Publications by authors named "Yun-Ting Zhang"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Chlorinated Polyfluorinated Ether Sulfonates and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Adults: Isomers of C8 Health Project in China.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 May 5;56(10):6152-6161. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonates (Cl-PFESAs) are one kind of replacement chemistry for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Recent studies have shown that Cl-PFESAs could interfere with thyroid function in animal models. However, epidemiological evidence on the link between Cl-PFESAs and thyroid function remains scarce. In this study, we focused on two representative legacy perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and two PFOS alternatives (6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESAs) in the general adult population from a cross-sectional study, the "Isomers of C8 Health Project in China". Three serum thyroid hormones (THs), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4), were measured. We fitted generalized linear regression, restricted cubic spline regression, and Bayesian kernel machine regression models to assess associations of individual Cl-PFESAs, legacy PFAS, and PFAS mixtures with THs, respectively. We found individual PFAS and their mixtures were nonlinearly associated with THs. The estimated changes of the TSH level (μIU/mL) at the 95th percentile of 6:2 Cl-PFESA and PFOS against the 5th percentile were -0.74 (95% CI: -0.94, -0.54) and -1.18 (95% CI: -1.37, -0.98), respectively. The present study provided epidemiological evidence for the association of 6:2 Cl-PFESA with thyroid hormone levels in the general adult population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c03757DOI Listing
May 2022

Evolution of Rosaceae Plastomes Highlights Unique Diversification and Independent Origins of Fruiting Cherry.

Front Plant Sci 2021 19;12:736053. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

College of Horticulture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Rosaceae comprises numerous types of economically important fruits, ornamentals, and timber. The lack of plastome characteristics has blocked our understanding of the evolution of plastome and plastid genes of Rosaceae crops. Using comparative genomics and phylogenomics, we analyzed 121 Rosaceae plastomes of 54 taxa from 13 genera, predominantly including (true cherry) and its relatives. To our knowledge, we generated the first comprehensive map of genomic variation across Rosaceae plastomes. Contraction/expansion of inverted repeat regions and sequence losses of the two single-copy regions underlie large genomic variations in size among Rosaceae plastomes. Plastid protein-coding genes were characterized with a high proportion (over 50%) of synonymous variants and insertion-deletions with multiple triplets. Five photosynthesis-related genes were specially selected in perennial woody trees. Comparative genomic analyses implied divergent evolutionary patterns between pomaceous and drupaceous trees. Across all examined plastomes, unique and divergent evolution was detected in plastomes. Phylogenomic analyses and molecular dating highlighted the relatively distant phylogenetic relationship between and relatives (, , , and ), which strongly supported treating the monophyletic true cherry group as a separate genus excluding dwarf cherry. High genetic differentiation and distinct phylogenetic relationships implied independent origins and domestication between fruiting cherries, particularly between () and (). Well-resolved maternal phylogeny suggested that cultivated originated from Longmenshan Fault zone, the eastern edge of Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains, where it was subjected to frequent genomic introgression between its presumed wild ancestors and relatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.736053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8639594PMC
November 2021

Lead Exposure in Developmental Ages Promotes Aβ Accumulation by Disturbing Aβ Transportation in Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier/Blood-Brain Barriers and Impairing Aβ Clearance in the Liver.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2022 Aug 17;200(8):3702-3711. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200072, China.

Environmental lead exposure is closely related to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous study has shown that exposure to lead could result in the cholesterol unbalance and increase amyloid-beta (Aβ) generation in the brain. However, the potential effect of lead exposure on Aβ transportation is poorly reported. In this study, we sought to explore whether lead exposure in developmental ages impaired the integrity of BCSFB and BBB, two highly vascularized structures in the brain in a rat model. The Aβ clearance in the liver was also assessed. Our results showed that lead treatment in developmental ages increased the number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells in rat choroid plexus and microvessels. Moreover, lead exposure markedly increased pro-inflammatory factors expression including TNF-α and IL-1β in rat choroid plexus and microvessels. Interestingly, lead treatment increased the expression of AQP-1 and reduced the expression of TTR, two key proteins associated with the functions of choroid plexus and microvessels. Additionally, the expressions of ABCB1, LRP-1, and RAGE, three major receptors responsible for Aβ transportation, were disturbed by developmental lead exposure. All these pathologies resulted in Aβ deposition within BCSFB and BBB and malfunctions of these two vascularized structures. Finally, we found that lead treatment remarkably inhibited the gene expression of LRP-1, which is responsible for Aβ endocytosis, in the liver tissue of the rat model. Collectively, our results provide the first evidence that developmental lead exposure induces Aβ deposition in BCSFB and BBB and impairs Aβ clearance in the liver, which would ultimately disturb Aβ transportation via choroid plexus/brain microvessels and facilitate Aβ deposition in the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02969-8DOI Listing
August 2022

Associations between both legacy and alternative per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and glucose-homeostasis: The Isomers of C8 health project in China.

Environ Int 2022 01 5;158:106913. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Background: Epidemiological studies on the associations of legacy per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and glucose homeostasis remain discordant. Understanding of PFAS alternatives is limited, and few studies have reported joint associations of PFASs and PFAS alternatives.

Objectives: To investigate associations of novel PFAS alternatives (chlorinated perfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids, Cl-PFESAs and perfluorobutanoic acid, PFBA) and two legacy PFASs (Perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA and perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS) with glucose-homeostasis markers and explore joint associations of 13 legacy and alternative PFASs with the selected outcomes.

Methods: We used cross-sectional data of 1,038 adults from the Isomers of C8 Health Project in China. Associations of PFASs and PFAS alternatives with glucose-homeostasis were explored in single-pollutant models using generalized linear models with natural cubic splines for PFASs. Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) models were applied to assess joint associations of exposures and outcomes. Sex-specific analyses were also conducted to evaluate effect modification.

Results: After adjusting for confounders, both legacy (PFOA, PFOS) and alternative (Cl-PFESAs and PFBA) PFASs were positively associated with glucose-homeostasis markers in single-pollutant models. For example, in the total study population, estimated changes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of fasting glucose at the 95th percentile of 6:2Cl-PFESA and PFOS against the thresholds were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.21) and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.62). Positive joint associations were found in BKMR models with 6:2Cl-PFESA contributing most. Sex-specific associations existed in both single- and multi-pollutant models.

Conclusions: Legacy and alternative PFASs were positively associated with glucose-homeostasis markers. 6:2Cl-PFESA was the primary contributor. Sex-specific associations were also identified. These results indicate that joint associations and effect modification should be considered in risk assessment. However, further studies are recommended to strengthen our findings and to elucidate the mechanisms of action of legacy and alternative PFASs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106913DOI Listing
January 2022

The effects of Cl-PFESAs exposure on blood lipids - A community-based large population study in Guangzhou.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Feb 28;806(Pt 2):150634. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the lipid interference effects of legacy PFASs, however, no studies on PFAS alternatives and blood lipids have been published. In this study, we explored the association between Cl-PFESAs, a typical PFASs alternative in China, and blood lipid profiles in 1336 Guangzhou community residents using linear and non-linear regression models. The results showed a deleterious effect of Cl-PFESAs and blood lipids: adjusted estimates (β) for TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C per natural log unit increase of 6:2 Cl-PFESA were 0.029 (95% CI: 0.020, 0.038), 0.075 (95% CI: 0.049, 0.101), 0.035 (95% CI: 0.021, 0.049) and -0.071 (95% CI: -0.084, -0.058), respectively. The association between Cl-PFESAs and dyslipidemia was also positively significant (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a non-linear relationship was observed in Cl-PFESAs and serum lipid levels using a restricted cubic splines (RCS) model. In summary, our research suggested a negative impact of Cl-PFESAs on blood lipid patterns and a possible non-linear association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150634DOI Listing
February 2022

Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate airway inflammation via modulation of T-helper 17/regulatory T cells balance in mice with ovalbumin-induced asthma.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Aug 23;134(17):2116-2118. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430060, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8439990PMC
August 2021

[Mechanism of puerarin reversing SH-SY5Y cell injury induced by Aβ_(1-42) based on proteomics].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Jul;46(14):3650-3659

Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Shenyang 110000,China.

Puerarin has the anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) activity,which can reverse nerve injury induced by Aβand inhibit neuronal apoptosis.However,its potential pharmacodynamic mechanism still needs to be further researched.The occurrence and development of AD is due to the change of multiple metabolic links in the body,which leads to the destruction of balance.Puerarin may act on multiple targets and multiple metabolic processes to achieve therapeutic purposes.Quantitative proteomic analysis provides a new choice to understand the mechanism as completely as possible.This research adopted SH-SY5Y cells induced by Aβ_(1-42)to establish AD cell model,and Aβimmunofluorescence detection showed that Aβdecreased significantly after puerarin intervention.The mechanism of puerarin reversing SH-SY5Y cell injured by Aβ_(1-42)was further explored by using label-free non-labeled quantitative technology and Western blot detection based on bioinformatics analysis result.The results showed that most of the differential proteins were related to biological processes such as cellular component organization or biogenesis,cellular component organization and cellular component biogenesis,and they mainly participated in the top ten pathways of P value such as pathogenic Escherichia coli infection,m TOR signaling pathway,regulation of autophagy,regulation of actin cytoskeleton,spliceosome,hepatocellular carcinoma,tight junction,non-small cell lung cancer,apoptosis and gap junction.Annexin V/PI flow cytometry and TUNEL were used to detect apoptosis,and the results showed that Aβdecreased significantly and the rate of apoptosis decreased significantly after puerarin intervention.Western blot analysis found that the protein expression level of autophagy related protein LC3Ⅱwas up-regulated after Aβinduction,and the degree of this up-regulation was further enhanced in puerarin intervention group.The trend of the ratio of LC3Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰamong groups was the same as the protein expression level of LC3Ⅱ,the protein expression level of p62 in the control group,AD model group and puerarin intervention group decreased successively.Protein interaction network analysis showed that CAP1 was correlated with TUBA1B,HSP90AB2P,DNM1L,TUBA1A and ERK1/2,and the correlation between CAP1 and ERK1/2 was the highest among them.Western blot showed that the expressions of p-ERK1/2,Bax and CAP1 were significantly down-regulated and the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly up-regulated after puerarin intervention.Therefore,puerarin might improve the SH-SY5Y cells injured by Aβ_(1-42)through the interaction of multiple biological processes and pathways in cells multiple locations,and CAP1 might play an important role among them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210201.403DOI Listing
July 2021

Exposure to isomers of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances increases the risk of diabetes and impairs glucose-homeostasis in Chinese adults: Isomers of C8 health project.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 5;278:130486. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China. Electronic address:

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposure has been linked to diabetes, but evidence on the association of isomers of PFAS with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains scant. This population based cross-sectional study aimed to investigate associations between serum PFAS isomers, glucose-homeostasis markers and T2D, adjusted for multiple potential confounders. We used data from "Isomers of C8 Health Project in China" from July 2015 to October 2016. A total of 10 PFAS including isomers of PFOS and PFOA were measured in serum of 1045 Chinese adults. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model of insulin (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-β) were considered as markers of glucose-homeostasis. We found significant positive associations between serum PFAS isomers and glucose-homeostasis markers, namely, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Per log-unit increase in branched (br)-PFOS concentration was associated with increased fasting blood glucose (β = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.33), fasting insulin (β = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.44, 2.93) and HOMA-IR (β = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.89). As compared to br-PFOS, linear (n)-PFOS and -PFOA showed lesser significant associations with glucose-homeostasis makers. Further, exposure to all PFAS including isomeric PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS increased the risk of T2D with br-PFOS exhibiting the highest risk (OR = 5.41, 95% CI: 3.68-7.96). The associations were stronger among women than men. In conclusion, chronic exposure to PFAS isomers was associated with impaired glucose-homeostasis and may increase the prevalence of T2D in Chinese adults. Given the ubiquity of PFAS in the environment and the public health burden of T2D, future studies are warranted to corroborate the findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130486DOI Listing
September 2021

Early Warning Factors of Death in COVID-19 Patients.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Feb 13;41(1):69-76. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430060, China.

The infectious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread all over the world and been persistently evolving so far. The number of deaths in the whole world has been rising rapidly. However, the early warning factors for mortality have not been well ascertained. In this retrospective, single-centre cohort study, we included some adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University who had been discharged or had died by Apr. 8, 2020. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data at admission were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable analysis, Cox proportional hazard model analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to explore the early warning factors associated with in-hospital death. A total of 159 patients were included in this study, of whom 86 were discharged and 73 died in hospital. Hypertension (52.1% vs. 29.1%, P=0.003) and coronary heart disease (28.8% vs. 12.8%, P=0.012) were more frequent among non-survived patients than among survived patients. The proportions of patients with dyspnoea (67.1% vs. 25.6%, P<0.001), chest distress (58.9% vs. 26.7%, P<0.001) and fatigue (64.4% vs. 25.6%, P<0.001) were significantly higher in the non-survived group than in the survived group. Regression analysis with the Cox proportional hazards mode revealed that increasing odds of in-hospital death were associated with higher IL-6 (odds ratio 10.87, 95% CI 1.41-83.59; P=0.022), lactate (3.59, 1.71-7.54; P=0.001), older age (1.86, 1.03-3.38; P=0.041) and lower lymphopenia (5.44, 2.71-10.93; P<0.001) at admission. The areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) of IL-6, lymphocyte, age and lactate were 0.933, 0.928, 0.786 and 0.753 respectively. The AUC of IL-6 was significantly higher than that of age (z=3.332, P=0.0009) and lactate (z=4.441, P<0.0001) for outcome prediction. There was no significant difference between the AUCs of IL-6 and lymphocyte for outcome prediction (z=0.372, P=0.7101). It was concluded that the potential risk factors of higher IL-6, lactate, older age and lower lymphopenia at admission could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-021-2320-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881912PMC
February 2021

Decrease of Coronal Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter is Associated With Postoperative Cognitive Decline in Patients Undergoing Carotid Endarterectomy.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 Aug 6;35(8):2355-2362. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Gerontology, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, China.

Objective: Patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) have a significant possibility of developing postoperative cognitive decline (POCD). POCD after surgery could be result from cerebral hypotension induced by cross-clamping or postoperative hyperperfusion. Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) exhibits an excellent correlation with invasive intracranial pressure monitoring, Here, the authors explored the risk factors of POCD in patients undergoing CEA, paying close attention to ONSD to test the hypothesis that decrease of coronal ONSD was related to the incidence of POCD.

Design: Observational retrospective review.

Setting: Single tertiary academic center.

Participants: One hundred sixteen patients undergoing CEA from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019.

Intervention: None.

Measurements And Main Results: A multivariate logistic regression, scatter diagrams, and a receiver operating curve were used to evaluate the ability to predict POCD though the change in coronal ONSD. This study ultimately enrolled 84 patients and the incidence of POCD within postoperative two days was 28.6%. Decrease of coronal ONSD (odds ratio [OR], 0.438; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.217-0.881; p = 0.021) and total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) (OR, 25.541, 95% CI 2.100-310.614, p = 0.011) were independent risk factors for POCD. Changes in coronal ONSD had an area under the curve to distinguish POCD of 0.716 (95% CI 0.531-0.902). Using a cutoff of 0.05 cm, changes of coronal ONSD had a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 66.7%.

Conclusions: Decrease of coronal ONSD, measured by ultrasonography and TIVA, were associated with POCD. Change in coronal ONSD was a moderate predictor of incidence of POCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2020.11.006DOI Listing
August 2021

[Chemical constituents and their biosynthesis mechanisms of Polygonum cuspidatum].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Sep;45(18):4364-4372

Hubei University of Chinese Medicine Wuhan 430065, China.

This article reviews the research progress of the chemical constituents and biosynthesis mechanisms of Polygonum cuspidatum. The chemistry components isolated from P. cuspidatum are mainly anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, stilbenes, flavonoids, and other compounds. The synthase genes involved in the biosynthesis process were summarized. The biosynthesis mechanism of stilbenes and anthraquinones was discussed. This article hopefully to provide a reference for further research, development and utilization of P. cuspidatum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200525.201DOI Listing
September 2020

Color-related chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations of Chinese kale can be altered through CRISPR/Cas9 targeted editing of the carotenoid isomerase gene .

Hortic Res 2020 1;7(1):161. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

College of Horticulture, Sichuan Agricultural University, 611130 Chengdu, China.

The carotenoid isomerase gene () of Chinese kale was targeted and edited using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in the present study. The results showed a high mutation rate (81.25%), and 13 mutants were obtained. Only two types of mutations, insertions and replacements, were found. Both the total and individual carotenoid and chlorophyll concentrations of the biallelic and homozygous mutants were reduced, and the total levels declined by 11.89-36.33%. The color of the biallelic and homozygous mutants changed from green to yellow, likely reflecting a reduction in the color-masking effect of chlorophyll on carotenoids. The expression levels of most carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis-related genes, including , were notably lower in the mutants than in the WT plants. In addition, the functional differences between members of this gene family were discussed. In summary, these findings indicate that CRISPR/Cas9 is a promising technique for the quality improvement of Chinese kale and other vegetables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-00379-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527958PMC
October 2020

Abnormal immunity of non-survivors with COVID-19: predictors for mortality.

Infect Dis Poverty 2020 Aug 3;9(1):108. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jiefang Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan, 430060, China.

Background: The number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases has rapidly increased all over the world. Specific information about immunity in non-survivors with COVID-19 is scarce. This study aimed to analyse the clinical characteristics and abnormal immunity of the confirmed COVID-19 non-survivors.

Methods: In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 125 patients with COVID-19 who were died between January 13 and March 4, 2020 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University. A total of 414 randomly recruited patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were discharged from the same hospital during the same period served as control. The demographic, clinical characteristics and laboratory findings at admission, and treatment used in these patients were collected. The immunity-related risk factors associated with in-hospital death were tested by logistic regression models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve.

Results: Non-survivors (70 years, IQR: 61.5-80) were significantly older than survivors (54 years, IQR: 37-65) (P <  0.001). 56.8% of non-survivors was male. Nearly half of the patients (44.9%) had chronic medical illness. In non-survivors, hypertension (49.6%) was the most common comorbidity, followed by diabetes (20.0%) and coronary heart disease (16.0%). The common signs and symptoms at admission of non-survivors were fever (88%), followed by cough (64.8%), dyspnea (62.4%), fatigue (62.4%) and chest tightness (58.4%). Compared with survivors, non-survivors had higher white blood cell (WBC) count (7.85 vs 5.07 × 10/L), more elevated neutrophil count (6.41 vs 3.08 × 10/L), smaller lymphocyte count (0.69 vs 1.20 × 10/L) and lower platelet count (172 vs 211 × 10/L), raised concentrations of procalcitonin (0.21 vs 0.06 ng/mL) and CRP (70.5 vs 7.2 mg/L) (P < 0.001). This was accompanied with significantly decreased levels of CD3 T cells (277 vs 814 cells/μl), CD4 T cells (172 vs 473 cells/μl), CD8 T cells (84 vs 262.5 cells/μl, P < 0.001), CD19 T cells (88 vs 141 cells/μl) and CD16 56 T cells (79 vs 128.5 cells/μl) (P < 0.001). The concentrations of immunoglobulins (Ig) G (13.30 vs 11.95 g/L), IgA (2.54 vs 2.21 g/L), and IgE (71.30 vs 42.25 IU/ml) were increased, whereas the levels of complement proteins (C)3 (0.89 vs 0.99 g/L) and C4 (0.22 vs 0.24 g/L) were decreased in non-survivors when compared with survivors (all P < 0.05). The non-survivors presented lower levels of oximetry saturation (90 vs 97%) at rest and lactate (2.40 vs 1.90 mmol/L) (P < 0.001). Old age, comorbidity of malignant tumor, neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, low CD4 T cells, decreased C3, and low oximetry saturation were the risk factors of death in patients with confirmed COVID-19. The frequency of CD4 T cells positively correlated with the numbers of lymphocytes (r = 0.787) and the level of oximetry saturation (r = 0.295), Whereas CD4 T cells were negatively correlated with age (r =-0.323) and the numbers of neutrophils (r = - 0.244) (all P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Abnormal cellular immunity and humoral immunity were key features of non-survivors with COVID-19. Neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, low CD4 T cells, and decreased C3 were immunity-related risk factors predicting mortality of patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00723-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396941PMC
August 2020

The time window of pet ownership exposure modifies the relationship of Environmental Tobacco Smoke with lung function: A large population-based cohort study.

Environ Res 2020 04 30;183:109197. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China. Electronic address:

There is a large body of evidence linking Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure with impaired lung function. However, it is not known whether exposure to pets modifies this relationship. To investigate if pet ownership changes the association between ETS exposure and lung function, a population-based sample of 7326 children, 7-14 years old, were randomly recruited from 24 districts in northeast China. Lung function including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) was measured by spirometry, while pet ownership time periods and ETS exposure were collected by questionnaire. Two-level regression analysis was done, with covariates controlled for. The results showed pet exposure in certain early lifetime windows modified the associations of ETS exposure on decreased lung function in children. Among children exposed to current ETS, those exposed to pets in utero had greater reductions in lung function (for instance: OR for reduced FVC (<85% predicted) = 10.86; 95% CI: 3.80-30.97) than those not exposed to pets in utero (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.76-3.05) (p = 0.005). While, children exposed to current pet ownership reduced the lung function impairment induced by ETS exposure during the first 2 years of life and/or ETS exposure during pregnancy, especially for FVC impairment. For instance, OR (95%CI) for reduced FVC (<85% predicted) was 0.81 (0.56, 1.18) and 1.42 (1.15, 1.74), respectively, for children with or without current pet ownership exposed to ETS during the first 2 years of life (p = 0.010). Furthermore, pet type or number of pets did not significantly modify associations between ETS exposure and lung function. In conclusion, the timing of pet ownership modified associations between ETS exposure and lung function, pet ownership in utero and during the first 2 years of life significantly worsened the adverse impacts of passive smoking on lung function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109197DOI Listing
April 2020

(Z)-ligustilide increases ferroportin1 expression and ferritin content in ischemic SH-SY5Y cells.

Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Dec 24;792:48-53. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Laboratory of Neuropharmacology, Fudan University School of Pharmacy, Shanghai 201203, PR China. Electronic address:

The mechanisms involved in the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties of (Z)-ligustilide (LIG) are not fully elucidated. Based on the accumulated data, we hypothesized that LIG might be able to reduce ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase in brain iron by regulating expression of iron transport proteins. We therefore investigated the effects of LIG on iron uptake protein transferrin receptor 1, iron exporter protein ferroportin 1, iron storage protein ferritin light chain and also hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-treated SH-SY5Y cells, using Western blot analysis. We demonstrated that LIG completely reversed the OGD/R-induced reduction of ferroportin 1, increased ferritin light chain content, and also suppressed the OGD-induced increase in HIF-1 alpha in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings imply that LIG might reduce the OGD/R-induced increase in brain iron by promoting cell iron release and iron corporation into ferritin, and also by inhibiting the HIF-1 alpha-induced increase in transferrin-bound iron uptake and iron accumulation in the brain, consequently attenuating iron-mediated free radical formation, oxidative stress and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.10.029DOI Listing
December 2016

Gray matter atrophy in patients with Parkinson's disease and those with mild cognitive impairment: a voxel-based morphometry study.

Int J Clin Exp Med 2015 15;8(9):15383-92. Epub 2015 Sep 15.

Department of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University Lanzhou 730030, China.

Purpose: Mild cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson's disease, but the underlying pathological mechanism has not been fully understood. To examine the gray matter changes in patients with Parkinson's disease and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using voxel based Morphometry (VBM).

Methods: Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 35 patients with PD and 20 age and sex-matched healthy control subjects. In the PD group, 14 subjects had no MCI and 21 had MCI. MRI 3D structural images were acquired and analyzed by means of the optimized VBM procedure with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5).

Results: Widespread areas of cortical atrophy were found in patients with PD compared with normal controls (in both temporal, occipital, parietal, frontal lobes and right limbic lobes, posterior lobes of the cerebellum and left caudate nucleus). Gray matter reductions were found in bilateral fusiform gyrus and lingual gyrus, left anterior cingulate cortex and insula, and right superior temporal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, central gyrus and precuneus in patients with PD with MCI compared with normal controls. Inpatients with PD with MCI, areas of reduced gray matter were found in both precentral gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, right cuneus, precuneus, and orbitofrontal cortex, and left fusiform gyrus compared with those without MCI.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that PD is associated with the gray matter atrophy in the neocortical areas, and that cognitive impairment in patients with PD may be associated with gray matter changes in the parieto-occipital association cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, and middle temporal gyrus.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4658916PMC
December 2015

Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of the peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer, 1776.

J Morphol 2015 Feb 4;276(2):219-27. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Department of Grassland, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China, 100193.

The antennal sensilla of alate Myzus persicae were mapped using transmission electron microscopy and the ultrastructure of sensilla trichoidea, coeloconica, and placoidea are described. Trichoid sensilla, located on the tip of the antennae, are innervated by 2-4 neurons, with some outer dendrites reaching the distal end of the hair. Coeloconic sensilla in primary rhinaria are of two morphological types, both equipped with two dendrites. Dendrites of Type II coeloconic sensilla are enveloped in the dendrite sheath, containing the sensillum lymph. In sensilla coeloconica of Type I, instead, dendrites are enclosed by an electron opaque solid cuticle, with no space left for the sensillum lymph. The ultrastructure of big placoid sensillum reveals the presence of three groups of neurons, with 2-3 dendrites in each neuron group, while both small placoid sensilla are equipped with a single group of neurons, consisting of three dendrites. Both large and small placoid sensilla bear multiple pores on the outer cuticle. The function of these sensilla is also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20335DOI Listing
February 2015

Comparative functional MRI study to assess brain activation upon active and passive finger movements in patients with cerebral infarction.

Eur Neurol 2015 29;73(1-2):13-9. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

Department of Radiology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Purpose: To compare the effects of active and passive movements on brain activation in patients with cerebral infarction using fMRI.

Methods: Twenty-four hemiplegic patients with cerebral infarction were evaluated using fMRI. All patients performed active and passive finger opposition movements. Patients were instructed to perform the finger opposition movement for the active movement task. For the passive movement task, the subject's fingers were moved by the examiner to perform the finger opposition movement. Statistical parametric mapping software was used for statistical analyses and to process all data.

Results: In the affected hemisphere, sensorimotor cortex (SMC) activation intensity and range were significantly stronger during the passive movement of the affected fingers compared to the active movement of the affected fingers (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between active and passive movements of unaffected fingers in SMC activation intensity and range in the unaffected hemisphere (p > 0.05). In addition, the passive movement activated many other regions of the brain. The brain regions activated by passive movements of the affected fingers tended to center toward the contralateral SMC.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that passive movements induce cortical reorganization in patients with cerebral infarction. Therefore, passive movement is likely beneficial for motor function recovery in patients with cerebral infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000366099DOI Listing
April 2016

[Differentiation of axillary inflammatory and metastatic lymph nodes with diffusion-weighted imaging in animal modes].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2012 Mar;92(9):592-5

Magnetic Resonance Room, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, Tianjin 300060, China.

Objective: To evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the differentiation of axillary inflammatory hyperplastic and metastatic lymph nodes.

Methods: Forty female New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into 2 groups (n = 20 each). And the animal models of axillary inflammatory hyperplastic and metastatic lymph nodes were established. All successfully implanted models received conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) examinations. The features of signal intensity and shapes of lymph nodes were observed in two groups. The sizes of lymph nodes were measured on the selected axial T(2)WI. The signal intensity and appearance diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of lymph nodes and dorsal muscle at the same slice were measured on the selected T(2)WI, DWI and ADC map respectively. The relative signal intensity (rSIT(2)WI, rSIDWI) and relative ADC (rADC) value of lymph nodes to dorsal muscle were calculated and compared. The diagnostic efficacy of differentiating benign and malignant lymph nodes was analyzed with rADC value through the receiver operating characteristic curve. The correlation between rADC value and cell density was assessed with pathological findings as reference standard.

Results: The differences of size, rSIT(2)WI and rSIDWI were not statistically significant between two groups. The rADC value of inflammatory lymph nodes was greater than that of metastatic lymph nodes (0.91 ± 0.14 vs 0.64 ± 0.18). Significant difference existed (t = 3.879, P = 0.03). But there was a little overlap between two groups. With 0.78 as the diagnostic threshold of rADC value, the sensibility and specificity was 86.2% and 74.4% respectively. The correlation between rADC value and cell density of inflammatory hyperplastic and metastatic lymph nodes was significantly inverse (r = -0.53, P = 0.003).

Conclusions: As compared with the routine MRI sequence, rADC value has a higher diagnostic efficacy in the differentiation of benign and malignant lymph nodes. Cell density may be the most important influencing factor for the differences of rADC value between two groups of lymph nodes.
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March 2012

Magnetic resonance imaging in assessment of treatment response of gamma knife for brain tumors.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2011 Jun;124(12):1906-10

Department of Radiology, Fourth Central Hospital of Tianjin, Tianjin 300140, China.

Objective: To review the applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in assessing treatment response to gamma knife radiosurgery for brain tumors.

Data Sources: Published articles about assessing treatment response to gamma knife radiosurgery for brain tumors were selected using PubMed. The search terms were "MRI", "gamma knife" and "brain tumors".

Study Selection: Articles regarding the MRI techniques using for early assessment of treatment response of gamma knife were selected.

Results: MRI techniques, especially diffusion weighted imaging, perfusion weighted imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are useful for early assessment of treatment response of gamma knife by detecting the hemodynamic, metabolic, and cellular alterations. Moreover, they can also provide important information on prognosis.

Conclusions: Diffusion weighted imaging, perfusion weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy can provide early assessment of treatment response of gamma knife for brain tumors, and also information of tumor progression or recurrence earlier than conventional MRI. But there are still many questions to be answered which should be based on the development and advancement of MRI and related disciplines.
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June 2011

Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-(BOLD-) based R2' MRI study in monkey model of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion.

J Biomed Biotechnol 2011 6;2011:318346. Epub 2011 Feb 6.

Department of Radiology, General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, 154 Anshan Road Heping District Tianjin 300052, China.

Objective: To investigate the value of BOLD-based reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2') MRI in detecting ischemic penumbra (IP) in a monkey model of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and time evolution of relative R2' (rR2') in infarcted core, IP, and oligemia.

Materials And Methods: 6 monkeys were used to make MCAO by the microcatheter method. MR scans were performed at 0 h (1 h after MCAO), 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after reperfusion. R2' was calculated using quantitative T2 and T2* maps. Ischemic area was subdivided into infracted core, IP and oligemia. rR2' was calculated respectively.

Results: Reversible MCAO model for 4/6 monkeys was made successfully. rR2' values were significantly different at each time point, being highest in oligemia followed by IP and infarcted core (P < .05). With reperfusion time evolution, rR2' in infarcted core showed a decreased trend: sharply decreased within 6 hours and maintained at 0 during 6-48 hours (P < .05). rR2' values in IP and oligemia showed similar increased trend: sharply increased within 6 hours, maintained a plateau during 6-24 hours, and slightly increased until 48 hours.

Conclusion: BOLD-based R2' MRI can be used to describe changes of cerebral oxygen extract in acute ischemic stroke, and it can provide additional information in detecting IP. The time evolution rR2' in infarcted core, IP, and oligemia is in accordance with the underlying pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/318346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3038692PMC
June 2011

Functional magnetic resonance imaging and immunohistochemical study of hypothalamic function following oral glucose ingestion in rats.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2007 Jul;120(14):1232-5

Department of Radiology, Beijing Hospital, Beijing 100730, China.

Background: The hypothalamus plays a central role in the regulation of metabolism by sensing metabolic demands and releasing regulatory neurotransmitters. This study investigated the response of the hypothalamus to glucose ingestion in rats by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and immunohistochemical techniques to determine the role of the hypothalamus in glyco-regulation during disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism.

Methods: The signal intensity of the hypothalamus was monitored by fMRI for 60 minutes after oral glucose intake in 48 healthy rats (age 14 months), which included 24 normal weight rats (weighing (365 +/- 76.5) g) and 24 overweight rats (weighing (714 +/- 83.5) g). Then, 12 rats (6 normal, 6 overweight) underwent a repeat fMRI scan after consuming an equivalent amount of water without glucose on a separate day. The procedure for fMRI with water intake was the same as for glucose ingestion. fMRI data was processed using time cluster analysis and intensity averaging method. After fMRI, the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the hypothalamus of all rats was determined by immunohistochemistry. Positive cells for NPY or 5-HT were counted.

Results: There was a transient, but significant, decrease in fMRI signal intensity in all rats (mean (3.12 +/- 0.78)%) in the hypothalamus within 19.5 - 25.5 minutes of oral glucose ingestion. In overweight rats, the decrease in signal intensity in response to the glucose ingestion was more markedly attenuated than that observed in normal weight rats ((2.2 +/- 1.5)% vs (4.2 +/- 0.7)% inhibition, t = 2.12, P < 0.05). There was no significant response in the hypothalamus after oral water ingestion. The percentage of NPY positive cells in obese rats were slightly lower than those in control group (21% vs 23%, t = 0.71, P > 0.05); but there was no significant difference between the two groups; the percentage of 5-HT positive cells in obese rats were significantly lower than those in the control group (22% vs 31%, t = 3.25, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: There is a transient, but significant, decrease in BOLD signal intensity in the hypothalamus following glucose ingestion, which is similar to that observed in humans. The response of the hypothalamus to glucose ingestion was different in overweight and normal weight rats. The percentage of NPY positive cells in obese rats were lower than those in the control group, although this difference was not statistically significant. The percentage of 5-HT positive cells in obese rats was significantly lower than those in the control group.
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July 2007

[The application of multi-slice CT dynamic enhancement scan in the diagnosis and treatment of colonic lymphomas].

Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2006 Nov;28(11):876-8

CT Department, Shandong Medical Imaging Institute, Jinan 250021, China.

Objective: To discuss the value of multi-slice CT dynamic enhancement scan in the diagnosis and treatment of colonic lymphomas.

Methods: 16 patients with colonic lymphomas underwent multi-slice CT dynamic enhancement scans, images of axial and reconstructive images of VR, MPR and CTVE were analyzed, patients were respectively diagnosed.

Results: Appearances of primary colorectal lymphomas were categorized into focal and diffuse lesions. Focal and diffuse lesions were 6 and 10 patients, respectively. The accuracy rate of diagnosis was 87.5%.

Conclusion: MSCT dynamic scan has distinctive superiority in diagnosis and treatment of colonic lymphomas.
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November 2006

Clinical application of 64-slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of the Tetralogy of Fallot.

Eur J Radiol 2007 Nov 30;64(2):296-301. Epub 2007 Mar 30.

Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin City, PR China.

Objective: To explore the clinical application of 64-slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of the Tetralogy of Fallot.

Methods: Eighteen patients with diagnosed Tetralogy of Fallot underwent cardiac CT angiography with 64-slice CT (CTA). Two- and three-dimensional images were used for diagnosing in all cases by means of MPR (coronal, sagital and oblique), cMPR, MIP and VRT.

Results: All patients had ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis and hypertrophy of right ventricle. The morphologic features of Tetralogy of Fallot were equal to echocardiography. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) were detected on eight patients. Main coronary artery branches and partial sub-branches were visualized in all patients. Abnormal coronary arteries were found in seven cases: both left and right main coronary artery arising from the right aortic sinus one case, right main coronary artery and circumflex (CX) arising from the right aortic sinus one case, left anterior descending (LAD) and CX arising from left aortic sinus directly one case, left and right coronary artery arising from back and front of the aortic sinus, respectively, three cases. Pulmonary artery branch stenosis was found in 12 cases and branch pulmonary artery dilation noticed in 1 case. Double superior vena cava was also found in one case. According to the surgery the diagnostic accuracy of CT and Echocardiography was 95.45 and 83.33%, respectively.

Conclusion: Two- and three-dimensional 64-slice CTA not only show the overall anatomical structure of the heart, but also show coronary and pulmonary arteries. With these results, evaluation of coronary anomalies and pulmonary artery stenosis with 64-MSCT is extremely valuable for planning the operative procedure on the patients with Tetralogy of Fallot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2007.02.026DOI Listing
November 2007

Auditory cortical responses evoked by pure tones in healthy and sensorineural hearing loss subjects: functional MRI and magnetoencephalography.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2006 Sep;119(18):1548-54

Department of Radiology, General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300052, China.

Background: Blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography are new techniques of brain functional imaging which can provide the information of excitation of neurons by measure the changes of hemodynamics and electrophysiological data of local brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to study functional brain areas evoked by pure tones in healthy and sensorineural hearing loss subjects with these techniques and to compare the differences between the two groups.

Methods: Thirty healthy and 30 sensorineural hearing loss subjects were included in this study. In fMRI, block-design paradigm was used. During the active epoch the participants listened to 1000 Hz, sound pressure level 140 dB pure tones at duration 500 ms, interstimulus interval 1000 ms, which presented continuously via a magnetic resonance-compatible audio system. None stimulus was executed in control epoch. In magnetoencephalography study, every subject received stimuli of 1000 Hz tone bursts delivered to the bilateral ear at duration 8 ms, interstimulus intervals 1000 ms. Sound pressure level in healthy subjects was 30 dB; in sensorineural hearing loss subjects was 20 dB above everyone's hearing threshold respectively. All subjects were examined with 306-channel whole-scalp neuromagnetometer.

Results: In fMRI, all subjects showed significant activations in bilateral Heschl's gyri, anterior pole of planum temporale, planum temporale, precentral gyri, postcentral gyri, supramarginal gyri, superior temporal gyri, inferior frontal gyri, occipital lobes and cerebellums. The healthy subjects had more intensive activation in bilateral Heschl's gyri, anterior pole of planum temporale, inferior frontal gyri, left superior temporal gyri and right planum temporale than the hearing loss subjects. But in precentral gyri, postcentral gyri and occipital lobes, the activation is more intensive in the hearing loss subjects. In magnetoencephalography study, both in the hearing loss and the healthy subjects, the most evident audio evoked fields activated by pure tone were N100m, which located precisely on the Heschl's gyrus. Compared with the hearing loss subjects, N100m of the healthy subjects was stronger and had longer latencies in right hemisphere.

Conclusions: Under proper pure tone stimulus the activation of auditory cortex can be elicited both in the healthy and the sensorineural hearing loss subjects. Either at objective equivalent stimuli or at subjectively perceived equivalent stimuli, the auditory responses were more intensive in healthy subjects than hearing loss subjects. The tone stimuli were processed in a network in human brain and there was an intrinsic relation between the auditory and visual cortex. Blood oxygen level dependent fMRI and magnetoencephalography could reinforce each other.
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September 2006

Age-related changes of normal adult brain structure: analysed with diffusion tensor imaging.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2005 Jul;118(13):1059-65

Department of Radiology, General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300052, China.

Background: It is known that the brain structure changes with normal aging. The objective of this study was to quantify the anisotropy and average diffusion coefficient (DCavg) of the brain in normal adults to demonstrate the microstructure changes of brain with aging.

Methods: One hundred and six normal adults were examined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The fractional anisotropy (FA), 1-volume ratio (1-VR), relative anisotropy (RA) and average diffusion coefficient (DCavg) of different anatomic sites of brain were measured, correlated with age and compared among three broad age groups.

Results: Except in lentiform nucleus, the anisotropy increased and DCavg decreased with aging. Both anisotropy and DCavg of lentiform nucleus increased with aging. The normal reference values of DTI parameters of normal Chinese adult in major anatomic sites were acquired.

Conclusions: DTI data obtained noninvasively can reflect the microstructural changes with aging. The normal reference values acquired can serve as reference standards in differentiation of brain white matter diseases.
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July 2005

Laterality of brain areas associated with arithmetic calculations revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2005 Apr;118(8):633-8

Department of Radiology, General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300052, China.

Background: Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions: arithmetic calculation may be one of these phenomena. In this study, first, laterality of brain areas associated with arithmetic calculations was revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Second, the relationship among laterality, handedness, and types of arithmetic task was assessed. Third, we postulate possible reasons for laterality.

Methods: Using a block-designed experiment, twenty-five right-handed and seven left-handed healthy volunteers carried out simple calculations, complex calculations and proximity judgments. T1WI and GRE-EPI fMRI were performed with a GE 1.5T whole body MRI scanner. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) was used to process data and localize functional areas. Numbers of activated voxels were recorded to calculate laterality index for evaluating the laterality of functional brain areas.

Results: For both groups, the activation of functional areas in the frontal lobe showed a tendency towards the nonpredominant hand side, but the functional areas in the inferior parietal lobule had left laterality. During simple and complex calculations, the laterality indices of the prefrontal cortex and premotor area were higher in the right-handed group than that in the left-handed group, whereas the laterality of the inferior parietal lobule had no such significant difference. In both groups, when the difficulty of the task increased, the laterality of the prefrontal cortex, premotor area, and inferior parietal lobule decreased, but the laterality of posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus increased.

Conclusions: The laterality of the functional brain areas associated with arithmetic calculations can be detected with fMRI. The laterality of the functional areas was related to handedness and task difficulty.
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April 2005
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