Publications by authors named "Yunfei Xie"

78 Publications

Microplastics and Nanoplastics: Emerging Contaminants in Food.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 2;69(36):10450-10468. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, No. 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, China.

As current concerns about food safety issues around the world are still relatively serious, more and more food safety issues have become the focus of people's attention. What's more serious is that environmental pollution and changes in human lifestyles have also led to the emergence of contaminants in food, microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) being typical representatives. MPs and NPs (M/NPs) in food are gradually becoming recognized by regulatory authorities and the public. Most published reviews on M/NPs have been focused on the environmental ecosystems. In those papers, it is only sporadically mentioned that M/NPs can also appear in food. As far as we know, there has not been a systematic review of the pollution and existing status of M/NPs in food. This Review focuses on the harmfulness of M/NPs, the ways in which M/NPs contaminate food, the residual amount of M/NPs in food, and the current analysis and detection methods for M/NPs in food. Current analysis and detection methods have problems such as being time-consuming, involving cumbersome operation, and giving poor accuracy. In the future, it will be necessary to increase the research on methods for efficient and sensitive separation and detection of M/NPs in food. Finally, it is hoped that this Review will arouse more people's awareness of and attention to the seriousness of M/NPs in food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c04199DOI Listing
September 2021

Associations of ultrafine and fine particles with childhood emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in a megacity.

Thorax 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Peking University School of Public Health, and Peking University Institute of Environmental Medicine, Beijing, China

Background: Ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM) has been associated with deteriorated respiratory health, but evidence on particles in smaller sizes and childhood respiratory health has been limited.

Methods: We collected time-series data on daily respiratory emergency room visits (ERVs) among children under 14 years old in Beijing, China, during 2015-2017. Concurrently, size-fractioned number concentrations of particles in size ranges of 5-560 nm (PNC) and mass concentrations of PM, black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO) were measured from a fixed-location monitoring station in the urban area of Beijing. Confounder-adjusted Poisson regression models were used to estimate excessive risks (ERs) of particle size fractions on childhood respiratory ERVs, and positive matrix factorisation models were applied to apportion the sources of PNC.

Results: Among the 136 925 cases of all-respiratory ERVs, increased risks were associated with IQR increases in PNC (ER=5.4%, 95% CI 2.4% to 8.6%), PNC (4.9%, 95% CI 2.5% to 7.3%) and PM (1.3%, 95% CI 0.1% to 2.5%) at current and 1 prior days (lag0-1). Major sources of PNC were identified, including nucleation (36.5%), gasoline vehicle emissions (27.9%), diesel vehicle emissions (18.9%) and secondary aerosols (10.6%). Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles were found of significant associations with all-respiratory ERVs, with increased ERs of 6.0% (95% CI 2.5% to 9.7%) and 4.4% (95% CI 1.7% to 7.1%) at lag0-1 days, respectively. Exposures to other traffic-related pollutants (BC and NO) were also associated with increased respiratory ERVs.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that exposures to higher levels of PNC from traffic emissions could be attributed to increased childhood respiratory morbidity, which supports traffic emission control priority in urban areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-217017DOI Listing
July 2021

Ultrasensitive and selective detection of Hg using fluorescent phycocyanin in an aqueous system.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2021 15;56(8):886-895. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Hg toxicity is one of the most common chemical poisonings that occurs mainly from drinking polluted water. In the current work, Phycocyanin (PC) was exploited as a fluorescent sensor for sensitive and selective detection of Hg in an aqueous system. PC-Hg interaction was monitored using a spectro-fluorometer under different buffered solutions at pH values of 6,7,8,9, or 10 above the isoelectric point of PC (5.18). A remarkable decrease of PC fluorescence intensity was observed under Tris-buffer at pH 6 upon the addition of increasing Hg concentrations (1-120 nM). Under the maintained experimental conditions, the current sensor showed a good linear relationship with R = 0.9971 and a limit of detection as low as 0.7 nM was achieved. In addition, a notable selectivity of Hg over other nine heavy metals (Cu Zn Pb, Mg Mn, Li, Fe Co, and Al) was achieved in the presence of 120 nM of each metal. Moreover, the current fluorescent detection assay was also tested in real samples of pond water, and recoveries as well as relative standard deviations within the acceptable limits were recorded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2021.1935600DOI Listing
August 2021

Rapid Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Detection of Chlorothalonil in Standard Solution and Orange Peels with Pretreatment of Ultraviolet Irradiation.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Aug 15;107(2):221-227. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, No.1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, 214122, Jiangsu, China.

At present, the detection of chlorothalonil is generally based on chromatography and immunoassay; both of which are time-consuming and costly. In this study, Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) has been successfully utilized in the detection of chlorothalonil coupled with photochemistry and meanwhile, gold nanoparticles were prepared to enhance the Raman signal. Two Raman peaks (2246 cm and 2140 cm) of chlorothalonil were appeared after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation compared to the original solution. Chlorothalonil generated excited and weakened C≡N bonds in its structure by absorbing UV energy, thus leading to two kinds of corresponding peaks. These two kinds of peaks were both selected as analytical peaks in chlorothalonil detection. Different light sources and solvents were made different contributions to the final spectra. Chlorothalonil methanol solution under 302 nm wavelength irradiation was performed the best. The 2246 cm sharp peak represented to the normal C≡N bond appeared at first, which overall trend was significantly increased followed by a gradual decrease. The 2140 cm broad peak represented to the weakened C≡N bond appeared later, which overall trend was increased as the irradiation time passing by and then kept stable. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis indicates that the downshift of C≡N bond from 2246 cm to 2140 cm is due to the increase of electronic populations of π* orbital of C≡N bond transited from π orbital excited by UV irradiation. The positively charged C≡N bond had more chance to approach negatively charged gold nanoparticles. The detection limit of chlorothalonil was as low as 0.1 ppm in the standard solution. Orange peels spiked with chlorothalonil oil were also detected in this paper to confirm the practical operability of this method. The SERS method may be further developed as a rapid detection of pesticides that contains a triple bond by utilizing photochemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03258-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Selective uptake determines the variation in degradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Lactobacillus plantarum.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 15;360:130106. Epub 2021 May 15.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) are widely used worldwide, leading to varying degrees of residues in food. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can degrade OPPs by producing phosphatase. This study explored the reasons for the variation in the degradation of different OPPs by Lactobacillus plantarum. The results showed that the degradation effects of OPPs by L. plantarum (intact cells) varied greatly, the degradation rate constant of phoxim was 1.65-fold higher than that of dichlorvos. However, the phosphatase extracted from L. plantarum had no degradation selectivity for OPPs in vitro. It was speculated that the selective uptake of cells determines this degradation selectivity. The results of molecular docking supported this hypothesis because there was no difference in the binding energies between phosphatase and OPPs, while the binding energies between phosphate-binding protein and pesticides were different, and they were negatively correlated with the degradation rate constants of the eight OPPs by L. plantarum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130106DOI Listing
October 2021

Biodegradation of the organophosphate dimethoate by Lactobacillus plantarum during milk fermentation.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 11;360:130042. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, China; Qingdao Special Food Research Institute, Qingdao 266109, Shandong Province, China. Electronic address:

Bioremediation of pesticides in contaminated foodstuffs using probiotics has attracted great attention in recent years, but some intermediate products may have profound effects on the toxicity of treated food. Therefore, this work studied the degradation mechanism of dimethoate in milk by L. plantarum, and analyzed the toxicity of degradation products. The results showed that under the optimal conditions, L. plantarum can degrade 81.28% of dimethoate. Dimethoate had high binding affinities to phosphatase with the free energy of -16.67 kcal/mol, and amino acid residues, Gln375 and SER415 played important roles in the catalysis process. Five degradation products were identified using UPLC-QTOF/MS, and their toxicity was estimated using quantitative structure-activity relationship models. Some intermediate products were predicted to be toxic, which should not be ignored, but the overall toxicity of milk decreased after fermentation. Furthermore, the pH and titratable acidity of the fermented milk were 4.25 and 85 T, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130042DOI Listing
October 2021

Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques in Immunoassay: An Integrated Approach with Hybrid Performance.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 19;69(21):5783-5797. Epub 2021 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

An immunoassay is mostly employed for the direct detection of food contaminants, and a molecular assay for targeting nucleic acids employs amplification techniques for distinguishing genes. The integration of an immunoassay with nucleic acid amplification techniques inherits the direct and rapid performance of an immunoassay and the ultrasensitive merit of a molecular assay. Enthusiastic attention has been attracted in recent years on the utilization of isothermal amplification techniques in an immunoassay, as well as the employment of a lateral flow immunoassay in a molecular assay. Thus, this Review discussed these kinds of approaches from two categories: immuno-nucleic acid amplification (I-NAA) and nucleic acid amplification-immunoassay (NAA-I). The advantages, drawbacks, and future developments were discussed for a comprehensive understanding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07980DOI Listing
June 2021

Transformation of fluopyram during enzymatic hydrolysis of apple and its effect on polygalacturonase and apple juice yield.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 20;357:129842. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, No. 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, No. 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214122, China. Electronic address:

China is one of the largest apple-growing areas in the world. Fluopyram (FLP) is a novel pesticide that has been widely used in agriculture. This work investigated the behavior of pesticides during enzymatic hydrolysis of apple juice and its effect on polygalacturonase (PG), apple juice yield, and flavor. The study findings revealed that 27.5% to 34.2% FLP was degraded during the enzymatic hydrolysis of apple. The three degradation products (P1, P2, and P3) were identified by a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer. Based on toxicity assessment, it was found that carcinogenicity was higher for P2 and P3 than for FLP. Furthermore, FLP affected the yield and flavor of apple juice. FLP reduced yield by 4.8%, because FLP inhibited the activity of PG. Through molecular docking, it was found that there was an interaction between the active center of PG and FLP, resulting in a reduction in catalytic ability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129842DOI Listing
April 2021

Simultaneous SERS detection of illegal food additives rhodamine B and basic orange II based on Au nanorod-incorporated melamine foam.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 3;357:129741. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Testing Innovation Research Center, Centre Testing International Group Co Ltd, Shenzhen 518000, China.

In food safety assessment, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a novel detection method with the advantages of being fast, easy, and of high sensitivity. However, many SERS substrate synthesis methods are complex, and there are only a few studies on the simultaneous detection of multiple substances. In this study, a new, simple, low-cost SERS substrate was synthesised for the first time to simultaneously detect illegal food additives rhodamine B and basic orange II in chilli products. A lightweight, porous, and low-cost material of melamine foam (MF) was employed as the SERS synthesis template. The substrate's SERS effect on, and sensitivity to, rhodamine B and basic orange II were demonstrated. The molecular vibration and SERS enhancement mechanisms of the two target molecules were analysed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results reveal that this fabricated substrate has great application potential for the supervision and testing industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129741DOI Listing
April 2021

Spectroscopic investigations of the changes in ligand conformation during the synthesis of soy protein-templated fluorescent gold nanoclusters.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jul 19;255:119725. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Jiangsu 214122, China. Electronic address:

In this paper, the potential relationship between fluorescence and changes in the ligand conformation observed during the synthesis of soy protein-templated fluorescent gold nanoclusters (SP-AuNCs) was studied using a series of spectroscopic techniques. The results show that the determinants of the fluorescence effect in SP-AuNCs changed with the reaction time during the synthesis process. In the early stage of the reaction (within 60 min), the fluorescence intensity was dominated by the Au nucleus, followed by the combination of the Au nucleus and protein ligand. The structure of the protein ligand also underwent a transition from ordered to disordered to ordered. At the same time, its role in the reaction also changed from providing the reducing power to protecting the Au nucleus and contributing to the transition of the fluorescence effect in the AuNCs via ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT). Using two-dimensional (2D) photon spectra correlation analysis, the formation and growth of the Au nuclei and the LMCT effect observed during the synthesis of the SP-AuNCs were found to be the major causes for the changes in the conformation of the protein ligand. Our results are an important discovery and can be used to explain the mechanism of protein ligands in the synthesis of gold nanoclusters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119725DOI Listing
July 2021

Extraction, characterization of aloe polysaccharides and the in-depth analysis of its prebiotic effects on mice gut microbiota.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jun 2;261:117874. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, and International Joint Laboratory on Food Safety, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, 214122, China. Electronic address:

Despite the well-known health benefits of aloe polysaccharide (APs), little is known about how APs modulate the gut microbiota and the relationship between microbiota and SCFAs. Here, APs was extracted by ultrasound extraction. FT-IR and glycosidic linkage type analysis showed that a major part of APs consisted of → 4)-β-Manp-(1 → residues with acetyl groups. APs supplementation to mice prominently boosted SCFAs-producing Bacteroides and Parabacteria in the feces. On the other hand, it decreased the abundance of Firmicutes and Clostridium. A positive correlation between microbiota and SCFAs was revealed, with Parabacteria and Clostridium being the key microbiota to significantly promote SCFAs. APs promoted the fructose and mannose metabolism by upregulating the gene expression of 17 enzymes, containing fructose-bisphosphate aldolase [EC:4.1.2.13]. Our findings highlight SCFAs-producing Parabacteria were primary degrader of APs, and APs may have prebiotic effects on gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117874DOI Listing
June 2021

Bioactive compound from the Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa L.) elicited anti-hypoxia effects in OGD/R-injured HT22 cells by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 12;12(7):2901-2913. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Cerebral stroke, a common clinical problem, is the predominant cause of disability and death worldwide. Its prevalence increases and infarctions exacerbate with age. A Tibetan plant, Brassica rapa L., possesses multiple medicinal effects, such as anti-altitude sickness, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-fatigue, as mentioned in the noted ancient Tibet pharmacopeia "The Four Medical Tantras". Our preliminary studies also showed the anti-hypoxia protection mechanism of B. rapa L., implying its possible relationship with anti-ischemic neuroprotection. However, the potential molecular mechanism of the active constituent of turnip against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion remains unclear. In our study, oxidative stress markers, including LDH, ROS, SOD, GPx and CAT were assayed. In controlled in vitro assays, we found that the turnip's active constituent had remarkable anti-hypoxia capability. We further showed the profound effects of the active constituent of turnip on the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, including Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3, which contributed to its anti-inflammatory activity. Western blot analysis results also implied that active-constituent pretreatment reversed the diminished expression of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway mediated by oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R); further experimental evidence showed that the protective role was limited in the PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) treatment group. Our results demonstrated that the functional monomer of B. rapa L. exerted a neuroprotective effect against OGD/R-induced HT22 cell injury, and its potential mechanism provides a scientific basis for future clinical applications and its use as a functional food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo03190aDOI Listing
April 2021

Fabrication of novel self-healing edible coating for fruits preservation and its performance maintenance mechanism.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 15;351:129284. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Food Safety, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China; Qingdao Special Food Research Institute, Qingdao 266109, Shandong Province, China. Electronic address:

Coating damage destroys the integrity features critical for maintaining the modified atmosphere inside the fruit. In this study, we developed a self-healing edible coating that maintains its barrier properties for extending the shelf life of strawberries. The coating was fabricated via the layer-by-layer assembly of chitosan (CS) and sodium alginate (SA). (SA/CS) formed by three assembly cycles could completely heal the visibly damaged area by treating water. The mechanical properties and the water and oxygen rates of the healed coating were 97%, 63%, and 95%, respectively, of the intact coating. (SA/CS) coating effectively delayed strawberry deterioration. Moreover, the coating reduced the impact of coating damage on strawberries by restoring the coating barrier properties. The present findings have important implications for solving the reduction in freshness caused by coating damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129284DOI Listing
July 2021

Association between ambient temperature and childhood respiratory hospital visits in Beijing, China: a time-series study (2013-2017).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 8;28(23):29445-29454. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Little is known on the potential impact of temperature on respiratory morbidity, especially for children whose respiratory system can be more vulnerable to climate changes. In this time-series study, Poisson generalized additive models combined with distributed lag nonlinear models were used to assess the associations between ambient temperature and childhood respiratory morbidity. The impacts of extreme cold and hot temperatures were calculated as cumulative relative risks (cum.RRs) at the 1st and 99th temperature percentiles relative to the minimum morbidity temperature percentile. Attributable fractions of respiratory morbidity due to cold or heat were calculated for temperatures below or above the minimum morbidity temperature. Effect modifications by air pollution, age, and sex were assessed in stratified analyses. A total of 877,793 respiratory hospital visits of children under 14 years old between 2013 and 2017 were collected from Beijing Children's Hospital. Overall, we observed J-shaped associations with greater respiratory morbidity risks for exposure to lower temperatures, and higher fraction of all-cause respiratory hospital visits was caused by cold (33.1%) than by heat (0.9%). Relative to the minimum morbidity temperature (25 °C, except for rhinitis, which is 31 °C), the cum.RRs for extreme cold temperature (-6 °C) were 2.64 (95%CI: 1.51-4.61) for all-cause respiratory hospital visits, 2.73 (95%CI: 1.44-5.18) for upper respiratory infection, 2.76 (95%CI: 1.56-4.89) for bronchitis, 2.12 (95%CI: 1.30-3.47) for pneumonia, 2.06 (95%CI: 1.27-3.34) for rhinitis, and 4.02 (95%CI: 2.14-7.55) for asthma, whereas the associations between extreme hot temperature (29 °C) and respiratory hospital visits were not significant. The impacts of extreme cold temperature on asthma hospital visits were greater at higher levels of ozone (O) exposure (> 50th percentile). Our findings suggest significantly increased childhood respiratory morbidity risks at extreme cold temperature, and the impact of extreme cold temperature on asthma hospital visits can be enhanced under higher level exposure to O.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12817-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of Displacement Pressure on Oil-Water Relative Permeability for Extra-Low-Permeability Reservoirs.

ACS Omega 2021 Feb 21;6(4):2749-2758. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Beijing 102249, P. R. China.

The oil-water relative permeability is an important parameter to characterize the seepage law of fluid in extra-low-permeability reservoirs, and it is of vital significance for the prediction and evaluation of the production. The pore throat size of extra-low-permeability reservoirs is relatively small, and the threshold pressure gradient and capillary pressure cannot be negligible. In this study, the oil-water relative permeability experiments with three different displacement pressures were carried out on the same core from the extra-low-permeability reservoir of Chang 4+5 formation in Ordos basin by the unsteady experimental method. The results show that the relative permeability of oil increases, while the relative permeability of water remains unchanged considering the capillary pressure and oil threshold pressure gradient compared with the JBN method. As the displacement pressure enlarges, the relative permeability of oil and water both increases; the residual oil saturation decreases, therefore the range of the two-phase flow zone is improved. Moreover, the isotonic point of water-oil relative permeability curves moves to the upper right region, and the reference permeability improves as well with the increasing pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c04987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860085PMC
February 2021

Zero-Background Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection of Cymoxanil Based on the Change of the Cyano Group after Ultraviolet Irradiation.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jan 27;69(1):520-527. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214122, China.

A zero-background method based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was developed for the rapid determination of cymoxanil residue in food. Because of the influence of complex matrices, conventional Raman spectroscopy has multiple peaks that overlap with those of target molecules, which makes qualitative and quantitative detection difficult. However, the cyano group (C≡N) of cymoxanil after ultraviolet irradiation has a special characteristic peak in the Raman-silent region (1800-2800 cm), which eliminates the possible background interference. The intensity of the characteristic peak at 2130 cm exhibited a good linear relationship (R = 0.9907) with the concentration of cymoxanil in the range of 1.0-50.0 mg/L, whose limit of detection was 0.5 mg/L. The novel method was also applied to the detection of cymoxanil residue in real samples such as cucumber and grape, and the results were in good agreement with those from high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. This revealed that the SERS method has great potential in the detection of cymoxanil in fruits and vegetables. Moreover, ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was adopted to identify the photoproducts of cymoxanil. The photolysis mechanism was explored by SERS and the UPLC-QTOF/MS technique, which provided basic information on photodegradation of cymoxanil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06231DOI Listing
January 2021

Investigation of the transformation and toxicity of trichlorfon at the molecular level during enzymic hydrolysis of apple juice.

Food Chem 2021 May 18;344:128653. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, No.1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, No.1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214122, China; Qingdao Special Food Research Institute, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Trichlorfon is one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides in agriculture. In this study, the extent of transformation of trichlorfon to dichlorvos (DDVP), during the polygalacturonase (PG) treatment of apple pulp was monitored. A transformation pathway is proposed for trichlorfon molecules, based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The transformation of trichlorfon involves hydroxyl substitution and cleavage, which was confirmed by molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and frontier molecular orbital (FMO) theory. In addition, the toxicity of trichlorfon and its transformed products was analyzed using Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) software. The binding sites of the two pesticides are located in the hydrophobic grooves of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) active site region and both pesticides form hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds with a large number of surrounding amino acid residues. DDVP binds more strongly with AChE, so it is a better AChE inhibitor and more toxic than trichlorfon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128653DOI Listing
May 2021

Synergistic interactions of plant essential oils with antimicrobial agents: a new antimicrobial therapy.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Nov 19:1-12. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

The problem of drug resistance of food borne pathogens is becoming more and more serious. Although traditional antimicrobial agents have good therapeutic effects on a variety of food borne pathogens, more effective antimicrobial agents are still needed to combat the development of drug-resistant food borne pathogens. Plant-based natural essential oils (EOs) are widely used because of their remarkable antimicrobial activity. A potential strategy to address food borne pathogens drug resistance is to use a combination of EOs and antimicrobial agents. Because EOs have multi-target inhibitory effects on microorganisms, combining them with drugs can enhance the activity of the drugs and avoid the emergence of food borne pathogens drug resistance. This paper introduces the main factors affecting the antibacterial activity of EOs and describes methods for evaluating their synergistic antibacterial effects. The possible mechanisms of action of EOs and the synergistic inhibitory effects on pathogens of EOs in combination with antimicrobial agents is described. In summary, the combined use of EOs and existing antimicrobial agents is a promising potential new antibacterial therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1846494DOI Listing
November 2020

The anti-inflammatory potential of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl essential oil in vitro and in vivo.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Mar 23;267:113516. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, No. 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, No.1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, 214122, China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, 214122, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Borneol was widely used in traditional Chinese medicine formulas due to its pharmacological activities, e.g. sedative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ischemic properties. Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl essential oil (BEO) is a by-product of natural crystalline borneol (NCB) production obtained by steam distillation of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J.Presl leaves, and borneol was the main component of BEO. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of BEO and its corresponding mechanisms through in vitro and in vivo studies.

Materials And Methods: Human erythrocyte membrane stability assay and the acute inflammation murine model (xylene-induced ear edema) were chosen to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of BEO. Expression of inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The functional compounds in the BEO were identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The steady-state transdermal diffusion rates of BEO and BEO nano-emulsion with were also determined in this study. Cytotoxicity of BEO was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay.

Results: The BEO showed a high human erythrocyte membrane stabilization by inhibiting heat-induced hemolysis (IC = 5.29 mg/mL) and hypotonic solution-induced hemolysis (IC = 0.26 mg/mL) in vitro. The BEO was topically applied to mice auricles, both single and repeated administration significantly reduced xylene-induced auricle swelling (p < 0.0001). Expression of inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in serum and tissue was significantly downregulated (p < 0.05), so as to the mRNA expression of IL-1β (p<0.05) and TNF-α (p < 0.001). A total of 43 components were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The most abundant was borneol [178.3 mg/mL, 20.9% (m/v)], followed by β-caryophyllene (116.3 mg/mL), camphor (115.2 mg/mL), and limonene (89.4 mg/mL). For determining the skin permeability of BEO, the steady-state transdermal diffusion rates of BEO and BEO nano-emulsion were determined to be 6.7 and 8.9 mg/cm·h, respectively.

Conclusion: It is suspected that the anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro were derived from the above-mentioned components in the BEO. These findings will facilitate the development of BEO as a new and natural therapeutic agent for inflammatory skin conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113516DOI Listing
March 2021

Establishment of a pediatric trigger tool based on Global Trigger Tool to identify adverse drug events of children: experience in a Chinese hospital.

BMC Pediatr 2020 09 29;20(1):454. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Background: The Global Trigger Tool (GTT),which is a method using "triggers" to review medical record retrospectively to identify possible adverse events. Several studies showed that the GTT was effective. However, there were only a few localized trigger tools that had been established to detect pediatric adverse drug events (ADEs) in China. This study aimed to establish a pediatric trigger tool based on GTT, to examine the performance by detecting pediatric inpatients ADEs in a Chinese hospital (a retrospective review), and to investigate the factors associating with the occurrence of ADEs.

Methods: The triggers were established by three steps including literature search, triggers extraction and revision, and experts investigation. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to detect ADEs by using 200 pediatric inpatient records of Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital.

Results: Thirty-three preliminary triggers were established, and 2 rounds of experts investigation were conducted. Finally, 33 triggers were established. In the retrospective review, the positive trigger rate was 64.0%, while the positive predictive value (PPV) was 24.9%. The occurrence of inpatients with ADEs was 20.5%. ADEs/100 admissions were 49.0. ADEs/1000 patient days were 46.89. The most common ADE categories were leukocyte disorders, skin disorders and platelet disorders. The severity of 39 ADEs was grade 1, 55 ADEs was grade 2, 4 ADEs was grade 3. The highest frequency of ADE-related drugs was antineoplastic, followed by antibacterial. The length of stay and the leukemia in the diagnosed diseases were positively correlated with ADEs.

Conclusions: The 33 pediatric triggers may detect ADEs effectively, but still need to be optimized. This study may provide some references for further research in order to improve the rationality and safety of medication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02354-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523329PMC
September 2020

Neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion by dietary phytochemical extracts from Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa L.).

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jan 24;265:113410. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa L.) has a wide array of medicine properties including heat-clearing, detoxifying and anti-hypoxia as listed in the famous centuries-old Tibetan medicine classic "The Four Medical Tantras". Evidence-based medicine also indicated the anti-hypoxic effect of turnips, suggesting a potential link to neuroprotective effect on ischemic stroke. This thereby enables turnips to serve as a novel nontoxic agent in related treatment.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect and elucidate the mechanism of aqueous extract of turnip (AET) on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

Materials And Methods: The experimental models of cerebral ischemia included transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO) in C57BL/6J mice and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in HT-22 cells. Long-term effect of AET on infarct volume was evaluated by microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunofluorescence 28 days after MCAO, and on neurofunctional outcomes determined by rotarod, grid walking, and cylinder tests in the meantime. Efficacy of AET was determined by the cell viability, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neurons. The underlying mechanism of AET rescued OGD/R cells were characterized by PI3K, Akt and mTOR expressions, which were further used to validate AET's role in the pathway.

Results: AET can reduce cerebral infarct volume and ameliorate behavioral deficits of MCAO/R mice dose-dependently. In vitro experiment further demonstrated that suitable concentrations of AET inhibited ROS, LDH production and restored mitochondrial expression induced by OGD/R. AET pretreatment can reverse the OGD/R-induced decreased level of phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, whereas this effect was blocked in the LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) treatment group.

Conclusions: AET improved the survival of OGD/R-injured HT-22 cells by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Based on the results above, aqueous extract of turnip has a protective effect on focal cerebral ischemic injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113410DOI Listing
January 2021

Rapid and ultrasensitive detection of food contaminants using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy-based methods.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Aug 8:1-14. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

With the globalization of food and its complicated networking system, a wide range of food contaminants is introduced into the food system which may happen accidentally, intentionally, or naturally. This situation has made food safety a critical global concern nowadays and urged the need for effective technologies capable of dealing with the detection of food contaminants as efficiently as possible. Hence, Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been taken as one of the primary choices for this case, due to its extremely high sensitivity, rapidity, and fingerprinting interpretation capabilities which account for its competency to detect a molecule up to a single level. Here in this paper, we present a comprehensive review of various SERS-based novel approaches applied for direct and indirect detection of single and multiple chemical and microbial contaminants in food, food products as well as water. The aim of this paper is to arouse the interest of researchers by addressing recent SERS-based, novel achievements and developments related to the investigation of hazardous chemical and microbial contaminants in edible foods and water. The target chemical and microbial contaminants are antibiotics, pesticides, food adulterants, Toxins, bacteria, and viruses. In this paper, different aspects of SERS-based reports have been addressed including synthesis and use of various forms of SERS nanostructures for the detection of a specific analyte, the coupling of SERS with other analytical tools such as chromatographic methods, combining analyte capture and recognition strategies such as molecularly imprinted polymers and aptasensor as well as using multivariate statistical analyses such as principal component analysis (PCA)to distinguish between results. In addition, we also report some strengths and limitations of SERS as well as future viewpoints concerning its application in food safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1803197DOI Listing
August 2020

Natural protein-templated fluorescent gold nanoclusters: Syntheses and applications.

Food Chem 2021 Jan 25;335:127657. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, National Center for Technology Innovation on Fast Biological Detection of Grain Quality and Safety, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

For the past decades, the synthesis of metal nanoclusters has been a great interest for research, for their unique physicochemical properties and great contributions to the catalytic, electrical and biomedical applications. Protein-templated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) is a kind of fluorescent nanomaterials with good solubility, excellent stability, biocompatibility, decent quantum yields and active groups (-COOH, -NH) for facilitating modifications. Natural proteins are easily available, commercially affordable, diverse and multitudinous in animals, plants and foods, which provide a template pool for the exploration of AuNCs. This is one of the few reviews of specifically focusing on the natural protein-templated fluorescent AuNCs. The syntheses, properties and applications of different AuNCs were enumerated. Prospects were given on utilizing structure-modified proteins, bioactive enzymes, antibodies which should endow the AuNCs more favourable fluorescence performances and functional characteristics. The applications of AuNCs in analytical, biomedical and food sciences would be further heightened.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127657DOI Listing
January 2021

Degradation of fluopyram in water under ozone enhanced microbubbles: Kinetics, degradation products, reaction mechanism, and toxicity evaluation.

Chemosphere 2020 Nov 5;258:127216. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, No.1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, 214122, China. Electronic address:

The degradation of fluopyram (FLP) was investigated under ozone-microbubble treatment (OMBT). Kinetic models were established to study the influence of three treatments: ozonated water, microbubbles (MCB), and OMBT. FLP degraded completely in OMBT, and a clearance rate of 89.8-100% was achievable. Three direct transformation products [product 1 (F1), product 2 (F2), and product 3(F3)] were isolated and identified using a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer. Moreover, a transformation theory of FLP degradation was developed according to targeted fragmentation, accurate mass measurements, and degradation profiles. These analyses showed that the products originated from a series of chemical reactions involving dechlorination, hydroxyl substitution, cleavage and oxidation, and were further confirmed based on molecular electrostatic potential and molecular orbital theory. In addition, the stability and toxicity of FLP and its transformation products were tested using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (T.E.S.T.) and the Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) program. Products F1, F2 and F3 were found to be toxic substances, but their toxicity to aquatic organisms was lower than that of FLP. However, they were more toxic to rats than FLP, and their physicochemical properties were more stable. Overall, OMBT is a highly effective method for FLP removal during wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127216DOI Listing
November 2020

Mechanism insights into the transformation of carbosulfan during apple drying processes.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Sep 30;201:110729. Epub 2020 May 30.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, No.1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, 214122, China. Electronic address:

The transformation of carbosulfan (CSN) in apples was investigated during oven-drying, microwave drying, and sun-drying. CSN transformed primarily into carbofuran (COA) during these drying processes. The conversion kinetics of CSN and COA was fitted by curve regression and mainly conformed to quadratic models (R = 0.70-0.97). Oven-drying promoted the transformation of CSN into COA. Microwave drying resulted in the highest scavenging capacity against CSN and COA (41%-100%). Moreover, a transformation mechanism was proposed on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The COA originated from a series of chemical reactions involving hydroxyl substitution, cleavage, and oxidation; this result was further confirmed on the basis of molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and molecular orbital theory. Furthermore, the toxicity and stability of CSN and COA were evaluated with the T.E.S.T. program. COA was less toxic than CSN to aquatic organisms but more toxic than CSN to rats. Therefore, COA production should be avoided during drying. Microwave drying was found to be the optimum choice for drying apples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110729DOI Listing
September 2020

Torularhodin from Attenuates d-galactose/AlCl-Induced Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative Stress, and Neuroinflammation via the Nrf2/NF-κB Pathway.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Jun 8;68(24):6604-6614. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, P.R. China.

Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are considered as crucial culprits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Torularhodin, a carotenoid pigment, possesses powerful antioxidant activity. This study aimed to elucidate the protective effects of torularhodin in the AD-like mouse model and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Behavioral and histopathological results suggested that torularhodin relieved cognitive impairments, attenuated Aβ accumulation, and inhibited glial overactivation in d-gal/AlCl-induced ICR mice. Simultaneously, torularhodin also markedly increased antioxidant enzyme capacities, lowered the contents of RAGE, and reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines. Western blot results showed that torularhodin ameliorated neuronal oxidative damage via activation of Nrf2 translocation, upregulation of HO-1, and inactivation of NF-κB in vivo and in vitro. Thus, torularhodin effectively ameliorated cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation, possibly through the Nrf2/NF-κB signaling pathways, suggesting torularhodin might offer a promising prevention strategy for neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01892DOI Listing
June 2020

Simultaneous and rapid determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by facile and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles as effective SERS substrate.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Sep 26;200:110780. Epub 2020 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, No.1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, 214122, Jiangsu Province, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Food Safety, Jiangnan University, No.1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, 214122, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

A green synthesis method for nanoscale silver using β-cyclodextrin as both reducing agent and stabilizer was developed. β-cyclodextrin was used not only as a reducing agent but also a stabilizing agent for nano-silver, and is also an excellent detection substrate due to its special structure (inner hydrophobic and outer hydrophilic ring structure). Then, the green synthesized silver nanoparticles were used as Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) enhanced substrates to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as: anthracene, pyrene, chrysene and triphenylene. The SERS substrate can be used for both quantitative detection of the four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and qualitative identification of mixtures of these hydrocarbons. This synthesis method is simple and convenient, having great potential in simultaneous and rapid detection of environmental organic pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110780DOI Listing
September 2020

Potential of resveratrol in mitigating advanced glycation end-products formed in baked milk and baked yogurt.

Food Res Int 2020 07 19;133:109191. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214122, China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214122, China. Electronic address:

Baked milk and baked yogurt are two newly developed dairy products in the market. Throughout the processing, a long-time-high-temperature baking procedure was involved to enhance the formation of a brownish color and desirable flavors; meanwhile, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) were extensively produced through Maillard reaction (MR). Resveratrol was first developed as a potential inhibitor of AGEs formation. The resveratrol at 1 μmol/L was achieved the highest inhibitory rate against the formation of dicarbonyl compounds in the baked milk (3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG): 68.77%, methylglyoxal (MG): 50.46%) and baked yogurt (3-DG: 35.50%, MG: 37.11%). Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on the formation of four AGEs was observed compared with those without adding resveratrol. The content of N-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N-(hydroxyethyl) lysine (CEL) as the two commonly detected AGEs were decreased by higher than 30% and 27% in the baked milk and baked yogurt, respectively, when the concentration of resveratrol was 0.1 μmol/L. Moreover, the generation of furosine was significantly inhibited by 1 μmol/L resveratrol, which was decreased to less than 40% and 60% in the baked milk and baked yogurt, respectively. The generation of pyrraline, in particular, was completely inhibited at a resveratrol concentration ranging from 0.1 to 10 μmol/L. Furthermore, the additional level of 0.1 μmol/L resveratrol achieved a high inhibitory effect of AGEs, and such an additional level would not alter the color and flavor profile of the baked milk and baked yogurt. Considering the high solubility of resveratrol in milk fat, it is speculated that resveratrol mainly acted at an early stage of the degradation, i.e., through the inhibition of the autocatalytic lipid oxidation that generates dicarbonyl compounds but played less as a dicarbonyl compounds scavenger. Significance of this study is developing resveratrol as the additive to inhibit the AGEs formation in the baked milk and baked yogurt without altering overall color and flavors, which let the dairy products become safer to consume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109191DOI Listing
July 2020

Degradation of parathion methyl in bovine milk by high-intensity ultrasound: Degradation kinetics, products and their corresponding toxicity.

Food Chem 2020 Oct 21;327:127103. Epub 2020 May 21.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

The removal of pesticide residues in food by ultrasound has attracted more attention in recent years, and the formation of intermediate products may have some profound effects on the toxicity of treated food. Therefore, degradation of parathion methyl (PM) in bovine milk by ultrasonic treatment was studied in this paper. Results showed that the ultrasonic intensity and the initial concentration of PM had a significant effect on the degradation rate of PM (P < 0.05). The maximum degradation rate of PM was 97.10%. Three transformation products were identified through UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis, and the oxidation pathway was proposed as the consequence of ultrasonication. Furthermore, according to Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) model prediction, the ecotoxicity of the transformation products may be higher than that of PM. These findings showed that although ultrasonic treatment can effectively degrade pesticide residues in food, it may also generate transformation products with the higher ecotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127103DOI Listing
October 2020

Chemical food contaminants during food processing: sources and control.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 12;61(9):1545-1555. Epub 2020 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, JiangnanUniversity, Wuxi, China.

With the development in international food trade, there has been emerging risks in the food chain. Food contamination can be caused by several factors in a complex food chain. This articles provides a comprehensive review of known chemical contaminants from the production of raw materials to the consumption of food products as well as prevention and control measures. Specifically, this review discusses the following topics, raw material contamination caused by environmental pollution, endogenous food contamination caused by processing methods, and cold chain system challenges in food e-commerce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1762069DOI Listing
April 2021
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