Publications by authors named "Yunchao Kan"

50 Publications

Epidemiological investigations and locally determined genotype diversity of Mycoplasma synoviae in Central China from 2017 to 2019.

Poult Sci 2021 Oct 10;101(1):101522. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, PR China.

Mycoplasma synoviae (M. synoviae) has been identified worldwide to cause respiratory diseases, infectious synovitis, airsacculitis, and eggshell apex abnormalities (EAA) in commercial chickens, which results in substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Therefore, in this study, 258 flocks were investigated between 2017 and 2019 for M. synoviae by screening samples from Central China. Subsequently, 129 M. synoviae strains were isolated, with a positive rate of 50%. Moreover, a higher incidence of M. Synoviae infections was in layers (74.1%) than in broilers (20%) in this study. The 5'-end conserved segment of the variable lipoprotein hemagglutinin A (vlhA) gene of these isolates was then cloned and sequenced because it is a common genomic target identified so far for M. synoviae genotyping. Genotyping of all isolates was based on the phylogenetic analysis and length analysis of the proline-rich-repeat (PRR) regions, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 5'-end conserved segment of the vlhA gene (76-421 nt) assigned the majority of the occurring strains as being from group 6, and others from groups 2 and 3. Results identified that these isolates were of 6 types: A (38aa), D (23aa), E (19aa), I (28aa), J (20aa), and L (35aa), based on the size of the PRR region analysis. Furthermore, most of the isolates (81.4% were identified as type L. Additionally, the epidemic types included only I and L in 2017; however, the types rose to 5 (A, D, E, I, L) in 2018 and rose to 6 (A, D, E, I, J, L) in 2019. These data showed the genotype diversity of M. synoviae in Central China. The high rate of positive flocks suggests the urgent need to take real-time supervisory controls of this Mycoplasma species in avian flocks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101522DOI Listing
October 2021

Correction to: Potato virus X-mediated constitutive expression of Plutella xylostella PxSDF2L1 gene in Nicotiana benthamiana confers resistance to Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Nov 23;21(1):554. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

China-UK-NYNU-RRES Joint Laboratory of Insect Biology, Nanyang Normal University (NYNU), Nanyang, 473061, Henan, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03341-7DOI Listing
November 2021

Tandem Mass Tag-Based Quantitative Proteomics and Virulence Phenotype of Hemolymph-Treated Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Cells Reveal New Insights on Bacterial Pathogenesis in Insects.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Oct 27;9(2):e0060421. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

China-UK-NYNU-RRES Joint Laboratory of Insect Biology, Henan Key Laboratory of Insect Biology in Funiu Mountain, School of Life Sciences and Agricultural Engineering, Nanyang Normal Universitygrid.453722.5 (NYNU), Nanyang, People's Republic of China.

The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) of the Bacillus cereus group uses toxin-opened breaches at the insect midgut epithelium to infest the hemolymph, where it can rapidly propagate despite antimicrobial host defenses and induce host death by acute septicemia. The response of Bt to host hemolymph and the latter's role in bacterial pathogenesis is an area that needs clarification. Here, we report a proteomic analysis of the Bt strain HD73 (Btk) hemolymph stimulon showing significant changes in 60 (34 up- and 26 downregulated) differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs). Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that DAPs were mainly related to glutamate metabolism, transketolase activity, and ATP-dependent transmembrane transport. KEGG analysis disclosed that DAPs were highly enriched in the biosynthesis of bacterial secondary metabolites, ansamycins. Interestingly, about 30% of all DAPs were predicted as putative virulence factors. Further characterization of hemolymph effects on Btk showed enhanced autoaggregation in liquid cultures and biofilm formation in microtiter polystyrene plates. Hemolymph-exposed Btk cells were less immunogenic in mice, suggesting epitope masking of selected surface proteins. Bioassays with intrahemocoelically infected Bombyx mori larvae showed that hemolymph preexposure significantly increased Btk toxicity and reproduction within the insect (spore count per cadaver) at low inoculum doses, possibly due to 'virulence priming'. Collectively, our findings suggest that the Btk hemolymph stimulon could be partially responsible for bacterial survival and propagation within the hemolymph of infected insects, contributing to its remarkable success as an entomopathogen. All mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD021830. After ingestion by a susceptible insect and damaging its midgut epithelium, the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) reaches the insect blood (hemolymph), where it propagates despite the host's antimicrobial defenses and induces insect death by acute septicemia. Although the hemolymph stage of the Bt toxic pathway is determinant for the infested insects' fate, the response of Bt to hemolymph and the latter's role in bacterial pathogenesis has been poorly explored. In this study, we identified the bacterial proteins differentially expressed by Bt after hemolymph exposure. We found that about 30% of hemolymph-regulated Bt proteins were potential virulence factors, including manganese superoxide dismutase, a described inhibitor of hemocyte respiratory burst. Additionally, contact with hemolymph enhanced Bt virulence phenotypes, such as cell aggregation and biofilm formation, altered bacterial immunogenicity, and increased Bt toxicity to intrahemocoelically injected insects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/Spectrum.00604-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8549738PMC
October 2021

First report of a novel goose astrovirus outbreak in Muscovy ducklings in China.

Poult Sci 2021 Oct 26;100(10):101407. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, PR China.

A highly acute disease characterized as visceral gout broke out in Muscovy ducklings in Henan province (China) in June 2020, with a mortality rate of up to 61%. In this study, common pathogenic agents were screened using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction or polymerase chain reaction. The results found the novel goose astrovirus (GoAstV) to be the pathogenic agent. We isolated the GoAstV, which has been designated as HNNY0620, using the Leghorn male chicken hepatocellular carcinoma (LMH) cell line and sequenced the complete genome. The phylogenetic tree showed that the amino acid (aa) sequences of ORF1a and ORF2 and the completed nucleotide sequences of the HNNY0620 strain were clustered in the GoAstV-I clade. ORF1a aa and whole-genome sequences were genetically close to TAstV-2 and DHV-3, whereas the ORF2 aa sequences were clustered with TAstV-2 and DHV2. Both the duck-origin GoAstVs and HNNY0620 harbored some special mutations, but ORF1a in 700 (I/T), ORF1b in 288 (F/L), and ORF2 in 306 (A/T) were only found in HNNY0620. These results suggest that the host range of GoAstV is diffusing, which can potentially affect other waterfowl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383103PMC
October 2021

Transcriptome analysis reveals potential function of long non-coding RNAs in 20-hydroxyecdysone regulated autophagy in Bombyx mori.

BMC Genomics 2021 May 22;22(1):374. Epub 2021 May 22.

China-UK-NYNU-RRes Joint Laboratory of insect biology, Henan Key Laboratory of Insect Biology in Funiu Mountain, Nanyang Normal University, 473061, Nanyang, Henan, China.

Background: 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays important roles in insect molting and metamorphosis. 20E-induced autophagy has been detected during the larval-pupal transition in different insects. In Bombyx mori, autophagy is induced by 20E in the larval fat body. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) function in various biological processes in many organisms, including insects. Many lncRNAs have been reported to be potential for autophagy occurrence in mammals, but it has not been investigated in insects.

Results: RNA libraries from the fat body of B. mori dissected at 2 and 6 h post-injection with 20E were constructed and sequenced, and comprehensive analysis of lncRNAs and mRNAs was performed. A total of 1035 lncRNAs were identified, including 905 lincRNAs and 130 antisense lncRNAs. Compared with mRNAs, lncRNAs had longer transcript length and fewer exons. 132 lncRNAs were found differentially expressed at 2 h post injection, compared with 64 lncRNAs at 6 h post injection. Thirty differentially expressed lncRNAs were common at 2 and 6 h post-injection, and were hypothesized to be associated with the 20E response. Target gene analysis predicted 6493 lncRNA-mRNA cis pairs and 42,797 lncRNA-mRNA trans pairs. The expression profiles of LNC_000560 were highly consistent with its potential target genes, Atg4B, and RNAi of LNC_000560 significantly decreased the expression of LNC_000560 and Atg4B. These results indicated that LNC_000560 was potentially involved in the 20E-induced autophagy of the fat body by regulating Atg4B.

Conclusions: This study provides the genome-wide identification and functional characterization of lncRNAs associated with 20E-induced autophagy in the fat body of B. mori. LNC_000560 and its potential target gene were identified to be related to 20-regulated autophagy in B. mori. These results will be helpful for further studying the regulatory mechanisms of lncRNAs in autophagy and other biological processes in this insect model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07692-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140452PMC
May 2021

lncRNA C2dat2 facilitates autophagy and apoptosis via the miR-30d-5p/DDIT4/mTOR axis in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 04 4;13(8):11315-11335. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Henan Provincial Engineering Laboratory of Insects Bio-Reactor, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473000, China.

Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) is an important pathophysiological process of ischemic stroke associated with various physiological and pathological processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. In this study, we examined the role and mechanism of long noncoding RNA CAMK2D-associated transcript 2 (C2dat2) in regulating CIRI and . C2dat2 up-regulation facilitated neuronal autophagy and apoptosis induced by CIRI. Mechanistically, C2dat2 acts as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to negatively regulate miR-30d-5p expression. More specifically, miR-30d-5p targeted the 3'-untranslated region of DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) and silenced its target mRNA DDIT4. Additionally, C2dat2 binding with heat shock cognate 70/heat shock protein 90 blocked RNA-induced silencing complex assembly to abolish the miR-30d-5p targeting of DDIT4 and inhibited miR-30d-5p to silence its target mRNA DDIT4. Further analysis showed that C2dat2 knockdown conspicuously inhibited the up-regulation of DDIT4 and Beclin-1 levels and LC3B II/I ratio and the down-regulation of P62 and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/mTOR and phosphorylated-P70S6K/P70S6K ratio in Neuro-2a cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation. This study first revealed that C2dat2/miR-30d-5p/DDIT4/mTOR forms a novel signaling pathway to facilitate autophagy and apoptosis induced by CIRI, contributing to the better understanding of the mechanisms of CIRI and enriching the ceRNA hypothesis in CIRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109078PMC
April 2021

Characterization of two newly emerged torque teno sus virus isolates from a large-scale pig farm in China, in 2018.

Res Vet Sci 2021 May 9;136:18-24. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, PR China. Electronic address:

Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) infection is common in China's pig herd. Although of uncertain pathogenicity, TTSuVs have been reported as a worsening factor of other porcine diseases, including porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD), porcine respiratory diseases complex (PRDC) or porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS). To better understand the genetic diversity in TTSuVs, the complete genomes of two newly emerged isolates, referred to as HeN1-A9 and HeN1-A11, collected from pig samples at a large-scale pig farm in China, were analyzed. Phylogenetic relationships of TTSuV sequences separated TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2a groups and divided TTSuV1 into two major subtypes, including TTSuV1a and TTSuV1b; HeN1-A9 and HeN1-A11 strains classified into the TTSuV1a subtype. Recombination analysis demonstrated HeN1-A9 and HeN1-A11 were generated via recombination in the overlapping ORF1/ORF3 region of TTSuV1a genome, which we report for the first time. Furthermore, we found that HeN1-A9 could be replicated in cultured MARC-145 cells for 18 passages. Our findings may be useful for elucidating the characteristics and epidemic status of TTSuVs in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.01.008DOI Listing
May 2021

Potato virus X-mediated constitutive expression of Plutella xylostella PxSDF2L1 gene in Nicotiana benthamiana confers resistance to Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Feb 5;21(1):78. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

China-UK-NYNU-RRES Joint Laboratory of Insect Biology, Nanyang Normal University (NYNU), Nanyang, 473061, Henan, People's Republic of China.

Background: The Plutella xylostella PxSDF2L1 gene was previously reported to enhance insect resistance to pathogen at high basal transcription rate. PxSDF2L1 shows similitude with the stromal cell-derived factor 2 (SDF2), an ER stress-induced chaperon protein that is highly conserved throughout animals and plants. The precise biological function of SDF2 is not clear, but its expression is required for innate immunity in plants. Here, we investigate whether a continuous expression of PxSDF2L1 in Nicotiana benthamiana can similarly confer resistance to plant pathogen, particularly, the black shank Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae.

Results: The N. benthamiana plants were inoculated with agrobacteria transformed with a PVX-based binary vector carrying the PxSDF2L1 gene; similar agroinoculation experiments with a PVX vector carrying the GFP gene were used for controls. In pot trials, agroinfected N. benthamiana plants constitutively expressing PxSDF2L1 showed a significant reduction of stem disease symptoms caused by the inoculation with P. parasitica, compared with controls.

Conclusions: We confirm a role of PxSDF2L1 in resistance to black shank, with a potential application to engineering active resistance against this oomycete in the commercial N. tabacum species and propose its evaluation in other crop families and plant pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-02854-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866777PMC
February 2021

Genetic Characterisation and Local Genotypes of Canine Parvovirus Strains Collected from Pet Dogs in Central and Eastern China During 2018-2019.

J Vet Res 2020 Dec 19;64(4):477-486. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, PR China.

Introduction: Canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) causes acute infectious diseases in puppies, which show high morbidity and mortality. Better effect of vaccination against these diseases could be achieved with deeper knowledge of CPV-2 genotype dissemination and mutation history. This study investigated CPV-2-positive samples collected recently over a wide region of China.

Material And Methods: A total of 118 faecal samples from dogs identified as CPV-positive were collected from veterinary clinics in central and eastern China. Overall, 16 strains collected from Anhui, 29 from Henan, and 16 from Zhejiang Province were sequenced to determine the genotypic composition of CPV-2 and mutational complexity of CPV-VP2.

Results: The CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c genotypes were detected in Anhui and Henan Provinces, while CPV-2c alone was detected in Zhejiang Province. Sequence analysis of all strains showed 98.5%-99.8%, 98.3%-99.9%, and 98.7%-99.8% identity among the 16 Anhui, 29 Henan, and 16 Zhejiang strains, respectively. Strains collected from Anhui and Henan Provinces showed lower identity (97.0%), suggesting greater genetic divergence in central China. The mutation rates of Henan and Anhui strains were lower than that of Zhejiang strains. Major amino acid mutations occurred at sites 5, 370, 426, and 440. Epitope and entropy analyses implied these sites' likely conformance to the principles of mutation tendency, complexity, and diversity.

Conclusion: The findings for the evolutionary structure of CPV-2 strains collected from three provinces in central and eastern China advance trend monitoring of the genetic variation in canine parvovirus and point to its implications in the development of novel vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2020-0076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734690PMC
December 2020

Genetic Analysis of Cachavirus-Related Parvoviruses Detected in Pet Cats: The First Report From China.

Front Vet Sci 2020 23;7:580836. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

In this study, members of the , closely related to a virus previously reported in dog feces named cachavirus was identified for the first time in feces of Chinese cats. Screening tests using rectal swabs from 171 diarrheic and 378 healthy cats collected from Henan, Anhui, and Zhejiang provinces in China revealed two samples from diarrheic cats that were positive for cachavirus, but statistical analysis indicated no association between the presence of the virus and clinical signs ( > 0.05). Subsequently, two partial genome sequences [from nucleotides 479-4123, according to the strains from dogs (cachavirus)] of the two strains from cats (cachavirus-cat1 and -cat2) were amplified. The NS1 and VP1 sites of cachavirus-cat1 and -cat2 shared a high identity of 91.9 and 97.0% with reported cachaviruses, respectively, but lower identity of 74.8 and 73.2% with another carnivore chaphamaparvovirus named fechaviruses detected in cats, respectively, indicated the two strains might origin from dogs. These findings improve our understanding of the diversity and tropism of viruses in which now include both dogs and now cats viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.580836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719813PMC
November 2020

An Improved Polymerase Cross-Linking Spiral Reaction Assay for Rapid Diagnostic of Canine Parvovirus 2 Infection.

Front Vet Sci 2020 30;7:571629. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

With increasing complications of canine parvovirus infection cases, disease diagnosis and treatment have become more difficult. In this study, specificity primers for the conserved region of the VP2 gene of canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) were synthesized and evaluated. An improved polymerase cross-linking spiral reaction (PCLSR) method for early and rapid diagnosis of CPV-2 was established. The results showed that the amplification reaction was optimal when run at 62°C for 50 min and could be used to detect CPV-2 without any cross-reactions with other pathogens of canine infectious diseases. Reaction results were directly judged by the naked eyes, with the positive amplification tube shown as luminous yellow and the negative tube as bright purple. Compared with the previously reported polymerase spiral reaction (PSR) method for CPV-2 detection, this reaction was performed using improved primer pairs and a better dye identification method (using an indicator comprising phenol red and cresol red). The detection limit of PCLSR was 3.9 × 10 copies using gel electrophoresis or a visible dye. The positive rate of 132 clinical samples was 42.42%, which was identically the same as that of the PSR method and slightly higher than that of the colloidal gold strip method (39.39%). The newly developed CPV-PCLSR assay shows the advantage of rapid visualization of results and offers a convenient and rapid method for early CPV-2 diagnosis with higher sensitivity and specificity than the established methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.571629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661784PMC
October 2020

Molecular Characterisation and Genetic Diversity of Canine Parvovirus Type 2 Prevalent in Central China.

J Vet Res 2020 Sep 16;64(3):347-354. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, PR China.

Introduction: Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is one of the most threatening to domestic and wild dogs.

Material And Methods: A total of 132 clinical samples were isolated from domestic dogs with diarrhoea from Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, and Anhui provinces from 2016 to 2017, and 56 were positive for CPV-2 by PCR. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the isolate sequences incorporating 53 non-Chinese reference strains.

Results: VP2 sequences showed the strains mainly to be new CPV-2a/2b and CPV-2c genotypes. The Ala5Gly, Phe267Tyr, Ser297Ala, Tyr324Ile, Gln370Arg, Asn426Asp or Asn426Glu, and Thr440Ala sites in the VP2 protein antigenic region were found to have high mutation rates. The VP2 tertiary structural model shows that the change at these mutation points is a factor for the changes in the protein structure. Significant differences between the Central Chinese strains and others were found, indicating that evolution is geographically related and extended in major regions. The homology between the identified strains confirmed their relationship. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the common genotypes in the same clusters differ slightly in homology and evolutionary history.

Conclusion: This epidemiological study enriches the available data and serves as an important reference for studies on the evolution of CPV and selection of vaccines in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2020-0056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497761PMC
September 2020

Novel Genotype Definition and the First Epidemiological Investigation of Canine Adenovirus Type 2 in Dogs in Central China.

Front Vet Sci 2020 19;7:534. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Infections caused by canine adenovirus (CAdV) type 1 have been reported worldwide in the past two decades. However, only few studies have specifically reported the prevalence of CAdV type 2 (CAdV-2). The present study investigated the persistent circulation of CAdV-2 in dogs with diarrhea in the Henan, Hubei, and Jiangsu provinces in central China from 2017 to 2019. We conducted polymerase chain reaction for detecting CAdV-2 and other related pathogens in 224 rectal swabs of pet dogs and the co-infection of canine diseases was also analyzed. In addition, the structural protein genes-Fiber, Hexon, and Penton-of the isolated CAdV-2 strains were sequenced and analyzed. The similarity between and among the 19 strains was 97.4%, as revealed by sequence alignment. Multiple sequence alignment results showed that the gene sequences of these CAdV-2 strains shared 97.4-99.8% nucleotide and 94.1-99.3% amino acid identity with reference sequences and shared only 79.0-80.5% nucleotide and 77.3-80.5% amino acid identity with the vaccine strain CLL, indicating that Fiber harbored most of the variant sites. Furthermore, pairwise sequence comparisons of of CH-JS-1901 and CH-HN-1801 with that of India2006 revealed a novel genotype. Furthermore, protein model prediction showed that the amino acid mutation of fiber protein in 19 strains was located in the head region, that may cause structural changes on the surface of the fiber protein. These findings are of significance for monitoring the epidemiology of CAdV-2 infection and developing a novel vaccine which contribute to understanding genetic evolution of CAdV-2 in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466760PMC
August 2020

Rapid and visual detection of novel astroviruses causing fatal gout in goslings using one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

Poult Sci 2020 Sep 20;99(9):4259-4264. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, PR China.

To visually and rapidly detect a novel goose astrovirus (N-GoAstV) causing fatal gout in goslings, an isothermal detection method based on one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (one-step RT-LAMP) was established. The one-step RT-LAMP assay for N-GoAstV detection, using Bst 3.0 DNA polymerase with strong reverse transcription activity and primer sets targeting the opening reading frame 1b (ORF1b) of N-GoAstV, could be completed in 30 min using a water bath at 61°C; the detection results could be visually observed by adding a pH-sensitive dye containing phenol red and cresol red. The detection limit of the one-step RT-LAMP assay was 57.8 copies, which was similar to that of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The assay specifically detected N-GoAstV without any cross-reaction with other reference viruses, and this was further confirmed using enzyme digestion. These results indicated that the newly established RT-LAMP assay could accomplish reverse transcription, amplification, and visual result determination in one step, and the results obtained via this rapid and cost-effective method could be used to support disease control on farms in terms of N-GoAstV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.05.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305742PMC
September 2020

Novel genotype definition and genome characteristics of duck circovirus in central and Eastern China.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Nov 24;67(6):2993-3004. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, PR China.

To explore genetic variations in duck circovirus (DuCV) and the molecular epidemiology of its infection, tissue samples were collected from 219 dead ducks from 20 farms in the central and eastern regions of China. All farms tested positive for DuCV, with duck-origin goose parvovirus, reovirus and Tembusu virus having co-infection rates of 100%, 0% and 0%, respectively. A total of 20 strains from the DuCV-positive flock were sequenced. The total sequence length was 1987-1996 nt, and the sequences shared 82% (JX499186, DuCV2 from Sichuan province, China) to 99.7% (KY328304, DuCV1 from Shandong Province, China) sequence identity with DuCV sequences available in GenBank. Hyper-variable regions were mainly located in open reading frame (ORF)2, ORF3 and intergenic regions. The tertiary structure of ORF2 from four provinces (Henan, Anhui, Zhejiang and Fujian) in China showed a canonical viral jelly roll and the antigenic epitope of ORF2 located in the bulge of the protein surface. Overall, 15 of the 20 DuCV strains are possibly derived through inter-genotypic and intragenotypic recombination. Based on sequence and phylogenetic analyses, six strains from Fujian Province clustered into a novel genotype-DuCV-1d. These findings may enrich our understanding of DuCV evolution and circulation and lay the foundation for vaccine strain selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13676DOI Listing
November 2020

Epidemiological investigation of avian infectious bronchitis and locally determined genotype diversity in central China: a 2016-2018 study.

Poult Sci 2020 Jun 10;99(6):3001-3008. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, P.R. China.

Infectious bronchitis (IB), caused by avian IB virus (IBV), is an acute and highly contagious disease of chickens. From 2016 to 2018, 56 IBV strains were isolated and identified from clinical samples obtained from various chicken farms located in central China. The S1 sequencing of these strains revealed nucleotide and amino acid identities of 70.2 to 100% and 62.6 to 100%, respectively, compared with those of reference strains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genotypes of the isolates included GI-13 (4/91), GI-7 (TW-I), GI-24 (Mass), GI-19 (QX), and GI-18 (LDT3-A), with GI-19 (QX) being the predominant genotype. Meanwhile, GI-13 (4/91) was the second most dominant genotype in Henan Province, whereas it was GI-7 (TW-I) in Hunan and Hubei provinces. Recombination analysis of 3 variant strains showed that CK/CH/HeN/20160113 might be a recombination of LDT3-A- and QX-type strains and that CK/CH/HeN/20160316 might be a recombination of Italy-02-type strain and CK-CH-LJS08II. The predicted tertiary structure between CK/CH/HeN/20160113 and LDT3-A-type strain revealed that the novel 336 (L-P) and 455 (S-A) mutations changed the structure from an alpha helix to a random crimp. In addition, the 275 (Y-F) site reduced the length of the β-sheet, whereas the site 353 (A-T) extended the β-sheet. These findings suggested that GI-19 (QX) remains the predominant genotype in central China, and a locally determined complex genotype associated with variable clinical symptoms exists related to gene recombination and mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.03.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597734PMC
June 2020

A chromosome-scale genome assembly of Antheraea pernyi (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera).

Mol Ecol Resour 2020 Sep 20;20(5):1372-1383. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

QianTang Biotech Co.,Ltd, Suzhou, China.

Antheraea pernyi is a semi-domesticated lepidopteran insect species valuable to the silk industry, human health, and ecological tourism. Owing to its economic influence and developmental properties, it serves as an ideal model for investigating divergence of the Bombycoidea super family. However, studies on the karyotype evolution and functional genomics of A. pernyi are limited by scarce genomic resource. Here, we applied PacBio sequencing and chromosome structure capture technique to assemble the first high-quality A. pernyi genome from a single male individual. The genome is 720.67 Mb long with 49 chromosomes and a 13.77-Mb scaffold N50. Approximately 441.75 Mb, accounting for 60.74% of the genome, was identified as repeats. The genome comprises 21,431 protein-coding genes, 85.22% of which were functionally annotated. Comparative genomics analysis suggested that A. pernyi diverged from its common ancestor with A. yamamai ~30.3 million years ago, and that chromosome fission contributed to the increased chromosome number. The genome assembled in this work will not only facilitate future research on A. pernyi and related species but also help to progress comparative genomics analyses in Lepidoptera.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13199DOI Listing
September 2020

Simple and visible detection of duck hepatitis B virus in ducks and geese using loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

Poult Sci 2020 Feb 24;99(2):791-796. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, People's Republic of China.

In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was used to establish a rapid, specific, and visual detection method for duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). The design and synthesis of 4 specific LAMP primers were based on the conserved gene region of the DHBV genome, and the optimum temperature and time of the LAMP reaction were 63°C and 50 min, respectively. The LAMP assay was confirmed to be specific for DHBV detection and had the same sensitivity as the quantitative PCR assay. A visual detection method for rapid determination of results was developed using a color indicator containing phenol red and cresol red. A color change was produced based on a pH change in the reaction system, indicating a positive reaction. For the detection of samples from ducks and geese, the LAMP method has the advantages of simplicity, high sensitivity and specificity, good visibility, and low cost. Moreover, it is more practical and convenient than PCR-related assays for the clinical detection of DHBV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2019.12.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587725PMC
February 2020

First report of Enterobacter hormaechei with respiratory disease in calves.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Jan 3;16(1). Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Henan Provincial Engineering Laboratory of Insects Bio-reactor, Henan Provincal Engineering and Technology Center of Health Products for Livestock and Poultry, China-UK-NYNU-RRes Joint Libratory of Insect Biology, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Enterobacter hormaechei is commonly considered a causative pathogen for nosocomial infections and it does not usually cause diseases in animals. However, researchers have recently dissociated the pathogenic Enterobacter hormaechei from foxes and piglets. Here, the Enterobacter hormaechei was first found to be associated with respiratory disease in unweaned calves in China.

Case Presentation: A 2-month-old calf was severely sick and diagnosed with respiratory infection by a rural veterinarian, and it died 5 days after treatment with penicillin G. The lung sample was then run through histopathological analysis and pathogen isolation. The sequence analysis and biochemical tests results showed the isolated bacterium strain to be Enterobacter hormaechei, and drug sensitivity tests showed resistance to all β-lactam antimicrobials and sensitivity to quinolones. Thickened alveoli septum, inflammatory cell infiltration, and erythrocyte diapedesis around the pulmonary alveoli septum were visible in lung histopathological sections. One week later, at the same farm, another calf showed similar clinical signs, and the Enterobacter hormaechei strain was isolated from its nasal discharge; after a week of treatment with enrofloxacin, as suggested by the results of drug sensitivity tests, this calf fully recovered.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of calves with respiratory disease that was associated with E. hormaechei, and multi-drug resistance was observed in isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2207-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942294PMC
January 2020

Characterization and genomic analysis of emerging astroviruses causing fatal gout in goslings.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Mar 17;67(2):865-876. Epub 2019 Nov 17.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Since February 2017, severe outbreaks of fatal gout caused by novel gosling astroviruses (GoAstVs) have occurred in several Chinese provinces, causing a considerable economic impact on the poultry industry. To assess the infection status of GoAstVs causing gout, 165 clinical samples were collected from goslings from seven farms located in different Chinese provinces, and they were screened for viral infection. Seven GoAstV strains were completely sequenced. The positive infection rates of GoAstV, goose parvovirus, reovirus, goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus and Tembusu virus were 100%, 9.69%, 3.64%, 0% and 0%, respectively, indicating the role of GoAstV in gout. The genomes of all seven GoAstV strains were 7170-nt long and encoded three open reading frames (ORFs), namely, ORF1a, ORF1b and ORF2. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the seven GoAstV strains showed that these were avastroviruses and were closely related to viruses classified within Avastrovirus 3 and turkey astrovirus 2. Moreover, the mutation rates of ORF1a and ORF2 were high, and ORF1a was highly mutated at amino acid loci 545-580. The tertiary structure of the mutated ORF2 protein was smooth, and its antigenic epitope was highly mutated, which may be related to the pathogenicity of the virus and caused by antibody pressure from the host. These findings enrich our understanding of the evolution of novel GoAstVs causing gout and their circulation as well as lay the foundation for the selection of vaccine strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13410DOI Listing
March 2020

Genetic Analysis of Avian Gyrovirus 2 Variant-Related Detected in Farmed King Ratsnake (): The First Report from China.

Pathogens 2019 Oct 12;8(4). Epub 2019 Oct 12.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Avian gyrovirus 2 (AGV2), which is similar to chicken infectious anemia virus, is a new member of the genus . AGV2 has been detected not only in chicken but also in human tissues and feces. This study analyzed 91 samples (8 from liver tissue and 83 from fecal samples) collected from king ratsnakes () from 7 separate farms in Hubei and Henan, China, for AGV2 DNA using PCR. The results demonstrated a low positive rate of AGV2 (6.59%, 6/91) in the snakes, and all the positive samples were collected from the same farm. The AGV2 strain HB2018S1 was sequenced, and its 2376 nt genome comprised three partially overlapping open reading frames: VP1, VP2, and VP3. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the HB2018S1 and NX1506-1 strains from chickens in China belong to the same clade and that they have a nucleotide identity as high as 99.5%. Additionally, recombination analysis showed that HB2018S1 might originate from the recombination of viruses similar to those detected in chickens and a ferret. A total of 10 amino acid mutation sites (44(R/K), 74(T/A), 256 (C/R), 279(L/Q), and 373(V/A) in AGV2 VP1; 60(I/T), 125(T/I), 213(D/N), and 215(L/S) in AGV2 VP2; and 83(H/Y) in AGV2 VP3) different from those observed in most reference strains were found in the genome of HB2018S1, indicating that the differences may be related to a transboundary movement among hosts, which needs further elucidation. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on an AGV2-infected poikilotherm, suggesting that cross-host transmission of viruses with circular single-stranded DNA genomes would be a public health concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963503PMC
October 2019

Novel polymerase spiral reaction assay for the visible molecular detection of porcine circovirus type 3.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Sep 6;15(1):322. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, People's Republic of China.

Background: Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a newly emerging circovirus that might be associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome, reproductive failure, and cardiac and multisystemic inflammation. To aid the prevention and control of the infectious disease caused by PCV3, we developed a novel isothermal amplification assay using polymerase spiral reaction (PSR), which allows the visual detection of preserved strains and clinical samples.

Results: This assay precisely amplified the PCV3 genome with the use of a water bath at 62 °C for 50 min. The detection limit was found to be 1.13 × 10 copies/μL by gel electrophoresis or with the use of a visible dye (an indicator comprising phenol red and cresol red). No cross-reaction with other porcine infectious viruses was observed. The detection results for 23 PCV3-positive samples by PSR were in accordance with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. The detection rate of the PSR assay for PCV3 positivity of clinical samples was 68/97, which was higher than LAMP assay (67/97).

Conclusions: These results indicated that the PSR assay provides an accurate and rapid method for the detection of PCV3 with high sensitivity and specificity. It is particularly suited for use in a simple laboratory setting without a thermal cycler or gel electrophoresis equipment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-2072-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731610PMC
September 2019

Rapid and visible detection of Mycoplasma synoviae using a novel polymerase spiral reaction assay.

Poult Sci 2019 Nov;98(11):5355-5360

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, PR China.

In this study, a rapid, specific, and sensitive detection assay for Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) was established using a polymerase spiral reaction (PSR) method. A pair of primers were designed according to the conserved region of the vlhA gene of MS, and PSR results were assessed using agarose gel electrophoresis and color rendering with a dye indicator. The optimum reaction temperature and time for PSR using the specific primers were 62°C and 40 min in a water bath, respectively. The sensitivity of the PSR assay for MS detection was 100 times more than that of the polymerase chain reaction assay based on agarose gel electrophoresis results and color change detected by the naked eye. Further experiments demonstrated that the primers specifically detected MS and showed no cross-reaction with other prevalent avian pathogens. Clinical sample testing confirmed that the MS-PSR assay is simple, rapid, specific, and sensitive, and thereby very suitable for application and promotion in the field and laboratories of grassroots units.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez356DOI Listing
November 2019

Visual detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus using a novel reverse transcription polymerase spiral reaction method.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Apr 15;15(1):116. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, People's Republic of China.

Background: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a major etiological agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea around the world. Point-of-care testing in the field is lacking owing to the requirement for a simple, robust field applicable test that does not require professional laboratory equipment. The aim of this study was to establish a novel reverse transcription polymerase spiral reaction (RT-PSR) assay for the rapid detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). For the assay, a specific RT-PSR primer pair was designed against a conserved region in PEDV ORF3.

Results: The RT-PSR was optimized, and PEDV could be detected after a 50 min incubation at 62 °C, in addition to the 15 min required for reverse transcription. No cross-reaction with other porcine infectious viruses was observed. This new method for PEDV detection was 10 times more sensitive than the conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The positive rates for 65 clinical samples using the new RT-PSR assay and the conventional RT-PCR assay were 58.46% (38/65) and 53.84% (35/65), respectively. In the RT-PSR assay, the addition of a mixture of dyes allowed a positive reaction to be directly observed by the naked eye.

Conclusions: These results indicate that this RT-PSR assay is capable of accurately detecting PEDV, and has the advantages of high specificity and sensitivity for the detection of PEDV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1851-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466714PMC
April 2019

Small nucleolar RNA Sf-15 regulates proliferation and apoptosis of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells.

BMC Mol Biol 2019 04 11;20(1):12. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

China-UK-NYNU-RRes Joint Laboratory of Insect Biology, Henan Key Laboratory of Insect Biology in Funiu Mountain, Nanyang Normal University, 1638 Wolong Road, Nanyang, 473061, Henan, China.

Background: Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) function in guiding 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). In recent years, more and more snoRNAs have been found to play novel roles in mRNA regulation, such as pre-mRNA splicing or RNA editing. In our previous study, we found a silkworm C/D box snoRNA Bm-15 can interact with Notch receptor gene in vitro. To further study the function of Bm-15, we cloned its homolog Sf-15 from Spodoptera frugiperda and investigate the function of Sf-15 in Sf9 cells.

Results: We showed that knocking down of Sf-15 can inhibit the proliferation, then induce apoptosis of insect S. frugiperda Sf9 cells, but the results were reversed when Sf-15 was overexpressed. De novo sequencing of transcriptome of Sf9 cells showed that the expression of 21 apoptosis-related genes were increased upon Sf-15 repression. Further analysis showed that a Ca-induced cell death pathway gene Cn (PPP3C, the serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2B catalytic subunit), was significantly increased upon Sf-15 depression but decreased when Sf-15 was overexpressed, which indicated that Cn might be a potential target of Sf-15.

Conclusions: We conclude that C/D box snoRNA Sf-15 can participate in apoptosis through regulating the expression of Ca-induced cell death pathway gene Cn in Sf9 cells. This is the first time that we found snoRNAs exhibiting dual functions in insect, which reveals a novel layer of ncRNA modulation in cell growth and death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12867-019-0128-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458620PMC
April 2019

Functional expression of a peritrophin A-like SfPER protein is required for larval development in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Sci Rep 2019 02 22;9(1):2630. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

China-UK, NYNU-RRES Joint Insect Biology Laboratory, Nanyang Normal University, Henan, 473061, People's Republic of China.

Peritrophins are associated with structural and functional integrity of peritrophic membranes (PM), structures composed of chitin and proteins. PM lines the insect midgut and has roles in digestion and protection from toxins. We report the full-length cDNA cloning, molecular characterization and functional analysis of SfPER, a novel PM peritrophin A protein, in Spodoptera frugiperda. The predicted amino acid sequence indicated SfPER's domain structure as a CMCMC-type, consisting of a signal peptide and three chitin-binding (C) domains with two intervening mucin-like (M) domains. Phylogenetic analysis determined a close relationship between SfPER and another S. frugiperda PM peritrophin partial sequence. SfPER transcripts were found in larvae and adults but were absent from eggs and pupae. Chitin affinity studies with a recombinant SfPER-C1 peritrophin A-type domain fused to SUMO/His-tag confirmed that SfPER binds to chitin. Western blots of S. frugiperda larval proteins detected different sized variants of SfPER along the PM, with larger variants found towards the posterior PM. In vivo suppression of SfPER expression did not affect susceptibility of larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin, but significantly decreased pupal weight and adult emergence, possibly due to PM structural alterations impairing digestion. Our results suggest SfPER could be a novel target for insect control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38734-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6385298PMC
February 2019

piRBase: a comprehensive database of piRNA sequences.

Nucleic Acids Res 2019 01;47(D1):D175-D180

Key Laboratory of RNA Biology, Center for Big Data Research in Health, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

PIWI-interacting RNAs are a class of small RNAs that is most abundantly expressed in animal germline. Substantial research is going on to reveal the functions of piRNAs in the epigenetic and post-transcriptional regulation of transposons and genes. To collect and annotate these data, we developed piRBase, a database assisting piRNA functional study. Since its launch in 2014, piRBase has integrated 264 data sets from 21 organisms, and the number of collected piRNAs has reached 173 million. The latest piRBase release (v2.0, 2018) was more focused on the comprehensive annotation of piRNA sequences, as well as the increasing number of piRNAs. In addition, piRBase release v2.0 also contained the potential information of piRNA targets and disease related piRNA. All datasets in piRBase is free to access, and available for browse, search and bulk downloads at http://www.regulatoryrna.org/database/piRNA/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky1043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323959PMC
January 2019

Characterization of newly emerged NADC30-like strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in China.

Arch Virol 2019 Feb 23;164(2):401-411. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 518, Ziyue Road, Minhang District, Shanghai, 200241, China.

Different strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have emerged and circulated in different regions of mainland China since 1996, particularly after 2006. In 2012, NADC30-like PRRSV was first isolated in Henan Province. By 2016, it had spread to most provinces in China. In the present study, the whole genomes (excluding the poly(A) tails) of 13 newly emerged NADC30-like PRRSV strains were sequenced and analyzed. Furthermore, the pathogenicity of SD53-1603, one of the 13 PRRSV strains, was assessed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these 13 newly emerged NADC30-like PRRSV strains, together with some reference strains, formed a new subgroup (subgroup 5), characterized by a predicted 131-amino-acid deletion in the nonstructural protein (NSP) 2. However, low levels of whole-genome similarity and a wide variety of recombination patterns complicated the classification of the NADC30-like PRRSV isolates. Interestingly, almost all of the recombination breakpoints found in these 13 PRRSV isolates and other NADC30-like PRRSV isolates occurred in genes encoding NSPs and/or minor structural proteins. In addition, piglets infected with the newly emerged NADC30-like strain SD53-1603 displayed clear clinical respiratory symptoms and underwent typical pathological changes. The findings may be useful for elucidating the characteristics and epidemic status of NADC30-like PRRSV in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-018-4080-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Identification and functional characterization of intermediate-size non-coding RNAs in maize.

BMC Genomics 2018 Oct 4;19(1):730. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

China-UK-NYNU-RRes Joint Laboratory of insect biology, Henan Key Laboratory of Insect Biology in Funiu Mountain, Nanyang Normal University, 1638 Wolong Road, Nanyang, 473061, Henan, China.

Background: The majority of eukaryote genomes can be actively transcribed into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which are functionally important in development and evolution. In the study of maize, an important crop for both humans and animals, aside from microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, few studies have been conducted on intermediate-size ncRNAs.

Results: We constructed a homogenized cDNA library of 50-500 nt RNAs in the maize inbred line Chang 7-2. Sequencing revealed 169 ncRNAs, which contained 58 known and 111 novel ncRNAs (including 70 snoRNAs, 27 snRNAs, 13 unclassified ncRNAs and one tRNA). Forty of the novel ncRNAs were specific to the Panicoideae, and 24% of them are located on sense-strand of the 5' or 3' terminus of protein coding genes on chromosome. Target site analysis found that 22 snoRNAs can guide to 38 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation modification sites of ribosomal RNAs and small nuclear RNAs. Expression analysis showed that 43 ncRNAs exhibited significantly altered expression in different tissues or developmental stages of maize seedlings, eight ncRNAs had tissue-specific expression and five ncRNAs were strictly accumulated in the early stage of leaf development. Further analysis showed that 3 of the 5 stage-specific ncRNAs (Zm-3, Zm-18, and Zm-73) can be highly induced under drought and salt stress, while one snoRNA Zm-8 can be repressed under PEG-simulated drought condition.

Conclusions: We provided a genome-wide identification and functional analysis of ncRNAs with a size range of 50-500 nt in maize. 111 novel ncRNAs were cloned and 40 ncRNAs were determined to be specific to Panicoideae. 43 ncRNAs changed significantly during maize development, three ncRNAs can be strongly induced under drought and salt stress, suggesting their roles in maize stress response. This work set a foundation for further study of intermediate-size ncRNAs in maize.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-018-5103-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6172812PMC
October 2018

Molecular investigation of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" in goats and sheep in central China.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Jan 10;66(1):22-27. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Henan Provincial Engineering Laboratory of Insects Bio-reactor, China-UK-NYNU-RRes Joint Libratory of Insect Biology, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang, China.

Hemoplasma "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" infections in cattle have been reported in East Asia, Europe, and South America, whereas same cases were documented in buffalo and cattle in Southern China. From April 2018 to May 2018, a mycoplasma epidemic was reported in the mountainous area of central China; Boophilus microplus has also been documented, causing severe haematuria in goats and sheep. The infected animals slowly recovered after diminazene aceturate and praziquantel treatment. To determine whether the hemoplasma caused this infection, 67 blood samples (42 from goats, 25 from sheep) and 132 B. microplus samples were collected for PCR and sequence analysis. The results showed that 19 out of the 42 goat blood samples, 10 out of the 25 sheep blood samples, and 70 out of the 132 B. microplus samples (53%) tested positive for "C. M. haemobos". This study provides molecular evidence of "C. M. haemobos" infections in goat and sheep, and that B. microplus harbours "C. M. haemobos".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13021DOI Listing
January 2019
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