular components in mediating regeneration in the adult central nervous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19436-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645621PMC
November 2020

Bilateral, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy following unilateral midbrain infarct.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Nov 4;13(11). Epub 2020 Nov 4.

James Paget University Hospital, James Paget University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Great Yarmouth, UK.

A 60-year-old man recently admitted for bipedal oedema, endocarditis and a persistently positive COVID-19 swab with a history of anticoagulation on rivaroxaban for atrial fibrillation, transitional cell carcinoma, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, diabetes and hypertension presented with sudden onset diplopia and vertical gaze palsy. Vestibulo-ocular reflex was preserved. Simultaneously, he developed a scotoma and sudden visual loss, and was found to have a right branch retinal artery occlusion. MRI head demonstrated a unilateral midbrain infarct. This case demonstrates a rare unilateral cause of bilateral supranuclear palsy which spares the posterior commisure. The case also raises a question about the contribution of COVID-19 to the procoagulant status of the patient which already includes atrial fibrillation and endocarditis, and presents a complex treatment dilemma regarding anticoagulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-238422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643481PMC
November 2020

Metformin ameliorates skeletal muscle atrophy in Grx1 KO mice by regulating intramuscular lipid accumulation and glucose utilization.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 12 14;533(4):1226-1232. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China. Electronic address:

Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the body, and plays a remarkable role in energy and metabolic homeostasis. Disorder in lipid metabolism and glucose utilization could impair the quality and function of skeletal muscle. Glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1) acts as a vital metabolic regulator of redox homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that Grx1 regulates hepatic lipid metabolism. The skeletal muscle also contains abundant Grx1, but the role of Grx1 in skeletal muscle remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of Grx1 on skeletal muscle. In this study, we found that Grx1-deficient mice (Grx1) spontaneously developed muscle atrophy by 3 months of age. And the p-AMPK activity and Sirt1 activity were inhibited in Grx1 mice, which led to intramuscular lipid deposition and glucose utilization disorder in skeletal muscle. However, intraperitoneal injection of metformin for 15 consecutive days ameliorated skeletal muscle atrophy caused by Grx1 deficiency to a certain extent. Taken together, these findings indicate that Grx1 deficiency might induce skeletal muscle atrophy by regulating the intramuscular lipid deposition and glucose utilization, which could be attenuated by metformin. Therefore, the expression or activity of Grx1 may be a pharmacological approach to ameliorate muscle atrophy diseases, such as sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.09.119DOI Listing
December 2020

The Compensatory Tillering in the Forage Grass After Simulated Grazing of Different Severity.

Front Plant Sci 2020 12;11:792. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Key Laboratory of Vegetation Ecology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Grassland Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

The response of compensatory growth is an important adaptive strategy for plants to grazing. However, most previous studies on compensatory growth of plants focused on the compensation of the biomass or the number of sexual reproductive offspring and neglected the compensatory growth of vegetative reproduction (VR). This is important not only for plant compensatory growth studies, but also for theoretical and practical studies of grassland production. The clonal tussock grass was selected as the research object. Four different clipping severities (unclipping and clipping stubble at heights of 15, 10, and 5 cm) at the jointing stage and flowering stage were implemented to study the effect of simulated grazing. To explore the effect of recovery growth time on plant growth after simulated grazing, three sampling times were used at different recovery times after simulated grazing (1, 3, and 7 weeks). We found that light and moderate grazing severity significantly increased the number of vegetative reproduction modules, the promotion of simulated grazing on the number of vegetative reproduction modules was higher in the jointing stage than the flowering stage, and the increase in simulated grazing severity decreased with prolonged recovery growth time. The number of tillers significantly decreased with the increase in simulated grazing in both the jointing and flowering stages at 1 week after damage, and the decreasing effect weakened with the prolonged recovery growth time. The bud number mainly showed over-compensation, the juvenile tiller number showed complete compensation, and the tiller number showed under-compensation at 1 and 3 weeks after recovery growth. The number of tillers showed complete compensation under different grazing severities in the jointing stage, while it showed under-compensation in the flowering stage at 7 weeks after recovery growth. Our results indicated that different grazing severities in the jointing stage could promote the output of tillers with matter production capacity from vegetative reproduction modules, as well as improve the capability of compensatory growth. Therefore, in plant production, there will be a sustainable development effect on the renewal and productivity of the population, resulting in different grazing severities in the jointing stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304348PMC
June 2020

Pulmonary artery enlargement on routine staging F-fluodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT for lung and oesophageal cancer.

Br J Radiol 2020 Sep 21;93(1113):20200323. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Churchill Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Objective: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an underdiagnosed condition associated with poor survival and increased post-operative mortality in lung cancer. CT-based parameters of pulmonary artery enlargement are strong predictors of PH. We used these parameters to investigate pulmonary artery enlargement in lung and oesophageal cancer.

Methods: Consecutive patients with lung cancer ( = 100) or oesophageal cancer ( = 100) undergoing staging F-fluodeoxyglucose PET/CT were retrospectively identified. The transverse diameter of the main pulmonary artery (mPA) and ascending aorta, and the pulmonary artery-to-ascending aorta (PA:A) ratio were obtained. Abnormal values were defined following the Framingham Heart Study cohort.

Results: Lung cancer patients had a significantly increased mPA diameter compared to the oesophageal cancer patients (males: 27.29 ± 0.39 . 25.88 ± 0.24 mm, females: 26.10 ± 0.28 . 24.45 ± 0.18 mm). Similarly, a significantly increased proportion of these patients had an abnormal mPA diameter (males: 35.1% 12.5%, females: 32.6% 10.7%). Lung cancer patients also had a significantly higher PA:A ratio (males: 0.83 ± 0.01 . 0.79 ± 0.008, females: 0.85 ± 0.01 . 0.79 ± 0.009), with a larger proportion having an abnormal PA:A ratio (males: 24.6% 11.1%, females: 27.9% 14.3%).

Conclusion: Simple measurements of mPA diameter and PA:A ratio reveal that lung cancer patients exhibit increased rates of pulmonary artery enlargement compared to oesophageal cancer patients.

Advances In Knowledge: This study demonstrates there is an increased prevalence of pulmonary enlargement in lung cancer, easily detected on routine staging scans, holding implications for further work-up and risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465844PMC
September 2020

Bacteriological profiles and drug susceptibility of Streptococcus isolated from conjunctival sac of healthy children.

BMC Pediatr 2020 06 22;20(1):306. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, The People's Hospital of Longhua, 38 Jianshe East Road, Shenzhen, 518000, China.

Background: To investigate bacterial flora and antibiotics susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from the conjunctival sac of heathy children.

Methods: Bacteria were isolated from the secretions of conjunctival sac of healthy children between 2015 and 2018. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated S. pneumoniae strains were determined using microbroth dilution method.

Results: The sac secretions were collected from a total of 6440 children. 1409 samples presented bacterial growth, accounting for 21.8% of the samples. Among the 22 bacterial species isolated, 528 samples presented Gram-positive Staphylococcus spp. growth, accounting for 37.4% of the isolates, followed by Corynebacterium spp., counting for 30% of the isolates and Streptococcus pneumoniae, counting for 21.4% of the isolates. Antibiotics susceptibility tests showed that the majority of S. pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to most antibiotics tested. However, 72.8 and 81.2% of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline, respectively, and over 10% of them were resistant to gentamicin, tobramycin and rifampicin.

Conclusions: The bacterial flora of healthy children is mainly consisted of Gram-positive bacteria belonging to Corynebacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp.; most of S. pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to antibiotics except erythromycin and tetracycline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02203-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310448PMC
June 2020

Mineral Distribution in Pulverized Blended Zhundong Coal and Its Influence on Ash Deposition Propensity in a Real Modern Boiler Situation.

ACS Omega 2020 Mar 25;5(9):4386-4394. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

State Key Laboratory of Coal Processing and Efficient Utilization, Ministry of Education, China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116, China.

This study aims to explore the mechanism under which ash deposition propensity is improved by coal blending in a real modern boiler situation. In this paper, Zhundong coal (ZD), from northwestern China, known to have a heavy ash deposition problem in boilers, was blended with Jincheng anthracite (JC), which has a high ash fusion temperature (AFT). The density composition of the coal blend, which reflects the mineral distribution in pulverized coals, was found to change during the intergrinding process. The higher rank coal JC was found to be more concentrated in its lower and highest density fractions. The variances in the chemical composition among density fractions in the pulverized coal blend were found greatly narrowed as compared with the parent coals. AFT results indicate that the ash melting behavior in the coal blend (ZD/JC = 50:50) varies with density, which is confirmed by corresponding slag contents calculated with FactSage 7.1. Particle size distributions of the density fractions in ZD, JC, and the coal blend were determined with a laser particle analyzer. The size distribution of ash particles in each density fraction was estimated according to the char morphology, which is deduced from the ash content and coal particle size distribution. Minerals in the lowest density fractions will form ash with a particle size of around 2 μm. Included minerals in the medium density fractions will form ash particles with size related to its ash content, and excluded minerals will undergo slight fragmentation and have a ash particle size similar to the corresponding coal particles. A comprehensive comparison between ash volume, ash particle size, and softening temperature indicates that ash deposition propensity of the coal blend is improved not only because of an apparent increase in AFT but also because of an apparent decrease in the total volume of ash particles possibly arriving on the deposition surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b02928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7066567PMC
March 2020

Phenotypic Plasticity in Sexual Reproduction Based on Nutrients Supplied From Vegetative Ramets in a Population.

Front Plant Sci 2019 16;10:1681. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Key Laboratory of Vegetation Ecology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Grassland Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

Phenotypic plasticity is considered a major mechanism that allows plants to adapt to heterogeneous environments. The physiological integration between the interconnected rhizomes or stolons of clonal plants influences the plasticity of such plants in heterogeneous environments. However, the determinants of plasticity of reproductive ramets in clonal plants in homogeneous environments are unclear. Here, we chose , a perennial rhizomatous grass, and conducted a series of field experiments , including grading sampling of reproductive ramets and different connection forms of vegetative ramets labeled with N at four reproductive stages. Reproductive ramet biomass, inflorescence biomass, seed number, seed-setting percentage, reproductive allocation, and reallocation significantly increased with an increase in the number of vegetative ramets connected to tillering nodes, and the plasticity indexes of these six phenotypic characteristics showed similar increasing trends. The amount of nutrients supplied from the connected vegetative ramets to the reproductive ramets was significantly affected by the transfer direction, reproductive stage, and position order of the vegetative ramets. Throughout the sexual reproduction stage, nutrients were preferentially transferred to the acropetal reproductive ramet in populations. The amount of nutrients supplied from the connected vegetative ramets to the reproductive ramets at the milk-ripe stage, when sexual reproduction was most vigorous, was significantly larger than that at other reproductive stages. The amount of nutrients supplied from the spacer vegetative ramet to the acropetal reproductive ramet was significantly larger than that to the basipetal reproductive ramet. The closer the vegetative ramet was to the reproductive ramet, the more nutrients were supplied; the amount of nutrients supplied was significantly negatively related to the position order of the vegetative ramet. We identified the determinant of plasticity in sexual reproduction in clonal plants in a homogeneous environment: physiological integration between ramets within clones. Our results are vital for better understanding the adaptation of populations and even the evolution of species of clonal plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6976537PMC
January 2020

Diabetes in day case general and vascular surgery: A multicentre regional audit.

Int J Clin Pract 2020 Apr 17;74(4):e13472. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Medicine, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS Trust, Norwich, Norfolk, UK.

Background: People with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) are at increased risk of postoperative complications if their HbA1C readings are not well controlled. In the UK, there are clear national guidelines requiring all people with DM to have HbA1C blood testing within 6months before undergoing surgery and that these readings should be below 69 mmol/mol if this is safe to achieve. The aim of this study was to determine whether hospitals in the region were compliant with the guidelines.

Methods: Data were prospectively collected from seven hospitals across the East of England region from 1st October 2017 to 31st March 2018 (6 months) in all people with DM undergoing elective day case procedures in General and Vascular surgery for benign disease.

Results: A total of 181 people with DM were included in the study, of whom 77.9% were male patients and the median age was 63 years. The three most commonly performed operations were laparoscopic cholecystectomy (20.9%, n = 38/181), inguinal hernia repair (20.4%, n = 37/181) and umbilical/para-umbilical hernia repair (11.0%, n = 20/181). In keeping with the national guidelines, only 86.7% (n = 157/181) of patients had an HbA1C tested within 6 months prior to their surgery date. Of the patients who had a preoperative HbA1C, 14 (n = 14/157, 8.9%) had an HbA1C ≥ 69 mmol/mol, and 12 (n = 12/14, 85.7%) of these proceeded to surgery without optimisation of their HbA1C.

Conclusion: A significant proportion of people with diabetes undergoing elective day case procedures in our region do not have HbA1C testing within 6 months of their procedure as recommended by the national guidelines. In patients who do have a high HbA1C, the majority still undergo surgery without adequate control of their DM. Greater awareness amongst healthcare workers and robust pathways are required for this vulnerable group of patients if we are to reduce the risk of developing postoperative complication rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13472DOI Listing
April 2020

Cancer-associated retinopathy in ampullary pancreatic cancer.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Nov 10;12(11). Epub 2019 Nov 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, James Paget University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Great Yarmouth, UK.

A 64-year-old woman presented with bilateral visual loss with shimmering photopsias as the only clinical manifestation of an occult pancreatic ampullary adenocarcinoma causing duct dilatation. Abnormal electroretinograms led to suspicion of cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR), and CT of the abdomen showed an underlying pancreatic malignancy, detected with subclinical liver function tests following diagnosis of CAR. Biopsy showed a T2N0M0 ampullary adenocarcinoma. The patient was managed with Whipple's procedure and adjuvant chemotherapy and has made a good recovery with no progression of her retinopathy. To our knowledge, this is one of the first descriptions of CAR in the context of pancreatic malignancy. It is atypical in its asymmetric presentation and favourable patient outcome. CAR is an important diagnosis to make, as ocular manifestations can be the only indication of an occult malignancy, resulting in a swifter diagnosis and potentially life-saving early intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-231444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6855908PMC
November 2019

Highly efficient removal of organic pollutants via a green catalytic oxidation system based on sodium metaborate and peroxymonosulfate.

Chemosphere 2020 Jan 27;238:124687. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

National Engineering Lab of Textile Fiber Materials & Processing Technology (Zhejiang), Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, 310018, PR China.

The development of highly efficient and green catalytic oxidation process based on peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation has been identified to be a significant yet challenging objective in the environmental catalysis field. A simple, environmentally benign and highly effective catalytic oxidation system was innovatively constructed by coupling NaBO and PMS for the removal of Acid Red 1. The catalytic mechanism in the NaBO/PMS system was elucidated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) combined with several radical capture reagents (ascorbic acid, methanol, tert-butyl alcohol, ethanol and -histidine). The experimental results indicated that singlet oxygen (O) severed as the predominant reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than the HO or during the catalytic oxidation process, at variance with the reported radical pathway in the Co/PMS system. Inspiringly, p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) as a trapping agent in most advanced oxidation process could be turned into the positive one in the NaBO/PMS system, achieving a nearly 3-times enhancement in terms of the rate constant for AR1 removal. More interestingly, sodium chloride (NaCl) presented the same enhancement effect as p-benzoquinone due to generation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and more O, which was completely different from the reported. This study develops a highly efficient green oxidation process and opens up a new insight in the remediation of contaminated water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124687DOI Listing
January 2020

DREB/CBF expression in wheat and barley using the stress-inducible promoters of HD-Zip I genes: impact on plant development, stress tolerance and yield.

Plant Biotechnol J 2020 03 25;18(3):829-844. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, SA, Australia.

Networks of transcription factors regulate diverse physiological processes in plants to ensure that plants respond to abiotic stresses rapidly and efficiently. In this study, expression of two DREB/CBF genes, TaDREB3 and TaCBF5L, was modulated in transgenic wheat and barley, by using stress-responsive promoters HDZI-3 and HDZI-4. The promoters were derived from the durum wheat genes encoding the γ-clade TFs of the HD-Zip class I subfamily. The activities of tested promoters were induced by drought and cold in leaves of both transgenic species. Differences in sensitivity of promoters to drought strength were dependent on drought tolerance levels of cultivars used for generation of transgenic lines. Expression of the DREB/CBF genes under both promoters improved drought and frost tolerance of transgenic barley, and frost tolerance of transgenic wheat seedlings. Expression levels of the putative TaCBF5L downstream genes in leaves of transgenic wheat seedlings were up-regulated under severe drought, and up- or down-regulated under frost, compared to those of control seedlings. The application of TaCBF5L driven by the HDZI-4 promoter led to the significant increase of the grain yield of transgenic wheat, compared to that of the control wild-type plants, when severe drought was applied during flowering; although no yield improvements were observed when plants grew under well-watered conditions or moderate drought. Our findings suggest that the studied HDZI promoters combined with the DREB/CBF factors could be used in transgenic cereal plants for improvement of abiotic stress tolerance, and the reduction of negative influence of transgenes on plant development and grain yields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004899PMC
March 2020

Microfibers: a preliminary discussion on their definition and sources.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Oct 23;26(28):29497-29501. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

College of Textile and Clothing, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Microfibers are a major component of microplastics and have been found nearly everywhere, especially in marine and freshwater habitats around the world. Therefore, microfibers have gained considerable attention in environmental science research. However, there is still no clear consensus on a definition that can encompass all necessary properties to describe microfibers as emerging pollutants. Therefore, we propose a definition for debate by taking the related descriptions of microplastics and textile fibers as references. Moreover, the potential sources from the perspectives of textile engineering, including production, use, care, and end-of-life disposal of fibrous materials, are discussed. For further investigation of microfiber pollution, the gap between current knowledge and major microfiber pollution concerns must be bridged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06265-wDOI Listing
October 2019

Effects of Simulated Herbivory on the Vegetative Reproduction and Compensatory Growth of at Different Ontogenic Stages.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 05 13;16(9). Epub 2019 May 13.

Key Laboratory of Vegetation Ecology, Ministry of Education, Institute of Grassland Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China.

The response of plant vegetative reproduction and compensatory growth to herbivory has been widely discussed in biological and ecological research. Most previous research has supported the idea that both vegetative reproduction and compensatory growth are affected by their ontogenic stage. However, in many studies, the effects of foraging at different ontogenic stages was often confounded with the effects of foraging at different phenological periods for perennials. Our experiment was conducted in a natural meadow with a perennial grass, and four ontogenic stages were chosen as our experimental objects. Three different clipping intensities during three phenological periods were implemented to explore the effects of simulating animal foraging on vegetative reproduction and compensatory plant growth. The results indicated that there were significant effects of ontogenic stage, phenological period, and clipping intensity on vegetative reproduction and compensatory growth. Moderate clipping intensities significantly increased the number of vegetative tillers, the total number of juvenile tillers and buds, and the aboveground biomass at early phenological periods for individuals at early ontogenic stages. Our results suggested that moderate clipping intensities could induce only an over-compensation response in perennial grasses at both the early ontogenic stage and phenological period, and the ability of compensatory growth gradually decreased with the progression of the ontogenic stage. This is of great significance to the primary production of grasslands subjected to herbivory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6539574PMC
May 2019

A Novel Method for Identifying Essential Genes by Fusing Dynamic Protein⁻Protein Interactive Networks.

Genes (Basel) 2019 01 8;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Faculty of Management and Economics, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China.

Essential genes play an indispensable role in supporting the life of an organism. Identification of essential genes helps us to understand the underlying mechanism of cell life. The essential genes of bacteria are potential drug targets of some diseases genes. Recently, several computational methods have been proposed to detect essential genes based on the static protein⁻protein interactive (PPI) networks. However, these methods have ignored the fact that essential genes play essential roles under certain conditions. In this work, a novel method was proposed for the identification of essential proteins by fusing the dynamic PPI networks of different time points (called by FDP). Firstly, the active PPI networks of each time point were constructed and then they were fused into a final network according to the networks' similarities. Finally, a novel centrality method was designed to assign each gene in the final network a ranking score, whilst considering its orthologous property and its global and local topological properties in the network. This model was applied on two different yeast data sets. The results showed that the FDP achieved a better performance in essential gene prediction as compared to other existing methods that are based on the static PPI network or that are based on dynamic networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes10010031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356314PMC
January 2019
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