Publications by authors named "Yun Zheng"

315 Publications

Dialect Effects on Mandarin Tone Perception Development.

Lang Speech 2021 Sep 23:238309211046280. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, China.

This study aimed to characterize factors that influence early dialect development in a language environment with multiple dialects. Children were evaluated for these dialect effects compared with normal hearing referenced measures of speech and language development that are commonly implemented in hearing-impaired children. Dialect exposure and use were assessed longitudinally in Chinese children (2-6 years old) that were raised in a community where Putonghua (PTH) and Sichuanhua (SCH) Mandarin dialects were used. Lexical tones in these dialects are different. A total of 20 boys and 20 girls (2 years old at the beginning of the study) that attended the same nursery school were included in this study. SCH was used by the majority of subjects <4 years old. The majority of subjects >4 years old used either dialect, with a few users of both dialects at this age. PTH tone perception did not differ significantly as a function of dialect use. Tone recognition and discrimination were >90% accurate by 6 years old, in contrast to previous results for children with minimal exposure and use of PTH. Children with approximately ⩾50% PTH exposure might be accurately assessed with norm-referenced speech materials spoken in PTH, regardless of their preferred dialect. However, the current norm-referenced assessments of children with minimal PTH exposure and nonusers of the dialect might be inaccurate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00238309211046280DOI Listing
September 2021

Sulfur-doped wood-derived porous carbon for optimizing electromagnetic response performance.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, P. R. China.

Bio-mass materials have been selected as one of the advanced electromagnetic (EM) functional materials due to their natural porous framework for dynamically and flexibly optimizing the EM response property. Herein, we demonstrate sulfur-doped wood-derived porous carbon EM materials (SPC) for optimizing the EM response performance the coupling between doped heterostructures and the original 3D microchannels. The experimental results reveal that both the dielectric loss capacity and interfacial impedance matching could be increased by the sulfur-doped heterostructures. By tailoring the sulfur content, the microwave absorption (normalized RL) of SPC could be optimized to -15.90 dB mm, while the effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) could cover the K band. Moreover, the shielding effectiveness of SPC can be enhanced from 10 dB to 30 dB with the assistance of water, ascribed to the super-wettability performance. This present study provides a novel strategy to further optimize the EM response performance of wood-derived materials, and meanwhile could be widely extended to other bio-mass absorbers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr04232gDOI Listing
September 2021

Gut microbiota and metabolites of α-synuclein transgenic monkey models with early stage of Parkinson's disease.

NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes 2021 09 2;7(1):69. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

State Key Laboratory of Primate Biomedical Research, Institute of Primate Translational Medicine, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease. However, it is unclear whether microbiota and metabolites have demonstrated changes at early PD due to the difficulties in diagnosis and identification of early PD in clinical practice. In a previous study, we generated A53T transgenic monkeys with early Parkinson's symptoms, including anxiety and cognitive impairment. Here we analyzed the gut microbiota by metagenomic sequencing and metabolites by targeted gas chromatography. The gut microbiota analysis showed that the A53T monkeys have higher degree of diversity in gut microbiota with significantly elevated Sybergistetes, Akkermansia, and Eggerthella lenta compared with control monkeys. Prevotella significantly decreased in A53T transgenic monkeys. Glyceric acid, L-Aspartic acid, and p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid were significantly elevated, whereas Myristic acid and 3-Methylindole were significantly decreased in A53T monkeys. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (KO0131) and the oxidative phosphorylation reaction (KO2147) were significantly increased in metabolic pathways of A53T monkeys. Our study suggested that the transgenic A53T and α-syn aggregation may affect the intestine microbiota and metabolites of rhesus monkeys, and the identified five compositional different metabolites that are mainly associated with mitochondrial dysfunction may be related to the pathogenesis of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41522-021-00242-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413421PMC
September 2021

The Simulation Design of Microwave Absorption Performance for the Multi-Layered Carbon-Based Nanocomposites Using Intelligent Optimization Algorithm.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jul 29;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

The optimal design objectives of the microwave absorbing (MA) materials are high absorption, wide bandwidth, light weight and thin thickness. However, it is difficult for single-layer MA materials to meet all of these requirements. Constructing multi-layer structure absorbing coating is an important means to improve performance of MA materials. The carbon-based nanocomposites are excellent MA materials. In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) are used to optimize the design of multi-layer materials. We selected ten kinds of materials to construct the multi-layer absorbing material and optimize the performance. Two algorithms were applied to optimize the two-layer MA material with a total thickness of 3 mm, and it was found that the optimal bandwidth was 8.12 GHz and reflectivity was -53.4 dB. When three layers of MA material with the same thickness are optimized, the ultra-wide bandwidth was 10.6 GHz and ultra-high reflectivity was -84.86 dB. The bandwidth and reflectivity of the optimized material are better than the single-layer material without optimization. Comparing the GA and the ABC algorithm, the ABC algorithm can obtain the optimal solution in the shortest time and highest efficiency. At present, no such results have been reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11081951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400227PMC
July 2021

Tissue-engineered esophagus: recellular esophageal extracellular matrix based on perfusion-decellularized technique and mesenchymal stem cells.

Biomed Mater 2021 Aug 27;16(5). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

Perfusion-decellularization was an interesting technique to generate a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) with the complete three-dimensional anatomical structure and vascular system. In this study, the esophageal ECM (E-ECM) scaffold was successfully constructed by perfusion-decellularized technique through the vascular system for the first time. And the physicochemical and biological properties of the E-ECM scaffolds were evaluated. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were induced to differentiate into myocytes. E-ECM scaffolds reseeded with myocytes were implanted into the greater omenta to obtain recellular esophageal ECM (RE-ECM), a tissue-engineered esophagus. The results showed that the cells of the esophagi were completely and uniformly removed after perfusion. E-ECM scaffolds retained the original four-layer organizational structure and vascular system with excellent biocompatibility. And the E-ECM scaffolds had no significant difference in mechanical properties comparing with fresh esophagi,> 0.05. Immunocytochemistry showed positive expression of-sarcomeric actin, suggesting that BMSCs had successfully differentiated into myocytes. Most importantly, we found that in the RE-ECM muscularis, the myocytes regenerated linearly and continuously and migrated to the deep, and the tissue vascularization was obvious. The cell survival rates at 1 week and 2 weeks were 98.5 ± 3.0% and 96.4 ± 4.6%, respectively. It was demonstrated that myocytes maintained the ability for proliferation and differentiation for at least 2 weeks, and the cell activity was satisfactory in the RE-ECM. It follows that the tissue-engineered esophagus based on perfusion-decellularized technique and mesenchymal stem cells has great potential in esophageal repair. It is proposed as a promising alternative for reconstruction of esophageal defects in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/ac1d3dDOI Listing
August 2021

Reversible photoluminescence modulation of monolayer MoS on a ferroelectric substrate by light irradiation and thermal annealing.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Aug 4;23(32):17265-17270. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institute of Modern Optics, School of Physics, Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Information System, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Key Laboratory of Micro-Optics and Photonic Technology of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China.

Monolayer semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) materials are strongly emerging materials for exploring the spin-valley coupling effect and fabricating novel optoelectronic devices due to their unique structural symmetry and band structures. Due to their atomic thickness, their excitonic optical response is highly sensitive to the dielectric environment. In this work, we present a novel approach to reversibly modulate the optical properties of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS) via changing the dielectric properties of the substrate by laser irradiation and thermal annealing. We chose LiNbO as the substrate and recorded the PL spectra of monolayer MoS on LiNbO substrates with positive (P) and negative (P) ferroelectric polarities. A distinct PL intensity of the A peak was observed due to opposite doping by surface charges. Under light irradiation, the PL intensity of monolayer MoS on P FeO-doped LiNbO gradually decreased with time due to the reduction of intrinsic p-doping, which originated from the drift of photo-excited electrons under a spontaneous polarization field and accumulation on the surface. The PL intensity was found to be restored by thermal annealing which could erase the charge redistribution. This study provides a strategy to reversibly modulate the optical properties of monolayer 2D materials on top of ferroelectric materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp02248bDOI Listing
August 2021

Application of "Hand as Foot" teaching method in the coarctation of aorta.

Asian J Surg 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Inner Mongolia Medical University, Department of Emergency Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot North Street, Inner Mongolia, 010050, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.07.027DOI Listing
July 2021

Objective and Subjective Outcomes in Patients with Hearing Aids: A Cross-Sectional, Comparative, Associational Study.

Audiol Neurootol 2021 Jul 28:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Hearing Center/Hearing and Speech Laboratory, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Introduction: Outcome assessment for hearing aids (HAs) is an essential part of HA fitting and validation. There is no consensus about the best or standard approach for evaluating HA outcomes. And, the relationship between objective and subjective measures is ambiguous. This study aimed to determine the outcomes after HA fitting, explore correlations between subjective benefit and acoustic gain improvement as well as objective audiologic tests, and investigate several variables that may improve patients' perceived benefits.

Methods: Eighty adults with bilateral symmetrical hearing loss using HAs for at least 1 month were included in this study. All subjects completed the pure tone average (PTA) threshold and word recognition score (WRS) tests in unaided and aided conditions. We also administered the Chinese version of International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA), to measure participants' subjective benefits. Objective HA benefit (acoustic gain improvement) was defined as the difference in thresholds or scores between aided and unaided conditions indicated with ΔPTA and ΔWRS. Thus, patients' baseline hearing levels were taken into account. Correlations were assessed among objective audiologic tests (PTA and WRS), acoustic gain improvement (ΔPTA and ΔWRS), multiple potential factors, and IOI-HA overall scores.

Results: PTA decreased significantly, but WRS did not increase when aided listening was compared to unaided listening. Negative correlations between PTAs and IOI-HA scores were significant but weak (r = -0.370 and r = -0.393, all p < 0.05). Significant weak positive correlations were found between WRSs and IOI-HA (r = 0.386 and r = 0.309, all p < 0.05). However, there was no correlation among ΔPTA, ΔWRS, and IOI-HA (r = 0.056 and r = -0.086, all p > 0.05). Moreover, 2 nonaudiological factors (age and daily use time) were significantly correlated with IOI-HA (r = -0.269 and r = 0.242, all p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Correlations among objective audiologic tests, acoustic gain, and subjective patient-reported outcomes were weak or absent. Subjective questionnaires and objective tests do not reflect the same hearing capability. Therefore, it is advisable to evaluate both objective and subjective outcomes when analyzing HA benefits on a regular basis and pay equal attention to nonaudiological and audiological factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516623DOI Listing
July 2021

Assessment of seawater bacterial infection in rabbit tibia by Illumina MiSeq sequencing and bacterial culture.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Jul 21;16(1):463. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Joint Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Objectives: We aimed to explore the bacterial community composition following ocean bacterial infection using an animal model.

Methods: This animal-based experiment was conducted from September 2019 to November 2019. Eighteen seawater filter membranes were collected from Changle City, Fujiian Province, China, on September 8, 2019. Ten filter membranes were used for implantation. Eight filter membranes that were used in the bacterial culture for the exploration of seawater bacteria were assigned to the seawater group (SG). Fourteen healthy adult New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). Seawater filter membranes and asepsis membranes were implanted into the tibia in the EG and CG, respectively. One week after surgery, tibial bone pathology tissues were collected and assessed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Medullary cavity tissues were collected for the performance of Illumina MiSeq sequencing and bacterial culture. The differences between EG and CG were assessed by pathological observation under light microscopy and SEM, high-throughput bacterial sequencing, and bacterial culture.

Results: Compared with the CG, the infection rate was 100%, and the mortality value was 20% after the implantation of the filter membranes in the EG. Both light microscopy and SEM showed that a large number of bacteria were distributed in the bone marrow cavity after ocean bacterial infection. No bacterial growth was found in the CG. Illumina MiSeq sequencing found that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Thermotogae, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were the dominant bacteria at the phylum level and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_7, Haloimpatiens, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_15, Clostridiaceae_1, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_18, and Oceanotoga were the dominant bacteria in genus level among the EG. In the bacterial culture of the medullary cavity tissues, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shewanella algae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, and Vibrio vulnificus were the predominant infective species. Moreover, compared with the SG, the EG showed a higher detection rate of E. coli and S. aureus (P = 0.008 and P = 0.001, respectively). The detection rates of V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. fluvialis were higher in the SG than the EG (P = 0.007, P = 0.03, and P = 0.03, respectively).

Conclusions: Our model, which was comprehensively evaluated using four techniques: histopathology and SEM observation, gene detection, and bacteria culture, provides a scientific basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients in such settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02553-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293552PMC
July 2021

Electrolyte Design for Lithium Metal Anode-Based Batteries Toward Extreme Temperature Application.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Sep 17;8(18):e2101051. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Waterloo Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Lithium anode-based batteries (LBs) are highly demanded in society owing to the high theoretical capacity and low reduction potential of metallic lithium. They are expected to see increasing deployment in performance critical areas including electric vehicles, grid storage, space, and sea vehicle operations. Unfortunately, competitive performance cannot be achieved when LBs operating under extreme temperature conditions where the lithium-ion chemistry fail to perform optimally. In this review, a brief overview of the challenges in developing LBs for low temperature (<0 °C) and high temperature (>60 °C) operation are provided followed by electrolyte design strategies involving Li salt modification, solvation structure optimization, additive introduction, and solid-state electrolyte utilization for LBs are introduced. Specifically, the prospects of using lithium metal batteries (LMBs), lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries, and lithium oxygen (Li-O ) batteries for performance under low and high temperature applications are evaluated. These three chemistries are presented as prototypical examples of how the conventional low temperature charge transfer resistances and high temperature side reactions can be overcome. This review also points out the research direction of extreme temperature electrolyte design toward practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202101051DOI Listing
September 2021

Bergenin, a PPARγ agonist, inhibits Th17 differentiation and subsequent neutrophilic asthma by preventing GLS1-dependent glutaminolysis.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

Bergenin is a natural PPARγ agonist that can prevent neutrophil aggregation, and often be used in clinics for treating respiratory diseases. Recent data show that Th17 cells are important for neutrophil aggregation and asthma through secreting IL-17A. In this study, we investigated the effects of bergenin on Th17 differentiation in vitro and subsequent neutrophilic asthma in mice. Naïve T cells isolated from mouse mesenteric lymph nodes were treated with IL-23, TGF-β, and IL-6 to induce Th17 differentiation. We showed that in naïve T cells under Th17-polarizing condition, the addition of bergenin (3, 10, 30 μM) concentration-dependently decreased the percentage of CD4 IL-17A T cells and mRNA expression of specific transcription factor RORγt, and function-related factors IL-17A/F, IL-21, and IL-22, but did not affect the cell vitality and apoptosis. Furthermore, bergenin treatment prevented GLS1-dependent glutaminolysis in the progress of Th17 differentiation, slightly affected the levels of SLC1A5, SLC38A1, GLUD1, GOT1, and GPT2. Glutamine deprivation, the addition of glutamate (1 mM), α-ketoglutarate (1 mM), or GLS1 plasmid all significantly attenuated the above-mentioned actions of bergenin. Besides, we demonstrated that bergenin (3, 10, and 30 μM) concentration-dependently activated PPARγ in naïve T cells, whereas PPARγ antagonist GW9662 and siPPARγ abolished bergenin-caused inhibition on glutaminolysis and Th17 differentiation. Furthermore, we revealed that bergenin inhibited glutaminolysis by regulating the level of CDK1, phosphorylation and degradation of Cdh1, and APC/C-Cdh1-mediated ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation of GLS1 after activating PPARγ. We demonstrated a correlation existing among bergenin-affected GLS1-dependent glutaminolysis, PPARγ, "CDK1-APC/C-Cdh1" signaling, and Th17 differentiation. Finally, the therapeutic effect and mechanisms for bergenin-inhibited Th17 responses and neutrophilic asthma were confirmed in a mouse model of neutrophilic asthma by administration of GW9662 or GLS1 overexpression plasmid in vivo. In conclusion, bergenin repressed Th17 differentiation and then alleviated neutrophilic asthma in mice by inhibiting GLS1-dependent glutaminolysis via regulating the "CDK1-APC/C-Cdh1" signaling after activating PPARγ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00717-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Facile and Powerful In Situ Polymerization Strategy for Sulfur-Based All-Solid Polymer Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 13;13(29):34274-34281. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices (Ministry of Education), Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China.

All-solid-state polymer electrolytes can improve the safety of lithium batteries. However, the common Bellcore polymer electrolyte technology faces several issues such as wasting a mass of solvent, high manufacturing cost, and poor interfacial compatibility between polymer electrolytes and electrodes. Herein, we propose an in situ polymerization technique to synthesize all-solid-state polymer electrolytes by a thiol-Michael addition click reaction. The alternating copolymer is made from the Michael addition reaction of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 1,2-ethane dithiol (EDT). At ambient temperature, the obtained composite polymer electrolyte displays an ionic conductivity of 3.02 × 10 S/cm, an electrochemical window of 4.5 V, and a lithium-ion transference number of 0.45. In light of this unique polymerization process, the traditional fabrication method of liquid electrolyte-based lithium batteries can be adopted in the current study for the preparation of all-solid-state Li/LiFePO batteries. It was found that the assembled all-solid-state Li/LiFePO batteries exhibited superior charging/discharging performance and preferable safety. Thus, this facile and powerful in situ polymerization strategy may open up a new approach for the design and fabrication of all-solid-state batteries with desirable performances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c07805DOI Listing
July 2021

Validation of the mandarin tinnitus evaluation questionnaire: A clinician-administered tool for tinnitus management.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jul;100(27):e26490

Hearing Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Abstract: This study sought to validate the applicability of the mandarin Tinnitus Evaluation Questionnaire (TEQ), a brief score method administered by clinicians to quantify the tinnitus severity.A descriptive observational questionnaire study in regard to psychometric properties and practicability was conducted with a total of 414 primary tinnitus outpatients, in which 173 of 414 patients completed the follow-up after receiving an intervention based on the tinnitus educational counseling and the life-style adjustment guidance. For quantifying the tinnitus severity, the TEQ and other 2 self-report questionnaires, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and visual analog scale, were administered on patients' first-visit and follow-up. With the psychometric analysis, we evaluated the performance of TEQ in tinnitus management, including distinguishing patients with varying severity and detecting the treatment-related outcome.At the first visit, the TEQ showed an excellent inter-rater reliability (Pearson correlation, 0.97, P < .01), a good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α, 0.79), and an acceptable convergent validity (Pearson correlation, 0.78 with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory; 0.62 with a single-question visual analog scale, P < .01). In detecting the treatment-related change, a large effect size of TEQ verified a sensitive responsiveness. After estimating the test-error, a 2-point reduction (2/21) of the TEQ was recommend to be considered a reference outcome indicator for the effective intervention.Even though the TEQ is scored by clinician, it can reflect the clinical features of tinnitus patient. Flexible and simple assessing process makes it a practical tool for patient intake, intervention selection, and outcome measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270615PMC
July 2021

Nonreciprocal Tamm plasmon absorber based on lossy epsilon-near-zero materials.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(12):17736-17745

Contrary to conventional Tamm plasmon (TP) absorbers of which narrow absorptance peaks will shift toward short wavelengths (blueshift) as the incident angle increases for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations, here we theoretically and experimentally achieve nonreciprocal absorption in a planar photonic heterostructure composed of an isotropic epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) slab and a truncated photonic crystal for TM polarization. This exotic phenomenon results from the interplay between ENZ and material loss. And the boundary condition across the ENZ interface and the confinement effect provided by the TP can enhance the absorption in the ENZ slab greatly. As a result, a strong and nonreciprocal absorptance peak is observed experimentally with a maximum absorptance value of 93% in an angle range of 60∼70°. Moreover, this TP absorber shows strong angle-independence and polarization-dependence. As the characteristics above are not at a cost of extra nanopatterning, this structure is promising to offer a practical design in narrowband thermal emitter, highly sensitive biosensing, and nonreciprocal nonlinear optical devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.426030DOI Listing
June 2021

Defect engineering in thermoelectric materials: what have we learned?

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Aug 17;50(16):9022-9054. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China.

Thermoelectric energy conversion is an all solid-state technology that relies on exceptional semiconductor materials that are generally optimized through sophisticated strategies involving the engineering of defects in their structure. In this review, we summarize the recent advances of defect engineering to improve the thermoelectric (TE) performance and mechanical properties of inorganic materials. First, we introduce the various types of defects categorized by dimensionality, i.e. point defects (vacancies, interstitials, and antisites), dislocations, planar defects (twin boundaries, stacking faults and grain boundaries), and volume defects (precipitation and voids). Next, we discuss the advanced methods for characterizing defects in TE materials. Subsequently, we elaborate on the influences of defect engineering on the electrical and thermal transport properties as well as mechanical performance of TE materials. In the end, we discuss the outlook for the future development of defect engineering to further advance the TE field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cs00347jDOI Listing
August 2021

Dynamic monitoring of circulating tumor DNA to predict prognosis and efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of colorectal liver metastases.

Theranostics 2021 12;11(14):7018-7028. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, P. R. China.

Hepatectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) may improve survival, however, patients which may benefit cannot currently be identified. Postoperative circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis can detect minimal residual disease (MRD) and predict the prognosis and efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy. Our study aims to determine the impact of serial ctDNA analysis to predict the outcome among patients undergoing resection of CRLM. Between May 2018 and October 2019, 91 CRLM patients were prospectively enrolled. Whole exome sequencing was performed in 50 primary and 48 metastatic liver tissues. Targeted sequencing of 451 cancer relevant genes was performed in 50 baseline plasma to determine plasma-tissue concordance. We prospectively investigated changes in the amount and constitution of ctDNA in 271 serial plasma samples taken at different time points (baseline, pre-operation, post-operation, post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy (post-ACT) and recurrence) during the treatment of CRLM. Detected molecular alterations were highly consistent among baseline ctDNA, primary and liver metastases tissue. Patients with a higher variant allele frequency (VAF) level at baseline ctDNA represent a higher tumor burden, and decreased ctDNA during pre-operative chemotherapy predicted better tumor response. Patients with detectable post-operative and post-ACT ctDNA were associated with significantly shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS). ROC analysis showed that post-ACT ctDNA status was superior to post-operative ctDNA status in predicting RFS with an AUROC of 0.79. A significant difference in overall recurrence rate was observed in patients with detectable vs undetectable levels of ctDNA after resection of CRLM (79.4% vs 41.7%) and after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy (77.3% vs 40.7%). During adjuvant chemotherapy, patients with decreased ctDNA VAF after adjuvant chemotherapy had a recurrence rate of 63.6%, compared to 92.3% in patients with increased ctDNA VAF. We envision that dynamic ctDNA analysis, especially in a post-ACT setting, might be used to not only reflect MRD but also to determine rational personalized adjuvant therapy after the resection of CRLM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.59644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8171084PMC
August 2021

Transcriptional dynamics of transposable elements when converting fibroblast cells of Macaca mulatta to neuroepithelial stem cells.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 4;22(Suppl 3):405. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

State Key Laboratory of Primate Biomedical Research; Institute of Primate Translational Medicine, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500, China.

Background: Transposable elements (TE) account for more than 50% of human genome. It has been reported that some types of TEs are dynamically regulated in the reprogramming of human cell lines. However, it is largely unknown whether some TEs in Macaca mulatta are also regulated during the reprogramming of cell lines of monkey.

Results: Here, we systematically examined the transcriptional activities of TEs during the conversion of Macaca mulatta fibroblast cells to neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs). Hundreds of TEs were dynamically regulated during the reprogramming of Macaca mulatta fibroblast cells. Furthermore, 48 Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs), as well as some integrase elements, of Macaca endogenous retrovirus 3 (MacERV3) were transiently activated during the early stages of the conversion process, some of which were further confirmed with PCR experiments. These LTRs were potentially bound by critical transcription factors for reprogramming, such as KLF4 and ETV5.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the transcription of TEs are delicately regulated during the reprogramming of Macaca mulatta fibroblast cells. Although the family of ERVs activated during the reprogramming of fibroblast cells in Macaca mulatta is different from those in the reprogramming of human fibroblast cells, our results suggest that the activation of some ERVs is a conserved mechanism in primates for converting fibroblast cells to stem cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07717-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176597PMC
June 2021

Ultrasensitive and Simultaneous SERS Detection of Multiplex MicroRNA Using Fractal Gold Nanotags for Early Diagnosis and Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Anal Chem 2021 06 2;93(25):8799-8809. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632, China.

Sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple cancer-related biomarkers in serum is essential for diagnosis, therapy, prognosis, and staging of cancer. Herein, we proposed a magnetically assisted sandwich-type surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based biosensor for ultrasensitive and multiplex detection of three hepatocellular carcinoma-related microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers. The biosensor consists of an SERS tag (probe DNA-conjugated DNA-engineered fractal gold nanoparticles, F-AuNPs) and a magnetic capture substrate (capture DNA-conjugated Ag-coated magnetic nanoparticles, AgMNPs). The proposed strategy achieved simultaneous and sensitive detection of three miRNAs (miRNA-122, miRNA-223, and miRNA-21), and the limits of detection of the three miRNAs in human serum are 349 aM for miRNA-122, 374 aM for miRNA-223, and 311 aM for miRNA-21. High selectivity and accuracy of the SERS biosensor were proved by practical analysis in human serum. Moreover, the biosensor exhibited good practicability in multiplex detection of three miRNAs in 92 clinical sera from AFP-negative patients, patients before and after hepatectomy, recurred and relapse-free patients after hepatectomy, and hepatocellular carcinoma patients at distinct Barcelona clinic liver cancer stages. The experiment results demonstrate that our SERS-based assay is a promising candidate in clinical application and exhibited potential for the prediction, diagnosis, monitoring, and staging of cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00478DOI Listing
June 2021

Application of iron/barium ferrite/carbon-coated iron nanocrystal composites in transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Nov 21;601:30-41. Epub 2021 May 21.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Centre for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, 651 Dongfeng East Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060, China; Department of Liver Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been widely used in clinical practice as a first-line treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the current therapeuticeffect of TACE is far from satisfactory and thus requires further improvement. TACE combined with multifunctional magnetic particles may be a promising approach for the treatment of HCC. In this study, we designed a new magnetic drug carrier system consisting of micron-sized iron powder, barium ferrite (BaFeO), and carbon-coated iron nanocrystals (CCINs). CCINs possess properties, such as high drug loading and sustained release. BaFeO could attract both CCINs and iron powder to form larger clusters after magnetization. Altogether, the triple therapeutic effects of chemotherapeutic enhancement, embolization, and thermal ablation could be realized herein. Further experiments indicate that the system has a high drug-loading capacity, good controlled-release effect, and no significant cytotoxicity. Under the action of a medium-frequency magnetic induction device, the magnetic induction temperature could reach 43 °C in one min while the maximum temperature of 70.8 °C could be reached in 2.5 h. Overall, this new carrier system displayed excellent antitumor effects in a mouse model. Our findings demonstrate the great application prospects of this system in TACE for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.05.102DOI Listing
November 2021

The roles of the cell division cycle-associated gene family in hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Apr;12(2):781-794

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China and Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The members of the cell division cycle-associated () gene family are significant regulators of cell proliferation known to play key roles in various cancers. However, the function of genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. The aim of this research was to clarify the roles of family members in HCC using bioinformatics analysis tools.

Methods: We studied data on the mRNA and protein expression of genes and survival in patients with HCC using the Oncomine, UALCAN, HPA, CCLE, LinkedOmics, cBioPortal, and Metascape databases.

Results: Significant overexpression of all members was found in HCC tissues. The expression levels of s were related to the tumor stage, and high expression levels were correlated with a low survival rate in patients with HCC. Also, we observed a high mutation rate (45%) of s in the HCC samples, which manifested as deep deletion, amplification, or increased mRNA expression. In the correlation analysis, we found that any 2 members were significantly positively correlated with each other. Cycle-related genes including , , , , , and were closely associated with gene alterations.

Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that s may be potential therapeutic targets and prognostic indicators for patients with HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jgo-21-110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107601PMC
April 2021

Application and exploration of "hand as foot" teaching method in hydrocele.

Asian J Surg 2021 Jul 13;44(7):1014-1015. Epub 2021 May 13.

Inner Mongolia Medical University, Department of Emergency Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot North Street, Inner Mongolia, 010050, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.04.036DOI Listing
July 2021

Quasiperiodic metamaterials empowered non-metallic broadband optical absorbers.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(9):13576-13589

Realizing a polarization-insensitive broadband optical absorber plays a key role in the implementation of microstructure optoelectrical devices with on-demand functionalities. However, the challenge is that most of these devices involve the constituent metals, thus suffering from poor chemical and thermal stability and a complicated manufacturing process. In addition, the extreme contrast between the negative (metallic) and positive (dielectric) real parts of the constituent permittivities can cause additional problems in the design of structural devices. Based on these facts, this work proposes a design of planar broadband one-dimensional structure based on Fibonacci geometry. Experimental results show that the proposed planar structure exhibits high absorptivity behavior independent of polarization and angle in the wavelength range of 300-1000 nm. The absorptivity remains more than 80% when the incident angle is 60°. This proof-of-concept represents a new strategy for realizing non-metallic broadband optical absorbers with advantages of polarization-independence, low-cost, and wide-field-of-view and paves the way for light manipulation under harsh conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.423353DOI Listing
April 2021

Activation of Carbonyl Oxygen Sites in β-Ketoenamine-Linked Covalent Organic Frameworks via Cyano Conjugation for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

Small 2021 Jun 12;17(24):e2101017. Epub 2021 May 12.

Engineering Research Center of Environment-Friendly Functional Materials, Ministry of Education; Xiamen Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Advanced Manufacturing; College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, 361021, China.

2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are drawing intense attention in heterogenous photocatalysis due to their porous, crystalline, and tailor-made structures. For highly efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion, revealing and modulating active centers in the skeletons of COFs are of great importance but encounter severe challenges. Herein, it is demonstrated that cyano conjugation on a typical β-ketoenamine-linked COF via aldehyde-imine Schiff-base condensation contributes to an enhanced stable photocatalytic H -evolution rate of 1.8 mmol h g (λ > 420 nm) with a superior apparent quantum yield of 2.12% at 420 nm, compared to pristine COFs. Both experimental results and density functional theory calculations disclose that the cyano conjugation can efficiently improve photoinduced charge separation and effectively decrease the energy barrier for H-intermediate generation on the carbonyl oxygen sites of the functionalized COFs. These findings present a precise organic functionalization strategy to optimize active centers on COF-based photocatalysts for the practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202101017DOI Listing
June 2021

[The development of consonant perception in pediatric cochlear implants of 1-3 years old].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;35(4):341-345

Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Hearing Center,West China Hospital of Sichuan University,Hearing and Speech Science Laboratory,Chengdu,6110041,China.

To explore the development of consonant perception in early implanted pediatric with prelingual bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss at 1 to 3 years of age. A retrospective study was conducted to prospectively analyze the pediatric with hearing impaired who had cochlear implantation. According to the age of implantation, all participants were divided into two groups as 1 year old group(1-<2) and 2 years old group(2-<3). It was compared the consonant perception of Mandarin early speech perception test scores at 1, 2, 3 years after implantation as well as the trends in consonant perception between 1 year old group and normal hearing pediatrics of the same age. ①The scores improved notably in two groups with the increase of physiological age(=0.038, =0.012); ②The consonant perception of 1 year old group was significantly better than that of 2 years old group(<0.05), however, there are great difference between 1 year old group and normal hearing pediatrics of the same age. With the increase of physiological age, the consonant perception will be improved correspondingly within 3 years of pediatric cochlear implants under the age of 3 however there are differences with normal hearing pediatrics of the same age; the earlier the age of implant, the better the consonant perception is.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2021.04.013DOI Listing
April 2021

Letter to Editor: "Neuroanatomical changes associated with age‑related hearing loss and listening effort".

Brain Struct Funct 2021 06 29;226(5):1385. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Hearing Center/Hearing and Speech Laboratory, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-021-02262-3DOI Listing
June 2021

The role of GLS1-mediated glutaminolysis/2-HG/H3K4me3 and GSH/ROS signals in Th17 responses counteracted by PPARγ agonists.

Theranostics 2021 4;11(9):4531-4548. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009, China.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has the ability to counter Th17 responses, but the full mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, we aimed to elucidate this process in view of cellular metabolism, especially glutaminolysis. MTT, CCK-8, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining or trypan blue exclusion assays were used to analyze cytotoxicity. Flow cytometry and Q-PCR assays were applied to determine Th17 responses. The detection of metabolite levels using commercial kits and rate-limiting enzyme expression using western blotting assays was performed to illustrate the metabolic activity. ChIP assays were used to examine H3K4me3 modifications. Mouse models of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and house dust mite (HDM)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced asthma were established to confirm the mechanisms studied . The PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and pioglitazone blocked glutaminolysis but not glycolysis under Th17-skewing conditions, as indicated by the detection of intracellular lactate and α-KG and the fluorescence ratios of BCECF-AM. The PPARγ agonists prevented the utilization of glutamine and thus directly limited Th17 responses even when Foxp3 was deficient. The mechanisms were ascribed to restricted conversion of glutamine to glutamate by reducing the expression of the rate-limiting enzyme GLS1, which was confirmed by GLS1 overexpression. Replenishment of α-KG and 2-HG but not succinate weakened the effects of PPARγ agonists, and α-KG-promoted Th17 responses were dampened by siIDH1/2. Inhibition of KDM5 but not KDM4/6 restrained the inhibitory effect of PPARγ agonists on IL-17A expression, and the H3K4me3 level in the promoter and CNS2 region of the gene locus down-regulated by PPARγ agonists was rescued by 2-HG and GLS1 overexpression. However, the limitation of PPARγ agonists on the mRNA expression of RORγt was unable to be stopped by 2-HG but was attributed to GSH/ROS signals subsequent to GLS1. The exact role of PPARγ was proved by GW9662 or PPARγ knockout, and the mechanisms for PPARγ-inhibited Th17 responses were further confirmed by GLS1 overexpression . PPARγ agonists repressed Th17 responses by counteracting GLS1-mediated glutaminolysis/2-HG/H3K4me3 and GSH/ROS signals, which is beneficial for Th17 cell-related immune dysregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.54803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7977454PMC
July 2021

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with apatinib versus TACE combined with sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients: a multicenter retrospective study.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Feb;9(4):283

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China and Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The combination of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with sorafenib has demonstrated superior efficacy over sorafenib and TACE monotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Apatinib, a new targeted agent, has been recently reported to prolong the survival of HCC patients, either alone or in combination with TACE. However, the superior regimen between TACE-apatinib and TACE-sorafenib in HCC patients has not been determined. In this study, we compared the efficacy and safety of TACE-apatinib versus TACE-sorafenib in advanced stage HCC patients.

Methods: The data of 201 HCC patients who had received TACE-sorafenib or TACE-apatinib between January 2016 and June 2018 in three hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and adverse effects (AEs) between the two treatment groups were compared. A subgroup analysis based on the doses of targeted agents was also performed.

Results: No significant differences in baseline clinicopathological features were found between the two groups except for dose reduction. The TACE-apatinib group had higher incidences of hypertension, oral or anal ulcer and proteinuria, while the TACE-sorafenib group had higher incidences of diarrhea and alopecia. Grade 3/4 AEs occurred more frequently in the TACE-apatinib group than in the TACE-sorafenib group (52.3% 22.6%, P<0.001). The TACE-sorafenib group had better PFS than the TACE-apatinib group (median PFS: 5.0 6.0 months, P=0.002) while the two groups showed no difference in OS (median OS: 13.0 13.0 months, P=0.448). The TACE-apatinib group had a higher rate of targeted agent dose reduction than the TACE-sorafenib group (53.5% 17.4%, P<0.001). When the patients were stratified into normal and reduced-dose subgroups, those who received TACE-sorafenib exhibited improved PFS but similar OS compared with the patients who received TACE-apatinib in the reduced-dose subgroup (median OS: 12.0 13.3 months, P=0.614; median PFS: 3.0 7.0 months, P<0.001). Multivariable analysis validated that treatments and dose reduction were independent prognostic factors for PFS among all patients.

Conclusions: Compared with TACE-sorafenib, the strategy of TACE-apatinib yielded shorter PFS in advanced HCC patients while no difference in OS was observed. A high rate of AE-related dose reduction of apatinib could account for the observed differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-5360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944263PMC
February 2021

Long-term outcome for colorectal liver metastases: combining hepatectomy with intraoperative ultrasound guided open microwave ablation versus hepatectomy alone.

Int J Hyperthermia 2021 ;38(1):372-381

Department of Ultrasound, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, PR China.

Objective: To compare the long-term outcome of combining hepatectomy with intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS)-guided open microwave ablation (MWA) versus hepatectomy alone in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM).

Method: A retrospective analysis of patients with CRLM who underwent hepatectomy alone (HT group; 380 patients) or hepatectomy combined with IOUS-guided open MWA (HT + MWA group; 57 patients) from April 2002 to September 2018 was conducted at our center. A propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis was used to reduce data bias between the two groups.

Results: The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were not significantly different between the two groups after matching. Although intrahepatic recurrence was more frequent in the HT + MWA group in both the whole and matched cohort, the two groups exhibited similar rates of extrahepatic recurrence as well as concomitant intra- and extrahepatic recurrence. A higher number of CRLM (>3), larger maximum-size and absence of response to induction chemotherapy were independent risk factors for OS.

Conclusion: The oncological outcomes of hepatectomy combined with intraoperative open ablation was not significantly different to hepatectomy alone and should be considered as a safe and fair option for patients with difficultly resectable CRLM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2021.1892835DOI Listing
July 2021

A novel prognostic nomogram for colorectal cancer liver metastasis patients with recurrence after hepatectomy.

Cancer Med 2021 03 4;10(5):1535-1544. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: We aimed to construct a nomogram to predict personalized post-recurrence survival (PRS) among colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM) patients with post-hepatectomy recurrence.

Methods: Colorectal cancer liver metastasis patients who received initial hepatectomy and had subsequent recurrence between 2001 and 2019 in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from China were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to a training cohort and a validation cohort on a ratio of 2:1. Univariable analysis was first employed to select potential predictive factors for PRS. Then, the multivariable Cox regression model was applied to recognize independent prognostic factors. According to the model, a nomogram to predict PRS was established. The nomogram's predictive capacity was further assessed utilizing concordance index (C-index) values, calibration plots, and Kaplan-Meier curves.

Results: About 376 patients were finally enrolled, with a 3-year PRS rate of 37.3% and a 5-year PRS rate of 24.6%. The following five independent predictors for PRS were determined to construct the nomogram: the largest size of liver metastases at initial hepatectomy, relapse-free survival, CEA level at recurrence, recurrent sites, and treatment for recurrence. The nomogram displayed fairly good discrimination and calibration. The C-index value was 0.742 for the training cohort and 0.773 for the validation cohort. Patients were grouped into three risk groups very well by the nomogram, with 5-year PRS rates of 45.2%, 23.3%, and 9.0%, respectively (p < 0.001) in the training cohort and 36.0%, 9.2%, and 4.6%, respectively (p < 0.001) in the validation cohort.

Conclusion: A novel nomogram was built and validated to enable the prediction of personal PRS in CRLM patients with post-hepatectomy recurrence. The nomogram may help physicians in decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940234PMC
March 2021

Advanced sensitivity amplification strategies for voltammetric immunosensors of tumor marker: State of the art.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Apr 21;178:113021. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Joint Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, 999078, China. Electronic address:

Immunosensors are molecular recognition-based solid-state biosensing devices, in which the immunochemical reactions are coupled with transducers. As biologic or biochemical substances produced by tumor cells, tumor marker plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer because its concentration is related to tumor size, clinical stage, and predicting prognosis. Voltammetric immunosensors based on the electrochemical analysis technique provide a sensitive electroanalytical approach for quantitatively detecting tumor markers by measuring the current as a function of the potential. To satisfy the need for accurate monitoring of tumor markers in low-concentration and their slight changes in concentration, the primary aim of developing a novel voltammetric immunosensor is to improve its sensitivity and limit of detection. Compared with traditional immunoassay, the advanced sensitivity-amplified immunosensors have applied appropriate amplification strategies to convert the bio-signal of antigen-antibody recognition events to the high electrochemical signal of redox species. Building on the significant concepts, sensitivity and limit of detection, we describe how the performance of voltammetric immunosensors can be improved by various sensitivity amplification mechanisms: (1) construction of labels with a high loading of signal species; (2) introduction of interfacial reaction initiated by functionalized nanomaterials; (3) building a synergistic connection between labels and substrate. The review ends with a summary of the shortage of current sensitivity amplified immunosensors and the perspective of enhancement strategies for more simple, efficient, and reliable voltammetric immunosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113021DOI Listing
April 2021
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