Publications by authors named "Yun-Yi Hung"

50 Publications

Ultrasound characteristics of early-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Background: Survival from ovarian cancer is strongly dependent on the stage at diagnosis. Therefore, when confronted with a woman with an isolated adnexal mass, clinicians worry about missing the opportunity to detect cancer at an early stage. High-grade serous ovarian cancers account for 80% of ovarian cancer deaths, largely because of their tendency to be diagnosed at a late stage. Among adnexal masses, large size and the presence of solid areas on ultrasound examination have been found to be associated with cancer, but it is unclear whether these characteristics identify early-stage cases.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasound findings associated with clinically detected early-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of women diagnosed with stage I or II high-grade serous ovarian or fallopian tube cancer measuring at least 1 cm at pathology from 2007 to 2017. Preoperative ultrasound examinations were independently reviewed by 3 radiologists. Adnexal masses were scored for size and volume; overall appearance; presence, thickness, and vascularity of septations; morphology and vascularity of other solid components; and degree of ascites. Characteristics were compared between masses of <5 cm and larger masses and between stage I and stage II cases. Interobserver variability was assessed.

Results: Among 111 women identified, 4 had bilateral ovarian involvement, for a total of 115 adnexal masses characterized by ultrasound examination. The mean age at diagnosis was 61.8 years (range, 42-91 years). The median mass size was 9.6 cm (range, 2.2-23.6 cm) with 87% of cases having a mass size of ≥5 cm. A mixed cystic and solid appearance was most common (77.4%), but a completely solid appearance was more frequently seen for tumors of <5 cm compared with larger tumors (26.7% vs 13.0%). Solid components other than septations were seen in 97.4% of cases. The characteristics of stage I and II cases were similar other than ascites, which was more commonly seen in stage II cases (18.0% vs 3.1%, respectively). Interobserver concordance was high for size and volume measurements (correlation coefficients, 0.96-0.99), with moderate agreement observed across the other ultrasound characteristics (Fleiss kappa, 0.45-0.58).

Conclusion: In this community-based cohort, early-stage high-grade serous cancers rarely presented as masses of <5 cm or masses without solid components other than septations. Our findings provide additional support for the observation of small masses without solid areas on ultrasound examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.04.262DOI Listing
May 2021

Fetomaternal hemorrhage: evaluation of recurrence within a large integrated healthcare system.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pathology, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, CA.

Background: Fetomaternal hemorrhage is associated with severe fetal morbidity and mortality. The recurrence risk of fetomaternal hemorrhage is unknown.

Objective: We sought to establish the recurrence rate of fetomaternal hemorrhage in a large integrated healthcare system over a 10-year period.

Study Design: In this retrospective study within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California medical system, cases of fetomaternal hemorrhage were defined by either an elevated fetal hemoglobin level as determined by flow cytometry for a concerning pregnancy outcome (preterm delivery, perinatal demise, neonatal anemia, or transfusion within the first 2 days of life) or by perinatal demise with autopsy findings suggestive of fetomaternal hemorrhage. The outcomes of subsequent pregnancies were reviewed for features of recurrence.

Results: Within the 2008 to 2018 birth cohort of 375,864 pregnancies, flow cytometry testing for fetal hemoglobin levels was performed in 20,582 pregnancies. We identified 340 cases of fetomaternal hemorrhage (approximately 1 in 1100 births). Within the cohort of 340 affected pregnancies, perinatal loss was recorded for 80 (23.5%) pregnancies and 50 (14.7%) pregnancies delivered neonates who required transfusion. The affected patients had 225 subsequent pregnancies of which 210 were included in the analysis. Of these, 174 (82.9%) advanced beyond the threshold of viability and were delivered within our healthcare system. There was 1 case of recurrent fetomaternal hemorrhage identified. The recurrent case involved a spontaneous preterm delivery of an infant who was noted to have an elevated reticulocyte count but was clinically well.

Conclusion: Within our large integrated healthcare system, approximately 1 in 1100 pregnancies was affected by fetomaternal hemorrhage within a 10-year period, which is comparable with previous studies. We identified 1 case of recurrence, yielding a recurrence rate of 0.5%. This infant did not have features of clinically important fetomaternal hemorrhage. This information can inform counseling of patients with affected pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.04.257DOI Listing
May 2021

Ponseti Idiopathic and Nonidiopathic Clubfoot Correction With Secondary Surgeries.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Jul-Aug;60(4):742-746. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Attending Surgeon, Kaiser San Francisco Bay Area Foot and Ankle Residency Program, Kaiser Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, CA.

The Ponseti method has revolutionized clubfoot treatment for not only idiopathic clubfoot but also non-idiopathic clubfoot. This study aimed to validate the existing literature with respect to the Ponseti method serving as first line treatment for clubfoot. The purpose of this study was to compare clubfoot type and recurrence with secondary surgical procedures following Ponseti method. Kaiser Permanente Northern California database was queried to identify clubfoot children under 3 years old with a consecutive 3-year membership. Associated comorbidities and operative procedure codes were identified. Chart review was performed on all surgical clubfoot patients who completed Ponseti method. Patients' average age at time of surgery, frequency of surgeries, and types of procedures performed were recorded. A logistic regression analysis assessed the adjusted association between surgery status and clubfoot type. Clubfoot incidence was about 1 in 1000 live births. Of the 375 clubfoot children, 334 (89%) were idiopathic and 41 (11%) were non-idiopathic. In the total study population, 82% (n = 309) patients maintained Ponseti correction without a secondary surgery; 66 patients (18%) underwent subsequent secondary surgeries. The non-idiopathic clubfoot underwent surgery more frequently compared to idiopathic clubfoot patients (41.5% vs 14.7%, respectively, p = .0001). Non-idiopathic clubfoot children underwent surgery at a younger age. This study validates the Ponseti method is the first line treatment for clubfoot correction despite etiology. However, patients with recurrent clubfoot may require secondary surgery following Ponseti method. Clubfoot recurrence surveillance is key for identifying early symptomatic recurrence in order to minimize foot rigidity and the need for osseous procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2020.09.020DOI Listing
July 2021

Third-Generation Cephalosporin Resistance and Associated Discordant Antibiotic Treatment in Emergency Department Febrile Urinary Tract Infections.

Ann Emerg Med 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Alameda Health System, Highland Hospital, Oakland, CA. Electronic address:

Study Objective: Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis (EKP) are an increasingly common cause of community-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the United States. The 3GCR antimicrobial resistance pattern in these Enterobacterales species is most commonly due to production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases. We sought to provide contemporary, emergency department (ED)-focused data on 3GCR-EKP UTI regional prevalence, presentation, antibiotic susceptibility, and empiric treatment patterns, and outcomes.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all adults admitted with a febrile UTI at 21 Kaiser Permanente Northern California EDs between January 2017 and June 2019. Inclusion criteria included fever; admitting diagnosis of UTI, pyelonephritis, or sepsis; and ED urine culture with greater than 100,000 colony-forming units/mL of an EKP species. 3GCR was defined as in vitro resistance to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, or both. 3GCR-EKP cases were compared with non-3GCR-EKP controls for the following: demographics, comorbidities, presenting clinical features, urinary isolate antimicrobial susceptibility, treatment, and clinical outcomes. The primary outcome measure was the rate of discordant initial empiric antibiotic treatment (administered within 6 hours of ED arrival) when compared with antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay and 90-day mortality, adjusted for comorbidities and severity of illness.

Results: There were 4,107 patients (median age 73 years and 35% men) who met study inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 530 (12.9%) had a 3GCR-EKP urinary tract infection. The proportion of subjects possessing risk factors for a health care-associated or extended-spectrum β-lactamase infection was 92.8% of case patients and 86.1% of controls. When comparing 3GCR-EKP case and non-3GCR-EKP control isolates, ciprofloxacin susceptibility rates were 21% versus 88%, and piperacillin/tazobactam susceptibility rates were 89% versus 97%, respectively. Initial empiric antibiotic therapy was discordant with antimicrobial susceptibility testing results in 63% of case patients versus 7% of controls (odds ratio 21.0; 95% confidence interval 16.9 to 26.0). The hospital length of stay was longer for 3GCR-EKP case patients, with an adjusted mean difference of 29.7 hours (95% CI 19.0 to 40.4). Ninety-day mortality was 12% in case patients versus 8% in controls (adjusted odds ratio 1.56; 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 2.28).

Conclusion: In this large, 2017 to 2019 Northern California ED study, nearly 13% of febrile EKP UTIs requiring hospitalization were caused by 3GCR-EKP, and in these cases, initial empiric therapy was often discordant with antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 3GCR-EKP infections were associated with a longer hospital length of stay and higher 90-day mortality. Similar data from other regions and for outpatient UTIs are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2021.01.003DOI Listing
March 2021

Association of Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost With Active Tuberculosis in the United States.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 09 1;3(9):e2014481. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland.

Importance: Active tuberculosis (TB) disease leads to substantial mortality but is preventable through screening and treatment for latent TB infection. Early mortality after TB diagnosis (≤1 year) is well described, but delayed mortality (>1 year) among patients with active TB is poorly understood.

Objective: To compare early and delayed mortality and years of potential life (YPL) lost among patients with active TB disease vs an age-, sex-, and year of diagnosis-matched comparison cohort without active TB disease.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study, conducted in the integrated health system of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, included patients with microbiologically confirmed active TB disease from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2017, and a control cohort matched by age, sex, and year of diagnosis. Multivariable models were used to adjust for demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients with active TB disease prior to 1997 were excluded. Data were analyzed from January 1, 2019, to January 31, 2020.

Exposure: Microbiologically confirmed TB disease.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Early (≤1 year after TB diagnosis) and delayed (>1 year after TB diagnosis) all-cause mortality.

Results: A total of 2522 patients who had active TB from 1997 to 2017 were identified, with 17 166 person-years of follow-up. The comparison cohort included 100 880 persons with 735 726 person-years of follow-up. In the active TB and comparison cohorts, similar percentages of persons were male (56.3% vs 55.6%), aged 45 to 64 years (33.7% vs 33.7%), and aged 65 years or older (24.7% vs 24.7%). Both early mortality (7.0%) and delayed mortality (16.3%) were higher among patients with active TB disease compared with those without active TB disease (1.1% and 12.0%, respectively). Patients with active TB disease had a significantly higher risk for early (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 7.29; 95% CI, 6.08-8.73) and delayed (aHR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.61-1.98) mortality compared with the comparison cohort (P < .001). Active TB disease was associated with an adjusted -7.0 (95% CI, -8.4 to -5.5) YPL lost compared with the comparison cohort.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, patients with active TB disease had significantly higher early and delayed all-cause mortality when adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. These findings suggest that TB prevention through screening and treatment of latent TB infection could reduce mortality and YPL lost due to active TB disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.14481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7512053PMC
September 2020

Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion.

Am J Cardiol 2020 10 13;132:44-51. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California; Division of Cardiology, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, San Francisco, California.

The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after treatment of chronic total occlusions (CTO) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We aimed to determine if extended (> 12 months) DAPT was associated with a net clinical benefit. The study population included patients who underwent successful CTO PCI within Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2009 and 2016. Baseline demographic, clinical, and procedural characteristics were compared for patients on DAPT ≤ versus > 12 months. Clinical outcomes (death, myocardial infarction (MI), and ≥ Academic Research Consortium type 3a bleeding) were compared beginning 12 months after PCI using Cox proportional hazards models. We also adjudicated individual causes of death. 1,069 patients were followed for a median of 3.6 years (Interquartile Range = 2.2 to 5.5) following CTO PCI. Patients on DAPT ≤ 12 months (n = 597, 56%) were more likely to have anemia, end stage renal disease, and previous MI. After adjustment for between group differences, > 12 months of DAPT was associated with lower death or MI (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47 to 0.93) and lower death (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.82). There were no associations with MI (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.5) or bleeding (HR 1.1; 95% CI: 0.50 to 2.4), but a numerically higher proportion of patients on shorter v. longer DAPT died of a cardiovascular cause (37% vs 20%, p = 0.10). In conclusion, > 12 months of DAPT was associated with lower death or MI, without an increase in bleeding. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the optimal duration of DAPT in this unique subgroup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.06.066DOI Listing
October 2020

Burden of Active Tuberculosis in an Integrated Health Care System, 1997-2016: Incidence, Mortality, and Excess Health Care Utilization.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Jan 12;7(1):ofaa015. Epub 2020 Jan 12.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California, USA.

Active tuberculosis (TB) is preventable. To quantify the potential value of prevention, we assessed active TB burden in a large health system from 1997 to 2016. Compared with a matched non-TB cohort, patients with active TB had higher mortality (8.4% vs 1.3%), mean number of hospitalizations (0.55 vs 0.10), emergency department visits (0.78 vs 0.28), and outpatient visits (14.6 vs 5.9) in the first year. TB-associated hospital use (mean number of hospitalizations and total length of stay) increased from 1997-2000 compared with 2013-2016 despite decreasing active TB incidence. Active TB is associated with high mortality and health care utilization and has remained stable or increased over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6984670PMC
January 2020

A Clinical Risk Model to Predict Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries in Laboring Patients.

Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2020 08;26(8):520-525

From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaiser Permanente East Bay, Oakland Medical Center.

Objective: Our objective was to develop a risk stratification tool for predicting obstetric anal sphincter injury risk in women during labor.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study of singleton deliveries within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a predictive model for anal sphincter injury was developed within the 2013 birth cohort and validated in the 2014 birth cohort of 22,741 births. Predictors of obstetric anal sphincter injury were identified using multiple regression analysis and used to create a risk calculator tool based on effect size and clinical judgment.

Results: Duration of second stage of labor, vacuum delivery, history of anal sphincter injury, maternal and gestational ages, and maternal race and ethnicity were associated with elevated risk of anal sphincter injury. Using these risk factors, we developed a validated parity-stratified scoring system. Among nulliparous women, 116 (1.3%) had a score of zero, corresponding to a 0.9% risk, and 1024 (11.7%) had a score higher than 6, corresponding to a 27.5% risk of anal sphincter injury. Among the multiparous women, 1181 (8.4%) had a score of zero, corresponding to a 0.1% risk, and the 260 (1.9%) with a score higher than 10 had a 7.7% risk. The predictive ability of the score derived based on the 2013 data was applied to the 2014 data, and results showed that the predictive abilities were statistically similar, except for one subgroup: multiparous women with a total score of ≥10.

Conclusions: Our anal sphincter injury risk stratification tool effectively predicts individual risk and can inform clinician and patient decision making to minimize maternal birth trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SPV.0000000000000777DOI Listing
August 2020

Amyloid cardiomyopathy in a large integrated health care system.

Am Heart J 2019 10 20;216:42-52. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Kaiser Permanente San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, CA.

Background: Light Chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis are the most common forms of amyloid cardiomyopathy. Population based studies describing the epidemiology and clinical features of amyloid cardiomyopathy are often based in tertiary medical centers and thus may be limited by referral bias.

Methods And Results: We performed a cohort study of 198 patients diagnosed and treated in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care system who had a confirmed diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis between 2001 and 2016. Associations between demographic, clinical, laboratory and imaging data and patient outcomes were quantified using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models for both the AL and ATTR groups. The average length of follow up was 2.8 years (SD 2.9 years) and overall survival was 69.1 percent at one year and 35.4 percent at five years. In the AL group, lower left ventricular ejection fraction (HR 1.33 per 5-point decrease, P < .001), coronary artery disease (HR 3.56, P < .001), and diabetes mellitus (HR 3.19, P < .001) were associated with all-cause mortality. Increasing age at the time of diagnosis with associated with higher all-cause mortality in both the AL and ATTR groups. Higher levels of B-type natriuretic peptide were associated with all-cause mortality in both groups: Top quartile BNP HR 6.17, P < .001 for AL and HR 8.16, P = .002 for ATTR.

Conclusions: This study describes a large cohort of patients with amyloid cardiomyopathy derived from a community based, integrated healthcare system and describes demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics associated with mortality and heart failure hospitalization. In this population, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and high BNP levels were strongly associated with mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2019.06.008DOI Listing
October 2019

Comparison of Universal Versus Age-Restricted Screening of Colorectal Tumors for Lynch Syndrome Using Mismatch Repair Immunohistochemistry: A Cohort Study.

Ann Intern Med 2019 07 11;171(1):19-26. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Kaiser Permanente Northern California, San Jose, California (J.B.).

Background: Guidelines recommend screening all patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) for Lynch syndrome (LS). However, the efficiency of universal LS screening in elderly populations has not been well studied.

Objective: To compare the performance of age-restricted and universal LS screening using reflex mismatch repair (MMR) immunohistochemistry (IHC) of CRC tumors.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: A large, diverse, community-based health care system.

Participants: 3891 persons with newly diagnosed CRC who had LS screening between 2011 and 2016.

Measurements: Diagnostic yield of different LS screening strategies.

Results: Sixty-three LS cases (diagnostic yield, 1.62%) were identified by universal screening, with only 5 (7.9%) detected after age 70 years and 1 (1.6%) detected after age 80 years. When all patients with CRC who had universal screening were used as the denominator, 58 LS cases (diagnostic yield, 1.49% [95% CI, 1.13% to 1.92%]) were identified in patients with CRC diagnosed at or before age 70 years, 60 LS cases (diagnostic yield, 1.54% [CI, 1.18% to 1.98%]) were identified in those with CRC diagnosed at or before age 75 years, and 62 LS cases (diagnostic yield, 1.59% [CI, 1.22% to 2.04%]) were identified in those with CRC diagnosed at or before age 80 years. Using 75 years as the upper age limit for screening missed 3 of 63 (4.8%) LS cases but resulted in 1053 (27.1%) fewer cases requiring tumor MMR IHC. Using 80 years as the upper age limit missed 1 of 63 (1.6%) LS cases and resulted in 668 (17.2%) fewer cases requiring tumor MMR IHC.

Limitation: Persons who were eligible for but did not complete germline analysis were excluded from calculations of performance characteristics.

Conclusion: The incremental diagnostic yield decreased substantially after age 70 to 75 years. Stopping reflex CRC screening for LS after age 80 years may be reasonable because of very low efficiency, particularly in resource-limited settings, but this merits further investigation. Studies evaluating the effect of diagnosing LS in elderly persons on their family members are needed.

Primary Funding Source: Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M18-3316DOI Listing
July 2019

Osseous and Soft Tissue Complications Associated With Foot and Ankle Surgery in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Taking a Variety of Antirheumatic Medications.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2019 May 16;58(3):508-513. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Residency Director, Kaiser San Francisco Bay Area Foot and Ankle Residency Program, Kaiser Foundation Hospital, Oakland, CA. Electronic address:

There are multiple antirheumatic drug modalities available to patients with symptomatic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that function to suppress the overactive immune system, but the inflammatory and immune suppression may contribute to postoperative complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if antirheumatic medications increased the risk of both soft tissue and osseous postoperative complications in patients with RA who underwent foot and ankle surgery. We reviewed patients with RA, aged 18years and older, who underwent either an elective or a nonelective foot or ankle surgery involving an osseous procedure between 2009 and 2014. Chart review was conducted to document procedure type, active medications, and postoperative complications. Of the final 110 subjects meeting inclusion criteria, 31 (28%) patients had a postoperative complication (13 soft tissue, 9 osseous, and 9 both soft tissue and osseous). There was no statistically significant association between taking antirheumatic medications in the perioperative period and postoperative complications. Increased surgery duration and peripheral neuropathy were associated with a statistically significant increase in postoperative complications. Every 15 minutes of increased surgery time led to a 1.2-fold increase in complication risk. Nonelective procedures had a higher risk of soft tissue complications than did elective procedures (odds ratio 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 16.0). Although there was no statistically significant association between the specific medication and complications, some medications trended toward statistical significance. When working with patients with RA, our findings suggest the importance of considering the risk of surgery duration and the potential risk of antirheumatic medications in the perioperative period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2018.09.030DOI Listing
May 2019

Tighter Blood Pressure Control Is Associated with Lower Incidence of Erectile Dysfunction in Hypertensive Men.

J Sex Med 2019 03;16(3):410-417

Department of Urology, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, CA, USA.

Introduction: Tighter blood pressure control is widely thought to be associated with better erectile function, although the preponderance of data is limited to dichotomous representations of hypertension without an attempt to look at degree of blood pressure control.

Aim: To determine the association between optimal blood pressure control over time and the development of erectile dysfunction (ED) in a cohort of potent men.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of newly diagnosed hypertensive men without major medical comorbidities in an integrated healthcare system. Patients were stratified by exposure to hypertension, with varying levels of blood pressure control, as measured by ordinal categories of systolic blood pressure and deviation from the mean systolic pressure.

Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of ED was defined by at least 2 primary care or urology diagnoses of ED in our electronic health records within 2 years, at least 2 filled prescriptions for ED medications within 2 years, or 1 diagnosis of ED and 2 filled prescriptions for ED medications.

Results: We identified 39,320 newly diagnosed hypertensive men. The overall incidence for ED was 13.9%, with a mean follow-up of 55.1 ± 28.7 months. Higher average systolic blood pressure was associated with a higher risk of ED in a dose-dependent manner (trend test, P < .001). Wide variation in blood pressure control was associated with a higher incidence of ED (OR [95% CI]; 1.359 [1.258-1.469]) and a shorter time to the development of ED (log rank, P < .0001).

Clinical Implications: We believe these data may serve as a motivator for hypertensive men to better adhere to their hypertension treatment regimen.

Strength & Limitations: The retrospective nature of our study precludes us from drawing more than an association between tighter blood pressure control and ED. Strengths of our study include the large sample size, community cohort, and completeness of follow-up.

Conclusion: Among adults diagnosed with hypertension, tighter blood pressure control, as measured by average systolic blood pressure and deviation from the average, is associated with a lower incidence and a longer time to the development of ED. Hsiao W, Bertsch RA, Hung Y-Y, et al. Tighter Blood Pressure Control Is Associated with Lower Incidence of Erectile Dysfunction in Hypertensive Men. J Sex Med 2019;16:410-417.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.01.011DOI Listing
March 2019

Discriminatory Value of the Ascending Aorta Diameter in Suspected Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

Acad Emerg Med 2019 02 17;26(2):217-225. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CA.

Objective: The objective was to determine if ascending aorta (AscAo) diameters measured by noncontrast computed tomography (CT) allow for meaningful discrimination between patients with and without type A aortic dissection (TAAD), ideally with 100% sensitivity.

Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of cases of TAAD, as well as controls, undergoing evaluation for TAAD with CT aortography, presenting to 21 emergency departments within an integrated health system between 2007 and 2015. AscAo diameters were determined using axial noncontrast CT images at the level of the right main pulmonary artery by two readers. AscAo diameters were additionally normalized for age, sex, and body surface area (assessed by a Z-score, which is the number of standard deviations between the observed and expected AscAo diameters). Overall model discrimination was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Comparative discrimination was assessed using both the change in AUC (∆AUC) and the continuous net reclassification index (NRI).

Results: A total of 230 cases of TAAD and 325 controls were included in the study. The median ages for cases and controls were 65 and 62 years, and the median AscAo diameters were 50 and 35 mm, respectively. The raw and normalized AscAo diameters demonstrated similarly excellent discrimination (AUCs of 0.96 vs. 0.97, respectively; ∆AUC = 0.01, p = 0.09) and an NRI of 0.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.47), both indicating small incremental improvements in classification with the use of the normalized AscAo measures. A raw AscAo diameter of 34 mm and a normalized Z-score of 1.84 both yielded 100% sensitivity for TAAD, with respective specificities of 35% (95% CI = 29.6%-40.2%) and 67% (95% CI = 61.7%-72.2%).

Conclusions: Nearly all patients with TAAD appear to have enlarged AscAo diameters as measured by noncontrast CT, whereas most patients with suspected but absent TAAD have relatively normal AscAo diameters. Both raw and normalized AscAo measures provided relatively comparable discriminatory value. If validated, these data may be useful in adjudicating risk among patients with suspected TAAD in whom a criterion standard test is unavailable, nondiagnostic, or contraindicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acem.13547DOI Listing
February 2019

Risk Factors for the Development of Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries in Modern Obstetric Practice.

Obstet Gynecol 2018 02;131(2):290-296

Departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Graduate Medical Education, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, and the Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California; and the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Kaiser Permanente Fremont Medical Center, Fremont, California.

Objective: To characterize the rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries and identify key risk factors of obstetric anal sphincter injuries, including duration of the second stage of labor.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included all singleton, term, cephalic vaginal deliveries within Kaiser Permanente Northern California between January 2013 and December 2014 (N=22,741). Incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries, defined as third- or fourth-degree perineal lacerations, was the primary outcome. Multiple logistic regression models were conducted to identify obstetric anal sphincter injury risk factors and high-risk subpopulations.

Results: The overall incidence rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries was 4.9% (3.6% of women who delivered spontaneously vs 24.0% of women who had a vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery, P<.001, CI 18.1-22.6%). In bivariate and multivariate analyses, obstetric anal sphincter injury incidence was higher among women with second stage of labor longer than 2 hours, Asian race, nulliparity, vaginal birth after cesarean delivery, episiotomy, and vacuum delivery. Women with a vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery had four times the odds of obstetric anal sphincter injury (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.23, 95% CI 3.59-4.98) and those whose second stage of labor lasted at least 180 minutes vs less than 60 minutes had three times the odds of incurring obstetric anal sphincter injury (adjusted OR 3.20, 95% CI 2.62-3.89).

Conclusion: Vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery conferred the highest odds of obstetric anal sphincter injury followed by prolonged duration of the second stage of labor, particularly among certain subpopulations. Understanding these risk factors and their complex interactions can inform antepartum and intrapartum decision-making with the goal of reducing obstetric anal sphincter injury incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000002444DOI Listing
February 2018

Bacteremia in Children 3 to 36 Months Old After Introduction of Conjugated Pneumococcal Vaccines.

Pediatrics 2017 Apr 10;139(4). Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Hayward, California.

Background And Objectives: In June 2010, Kaiser Permanente Northern California replaced all 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) vaccines with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Our objectives were to compare the incidence of bacteremia in children 3 to 36 months old by 3 time periods: pre-PCV7, post-PCV7/pre-PCV13, and post-PCV13.

Methods: We designed a retrospective review of the electronic medical records of all blood cultures collected on children 3 to 36 months old at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from September 1, 1998 to August 31, 2014 in outpatient clinics, in emergency departments, and in the first 24 hours of hospitalization.

Results: During the study period, 57 733 blood cultures were collected in the population of children 3 to 36 months old. Implementation of routine immunization with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine resulted in a 95.3% reduction of bacteremia, decreasing from 74.5 to 10 to 3.5 per 100 000 children per year by the post-PCV13 period. As pneumococcal rates decreased, , spp, and caused 77% of bacteremia. Seventy-six percent of all bacteremia in the post-PCV13 period occurred with a source.

Conclusions: In the United States, routine immunizations have made bacteremia in the previously healthy toddler a rare event. As the incidence of pneumococcal bacteremia has decreased, , spp, and have increased in relative importance. New guidelines are needed to approach the previously healthy febrile toddler in the outpatient setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-2098DOI Listing
April 2017

Management and Outcomes of Previously Healthy, Full-Term, Febrile Infants Ages 7 to 90 Days.

Pediatrics 2016 12 1;138(6). Epub 2016 Nov 1.

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: There is considerable variation in the approach to infants presenting to the emergency department and outpatient clinics with fever without a source. We set out to describe the current clinical practice regarding culture acquisition on febrile young infants and review the outcomes of infants with and without cultures obtained.

Methods: This study analyzed Kaiser Permanente Northern California's electronic medical record to identify all febrile, full term, previously healthy infants born between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2013, presenting for care between 7 and 90 days of age.

Results: During this 3-year study, 96 156 full-term infants were born at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. A total of 1380 infants presented for care with a fever with an incidence rate of 14.4 (95% confidence interval: 13.6-15.1) per 1000 full term births. Fifty-nine percent of infants 7 to 28 days old had a full evaluation compared with 25% of infants 29 to 60 days old and 5% of infants 61 to 90 days old. Older infants with lower febrile temperatures presenting to an office setting were less likely to have a culture. In the 30 days after fevers, 1% of infants returned with a urinary tract infection. No infants returned with bacteremia or meningitis.

Conclusions: Fever in a medical setting occurred in 1.4% of infants in this large cohort. Forty-one percent of febrile infants did not have any cultures including 24% less than 28 days. One percent returned in the following month with a urinary tract infection. There was no delayed identification of bacteremia or meningitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-0270DOI Listing
December 2016

Risks and Predictors of Gastric Adenocarcinoma in Patients with Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Dysplasia: A Population-Based Study.

Am J Gastroenterol 2016 08 17;111(8):1104-13. Epub 2016 May 17.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Objectives: Gastric intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia are precursor lesions for adenocarcinoma. The risks of progression to malignancy from these lesions are not well characterized, particularly in the US populations.

Methods: We identified 4,331 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members who were diagnosed with gastric intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia between 1997 and 2006 and followed them through December 2013. The incident rates of gastric adenocarcinoma, relative risks in comparison with the Kaiser Permanente general population, and predictors of progression to malignancy were investigated.

Results: Among 4,146 individuals with gastric intestinal metaplasia and 141 with low-grade dysplasia with 24,440 person-years follow-up, 17 and 6 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma were diagnosed, respectively, after 1 year from the index endoscopy. The incidence rate of gastric adenocarcinoma was 0.72/1,000 person-years in patients with intestinal metaplasia, with a relative risk of 2.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-4.10) compared with the Kaiser Permanente member population, and 7.7/1,000 person-years for low-grade dysplasia, with a relative risk of 25.6 (95% CI, 9.4-55.7). The median time for gastric intestinal metaplasia to progress to adenocarcinoma was 6.1 years, and for low-grade dysplasia, 2.6 years. Hispanic race/ethnicity and history of dysplasia were associated with significantly higher risk of progression to gastric adenocarcinoma.

Conclusions: Gastric intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia are significant predictors for gastric adenocarcinoma. The low risk for malignancy associated with intestinal metaplasia does not support routine endoscopic surveillance. However, surveillance should be considered in patients at higher risks, including those with suspicious endoscopic features, presence of dysplasia, and Hispanic race/ethnicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2016.188DOI Listing
August 2016

In-hospital mortality following treatment with red blood cell transfusion or inotropic therapy during early goal-directed therapy for septic shock: a retrospective propensity-adjusted analysis.

Crit Care 2014 Sep 12;18(5):496. Epub 2014 Sep 12.

Introduction: We sought to investigate whether treatment of subnormal (<70%) central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) with inotropes or red blood cell (RBC) transfusion during early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) for septic shock is independently associated with in-hospital mortality.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of a prospective EGDT patient database drawn from 21 emergency departments with a single standardized EGDT protocol. Patients were included if, during EGDT, they concomitantly achieved a central venous pressure (CVP) of ≥8 mm Hg and a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of ≥65 mm Hg while registering a ScvO2 < 70%. Treatment propensity scores for either RBC transfusion or inotrope administration were separately determined from independent patient sub-cohorts. Propensity-adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted to test for associations between treatments and in-hospital mortality.

Results: Of 2,595 EGDT patients, 572 (22.0%) met study inclusion criteria. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 20.5%. Inotropes or RBC transfusions were administered for an ScvO2 < 70% to 51.9% of patients. Patients were not statistically more likely to achieve an ScvO2 of ≥70% if they were treated with RBC transfusion alone (29/59, 49.2%, P = 0.19), inotropic therapy alone (104/226, 46.0%, P = 0.15) or both RBC and inotropic therapy (7/12, 58.3%, P = 0.23) as compared to no therapy (108/275, 39.3%). Following adjustment for treatment propensity score, RBC transfusion was associated with a decreased adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of in-hospital mortality among patients with hemoglobin values less than 10 g/dL (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.97, P = 0.04) while inotropic therapy was not associated with in-hospital mortality among patients with hemoglobin values of 10 g/dL or greater (aOR 1.16, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.96, P = 0.57).

Conclusions: Among patients with septic shock treated with EGDT in the setting of subnormal ScvO2 values despite meeting CVP and MAP target goals, treatment with RBC transfusion may be independently associated with decreased in-hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-014-0496-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4181703PMC
September 2014

Lack of improved outcomes with increased use of targeted temperature management following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a multicenter retrospective cohort study.

Resuscitation 2014 Nov 30;85(11):1549-56. Epub 2014 Aug 30.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Kaiser Permanente, San Rafael, CA, USA.

Study Aims: To assess whether increased use of targeted temperature management (TTM) within an integrated healthcare delivery system resulted in improved rates of good neurologic outcome at hospital discharge (Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 or 2).

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of patients with OHCA admitted to 21 medical centers between January 2007 and December 2012. A standardized TTM protocol and educational program were introduced throughout the system in early 2009. Comatose patients eligible for treatment with TTM were included. Adjusted odds of good neurologic outcome at hospital discharge and survival to hospital discharge were assessed using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: A total of 1119 patients were admitted post-OHCA with coma, 59.1% (661 of 1119) of which were eligible for TTM. The percentage of patients treated with TTM markedly increased during the study period: 10.5% in the years preceding (2007-2008) vs. 85.1% in the years following (2011-2012) implementation of the practice improvement initiative. However, unadjusted in-hospital survival (37.3% vs. 39.0%, p=0.77) and good neurologic outcome at hospital discharge (26.3% vs. 26.6%, p=1.0) did not change. The adjusted odds of survival to hospital discharge (AOR 1.0, 95% CI 0.85-1.17) or a good neurologic outcome (AOR 0.94, 95% CI 0.79-1.11) were likewise non-significant.

Interpretation: Despite a marked increase in TTM rates across hospitals in an integrated delivery system, there was no appreciable change in the crude or adjusted odds of in-hospital survival or good neurologic outcomes at hospital discharge among eligible post-arrest patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.08.014DOI Listing
November 2014

Outcomes from ultrasound follow-up of small complex adnexal masses in women over 50.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2014 Dec 25;211(6):623.e1-7. Epub 2014 Jul 25.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, The Permanente Medical Group, Sacramento, CA.

Objective: The discovery of a complex adnexal mass in an older woman often raises concern for cancer. We evaluate outcomes for a large population-based cohort of women older than age 50 years with a small complex adnexal mass reported on ultrasound, without elevated CA125 or other evidence of malignancy, including time to detection of malignancy and stage at diagnosis for those initially observed.

Study Design: Women older than age 50 years who had an ultrasound during 2007-2011 reporting a complex adnexal mass 1-6 cm in size were identified. Previous or subsequent pelvic ultrasounds were reviewed to determine when the mass was first identified and whether there was change over time. Women with concurrent elevated CA125, evidence of metastatic disease, or less than 24 months of clinical follow-up were excluded. Surgical pathology from removal and diagnoses of ovarian cancer within 24 months of follow-up were identified.

Results: Among 1363 complex masses identified, 18 cancers or borderline tumors (1.3%; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-2.1%) were found. Six cases were diagnosed among 204 women who had immediate surgery after initial ultrasound (15%), and 12 additional cases were found among 994 women with at least 1 repeat ultrasound (73%). Growth was apparent on ultrasound by 7 months for all borderline and epithelial ovarian cancers. Of the 12 cases diagnosed during follow-up, 10 were found to be stage 1 at surgery.

Conclusion: Among isolated adnexal masses reported as complex and 1-6 cm on pelvic ultrasound in women older than 50 years, the overall risk of malignancy is low. All cases of epithelial cancer and borderline tumor demonstrated growth by 7 months of observation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2014.07.044DOI Listing
December 2014

Population trends from 2000-2011 in nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging use.

JAMA 2014 Mar;311(12):1248-9

Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.472DOI Listing
March 2014

The changing epidemiology of serious bacterial infections in young infants.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2014 Jun;33(6):595-9

From the *Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, San Francisco; †Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland; ‡Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Hayward; §Department of Pediatrics, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland; and ¶Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Background: Management of febrile young infants suspected of having serious bacterial infections has been a challenge for decades. The impact of changes in prenatal screening for Group B Streptococcus and of infant immunizations has received little attention in population-based studies.

Methods: This study analyzed all cultures of blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid obtained from full-term infants 1 week to 3 months of age, who presented for care at Kaiser Permanente Northern California during a 7-year period utilizing electronic medical records.

Results: A total of 224,553 full-term infants were born during the study period. Of 5396 blood cultures, 129 bacteremic infants were identified (2%). Of 4599 urine cultures, 823 episodes of urinary tract infection (UTI) were documented in 778 infants (17%). Of 1796 CSF cultures, 16 infants had bacterial meningitis (0.9%). The incidence rate of serious bacterial infections (bacteremia, UTI and meningitis) and febrile serious bacterial infections was 3.75 and 3.1/1000 full-term births, respectively. Escherichia coli was the leading cause of bacteremia (78), UTI (719) and bacterial meningitis (7). There were 23 infants with Group B Streptococcus bacteremia including 6 cases of meningitis and no cases of Listeria infection. Nine percentage of infants had multiple sites of infection; 10% of UTIs were associated with bacteremia and 52% of bacteremia was associated with UTI.

Conclusions: Compared with earlier studies, UTIs now are found significantly more often than bacteremia and meningitis with 92% of occult infections associated with UTIs. These data emphasize the importance of an urinalysis in febrile infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000225DOI Listing
June 2014

Abnormal vaginal bleeding after epidural steroid injection: a paired observation cohort study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013 Sep 28;209(3):206.e1-6. Epub 2013 Jun 28.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Women's Health, Kaiser Permanente of Northern California, Walnut Creek, CA, USA.

Objective: The use of epidural steroid injections has increased dramatically, but knowledge of potential adverse effects is lacking. An association between steroid injection and subsequent abnormal vaginal bleeding has been suspected clinically, but evidence has been limited to anecdotal reports.

Study Design: Paired observational retrospective cohort study using electronic medical records from a large integrated health care system. Participants were all nonhysterectomized women who underwent epidural steroid injections in 2011. For each steroid injection, encounters for abnormal vaginal bleeding during the 60 days preceding and 60 days after the injection were compared as paired observations. For women found to have bleeding, medical records review was performed to examine menopausal status and bleeding evaluation outcomes.

Results: Among 8166 epidural steroid injection procedures performed on 6926 nonhysterectomized women, 201 (2.5%) procedures were followed by at least 1 outpatient visit for abnormal vaginal bleeding. Women were 2.8 times more likely to present with abnormal vaginal bleeding during the postinjection period compared with the preinjection period (P < .0001). Of the 197 women with postinjection bleeding, 137 (70%) were premenopausal and 60 (30%) were postmenopausal. Postinjection bleeding prompted endometrial biopsy evaluation in 103 (52%) cases, with benign findings for 100% of premenopausal women (59/59) and 95% of postmenopausal women (42/44).

Conclusion: Epidural steroid injections are associated with subsequent abnormal vaginal bleeding for both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Women undergoing epidural steroid injection should be advised of abnormal bleeding as a potential adverse effect and providers should be aware of this association when evaluating abnormal bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2013.06.045DOI Listing
September 2013

Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in the setting of negative cranial computed tomography results: external validation of a clinical and imaging prediction rule.

Ann Emerg Med 2013 Jul 29;62(1):1-10.e1. Epub 2012 Sep 29.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CA, USA.

Study Objective: Clinical variables can reliably exclude a diagnosis of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients with negative cranial computed tomography (CT) results. We externally validated 2 decision rules with 100% reported sensitivity for a diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage, among patients undergoing lumbar puncture after a negative cranial CT result: (1) clinical rule: presence of any combination of age 40 years and older, neck pain or stiffness, loss of consciousness, or headache onset during exertion; and (2) imaging rule: cranial CT performed within 6 hours of headache onset.

Methods: This was a matched case-control study of patients presenting to 21 emergency departments between 2000 and 2011. Patients with a diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage as determined by lumbar puncture after a negative cranial CT result were screened for inclusion. A matched control cohort was selected among patients with a diagnosis of headache after negative cranial CT and lumbar puncture results.

Results: Fifty-five cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage meeting inclusion criteria were identified, 34 (62%) of which were attributed to cerebral aneurysms. External validation of the clinical rule demonstrated a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 88.6% to 99.7%), a specificity of 22.7% (95% CI 16.6% to 29.8%), and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.13 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.61) for a diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage. External validation of the imaging rule revealed that 11 of 55 subarachnoid hemorrhage cases (20%) had negative cranial CT results for tests performed within 6 hours of headache onset.

Conclusion: The clinical rule demonstrated useful Bayesian test characteristics when retrospectively validated against this patient cohort. The imaging rule, however, failed to identify 20% of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with a negative cranial CT result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.09.003DOI Listing
July 2013

The value of additional pathology comments indicating suspicion of adenocarcinoma among women diagnosed preoperatively with complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2012 May;31(3):222-6

Permanente Medical Group, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Walnut Creek, CA 94596, USA.

Over 40% of women with a preoperative diagnosis of complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH) will have endometrial cancer at hysterectomy. CAH diagnoses are often qualified by comments indicating suspicion of cancer. We examine whether these comments correlate with cancer found at hysterectomy. Pathology reports for 824 women with CAH diagnoses who underwent hysterectomy were reviewed to identify those qualified by comments indicating concern for cancer. The rate of cancer, severity of disease, and effects of endometrial sampling method and age were determined. Comments indicating suspicion of cancer qualified 219 of 824 (27%) CAH diagnoses and were associated with a significantly higher cancer rate at hysterectomy (69% versus 40%; P<0.0001), regardless of whether sampling consisted of curettage or biopsy. Cancer severity correlated independently with age. Comments indicating concern for underlying cancer frequently qualify CAH diagnoses and are associated with a high likelihood of cancer and with more extensive disease, especially for older women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PGP.0b013e31823ef8b0DOI Listing
May 2012

Changing epidemiology of bacteremia in infants aged 1 week to 3 months.

Pediatrics 2012 Mar 27;129(3):e590-6. Epub 2012 Feb 27.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Kaiser Permanente, Northern California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Bacteremia in young infants has remained an important ongoing concern for decades. Despite changes in prenatal screening and infant immunizations, the current epidemiology of this problem has received little attention.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all blood cultures collected at Kaiser Permanente Northern California on full-term, previously healthy infants presenting for care between 1 week to 3 months of age for whom a blood culture was drawn from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2009.

Results: During the study period, 4255 blood cultures were collected from 160 818 full-term infants. Only 2% of all blood cultures were positive for pathogens (93/4255), whereas 247 positive cultures were due to contaminants. The incidence rate of true bacteremia was 0.57 in 1000 full-term births. The most common pathogen was Escherichia coli (56%). Ninety-eight percent of infants with E coli bacteremia had a urinary tract infection. Group B Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus were the second and third most common pathogens, respectively. There were no cases of Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia or meningococcemia and only 1 case of enterococcal bacteremia. Ampicillin resistant pathogens accounted for 36% of organisms.

Conclusions: Our study indicates bacteremia in young infants occurs infrequently and in only 2.2% of those who had a blood culture drawn. On the basis of the epidemiology of pathogens found in this large cohort, these data suggest a change in currently recommended presumptive antibiotic coverage in 1-week to 3-month-old infants with suspected bacteremia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-1546DOI Listing
March 2012

Early start: a cost-beneficial perinatal substance abuse program.

Obstet Gynecol 2012 Jan;119(1):102-10

Department of Obstetrics, The Permanente Medical Group, Vallejo, California, USA.

Objective: To conduct a cost-benefit analysis of Early Start, an integrated prenatal intervention program for stopping substance use in pregnancy.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 49,261 women who had completed prenatal substance abuse screening questionnaires at obstetric clinics and who had undergone urine toxicology screening tests. Four study groups were compared: women screened and assessed positive and followed by Early Start (screened-assessed-followed, n=2,032), women screened and assessed positive without follow-up (screened-assessed, n=1,181), women screened positive only (screened-positive-only, n=149), women in the control group who screened negative (control, n=45,899). Costs associated with maternal health care (prenatal through 1 year postpartum), neonatal birth hospitalization care, and pediatric health care (through 1 year) were adjusted to 2009 dollars. Mean costs were calculated and adjusted for age, race, education, income, marital status, and amount of prenatal care.

Results: Screened-positive-only group adjusted mean maternal total costs ($10,869) were significantly higher than screened-assessed-followed, screened-assessed, and control groups ($9,430; $9,230; $8,282; all P<.001). Screened-positive-only group adjusted mean infant total costs ($16,943) were significantly higher than screened-assessed-followed, screened-assessed, and control groups ($11,214; $11,304; $10,416; all P<.001). Screened-positive-only group adjusted mean overall total costs ($27,812) were significantly higher than screened-assessed-followed, screened-assessed, and control groups ($20,644; $20,534; $18,698; all P<.001). Early Start implementation costs were $670,600 annually. Cost-benefit analysis showed that the net cost benefit averaged $5,946,741 per year.

Conclusion: Early Start is a cost-beneficial intervention for substance use in pregnancy that improves maternal-infant outcomes and leads to lower overall costs by an amount significantly greater than the costs of the program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e31823d427dDOI Listing
January 2012

Provision of contraceptive services to women with diabetes mellitus.

J Gen Intern Med 2012 Feb 16;27(2):196-201. Epub 2011 Sep 16.

Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology, Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Center for Research on Health Care, 230 McKee Place, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Background: Women with diabetes mellitus who delay pregnancy until glycemic control is achieved experience lower rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Objective: To compare rates of provision of contraceptive services among women with diabetes mellitus and women without chronic medical conditions.

Design: A retrospective cohort study of 459,181 women aged 15-44 who had continuous membership and pharmacy benefits in a managed care organization in Northern California between January 2006 and June 2007. Rates of documented provision of contraceptive counseling, prescriptions, and services were compared between women with diabetes and women without chronic medical conditions.

Results: Among 8,182 women with diabetes and 122,921 women without any chronic conditions, women with diabetes were less likely than women without a chronic condition to have documented receipt of any contraceptive counseling, prescriptions, or services (47.8% vs 62.0%, p < 0.001). After controlling for age and race, women with diabetes were more likely to have undergone tubal sterilization compared to women without a chronic condition (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.30-1.54), but less likely to have received highly effective, reversible methods of contraception such as intrauterine contraception (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.61-0.75). In addition, more women with diabetes had undergone hysterectomy, which is rarely performed solely for contraceptive purposes.

Conclusions: Women with diabetes were less likely to receive highly effective reversible contraception and more likely to undergo sterilization procedures. Increasing the use of highly effective reversible contraceptives may help diabetic women who want to retain their fertility to delay pregnancy until glycemic control is achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-011-1875-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3270235PMC
February 2012

Predictive values of Framingham risk and coronary artery calcium scores in the detection of obstructive CAD in patients with normal SPECT.

Angiology 2012 May 25;63(4):275-81. Epub 2011 Aug 25.

Division of Cardiology, San Jose Medical Center, Kaiser Permanente, San Jose, CA 95119, USA.

A subgroup of patients with normal stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) have obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) on coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). A retrospective study was performed to identify factors associated with obstructive CAD in patients with normal MPI. Bivariate differences between patients with obstructive (>50% stenosis) and nonobstructive (<50% stenosis) CAD were assessed. Of the 105 patients with normal MPI, 42 (40%) had obstructive CAD on CCTA. After a multivariable logistic regression analysis increased Framingham risk scores ([FRS] ≥10%) and coronary artery calcium scores ([CACS] >100 Agatston Units [AU]) were independently associated with obstructive CAD (P = .006 and P < .0001, respectively). Patients with normal MPI had 13 times and 98 times higher odds of having obstructive CAD if they had a FRS ≥10% versus <10% and CACS >100 AU versus ≤100 AU, respectively. Increased FRS and CACS may stratify patients who may benefit from further evaluation for significant CAD despite normal MPI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003319711415392DOI Listing
May 2012

Time to inpatient rehabilitation hospital admission and functional outcomes of stroke patients.

PM R 2011 Apr;3(4):296-304; quiz 304

Kaiser Foundation Rehabilitation Center, 975 Sereno Dr, Vallejo, CA 94589, USA.

Objective: To study the association of time to inpatient rehabilitation hospital (IRH) admission and functional outcomes of patients who have had a stroke.

Design: A retrospective cohort study.

Setting: A regional IRH.

Participants: Moderately (n = 614) and severely (n = 1294) impaired patients who had a stroke who were admitted to the facility between 2002 and 2006.

Interventions: Not applicable.

Main Outcome Measures: Change in total, motor, and cognitive Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores between IRH admission and discharge.

Results: After controlling for patient demographics and initial medical conditions and functional status, shorter periods from stroke onset to IRH admission were significantly associated with greater functional gains for these patients during IRH hospitalization. Moderately impaired patients achieved a greater total FIM gain when admitted to an IRH within 21 days of stroke. Severely impaired patients showed a gradient relationship between time to IRH admission and total FIM gain, with significantly different functional gain if admitted to an IRH within 30 and 60 days after stroke diagnosis. Results of multiple regression analysis also showed that age, race/ethnicity, side of stroke, history of a previous stroke, functional measures at IRH admission, IRH length of stay, and selected medications were associated with total, motor, and cognitive FIM score changes. In addition, certain factors such as older age, diagnosis of a hemorrhagic stroke or a previous history of stroke, and initial functional status were associated with longer periods between diagnosis and admission to an IRH after the stroke occurred.

Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that earlier transfer to an IRH may lead to better functional improvement after stroke. However, certain factors such as age, race/ethnicity, initial medical conditions and functional status, and length of stay at an IRH contributed to functional gain. Factors affecting the time to IRH admission also were addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2010.12.018DOI Listing
April 2011
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