Publications by authors named "Yun-Yi Chen"

49 Publications

High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,XX at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):700-702

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of high-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,XX at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.

Case Report: A 32-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of the abnormal first-trimester maternal serum screening result indicating a 1/34 risk for Down syndrome. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[27]/46,XX[15]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes revealed 12% mosaicism for monosomy X. Prenatal ultrasound was normal. The pregnancy was carried to term, and a 2780-g phenotypically normal female baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 45,X[12]/46,XX[28]. At age one month, the peripheral blood had a karyotype of 45,X[13]/46,XX[27]. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on the buccal mucosal cells revealed 2% (2/102 cells) mosaicism for monosomy X, compared with 1% (1/100 cells) in the normal control. When follow-up at age one year, she was doing well with normal physical and psychomotor development. Her body weight was 9.9 Kg (50th - 85th centile), and her body height was 75 cm (50th - 85th centile). The peripheral blood had a karyotype of 45,X[4]/46,XY[36].

Conclusion: High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,XX at amniocentesis can be associated with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.008DOI Listing
July 2022

High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable fetal outcome and cytogenetic discrepancy in various tissues.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):695-699

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of high-level mosaicism for 45,X by amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable fetal outcome.

Case Report: A 35-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[13]/46,XY[11]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of Yp11.3q11.21 × 0-1 [0.1], Yq11.21q11.23 × 0-1 [0.6]. At 19 weeks of gestation, she underwent the second amniocentesis which revealed a karyotype of 45,X[13]/46,XY[12], and aCGH and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) on uncultured amniocytes showed 37% mosaicism for Y-deleted cells. At 28 weeks of gestation, she underwent the third amniocentesis which revealed a karyotype of 45,X[25]/46,XY[25], and aCGH on uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of Yq11.21q11.23 × 0.5, Yq11.23q12 × 0.7. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed that 16.67% (20/120 cells) were Y-deleted cells. The parental karyortypes and prenatal ultrasound were normal. At 37 weeks of gestation, a 2707-g phenotypically normal male baby was delivered with normal male external genitalia. The karyotypes of cord blood, umbilical cord and placenta were 45,X[25]/46,XY[15], 45,X[18]/46,XY[22] and 45,X[25]/46,XY[15], respectively. When follow-up at age five months, the neonate was normal in external genitalia and physical development. The peripheral blood had a karyotype of 45,X[29]/46,XY[11], and FISH analysis on 100 buccal mucosal cells showed no abnormal signals. When follow-up at age 11 months, the neonate was physically normal, and the peripheral blood had a karyotype of 45,X[17]/46,XY[23].

Conclusion: High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis can be associated with a favorable fetal outcome despite the presence of cytogenetic discrepancy in various tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.007DOI Listing
July 2022

Cytogenetic discrepancy between uncultured amniocytes and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 18 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable fetal outcome and maternal uniparental disomy 18.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):684-689

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 18 in a pregnancy with a favorable fetal outcome and maternal uniparental disomy 18.

Case Report: A 38-year-old, primigravid woman underwent the first amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX [22/22] in cultured amniocytes, and 36% mosaicism for trisomy 18 and a maternally inherited Xp22.31 microdeletion by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in uncultured amniocytes. The second amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation revealed 47,XX,+18 [14]/46,XX [36] in cultured amniocytes and 36% mosaicism for trisomy 18 by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) P095 in cultured amniocytes. Prenatal ultrasound was normal. The parents were phenotypically normal. The third amniocentesis at 23 weeks of gestation revealed 47,XX,+18 [3]/46,XX [17] in cultured amniocytes, and in uncultured amniocytes, aCGH revealed 45%-50% mosaicism for trisomy 18, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed 36% (36/100 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 18, and quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) showed mosaic maternal uniparental heterodisomy for chromosome 18 and mosaic trisomy 18 of maternal origin. The fourth amniocentesis at 32 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 46,XX [20/20] in cultured amniocytes, and in uncultured amniocytes, aCGH revealed 50%-60% mosaicism for trisomy 18, FISH revealed 21.8% (22/101 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 18, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) showed chromosome 18 gene dosage increase in the maternal blood. At 34 weeks of gestation, a 1480-g phenotypically normal baby was delivered. The cord blood had 47,XX,+18 [10]/46,XX [30]. The umbilical cord had 47,XX,+18 [4]/46,XX [36]. The placenta had 47,XX,+18 [40/40], and QF-PCR analysis confirmed trisomy 18 of maternal origin. When follow-up at age four months, the neonate was phenotypically normal, FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells revealed 2% (2/100 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 18, and the peripheral blood had 47,XX,+18 [18]/46,XX [22]. When follow-up at age eight months, the neonate had normal development, the peripheral blood had 47,XX,+18 [15]/46,XX [25], and the buccal mucosal cells showed maternal uniparental heterodisomy for chromosome 18.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy may occur between uncultured and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 18 at amniocentesis. Cultured amniocytes may present progressive decrease in the levels of mosaicism for trisomy 18 as the fetus grows. Mosaic trisomy 18 at amniocentesis can be associated with a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.005DOI Listing
July 2022

Cytogenetic discrepancy between uncultured amniocytes and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):677-683

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 15 in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 33-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 19 weeks of gestation because non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) revealed gene dosage increase at chromosome 15. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+15[10]/46,XX[13]. Using uncultured amniocytes, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) revealed arr [GRCh37] (X) × 2, (15) × 3 [0.75], multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis showed rsa [GRCh36] 15q11q13 (21,362,818-27,196,819) × 3 [0.76] and methylation-specific (MS)-MLPA analysis showed a methylation index = 0.41 with paternal gene dosage increase at 15q11-q13. Repeat amniocentesis at 25 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+15[6]/46,XX[14]. Using uncultured amniocytes, quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) assays excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 15 and determined a paternal origin of the extra chromosome 15, aCGH analysis showed 75%-80% mosaicism for trisomy 15, and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed 45.5% (46/101 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 15. Repeat amniocentesis at 28 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+15[2]/46,XX[23]. Using uncultured amniocytes, aCGH showed 75-80% mosaicism for trisomy 15, and FISH showed 70.6% (72/102 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 15. Using cultured amniocytes, QF-PCR assays excluded UPD 15. Cordocentesis at 30 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+15[2]/46,XX[138]. Using cord blood, aCGH revealed 9% gene dosage increase at chromosome 15, and MS-MLPA analysis excluded UPD 15. At 36 weeks of gestation, a 2060-g phenotypically normal baby was delivered. The cord blood had 46, XX (40/40 cells). The placenta had 47,XX,+15 (40/40 cells). QF-PCR analysis on placenta showed a paternal origin of trisomy 15. FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells at age 20 days showed 20% (20/100 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 15.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy may occur between uncultured and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis. Cultured amniocytes may present progressive decrease in the levels of mosaicism for trisomy 15 as the fetus grows. Mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis without UPD 15 can be associated with a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.004DOI Listing
July 2022

Prenatal diagnosis of pseudomosaicism for trisomy 20 at amniocentesis with a negative non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) result in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jul;61(4):675-676

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of pseudomosaicism for trisomy 20 at amniocentesis with a negative non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) result in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 33-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation, which revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+20[8]/46,XX[31]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr (1-22,X) × 2, consistent with no genomic imbalance. She was referred to the hospital for repeat amniocentesis at 23 weeks of gestation. At repeat amniocentesis, cultured amniocytes had a karyotype of 47,XX,+20[2]/46,XX[33]. The parental karyotypes were normal. Simultaneous aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes using SurePrint G3 Unrestricted CGH ISCA v2, 8 × 60 K (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) revealed no genomic imbalance, or arr (1-22,X) × 2, Y × 0. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes of RP11-266K16 [20q13.33; fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), spectrum green] and RP11-348I14 (20q11.1-q11.21; Texas Red, spectrum red) detected trisomy 20 signals in 4/104 uncultured amniocytes (3.8%), compared with 0/100 in the normal control. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis using the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy 20. NIPT analysis on maternal blood revealed a negative result without gene dosage increase in chromosome 20. The pregnancy was carried to term, and a healthy 2830-g female baby was delivered with no phenotypic abnormality. Both cord blood and placenta had a karyotype of 46,XX.

Conclusion: NIPT is useful for rapid differential diagnosis of pseudomosaicism from true mosaicism in case of mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.05.003DOI Listing
July 2022

Outcome Analysis of Transition From Peritoneal Dialysis to Hemodialysis: A Population-Based Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 2;9:876229. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

If a technical failure occurs during peritoneal dialysis (PD), the patients undergoing PD may be transitioned to hemodialysis (HD). However, the clinical outcomes of patients who have undergone such a transition are under studied. This study assessed whether patients undergoing HD who have transitioned from PD have the same clinical outcomes as HD-only patients. This research was a retrospective cohort study by searching a National Health Insurance research database for data on patients in Taiwan who had undergone HD between January 2006 and December 2013. The patients were divided into two groups, namely a case group in which the patients were transitioned from PD to HD and a HD-only control group, through propensity score matching at a ratio of 1:4 ( = 1,100 vs. 4,400, respectively). We used the Cox regression model to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause death, all-cause hospitalization, infection-related admission, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Those selected patients will be followed until death or the end of the study period (December, 2017), whichever occurs first. Over a mean follow-up of 3.2 years, 1,695 patients (30.8%) died, 3,825 (69.5%) required hospitalization, and 1,142 (20.8%) experienced MACE. Patients transitioning from PD had a higher risk of all-cause death (HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.21-1.53) than HD-only patients. However, no significant difference was noted in terms of MACE (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.73-1.12), all-cause hospitalization (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.96-1.18), or infection-related admission (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.80-1.18) between groups. Because of the violation of the proportional hazard assumption, the piecewise-HRs showed that the risk of mortality in the case group was significant within 5 months of the transition (HR: 2.61; 95% CI: 2.04-3.35) not in other partitions of the time axis. In conclusion, patients undergoing HD who transitioned from PD had a higher risk of death than the HD-only patients, especially in the first 5 months after transition (a 161% higher risk). Therefore, more caution and monitoring may be required for patients undergoing HD who transitioned from PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.876229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9202657PMC
June 2022

High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 May;61(3):528-531

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of high-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome and postnatal progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.

Case Report: A 36-year-old, gravida 4, para 3, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[22]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[4]. Prenatal ultrasound was unremarkable, and the fetus had normal male external genitalia. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 20 weeks of gestation, and the second amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[24]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[3]. Simultaneous interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed that 60% (62/103 cells) were Y-deleted cells. After genetic counseling, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy, and a 3020-g male baby was delivered with a body length of 52 cm, normal male genital organs and no phenotypic abnormalities. The karyotypes of cord blood, umbilical cord and placenta were 45,X[20]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[20], 45,X[31]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[9] and 45,X[40], respectively. At age one month, FISH analysis on urinary cells and buccal mucosal cells revealed 11.5% (7/61 cells) and 13.6% (16/118 cells), respectively for mosaicism for the Y-deleted cells. At age five month, the karyotype of peripheral blood was 45,X[9]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[31]. FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells showed no abnormal Y-deleted cell (0/101 cells). At age 11 month, the karyotype of peripheral blood was 45,X[5]/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2)[35]. FISH analysis on 102 buccal mucosal cells showed no abnormal signals. The infant was doing well with normal physical and psychomotor development.

Conclusion: High-level mosaicism for 45,X in 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(q11.2) at amniocentesis can be associated with a favorable outcome and progressive decrease of the 45,X cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.03.024DOI Listing
May 2022

Perinatal cytogenetic discrepancy in a pregnancy with mosaic 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 May;61(3):525-527

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present perinatal cytogenetic discrepancy in a pregnancy with mosaic 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 38-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 45,X[2]/46,XY[6]. Level II ultrasound at 20 weeks of gestation was unremarkable, and the fetus had normal male external genitalia. Following genetic counseling, the woman decided to continue the pregnancy. At 39 weeks of gestation, a healthy male baby was delivered with a body weight of 3410 g and a body length of 54.5 cm. The male external genital organs were normal. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46, XY (40/40 cells). The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 45,X[1]/46,XY[39]. During follow-up at age one month, his body weight was 4.4 Kg (15th-50th centile), and his body length was 56 cm (50th-85th centile). The infant was doing well. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on 100 buccal mucosal cells revealed no abnormal Y-deletion cell, and all cells contained one Y signal.

Conclusion: Perinatal cytogenetic discrepancy may occur in the pregnancy with mosaic 45,X/46, XY at amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.03.023DOI Listing
May 2022

Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic 46,XX,dup(9)(q22.3q34.1)/46,XX at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Mar;61(2):368-371

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present our observation of cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic dup(9)(q22.3q34.1) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 37-year-old, gravida 4, para 0, woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX, dup(9)(q22.3q34.1)[8]/46,XX[16]. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. She was referred for genetic counseling, and repeat amniocentesis was performed at 21 weeks of gestation, which revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(9)(q22.3q34.1)[7]/46,XX[25]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance, or arr (1-22,X) × 2. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on 105 uncultured amniocytes detected only one cell with the dup 9q signal with a mosaic dup 9q level of 1%, compared with 0% in normal control. At 37 weeks of gestation, a 2640-g female baby was delivered with no phenotypic abnormality. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(9) (q22.3q34.1)[4]/46,XX[36], the umbilical cord had a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(9) (q22.3q34.1)[2]/46,XX[38], and the placenta had a karyotype of 46,XX. aCGH analysis on cord blood revealed no genomic imbalance. At age 2½ months, the baby was doing well, the peripheral blood of the baby had a karyotype of 46,XX,dup(9) (q22.3q34.1)[4]/46,XX[36], and interphase FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells revealed no dup 9q signal in 100 buccal mucosal cells.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy may occur between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic dup(9) (q22.3q34.1). Molecular cytogenetic analysis on uncultured amniocytes is useful for rapid distinguishing pseudomosaicism from true mosaicism under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.02.031DOI Listing
March 2022

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a familial small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from the acrocentric chromosome 14/22.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Mar;61(2):364-367

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a familial small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from the acrocentric chromosome 14/22.

Case Report: A 40-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar. Prenatal ultrasound was unremarkable. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance. Cytogenetic analysis of the parental bloods revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,inv (9) (p12q13),+mar in the father and a karyotype of 46, XX in the mother. The sSMC was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on cultured amniocytes using the CEP 13/21 α-satellite specific gene probe labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) fluorophore and the CEP 14/21 α-satellite specific gene probe labeled with Texas Red fluorophore (Cytocell Inc.). The result showed that the sSMC was derived from the chromosome 14/22, or+mar.ish dic (14/22) (D13Z1/D21Z1-, D14Z1/D22Z1+)[20]. A healthy male baby was delivered at term with no phenotypic abnormality. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) analysis on parental bloods and the child's peripheral blood was used to exclude uniparental disomy (UPD) (14) and UPD(22).

Conclusion: FISH analysis is useful for the determination of an sSMC derived from an acrocentric chromosome under the circumstance of no genomic imbalance at amniocentesis. QF-PCR analysis is useful for excluding the possible associated UPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2022.02.030DOI Listing
March 2022

Prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy 21 in association with low-level mosaic trisomy 21 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;61(1):146-149

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 21 in association with low-level mosaic trisomy 21 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 42-year-old, gravida 2, para 0, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis initially revealed a karyotype of 46,XX in 20/20 colonies of cultured amniocytes. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed a result of arr [GRCh37] (21) × 3 [0.16], (X) × 2, compatible with mosaic trisomy 21. After extensive investigation, the final result of conventional cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniocytes was 47,XX,+21[1]/46,XX[40]. The parental karyotypes were normal. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 21 weeks of gestation. The cultured amniocytes had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[3]/46,XX[27] and the uncultured amniocytes had a mosaic trisomy 21 level of 8.8% (10/114 cells) by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), a mosaic trisomy 21 level of 10% (log ratio = 0.08) by aCGH, and maternal UPD 21 by polymorphic DNA marker analysis. Prenatal ultrasound revealed IUGR. At 38 weeks of gestation, a phenotypically normal 2695-g baby was delivered. The cord blood and umbilical cord had the karyotype of 46,XX and maternal UPD 21. The placenta had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[8]/46,XX[32] and a maternal origin of trisomy 21. Postnatal FISH analysis on 101 buccal mucosal cells showed 6.9% (7/101 cells) mosaicism compared with 2% (2/100 cells) in the normal control. The baby was doing well at age four months.

Conclusion: Pregnancy with low-level mosaic trisomy 21 and maternal UPD 21 at amniocentesis can be associated with IUGR and a favorable outcome. Fetuses with maternal UPD 21 can be associated with mosaic trisomy 21 at amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.11.025DOI Listing
January 2022

Detection of maternal uniparental disomy 9 in association with low-level mosaic trisomy 9 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction, abnormal first-trimester screening result (low PAPP-A and low PlGF), maternal preeclampsia and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;61(1):141-145

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present detection of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 9 in association with low-level mosaic trisomy 9 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), an abnormal first-trimester maternal serum screening result, abnormal non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), maternal preeclampsia and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 37-year-old, primigravid woman underwent first-trimester maternal serum screening and NIPT at 11 weeks of gestation, which revealed a gene dosage increase in chromosome 9 and low levels of plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and placental growth factor (PlGF) in maternal blood. The woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation, which revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+9[4]/46,XX[35] in cultured amniocytes. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed a result of arr [GRCh37] (9) × 3 [0.14] (X) × 2, compatible with mosaic trisomy 9. The parental karyotypes were normal. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 20 weeks of gestation. The cultured amniocytes had a karyotype of 47,XX,+9[1]/46,XX[23]. The uncultured amniocytes had a mosaic trisomy 9 level of 10.7% (12/112 cells) by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), a mosaic trisomy 9 level of 10-14% (log ratio = 0.1) by aCGH, and maternal uniparental isodisomy 9 by polymorphic DNA marker analysis. Prenatal ultrasound revealed IUGR, and the mother had preeclampsia. At 29 weeks of gestation, a 1054-g phenotypically normal baby was delivered because of preterm labor. The cord blood and umbilical cord had the karyotype of 46, XX and maternal UPD 9 and isodisomy 9, while the placenta had trisomy 9 of maternal origin. Postnatal FISH anlaysis on 101 buccal mucosal cells and 100 urinary cells at age three months detected no trisomy 9 signals. The baby was doing well at age six months.

Conclusion: Pregnancy with low-level mosaic trisomy 9 and maternal UPD 9 at amniocentesis can be associated with IUGR, maternal preeclampsia and a favorable outcome. Fetuses with maternal UPD 9 can be associated with an abnormal NIPT result concerning chromosome 9, an abnormal first-trimester maternal serum screening result (low PAPP-A and low PlGF) and mosaic trisomy 9 at amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.11.024DOI Listing
January 2022

Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;61(1):138-140

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present our observation of cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 35-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+20[10]/46,XX[15]. Among 25 colonies of cultured amniocytes, 10 colonies had a karyotype of 47,XX,+20, while the rest were normal. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance, or arr (1-22,X) × 2. The parental karyotypes were normal. Following genetic counseling, the woman underwent repeat amniocentesis at 20 weeks of gestation. Repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+20[3]/46,XX[35]. Among 38 colonies of cultured amniocytes, three colonies had a karyotype of 47,XX,+20, while the rest were normal. Simultaneous aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance, or arr (1-22,X) × 2. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on 101 uncultured amniocytes detected only one cell with three chromosome 20 signals with a mosaic trisomy 20 level of 1% (1/101 cells), compared with 0% in normal control. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy 20. At 38 weeks of gestation, a phenotypically normal 3120-g female baby was delivered. Cytogenetic analysis of cord blood, placental tissue and umbilical cord revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. The neonate was normal at postnatal follow-ups. Postnatal interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on 100 buccal mucosal cells revealed no trisomy 20 signals.

Conclusion: Mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis can be a cultured artifact. Complete cytogenetic discrepancy may occur between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 20 at amniocentesis, and molecular cytogenetic analysis on uncultured amniocytes is useful for rapid distinguishing true mosaicism from pseudomosaicism under such as circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.11.023DOI Listing
January 2022

Nobiletin as a chemopreventive natural product against cancer, a comprehensive review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2022 Jan 28:1-21. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Laboratory of Fruit Quality Biology/The State Agriculture Ministry Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

As a leading cause of death, second only to heart disease, cancer has always been one of the burning topics in medical research. When targeting multiple signal pathways in tumorigenesis chemoprevention, using natural or synthetic anti-cancer drugs is a vital strategy to reduce cancer damage. However, toxic effects, multidrug resistance (MDR) as well as cancer stem cells (CSCs) all prominently limited the clinical application of conventional anticancer drugs. With low side effects, strong biological activity, unique mechanism, and wide range of targets, natural products derived from plants are considered significant sources for new drug development. Nobiletin is one of the most attractive compounds, a unique flavonoid primarily isolated from the peel of citrus fruits. Numerous studies in vitro and in vivo have suggested that nobiletin and its derivatives possess the eminent potential to become effective cancer chemoprevention agents through various cellular and molecular levels. This article aims to comprehensively review the anticancer efficacy and specific mechanisms of nobiletin, enhancing our understanding of its chemoprevention properties and providing the latest research findings. At the end of this review, we also give some discussion and future perspectives regarding the challenges and opportunities in nobiletin efficient exploitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2022.2030297DOI Listing
January 2022

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 by amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with abnormal first-trimester screening result (low PAPP-A and low PlGF), intrauterine growth restriction and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Nov;60(6):1107-1111

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 by amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with an abnormal first-trimester screening result, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 27-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal first-trimester screening result with maternal serum free β-hCG of 1.474 multiples of the median (MoM), pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) of 0.122 MoM and placental growth factor (PlGF) of 0.101 MoM, and a Down syndrome risk of 1/45. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+16 [9]/46,XY [16] and an abnormal array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) result of arr (16) × 3 [0.54] compatible with 54% mosaicism for trisomy 16 in uncultured amniocytes. At 24 weeks of gestation, repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+16 [4]/46,XY [16] and an aCGH result of arr 16p13.3q24.3 (96,766-90,567,357) × 2.25 with a log ratio = 0.2 compatible with 20-30% mosaicism for trisomy 16 in uncultured amniocytes. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 16. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed 19.4% (12/62 cells) mosaic trisomy 16. Prenatal ultrasound revealed IUGR. At 36 weeks of gestation, a phenotypically normal baby was delivered with a body weight of 1900 g. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,XY. QF-PCR analysis confirmed biparentally inherited disomy 16 in the cord blood and maternal-origin of trisomy 16 in the placenta. When follow-up at age two months, FISH analysis on 101 buccal mucosal cells and 32 urinary cells revealed no signal of trisomy 16.

Conclusion: Mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis can be associated with IUGR and an abnormal first-trimester screening result with low PAPP-A and low PlGF. Mosaic trisomy 16 without UPD 16 at amniocentesis can have a favorable outcome, and the abnormal triosmy 16 cell line may disappear after birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.09.026DOI Listing
November 2021

Protective Effects of Angiotensin Receptor Blockers on the Incidence of Dementia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Population-Based Nationwide Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Nov 5;10(21). Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei 11101, Taiwan.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with dementia. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been widely used for delaying CKD progression; however, their effect on dementia prevention in patients with CKD remains unclear. We designed a retrospective cohort study to investigate the effects of ARBs on the incidence of dementia in patients with CKD. We selected 21,208 patients from the Taiwan nationwide database from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2006. We identified ARB users ( = 17,466) and ARB non-users ( = 3742) and their medication possession ratio (MPR). The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the incidence of dementia in ARB users in the CKD population. During the 11-year follow-up period, 2207 dementia events were recorded; multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for dementia by ARB usage and ARB usage per MPR were 0.578 (95% CI: 0.52-0.643) and 0.996 (95% CI: 0.995-0.998), respectively. This association was observed in almost all subgroups. Dose frequency effect of ARBs was noted; patients with higher MPRs of ARBs generally had higher protection from dementia. Patients with hypertension and CKD who received ARBs had a decreased risk of dementia. Protective effects of ARBs on dementia increased with the frequency of ARB use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10215175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8585022PMC
November 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of a familial 9p12 amplification inherited from a father carrier.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Sep;60(5):905-906

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of a familial 9p12 amplification inherited from a father carrier.

Case Report: A 38-year-old, gravida 3, para 2, woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a heteromorphic variant of chromosome 9 with a 9p12 amplification on G-band preparations, but it was negative on C-band preparations. Cytogenetic analysis of the parents revealed that the phenotypically normal father carried the same euchromatic 9p + polymorphism. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on the DNA extracted from the father's blood revealed no genomic imbalance. At 37 weeks of gestation, a healthy 2760-g female baby was delivered with no phenotypic abnormality. She was doing well at age one year during follow-up.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of a 9p + variant can be a euchromatic chromosome variant of a familial 9p12 amplification without phenotypic consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.07.021DOI Listing
September 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of a familial Y long-arm and chromosome 15 short-arm translocation inherited from a mother carrier.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jul;60(4):781-783

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of a familial Y long-arm and chromosome 15 short-arm translocation inherited from a mother carrier.

Case Report: A 34-year-old primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 20 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a derived chromosome 15 or 15p+ with an additional material on the short arm of chromosome 15. Cytogenetic analysis of the parents revealed that the phenotypically normal mother carried the same 15p+ variant, and the father had a karyotype of 46,XY. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from cultured amniocytes revealed no genomic imbalance. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis using the DNAs extracted from cultured amniocytes and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 15. C-banded preparations and metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using a Yq12-specific probe showed a positive stain on the 15p+, indicating the origin of Yq on the short arm of the derivative chromosome 15. The karyotype of amniocentesis was 46,XX,der(15)t(Y;15)(q12;p13)mat. The mother had a karyotype of 46,XX,der(15) t(Y;15)(q12;p13). At 39 weeks of gestation, a 3006-g healthy female baby was delivered with no phenotypic abnormality. During follow-up at age six months, she manifested normal physical and psychomotor development.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of a 15p+ variant should include a differential diagnosis of genomic imbalance and UPD 15, and aCGH and polymorphic DNA marker analyses are useful under such a circumstance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.05.036DOI Listing
July 2021

Mosaic Xq duplication, or 46,X,der(X)dup(X)(q22.1q22.2)dup(X)(q25q22.3)/ 46,XX at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jul;60(4):778-780

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present mosaic Xq duplication, or 46,X,der(X)dup(X)(q22.1q22.2)dup(X)(q25q22.3)/46,XX at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 40-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a result of 46,X,der(X)dup(X)(q22.1q22.2)dup(X)(q25q22.3)[7]/46,XX[20]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr (1-22, X) × 2. Cytogenetic analysis on maternal blood revealed a karyotype of 46,XX. At 22 weeks of gestation, she underwent repeat amniocentesis which revealed a karyotype of 46,XX in 22/22 colonies of cultured amniocytes and an aCGH result of (1-22, X) × 2 in the uncultured amniocytes. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. The parents decided to continue the pregnancy, and a healthy female baby was delivered at 39 weeks of gestation with a body weight of 3510 g and a body length of 49 cm. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,X,der(X)dup(X)(q22.1q22.2)dup(X)(q25q22.3)[3]/46,XX[37]. At age two months, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on buccal mucosal cells showed Xq duplication signals in 1.25% (1/80 cells), compared with 0% (0/90 cells) in the normal control. At age nine months, the neonate had normal physical and psychomotor development. Her body weight was 9.6 Kg (85th - 97th centile), and body length was 72 cm (50th - 85th centile). Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood revealed a karyotype of 46,X,der(X)dup(X) (q22.1q22.2)dup(X)(q25q22.3)[1]/46,XX[39]. Interphase FISH analysis on 100 buccal mucosal cells revealed no abnormal signal.

Conclusion: In case of mosaicism for an Xq duplication with a normal euploid cell line at amniocentesis, the in-vitro culture process of amniocytes may cause over-estimation of the mosaic level for the aberrant chromosome because of culture artifacts, and the abnormal cell line can decline after birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.05.035DOI Listing
July 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for double aneuploidy of 47,XXY and trisomy 7 (48,XXY,+7) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May;60(3):543-548

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism for double aneuploidy of 47, XXY and trisomy 7 (48,XXY,+7) at amniocentesis in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 33-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of an increased risk for Down syndrome in maternal serum screening. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 48,XXY,+7[8]/46,XY[16]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr [GRCh37] (7) × 3 [0.54], (X) × 2 [0.52], (Y) × 1, compatible with trisomy 7 mosaicism and Klinefelter syndrome mosaicism. The parental karyotypes and prenatal ultrasound findings were normal. Repeat amniocentesis performed at 23 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 48,XXY,+7[13]/46,XY[7]. Simultaneous molecular cytogenetic analyses on uncultured amniocytes revealed 30% mosaicism for 48,XXY,+7 by aCGH and 37% (37/100 cells) mosaicism for trisomy 7 and disomy X by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 7 and indicated a maternal origin of the chromosome aberration. The pregnancy was continued to 39 weeks of gestation, and a 3070-g healthy male baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46,XY, the umbilical cord had a karyotype of 48,XXY,+7[3]/46,XY[37], and the placenta had a karyotype of 48,XXY,+7. At age one month, the neonate was phenotypically normal, and interphase FISH analysis revealed 4.8% (5/105 cells) mosaicism on buccal mucosal cells and 8.9% (8/90 cells) mosaicism on urinary cells for trisomy 7 and disomy X, compared with 2% in normal control. Interphase FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells at age two months revealed normal findings in 100/100 cells.

Conclusion: Mosaic 48,XXY,+7 at amniocentesis without UPD 7 can be associated with a favorable fetal outcome. Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes may occur in mosaic 48,XXY,+7 at amniocentesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.03.029DOI Listing
May 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy 16 associated with mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis, and pericardial effusion and intrauterine growth restriction in the fetus.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May;60(3):534-539

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 16 associated with mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis, and pericardial effusion and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in the fetus.

Case Report: A 38-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age, and the result was 47,XX,+16[2]/46,XX[54]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed 14% mosaicism for trisomy 16 and a paternally inherited 319-kb microdeletion of 15q11.2 encompassing the genes of TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA2 and NIPA1. Prenatal ultrasound revealed persistent left superior vena cava, pericardial effusion and severe IUGR. Cordocentesis at 23 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 46,XX, but polymorphic DNA marker analysis revealed maternal UPD 16. Repeat amniocentesis was performed at 27 weeks of gestation and revealed a karyotype of 46, XX in 21/21 colonies. Molecular cytogenetic analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed 22.4% mosaicism (26/116 cells) for trisomy 16 on interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and 20% mosaicism for trisomy 16 on aCGH. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNAs extracted from uncultured amniocytes and parental bloods revealed maternal UPD 16. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a fetus was delivered with facial dysmorphism and severe IUGR. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+16[28]/46,XX[16]. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on placenta confirmed a maternal origin of trisomy 16.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes may present in mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis. Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 should alert the association of maternal UPD 16 which may be associated with congenital heart defects and severe IUGR on prenatal ultrasound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.03.027DOI Listing
May 2021

Low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):345-349

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 31-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 24 weeks of gestation because of IUGR. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 [3]/46,XX [22]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed gene dosage increase in chromosome 16 consistent with 28% mosaicism for trisomy 16. Uniparental disomy (UPD) 7 and UPD 11 were excluded. She underwent repeat amniocentesis at 27 weeks of gestation. Repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 [1]/46,XX [24]. Simultaneous aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed 25%-35% (log ratio = 0.17-0.25) mosaicism for trisomy 16. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis detected trisomy 16 signals in 28/100 (28%) uncultured amniocytes. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis excluded UPD 16. Level II ultrasound revealed no fetal abnormalities except symmetric IUGR. The pregnancy was continued to 37 weeks of gestation, and a 2306-g phenotypically normal baby was delivered. The cord blood had a karyotype of 46, XX in 50/50 lymphocytes. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 [14]/46,XX [36]. Interphase FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells and urinary cells at age three days revealed trisomy 16 signals in 3.8% (4/106) buccal mucosal cells and 6.5% (7/107) urinary cells, compared with 1% in the normal control. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on placenta confirmed trisomy 16 in the placenta and a maternal origin of the extra chromosome 16.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes may present in mosaic trisomy 16 at amniocentesis. Low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis without maternal UPD 16 can be associated with a favorable outcome despite the presence of IUGR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 9q (9q13-q21.33) in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome, and cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):331-334

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from chromosome 9q (9q13-q21.33) in a pregnancy with a favorable outcome, and cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes.

Case Report: A 36-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Cytogenetic analysis on cultured amniocytes revealed a karyotype of 46,XY in 20/20 colonies. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed 30% mosaicism for a de novo 20.3-Mb gene dosage increase at 9q13-q21.33. Repeat amniocentesis and cordocentesis were performed at 21 weeks of gestation. Cytogenetic analysis on cord blood revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [3]/46,XY [37]. aCGH analysis of cord blood revealed 7.5% mosaicism for a 17.15-Mb gene dosage increase at 9q21.11-q21.33. aCGH analysis of uncultured amniocytes revealed 11.7% mosaicism for a 17.15-Mb gene dosage increase at 9q21.11-q21.33. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis excluded uniparental disomy 9. The parental karyotypes were normal. The pregnancy was carried to 37 weeks of gestation, and a 2955-g phenotypically normal male baby was delivered. At birth, the cord blood had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [3]/46,XY [37], the placenta had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [10]/46,XY [30], and the umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [14]/46,XY [36]. aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from cord blood at birth revealed no genomic imbalance. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on buccal mucosal cells at age two months detected 3.8% (4/106 cells) mosaicism for the sSMC, compared with 2% (2/100 cells) in the normal control. The neonate had normal physical development at age two months.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy between cultured amniocytes and uncultured amniocytes may exist in the pregnancy with fetal mosaic sSMC. Low-level mosaicism for an sSMC derived from chromosome 9q13-q21.33 at prenatal diagnosis can be associated with a favorable outcome in the fetus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2021.01.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a pure ring chromosome 21 with a 4.657-Mb 21q22.3 deletion.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;60(1):157-160

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a pure ring chromosome [r(21)] with a 4.657-Mb 21q22.3 deletion.

Case Report: A 44-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype 46,XX,r(21)(p11.2q22.3). Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed a 4.657-Mb deletion at 21q22.3. The parental karyotypes were normal. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with facial dysmorphism and clinodactyly. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of umbilical cord revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,r(21)(p11.2q22.3). aCGH analysis of umbilical cord revealed the result of arr 21q22.3 (43,427,188-48,084,156) × 1.0 with a 4.657-Mb 21q22.3 deletion encompassing 57 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes including TRPM2, TSPEAR, COL18A1, COL6A1, COL6A2, LSS, PCNT, DIP2A, S100B and PRMT2. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the umbilical cord fibroblasts confirmed a 21q22.3 deletion.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of an r(21) should include molecular cytogenetic characterization such as aCGH and FISH to determine the extent of the 21q22.3 deletion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.11.024DOI Listing
January 2021

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from 2q11.1-q12.1 associated with fetal bilateral radial dysplasia.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Nov;59(6):941-944

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of mosaicism for a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from 2q11.1-q12.1 associated with fetal bilateral radial dysplasia.

Case Report: A 27-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation because of club hands on fetal ultrasound. The internal organs of the fetus were normal. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar [13]/46,XY [11]. The parental karyotypes were normal. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis of the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed the result of arr 2q11.1q12.1 (95,529,039-102,825,556) × 3.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)]. The pregnancy was terminated at 20 weeks of gestation, and a malformed fetus was delivered with isolated bilateral radial dysplasia. The cord blood had a karyotype of 47,XY,+mar[24]/46,XY[16]. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis of the DNAs extracted from umbilical cord and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy for chromosome 2. Metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed an sSMC derived from chromosome 2q11.1-q12.1 in cultured amniocytes.

Conclusion: High-level mosaicism for an sSMC derived from chromosome 2q11.1-q12.1 can be associated with fetal abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.09.024DOI Listing
November 2020

Prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy 5 by amniocentesis associated with confined placental mosaicism for trisomy 5 and fetal trisomy 21 in a pregnancy.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Nov;59(6):938-940

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 5 by amniocentesis associated with confined placental mosaicism (CPM) for trisomy 5 and fetal trisomy 21 in a pregnancy.

Case Report: A 45-year-old woman underwent chorionic villus sampling (CVS) at 11 weeks of gestation because of maternal advanced age and an increased nuchal translucency of 4.0 mm in the first-trimester screening. CVS revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+21[98]/48,XY,+5,+21[25]. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from chorionic villi revealed arr (5) × 3, arr (21) × 3 compatible with double trisomy 5 and trisomy 21. The woman underwent amniocenteses at 20 weeks and 22 weeks of gestation. Amniocenteses revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+21. The parental karyotypes were normal. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes showed trisomy 21 of maternal origin and maternal UPD 5. aCGH and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on uncultured amniocytes confirmed trisomy 21. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. The parents decided to continue the pregnancy, and a 2,198-g male baby was delivered at 38 weeks of gestation with characteristic phenotype of Down syndrome of hypertelorism, epicanthic folds and hypoplastic middle phalanx of the fifth fingers. Cytogenetic analysis of cord blood, umbilical cord and placenta revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+21. QF-PCR analysis of the DNA extracted from placenta revealed double trisomy 5 and trisomy 21 with maternal gene dosage increase in chromosome 5 and chromosome 21.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of CPM for trisomy 5 at CVS can be associated with UPD 5 in the fetus, and UPD 5 causes no specific phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.09.023DOI Listing
November 2020

Low-level mosaic trisomy 13 at amniocentesis associated with a favorable outcome in a pregnancy.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Nov;59(6):935-937

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present low-level mosaic trisomy 13 at amniocentesis associated with a favorable outcome in a pregnancy.

Case Report: A 39-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+13[8]/46,XY[20]. The woman underwent cord blood sampling at 22 weeks of gestation. Cytogenetic analysis of cord blood revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+13[2]/46,XY[98]. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from cord blood revealed 10% gene dosage increase in chromosome 13. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. After genetic counseling, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy, and a 2,280-g healthy male baby was delivered at 38 weeks of gestation. The parental karyotypes were normal. The cord blood at birth had a karyotype of 47,XY,+13[1]/46,XY[49]. At age one month, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed no trisomy 13 signals in 100/100 buccal mucosal cells, and trisomy 13 signals in 2/54 (3.7%) urinary cells compared with 0/60 cells in the normal control. The neonate was doing well and presented neither phenotypic abnormalities nor psychomotor disorders at age two months.

Conclusion: Low-level true mosaic trisomy 13 at amniocentesis without ultrasound abnormalities can be associated with a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.09.022DOI Listing
November 2020

Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo 3.19-Mb chromosome 14q32.13-q32.2 deletion of paternal origin.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):766-769

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo 3.19-Mb chromosome 14q32.13-q32.2 deletion of paternal origin.

Case Report: A 36-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 20 weeks of gestation because of an advanced maternal age. Her husband was 36 years old. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,del(14)(q32.1q32.2). Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis showed the result of a 14q32.13-q32.2 deletion. Prenatal ultrasound was unremarkable. The parental karyotypes were normal and did not have such a deletion. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with facial dysmorphism. aCGH was applied on the DNA extracted from cord blood. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis was applied on the DNAs extracted from placenta and parental bloods. aCGH confirmed a 3.19-Mb 14q32.13-q32.2 deletion or arr 14q32.13q32.2 (96,151,751-99,341,476) × 1.0 [GRCh37 (hg19)] encompassing 10 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes of TCL1B, TCL1A, TUNAR, BDKRB2, BDKRB1, ATG2B, GSKIP, AK7, PAPOLA and VRK1. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis confirmed a paternal origin of a de novo interstitial distal 14q deletion.

Conclusion: Determination of the paternal origin of a prenatally detected de novo interstitial distal 14q deletion by polymorphic DNA marker analysis in this case is significant, and the information acquired is useful for genetic counseling, especially when amniocentesis is performed because of an advanced maternal age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.026DOI Listing
September 2020

Prenatal diagnosis of low-level mosaicism for trisomy 21 by amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 21 in the fetus and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):754-757

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present perinatal molecular cytogenetic analysis of low-level mosaicism for trisomy 21 in a pregnancy with maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 21 in the fetus.

Case Report: A 39-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[6]/46,XX[25]. Simultaneous array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed arr (21) × 2-3, (X) × 2 with about 18% gene dosage increase in chromosome 21 consistent with mosaic trisomy 21. Cordocentesis was performed at 20 weeks of gestation, and the cord blood lymphocytes had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[3]/46,XX[72]. Prenatal ultrasound findings were unremarkable. After genetic counseling, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy. At 39 weeks of gestation, a 3,494-g phenotypically normal female baby was delivered without phenotypic features of Down syndrome. There was no dysplasia of middle phalanx of the fifth fingers of both hands. The cord blood had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[2]/46,XX[48]. The placenta had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[37]/46,XX[3]. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[1]/46,XX[39]. aCGH analysis on the DNA extracted from cord blood revealed no genomic imbalance. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis on the DNAs extracted from cord blood and parental bloods revealed maternal uniparental heterodisomy 21 in the baby. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on buccal mucosal cells revealed trisomy 21 signals in 15/101 (14.9%) buccal cells at birth and in 1/122 (0.82%) buccal cells at age 45 days.

Conclusion: Low-level mosaicism for trisomy 21 at amniocentesis associated with maternal UPD 21 in the fetus can have a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.023DOI Listing
September 2020

Cytogenetic discrepancy between uncultured amniocytes and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):728-735

Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis.

Materials And Methods: A 41-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) result suspicious of trisomy 15. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on uncultured amniocytes revealed 26% mosaicism for trisomy 15. She was referred for repeat amniocentesis. aCGH, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) assays and/or conventional cytogenetic analysis were applied on various cells and tissues including uncultured amniocytes, cultured amniocytes, cord blood, placenta, parental bloods and/or buccal mucosal cells.

Results: Repeat amniocentesis at 21 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 46, XY in cultured amniocytes, and 30% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by aCGH and 32% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by FISH in uncultured amniocytes. Repeat amniocentesis at 29 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 46, XY in cultured amniocytes, and 15% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by aCGH and 7.2% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by FISH in uncultured amniocytes. QF-PCR on cultured amniocytes excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 15. A phenotypically normal baby was delivered subsequently with a karyotype of 46, XY in cord blood and 2% mosaicism for trisomy 15 by FISH in buccal mucosal cells. The aCGH analysis revealed trisomy 15 in placenta and no genomic imbalance in cord blood. QF-PCR assays determined a maternal origin of trisomy 15 in placenta.

Conclusion: Cytogenetic discrepancy may occur between uncultured and cultured amniocytes in mosaic trisomy 15 at amniocentesis. The cells of trisomy 15 cell line in prenatally detected mosaic trisomy 15 may decrease in number as the fetus grows. Whenever NIPT suspects trisomy 15, a confirmatory amniocentesis should include genetic analysis on both uncultured and cultured amniocytes to exclude mosaic trisomy 15 and maternal UPD 15, especially when the cultured amniocytes have a normal karyotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.018DOI Listing
September 2020
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