Publications by authors named "Yun Zhang"

3,257 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCG10, ABCH3 and ABCH4 in Aphis craccivora (Koch) facilitates its tolerance to imidacloprid.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2022 Aug 8;186:105170. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Institute of Industrial Crops, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China,. Electronic address:

Aphis craccivora (Koch), a globally pest that causes significant threat to the legumes, has developed different degrees of resistance to a variety of insecticides. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters comprise a multifunctional transporter protein superfamily which play important roles in the transport and detoxification of xenobiotic compounds in insects. However, whether ABC transporters take part in the tolerance of imidacloprid in A. craccivora is still unknown. In order to investigate the functions of ABC transporters in the imidacloprid tolerance, fifty- eight ABC transporters were identified in the transcriptome and genome of A. craccivora and the toxicity of imidacloprid against A. craccivora was significantly increased after application the inhibitors of verapamil and Ko143. The relative expression levels of ABCG5, ABCG6, ABCG10, ABCH3, ABCH4, ABCH8 and ABCH10 were significantly up-regulated in response to imidacloprid treatment with LC, LC and LC concentrations, and the expression patterns of these seven ABC transporters were further analyzed at different developmental stages and in different tissues of A. craccivora by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Furthermore, knockdown of ABCG10, ABCH3 and ABCH4 significantly increased the mortality of A. craccivora to imidacloprid. Our results reveal the key functions of ABC transporters in the tolerance of imidacloprid and provide valuable information regarding the development of improved management strategies in A. craccivora.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2022.105170DOI Listing
August 2022

[Effect of Long-term Straw Returning on the Mineralization and Priming Effect of Rice Root-carbon].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2022 Aug;43(8):4372-4378

Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agriculture Ecology, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China.

Long-term straw returning to the field changes the environmental conditions of rice paddy soil, which affects the mineralization and priming effect of residual rice roots in the soil, but the direction and intensity of its influence is not clear. Therefore, based on a long-term fertilization field experiment, C-CO isotopic labeling technology and laboratorial incubation were used to analyze the characteristics of mineralization of rice roots and native soil organic carbon, the intensity and direction of the priming effect, and the source partitioning of CO emissions in three treatments, consisting of no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilizer (CF), and straw returning with chemical fertilizer (CFS). The results showed that after 120 days of flooding incubation, the root residue (R) increased the cumulative CO emissions by 617.41-726.27 mg·kg. The cumulative CO emissions from roots and root mineralized proportions in the CFS+R and CF+R treatments were 470.82 and 444.04 mg·kg, respectively, and 18.8% and 17.8%, respectively. These were significantly higher than those in the CK+R treatment (384.19 mg·kg, 15.4%). There was no significant difference in the cumulative CO emissions from native soil organic carbon among the three treatments. However, the mineralized proportion of native soil organic carbon in the CFS+R treatment (4.2%) was significantly lower than that in the CF+R and CK+R treatments (5.4% and 5.8%). The priming effect in the CFS+R treatment was 29.6%, which was significantly lower than that in the CK+R treatment (42.5%) and higher than that in the CF+R treatment (14.4%). A total of 23.47% to 27.59% of the cumulative CO emission of the flooded paddy soil was from the roots, and the remainder was from the soil. In addition, the proportion of CO emission caused by the priming effect was smaller in the CFS+R treatment than that in the CK+R treatment and larger than that in the CF+R treatment. In summary, the long-term straw returning in the flooded paddy soil will increase the mineralization potential of rice roots, but it is more conducive to the stability of the native soil organic carbon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202112040DOI Listing
August 2022

6'-O-Galloylpaeoniflorin attenuates Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis via modulating Nrf2 pathway.

Int Immunopharmacol 2022 Aug 11;111:109122. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China; Department of General Surgery, The First Medical Center of Chinese, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China; The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; Department of General Surgery, The Sixth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100048, China. Electronic address:

As a common disease of the digestive system, chronic gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa caused by various factors. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the main causes of chronic gastritis, which can lead to gastric mucosal damage and gland atrophy, thereby promoting gastrocarcinogenesis. Oxidative stress and the inflammatory response are important mechanisms of H. pylori-induced gastritis. 6'-O-Galloylpaeoniflorin (GPF) is a substance isolated from peony root with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its role and mechanism in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-induced chronic gastritis remain unclear. This study explored the effects of GPF on H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal oxidative stress and inflammation using flow cytometry, western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemistry. We found that H. pylori infection increased oxidative stress and expression of inflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo and that these outcomes were inhibited by GPF. Furthermore, GPF activated nuclear factor erythroid-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and its downstream target genes in H. pylori-infected GES-1 cells and mice. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of GPF on H. pylori-infected cells were attenuated by an Nrf2 inhibitor. Taken together, these data suggest that GPF reduces H. pylori-induced gastric mucosa injury by activating Nrf2 signaling and that GPF is a potential candidate for the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2022.109122DOI Listing
August 2022

Classification of Building Damage Using a Novel Convolutional Neural Network Based on Post-Disaster Aerial Images.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Aug 8;22(15). Epub 2022 Aug 8.

College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Guizhou Minzu University, Guiyang 550025, China.

The accurate and timely identification of the degree of building damage is critical for disaster emergency response and loss assessment. Although many methods have been proposed, most of them divide damaged buildings into two categories-intact and damaged-which is insufficient to meet practical needs. To address this issue, we present a novel convolutional neural network-namely, the earthquake building damage classification net (EBDC-Net)-for assessment of building damage based on post-disaster aerial images. The proposed network comprises two components: a feature extraction encoder module, and a damage classification module. The feature extraction encoder module is employed to extract semantic information on building damage and enhance the ability to distinguish between different damage levels, while the classification module improves accuracy by combining global and contextual features. The performance of EBDC-Net was evaluated using a public dataset, and a large-scale damage assessment was performed using a dataset of post-earthquake unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. The results of the experiments indicate that this approach can accurately classify buildings with different damage levels. The overall classification accuracy was 94.44%, 85.53%, and 77.49% when the damage to the buildings was divided into two, three, and four categories, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22155920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9371387PMC
August 2022

Household Groups' Land Use Decisions Investigation Based on Perspective of Livelihood Heterogeneity in Sichuan Province, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Aug 2;19(15). Epub 2022 Aug 2.

School of Management, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Land use decision-making is a vital livelihood strategy associated with the rational collocation of livelihood asset endowments by rural households. Based on the perspective of livelihood heterogeneity, this paper collected the data from 540 farm households in 27 villages in three Sichuan Province counties to identify the land use decision-making characteristics of the household groups. A land use decision-making framework (LUDF) based on the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF) was established and dynamic and dual indicators were developed to divide the sample into six household groups. The household livelihood capital, livelihood strategies, and livelihood diversity were then analyzed at the regional and household group level, and the land use decisions of these household groups were explored, from which the following was found. (1) Overall livelihood capital in the study area was low, and except for human assets, there were few other assets, with households in the survey areas being more inclined to engage in non-farming livelihood activities; however, households in Nanjiang and Qionglai had greater livelihood activities choices than Luxian. (2) The LL-type household was the chief household group; the household group distribution in Qionglai was well-proportioned but uneven in Nanjiang and Luxian; and the HL-type, ML-type, and LL-type household livelihood strategy choices were polarized. (3) Most households were involved in land self-cultivation, followed by land transfer-in, land transfer-out, and land abandonment households. Specifically, there were more households that cultivated fragmented landholdings than specialized households with large-scale landholdings, the land transfer rate was relatively low, the transfer-in land area was far greater than the transfer-out land areas, and a small number of households that had abandoned their land were still involved in agricultural production. (4) There were obvious discordant human-land relationships and inefficient land uses in the study area. Based on these findings, relevant policy recommendations are given to improve farm household livelihood capital, optimize livelihood strategies, and assist in land use decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9368598PMC
August 2022

Gut Dysbiosis Promotes Preeclampsia by Regulating Macrophages and Trophoblasts.

Circ Res 2022 Aug 11:101161CIRCRESAHA122320771. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education, Chinese National Health Commission and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (J.J., Y.Z., Z.Z., Z.T., X.W., C.Z., Q.Z.).

Background: Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and is characterized by hypertension, inflammation, and placental dysfunction. Gut microbiota plays key roles in inflammation and hypertension. However, its roles and mechanisms in preeclampsia have not been fully elucidated.

Methods: 16S rRNA gene sequencing and targeted metabolomics were conducted on stool samples from 92 preeclamptic patients and 86 normal late-pregnant women. Then, fecal microbiota transplantation and in vitro and in vivo functional experiments were performed to explore the roles and mechanisms of gut microbiota in preeclampsia development.

Results: We revealed the gut microbiota dysbiosis in preeclamptic patients, including significant reductions in short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and short-chain fatty acids. The gut microbiota of preeclamptic patients significantly exacerbated pathologies and symptoms of preeclamptic rats, whereas the gut microbiota of healthy pregnant women had significant protective effects. propionate, or butyrate significantly alleviated the symptoms of preeclamptic rats. Mechanistically, they significantly promoted autophagy and M2 polarization of macrophages in placental bed, thereby suppressing inflammation. Propionate also significantly promoted trophoblast invasion, thereby improved spiral arterial remodeling. Additionally, we identified a marker set consisting of , and short-chain fatty acids that could accurately diagnose preeclampsia.

Conclusions: Our study revealed that gut microbiota dysbiosis is an important etiology of preeclampsia. Gut microbiota and their active metabolites have great potential for the treatment and diagnosis of preeclampsia. Our findings enrich the gut-placenta axis theory and contribute to the development of microecological products for preeclampsia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.122.320771DOI Listing
August 2022

Reply to Letter to the Editor: "Circulating MicroRNA-423-5p in Hypertensive Patients with Heart Failure: Correspondence".

Anatol J Cardiol 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Department of ECG, Minzu Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/AnatolJCardiol.2022.2060DOI Listing
August 2022

Adjuvant therapy with gemcitabine and stereotactic body radiation therapy versus gemcitabine alone for resected stage II pancreatic cancer: a prospective, randomized, open-label, single center trial.

BMC Cancer 2022 Aug 8;22(1):865. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pancreatic Disease, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, 31003, China.

Background: The role of adjuvant radiation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of gemcitabine combined with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as adjuvant therapy for resected stage II PDAC.

Methods: In this single-center randomized controlled trial, patients with stage II PDAC that underwent margin-negative resection were randomly assigned to gemcitabine-alone adjuvant chemotherapy or adjuvant SBRT followed by gemcitabine chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Secondary endpoints included locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), overall survival (OS), and incidence of adverse events.

Results: Forty patients were randomly assigned to treatment between Sep 1, 2015 and Mar 31, 2018. Of these, 38 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (20 in gemcitabine arm and 18 in gemcitabine plus SBRT arm). The median RFS and OS were 9.70, 28.0 months in the gemcitabine arm and 5.30, 15.0 months in the gemcitabine plus SBRT arm (RFS, P = 0.53; OS, P = 0.20), respectively. The median LRFS in both arms was unreached (P = 0.81). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were all comparable between the two arms. Evaluation of data from the enrolled patients indicated that the addition of adjuvant SBRT was not associated with either better local disease control or recurrence-free survival.

Conclusions: Adjuvant SBRT neither provided a survival benefit nor improved local disease control in resected stage II PDAC.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02461836 . Registered 03/06/2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-022-09974-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9361660PMC
August 2022

Successful application of microspore culture in pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino var. communis Tsen et Lee) for hybrid breeding.

Protoplasma 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, 110866, People's Republic of China.

Microspore embryogenesis is an effective method of obtaining double haploid (DH) lines in only 1 year. However, the microspore embryogenesis protocol was not efficient in pakchoi. This study aimed to establish an effective microspore culture protocol in pakchoi for hybrid breeding. The embryos were obtained from three genotypes (18SY01, 18SY02, 18SY03), but the frequency of microspore embryogenesis was significantly different. Globular embryos from three genotypes were placed into a rotary shaker (50 r/min, 25 ℃) for further culture to improve microspore embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration without callus development. Shake culture not only increased the frequency of cotyledonary embryos but also accelerated microspore embryogenesis in the NLN-13 liquid medium. Moreover, the doubled haploid rates of regenerated plants for the three genotypes were above 50%. The morphological characters and plot yield of DH lines were identified, and there were significant differences between them. According to the measurement of the self-compatibility index, all the DH lines were self-incompatible. Furthermore, the hybrid combination was prepared with the selected DH lines and the pakchoi genic male sterile line GMS010 to develop excellent hybrids. This work contributes to accelerating the application of microspore embryogenesis and supplying the DH lines in pakchoi hybrid breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-022-01803-9DOI Listing
August 2022

Reinforcement learning based adaptive optimal control for constrained nonlinear system via a novel state-dependent transformation.

ISA Trans 2022 Jul 12. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

School of Automation, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Existing schemes for state-constrained systems either impose feasibility conditions or ignore the optimality. In this article, an adaptive optimal control scheme for the strict-feedback nonlinear system is proposed, which benefits from two design steps. Firstly, a novel nonlinear state-dependent function (NSDF) is formulated to equivalently transform the system into a non-constrained one to deal with state constraints without the requirements on feasibility conditions. Secondly, an adaptive optimal control scheme is designed for the non-constrained system, in which reinforcement learning (RL) is utilized to yield the optimal controller in each designing procedure. Updating rules of the actor and critic neural network are driven by the modified adaptive laws, used to approximate the optimal virtual and actual controllers. It is proved that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded and the output tracking error converges to an adjustable neighborhood of the origin not affected by the proposed NSDF. Two simulation examples are presented illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2022.07.006DOI Listing
July 2022

The association between different hypoglycemic regimens and postoperative diabetic macular edema after vitrectomy in the Japanese patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 22;13:764254. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Purpose: To study the association between different hypoglycemic regimens and postoperative diabetic macular edema (DME).

Methods: A secondary analysis based on a retrospective cohort study.

Results: In this secondary analysis, 124 eyes from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) between January 2008 and September 2012 were included. We found that compared with oral hypoglycemic medication, oral hypoglycemic medication plus insulin treatment revealed an insignificant relationship with postoperative DME (odds ratio [OR]=0.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12-5.21, P=0.8167), only insulin treatment revealed a significant association with postoperative DME (OR=0.10, 95% CI: 0.01-0.84, P=0.0337) after adjusted age, sex. After adjusted age, sex, diabetes mellitus (DM) duration, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the results did not have obvious changes (OR=0.61, 95% CI: 0.09-4.26, P=0.6187; OR=0.07, 95% CI: 0.01-0.65, P=0.0197). Furthermore, after adjusted age, sex, DM duration, HbA1c, hypertension, intraoperative retinal photocoagulation, vitreous hemorrhage, macular detachment, fibrovascular membrane, intraocular lens implantation and microincision vitrectomy surgery, the results were consistent (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.05-9.49, P=0.7621; OR=0.06, 95% CI: 0.00-0.81, P=0.0342). The same trend was observed in these adjusted models as well (p for trend was 0.0254, 0.0141, and 0.0311, respectively).

Conclusion: In conclusion, our results of the secondary analysis should be interpreted as a significant association between insulin treatment and reduced risks of postoperative DME in Japanese PDR patients with PPV surgery, compared with oral medications. Well glycemic control with longstanding insulin therapy may be beneficial to reduce the risks of postoperative DME in PDR patients. Our investigation calls for large-scale and long-term prospective clinical studies for a full evaluation of the exact role of insulin in the progression of postoperative DME.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.764254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355608PMC
August 2022

Case report: Double-chambered right ventricle diagnosed in a middle-aged female with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atrial flutter: A rare case.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 22;9:937758. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education, Chinese National Health Commission and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, The State and Shandong Province Joint Key Laboratory of Translational Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Double-chambered right ventricle (DCRV) is a rare congenital heart defect in adults, manifesting with progressive right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. We describe the first case of DCRV coexisting with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which is complicated by atrial flutter. A middle-aged woman with recurrent symptomatic atrial flutter who had previously been diagnosed with biventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was admitted to our department. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance revealed asymmetrical interventricular septal hypertrophy, and abnormal muscle bundles within the right ventricle, generating an obstructive gradient. Genetic testing detected a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-associated mutation: , c.4135G > A, p. Ala1379Thr. A diagnosis of DCRV complicated by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atrial flutter was made. Surgical intervention was performed, which included radiofrequency ablation, removal of abnormal muscle bundles, and ventricular septal defect repair. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated the well-corrected right ventricular outflow tract. Free of early postoperative complications, the patient was discharged in sinus rhythm on the 11th day after the surgery. Unfortunately, the patient died from a sudden death 38 days following the surgery. In conclusion, the coexistence of DCRV with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in patients is an uncommon condition. The present case highlights the importance of diagnostic imaging in the management of this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.937758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353184PMC
July 2022

Sex differences of language abilities of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder and their anatomical correlation with Broca and Wernicke areas.

Front Pediatr 2022 22;10:762621. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Children Nutrition Research Center, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have language difficulties. This study focuses on whether there are sex differences in language ability in children with ASD and aims to analyze whether such differences may arise from developmental imbalances in the anatomical structures of Broca and Wernicke areas.

Methods: The language development quotient (DQ) scores of Gesell Developmental Scale (GDS) and the scores of language communication of Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) were used to judge the language ability, and the FREESURFER software extracted the anatomical structures of Broca and Wernicke areas on 3DT1 sequences. We analyzed the correlation between the anatomical structure of Broca/Wernicke areas and language abilities assessments.

Results: The study initially included 44 cases of ASD, with 36 males (81.8 %) and 8 females (18.2%), and the age range was 24-72 months. Males have better language abilities than females. Specifically, the GDS verbal DQ of males was significantly higher than that of females (56.50 ± 18.02 vs. 29.23 ± 6.67, < 0.001). Broca thickness was positively correlated with verbal DQ scores in GDS ( = 0.382, = 0.011) and lower than grade 2 and 3 on the CARS verbal communication grade 4 (5.76 ± 0.17 vs. 6.21 ± 0.30 and 6.11 ± 0.35), with statistically significant differences between groups ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: There were sex differences in the language abilities of preschoolers with ASD, which may be due to an imbalance development of certain structures in Broca and Wernicke areas, especially Broca area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.762621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354665PMC
July 2022

Effect of Self-Determination Theory on Knowledge, Treatment Adherence, and Self-Management of Patients with Maintenance Hemodialysis.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 20;2022:1416404. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Our aim of this study was to investigate the effect of self-determination theory on awareness of relevant knowledge, treatment compliance, and self-management level in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. A total of 90 patients who received MHD treatment in our hospital from April 2018 to June 2020 were selected and randomly divided into the intervention group and the routine group with 45 cases in each group. Both groups were given basic hemodialysis patient management measures, and the intervention group was given self-determination theory to manage patients on this basis. The awareness rate of hemodialysis patient-related knowledge, patient treatment compliance, patient self-management scores, and quality of life scores were compared between the two groups before intervention and 6 months after intervention. After intervention, the awareness rate of dialysis principle, reasonable diet, internal fistula protection, and complication prevention knowledge in the intervention group was higher ( < 0.05); before intervention, there was no significant difference in the scores of all dimensions of compliance between the two groups ( > 0.05); after intervention, the dietary compliance, fluid intake compliance, dialysis regimen compliance, and total score of compliance in the intervention group were higher than those in the conventional group ( < 0.05). After intervention, the total scores of problem solving, partnership, emotional processing, self-care activities, and self-management in the intervention group were higher than those in the conventional group, ( < 0.05). After intervention, the physical domain, psychological domain, social relationship domain, and total scores of quality of life in the intervention group were higher than those in the conventional group ( < 0.05). Self-determination theory management is effective in improving the awareness of hemodialysis-related knowledge, treatment compliance, self-management level, and quality of life in MHD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1416404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9329035PMC
August 2022

Inferring interiors and structural history of top-shaped asteroids from external properties of asteroid (101955) Bennu.

Nat Commun 2022 Aug 6;13(1):4589. Epub 2022 Aug 6.

Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Asteroid interiors play a key role in our understanding of asteroid formation and evolution. As no direct interior probing has been done yet, characterisation of asteroids' interiors relies on interpretations of external properties. Here we show, by numerical simulations, that the top-shaped rubble-pile asteroid (101955) Bennu's geophysical response to spinup is highly sensitive to its material strength. This allows us to infer Bennu's interior properties and provide general implications for top-shaped rubble piles' structural evolution. We find that low-cohesion (≲0.78 Pa at surface and ≲1.3 Pa inside) and low-friction (friction angle ≲ 35) structures with several high-cohesion internal zones can consistently account for all the known geophysical characteristics of Bennu and explain the absence of moons. Furthermore, we reveal the underlying mechanisms that lead to different failure behaviours and identify the reconfiguration pathways of top-shaped asteroids as functions of their structural properties that either facilitate or prevent the formation of moons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32288-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9357032PMC
August 2022

Adropin Improves Radiation-Induced Myocardial Injury via VEGFR2/PI3K/Akt Pathway.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 29;2022:8230214. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006, China.

Mediastinal cancer radiotherapy exposes the heart and causes myocardial injury. It is of utmost importance to identify effective prevention and treatment targets. In this study, the regulatory role of adropin (Ad) in radiation-induced myocardial injury (RIMI) was explored in mice. After C57BL/6 mice were administered E0771 cells and received radiotherapy, the effects of exogenous Ad intervention on myocardial fibrosis, apoptosis, microvessel density, oxidative stress, and protein expression levels were observed. The results showed that exogenous Ad effectively improved cardiac function, suppressed oxidative stress, inhibited myocardial fibrosis, reduced myocardial apoptosis, and promoted microangiogenesis in RIMI mice. Ad also downregulated the expression levels of transforming growth factor 1 (TGF-1), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and cleaved caspase 3 and upregulated the expression of phosphor-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS). However, the above-mentioned effects of Ad were significantly reversed in Ad mice. Radiotherapy resulted in the downregulation of phosphor-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (p-VEGFR2) and p-Akt in myocardial tissue, which were upregulated by Ad. However, after targeted inhibition of VEGFR2 with apatinib, the effect of Ad on improving RIMI was significantly reversed. Taken together, exogenous Ad significantly ameliorated RIMI by reducing oxidative stress, promoting microangiogenesis, and inhibiting myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis. The underlying molecular mechanism involved may be elucidated by activation of the VEGFR2/PI3K/Akt pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/8230214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339421PMC
August 2022

COVID-19 influences both physical and mental health: Lessons from bibliometric analysis.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2022 Jul 30;49:102405. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Department of Life Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 06974, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2022.102405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9338833PMC
July 2022

Cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of ADAM17 ameliorates left ventricular remodeling and function in diabetic cardiomyopathy of mice.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2022 Aug 1;7(1):259. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education, Chinese National Health Commission and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, The State and Shandong Province Joint Key Laboratory of Translational Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, China.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has proven beneficial in attenuating diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) but has been found to be a substrate of a disintegrin and metalloprotease protein-17 (ADAM17). However, whether ADAM17 plays a role in the pathogenesis and intervention of DCM is obscure. In this study, we created cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of ADAM17 (A17) mice, and left ventricular dimension, function, pathology and molecular biology were assessed in ADAM17 control, A17 control, ADAM17 diabetic and A17 diabetic mice. Both differentiated H9c2 cells and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) were used to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of ADAM17 on DCM. The results showed that protein expression and activity of ADAM17 were upregulated whereas the protein expression of ACE2 was downregulated in the myocardium of diabetic mice. Cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of ADAM17 mitigated cardiac fibrosis and cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ameliorated cardiac dysfunction in mice with DCM. Bioinformatic analyses detected a number of genes enriched in metabolic pathways, in particular the AMPK signaling pathway, expressed differentially between the hearts of A17 and ADAM17 diabetic mice. The mechanism may involve activated AMPK pathway, increased autophagosome formation and improved autophagic flux, which reduced the apoptotic response in cardiomyocytes. In addition, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) might act as an upstream mediator of upregulated ADAM17 and ADAM17 might affect AMPK signaling via α1 A-adrenergic receptor (ADRA1A). These results indicated that ADAM17 activity and ACE2 shedding were enhanced in DCM, which was reversed by cardiomyocyte-specific ADAM17 knockout. Thus, inhibition of ADAM17 may provide a promising approach to the treatment of DCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-022-01054-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339545PMC
August 2022

TMEM97 is transcriptionally activated by YY1 and promotes colorectal cancer progression via the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Hum Cell 2022 Sep 30;35(5):1535-1546. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University, No. 2, The Fifth Section of Renmin Street, Jinzhou, Liaoning Province, China.

Transmembrane protein 97 (TMEM97) is a conserved integral membrane protein highly expressed in various human cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC), and it exhibits pro-tumor roles in breast cancer, gastric cancer, and glioma. However, whether TMEM97 participates in CRC progression is not fully understood. The expression of mRNA and protein was evaluated by real-time qPCR, western blotting, immunofluorescent, and immunohistochemical staining. TMEM97 functions in cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were assessed by CCK-8, flow cytometry, and transwell assays. The roles of TMEM97 in CRC cells in vivo was investigated using a subcutaneous xenograft model. The transcriptional regulation of TMEM97 was explored by luciferase reporter and ChIP assays. The silencing of TMEM97 inhibited migration and invasion of CRC cells in vitro and led to suppressed growth and enhanced apoptosis in CRC cells and xenografts, whereas overexpression of TMEM97 displayed opposite effects. Mechanistically, TMEM97 knockdown caused a reduction of the proliferating marker PCNA and an increase of pro-apoptotic proteins (cleaved caspase 8/3/7 and cleaved PARP) in CRC cells. TMEM97 also positively regulated the β-catenin signaling pathway in CRC cells and xenografts by modulating the phosphorylated-GSK-3β and active (non-phospho) β-catenin levels. Interestingly, YY1, a well-recognized oncogenic transcription factor, was identified to bind to the TMEM97 promoter and enhance its transcriptional activity, and silencing of TMEM97 abolished YY1-mediated pro-tumor effects on CRC cells. Our results suggest that TMEM97 is transcriptionally activated by YY1 and promotes CRC progression via the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway, providing that TMEM97 might be a novel therapeutic target for preventing CRC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13577-022-00759-5DOI Listing
September 2022

Protective effects and mechanisms of melatonin on stress myocardial injury in rats.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2022 Jun 4. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Pharmacology Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Abstract: Prolonged and intense stress can exceed the body's normal self-regulation and limited compensatory and repair capacity, resulting in pathological damage to the body. In this study, we established a rat stress myocardial injury model to explore the protective effect of melatonin (MLT) on stress myocardial injury and its possible mechanisms of action. Adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: blank control group (NC), stress myocardial injury group (SMI), MLT low-dose group (MLTL), MLT medium-dose group (MLTM), and MLT high-dose group (MLTH), and 10 rats in each group were used to establish a stress myocardial injury model by the water immersion restraint method. We observed the changes in body weight and tail vein glucose of each group. Serum levels of corticosterone (Cort), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), Troponin Ⅰ (Tn-Ⅰ) and activity of lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured by ELISA. Transcriptome sequencing was used to find differentially expressed genes in the control and model groups and the results were verified by fluorescence quantitative RT-qPCR. HE staining was used to visualize the pathological changes in the heart tissue of each group and Western Blot was used to study the differences in protein expression in the cardiomyocytes of each group to further corroborate the results. The body weight growth rate of rats in the SMI group was significantly lower than that of the NC group (P < 0.01), and the body weight growth rate of rats in the MLTH group was significantly higher than that of the SMI group (P < 0.05) with no significant difference compared to the NC group rats. The mean blood glucose of rats in the SMI group was significantly higher compared to the NC group (P < 0.001), while the mean blood glucose of rats in the MLT administration groups was dose-dependently reduced compared to the SMI group. By RNA-seq and bioinformatics tools such as KEEG and GO, we found that the circadian clock-related genes Ciart, Arnt1, Per1, and Dbp were significantly down-regulated in the SMI group during water immersion stress, and differentially expressed genes were enriched in the p38MAPK signaling pathway and p53 signaling pathway. Moreover, genes related to inflammation and apoptosis were differentially expressed. ELISA results showed that Cort, CK-MB and Tn-Ⅰ levels were significantly higher in the SMI group compared to the NC group (p < 0.01) and that melatonin reduced the levels of Cort, CK-MB, and Tn-Ⅰ and decreased LDH activity in rat serum. HE staining results showed that melatonin could attenuate stress-generated myocardial injury. Western Blot showed that melatonin reduced the expression of p38MAPK, p53, Bax, and Caspase3 and increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein in rat heart. Melatonin can inhibit myocardial injury caused by water immersion, and its mechanism of action may be related to the regulation of the expression of circadian clock genes such as Ciart, Arnt1, Per1, and Dbp, the inhibition of the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as p38MAPK, p53, Bax and Caspase3, and the increase of the expression of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0000000000001312DOI Listing
June 2022

Socioeconomic determinants for diagnosed non-communicable diseases among older people in China: Individual- and regional- level effects.

Health Soc Care Community 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become the major contributors to premature death and disability in China. This study used the repeated cross-sectional datasets of the 2008, 2011, 2014, and 2018 Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, with a total number of 44,886 observations, to investigate the association between doctor-diagnosed chronic diseases (DCDs) and socioeconomic status at both individual and province level by multilevel logistic models. Results showed that higher socioeconomic status at both individual and regional level (measured as urbanisation) were associated with higher odds of diagnosed chronic diseases among older people in China. This study also found a "convergent" effect on DCDs between individual income and urbanisation. Meanwhile, older people who can receive adequate medical support and who cannot receive adequate medical support have a "divergent" effect on DCDs by urbanisation. Additionally, older people with different types of public health insurance have a "paralleled" effect on DCDs by urbanisation. The implications of this study may be that chronic disease among older people in lower socioeconomic status was substantially underdiagnosed. Investment in primary health care could be a cost-effective way to reduce the inequalities of diagnosed chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13947DOI Listing
July 2022

Situs inversus totalis with local metastasis of gallbladder carcinoma and variation of the common hepatic artery.

BMC Gastroenterol 2022 Jul 26;22(1):357. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pancreatic Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310003, China.

Background: Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by a complete transposition of all the viscera. SIT cases were usually reported because of the presence of tumors, leading to false association between them. Therefore, any research that advances our understanding on SIT is highly required. This study firstly describes a very rare case of SIT with "jumping" metastasis to pancreas of gallbladder carcinoma.

Case Presentation: A 69-year-old female patient presented at our hospital with complaints of one month of epigastric pain was studied. She had not sought for treatment prior the visit. Imaging examinations of this patient revealed SIT and a variation of the common hepatic artery with concomitant tumors of gallbladder and pancreas. However, there was no evidence of distant metastases beyond the abdominal cavity. She underwent a combination of radical cholecystectomy, total pancreatectomy, splenectomy and hepatic artery-splenic artery reconstruction. Histological analyses revealed metastasis of the gallbladder carcinoma in to the pancreas. Although the patient opted against chemotherapy, she survived without tumor for 16 months following the surgery. A review of the current literature on association with SIT and tumor occurrence was presented.

Conclusions: It is a great surgical challenge for the resection of multicenter hepatobiliary and pancreatic tumors in such rare SIT anatomical abnormalities with vascular variants. A reliable surgical plan based on detailed preoperative imaging and intraoperative anatomical exploration is crucial to achieving radical resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-022-02377-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9327273PMC
July 2022

Protective effect of zinc supplementation on tricalcium phosphate particles-induced inflammatory osteolysis in mice.

Microsc Res Tech 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

College of Medicine, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing, People's Republic of China.

Zinc (Zn), an essential trace element, can stimulate bone formation and inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, which controls the growth and maintenance of bone. However, the effect of Zn supplementation on tricalcium phosphate (TCP) wear particles-induced osteolysis remains unknown. Here, we doped Zn into TCP particles (ZnTCP), and explore the protective effects of Zn on TCP particles-induced osteolysis in vivo. TCP particles and ZnTCP particles were embedded under the periosteum around the middle suture of the mouse calvaria. After 2 weeks, blood, the periosteal tissue, and the calvaria were collected to determine serum levels of Zn and osteocalcin, pro-inflammatory cytokines, bone biochemical markers, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption area, and to explain its mechanism. Data revealed that Zn significantly prevented TCP particles-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss, and increased bone turnover. The Zn supplement remarkably suppressed the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. Immunoblotting demonstrated that Zn alleviated expression levels of ER stress-related proteins such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), phospho-PERK (p-PERK), eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), phospho-eIF2α (p-eIF2α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1-α) and transcription factor X-box binding protein spliced (XBP1s), leading to decreasing the ratios of p-PERK/PERK and p-eIF2α/eIF2α. Taken together, Zn supplementation strongly prevents TCP particles-induced periprosthetic osteolysis via inhibition of the ER stress pathway, and it may be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of aseptic prosthesis loosening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.24213DOI Listing
July 2022

A pore-forming protein drives macropinocytosis to facilitate toad water maintaining.

Commun Biol 2022 Jul 22;5(1):730. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of Chinese Academy of Sciences/Engineering Laboratory of Peptides of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, 650201, China.

Maintaining water balance is a real challenge for amphibians in terrestrial environments. Our previous studies with toad Bombina maxima discovered a pore-forming protein and trefoil factor complex βγ-CAT, which is assembled under tight regulation depending on environmental cues. Here we report an unexpected role for βγ-CAT in toad water maintaining. Deletion of toad skin secretions, in which βγ-CAT is a major component, increased animal mortality under hypertonic stress. βγ-CAT was constitutively expressed in toad osmoregulatory organs, which was inducible under the variation of osmotic conditions. The protein induced and participated in macropinocytosis in vivo and in vitro. During extracellular hyperosmosis, βγ-CAT stimulated macropinocytosis to facilitate water import and enhanced exosomes release, which simultaneously regulated aquaporins distribution. Collectively, these findings uncovered that besides membrane integrated aquaporin, a secretory pore-forming protein can facilitate toad water maintaining via macropinocytosis induction and exocytosis modulation, especially in responses to osmotic stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-022-03686-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9307623PMC
July 2022

Entrustable Professional Activities for Chinese Standardized Residency Training in Pediatric Intensive Care Medicine.

Front Pediatr 2022 4;10:919481. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) were first introduced by Olle ten Cate in 2005. Since then, hundreds of applications in medical research have been reported worldwide. However, few studies discuss the use of EPAs for residency training in pediatric intensive care medicine. We conducted a pilot study of EPA for pediatric intensive care medicine to evaluate the use of EPAs in this subspecialty.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented in pediatric intensive care medicine standardized residency training at the Qilu Hospital of Shandong University. An electronic survey assessing EPA performance using eight scales composed of 15 categories were distributed among residents and directors.

Results: A total of 217 director-assessment and 44 residents' self-assessment questionnaires were collected, both demonstrating a rising trend in scores across postgraduate years. There were significant differences in PGY1-vs.-PGY2 and PGY1-vs.-PGY3 director-assessment scores, while there were no differences in PGY2-vs.-PGY3 scores. PGY had a significant effect on the score of each EPA, while position significantly affected the scores of all EPAs except for EPA1 (Admit a patient) and EPA2 (Select and interpret auxiliary examinations). Gender only significantly affected the scores of EPA6 (Report a case), EPA12 (Perform health education), and EPA13 (Inform bad news).

Conclusion: This study indicates that EPA assessments have a certain discriminating capability among different PGYs in Chinese standardized residency training in pediatric intensive care medicine. Postgraduate year, gender, and resident position affected EPA scores to a certain extent. Given the inconsistency between resident-assessed and director-assessed scores, an improved feedback program is needed in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.919481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9289143PMC
July 2022

Functional Brain Networks in Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2022 4;13:896388. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Radiology, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Translational Medical Research in Cognitive Development and Learning and Memory Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: The present study aims to investigate the functional brain network characteristics of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through functional connectivity (FC) calculations using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and graph theory analysis to better understand the pathogenesis of ASD and provide imaging evidence for the early assessment of this condition.

Methods: A prospective study of preschool children including 32 with ASD (ASD group) and 22 healthy controls (HC)group was conducted in which all subjects underwent rs-fMRI scans, and then the differences in FC between the two groups was calculated, followed by graph-theoretic analysis to obtain the FC properties of the network.

Results: In the calculation of FC, compared with the children in the HC group, significant increases or decreases in subnetwork connectivity was found in the ASD group. There were 25 groups of subnetworks with enhanced FC, of which the medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate gyrus and angular gyrus were all important components of the default mode network (DMN). There were 11 groups of subnetworks with weakened FC, including the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, precuneus, amygdala, and perirhinal cortex, with the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus predominating. In the network properties determined by graph theory, the clustering coefficient and local efficiency of the functional network was increased in the ASD group; specifically, compared with those in the HC group, nodes in the left subinsular frontal gyrus and the right middle temporal gyrus had increased efficiency, and nodes in the left perisylvian cortex, the left lingual gyrus, and the right hippocampus had decreased efficiency.

Conclusion: Alterations in functional brain networks are evident in preschool children with ASD and can be detected with sleep rs-fMRI, which is important for understanding the pathogenesis of ASD and assessing this condition early.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.896388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9289162PMC
July 2022

Near-zero cohesion and loose packing of Bennu's near subsurface revealed by spacecraft contact.

Sci Adv 2022 Jul 7;8(27):eabm6229. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Nice, France.

When the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft pressed its sample collection mechanism into the surface of Bennu, it provided a direct test of the poorly understood near-subsurface physical properties of rubble-pile asteroids, which consist of rock fragments at rest in microgravity. Here, we find that the forces measured by the spacecraft are best modeled as a granular bed with near-zero cohesion that is half as dense as the bulk asteroid. The low gravity of a small rubble-pile asteroid such as Bennu effectively weakens its near subsurface by not compressing the upper layers, thereby minimizing the influence of interparticle cohesion on surface geology. The underdensity and weak near subsurface should be global properties of Bennu and not localized to the contact point.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abm6229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9262326PMC
July 2022

Integrated Urinalysis Devices Based on Interface-Engineered Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors Incorporated With Electronic Circuits.

Adv Mater 2022 Jul 19:e2203224. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Cardiology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, School of Computer Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Urinalysis is attractive in non-invasive early diagnosis of bladder cancer compared with clinical gold standard cystoscopy. However, the trace bladder tumor biomarkers in urine and the particularly complex urine environment pose significant challenges for urinalysis. Here, a clinically adoptable urinalysis device that integrates molecular-specificity indium gallium zinc oxide field-effect transistor (IGZO FET) biosensor arrays, a device control panel, and an internet terminal for directly analyzing five bladder-tumor-associated proteins in clinical urine samples, is reported for bladder cancer diagnosis and classification. The IGZO FET biosensors with engineered sensing interfaces provide high sensitivity and selectivity for identification of trace proteins in the complex urine environment. Integrating with a machine-learning algorithm, this device can identify bladder cancer with an accuracy of 95.0% in a cohort of 197 patients and 75 non-bladder cancer individuals, distinguishing cancer stages with an overall accuracy of 90.0% and assessing bladder cancer recurrence after surgical treatment. The non-invasive urinalysis device defines a robust technology for remote healthcare and personalized medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202203224DOI Listing
July 2022

Animal Models of Enterovirus D68 Infection and Disease.

J Virol 2022 08 19;96(15):e0083322. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Institute for Antiviral Research, Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State Universitygrid.53857.3c, Logan, Utah, USA.

Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a globally reemerging respiratory pathogen that is associated with the development of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) in children. Currently, there are no approved vaccines or treatments for EV-D68 infection, and there is a paucity of data related to the virus and host-specific factors that predict disease severity and progression to the neurologic syndrome. EV-D68 infection of various animal models has served as an important platform for characterization and comparison of disease pathogenesis between historic and contemporary isolates. Still, there are significant gaps in our knowledge of EV-D68 pathogenesis that constrain the development and evaluation of targeted vaccines and antiviral therapies. Continued refinement and characterization of animal models that faithfully reproduce key elements of EV-D68 infection and disease is essential for ensuring public health preparedness for future EV-D68 outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00833-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9364802PMC
August 2022

Diagnostic study on clinical feasibility of an AI-based diagnostic system as a second reader on mobile CT images: a preliminary result.

Ann Transl Med 2022 Jun;10(12):668

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) has breathed new life into the lung nodules detection and diagnosis. However, whether the output information from AI will translate into benefits for clinical workflow or patient outcomes in a real-world setting remains unknown. This study was to demonstrate the feasibility of an AI-based diagnostic system deployed as a second reader in imaging interpretation for patients screened for pulmonary abnormalities in a clinical setting.

Methods: The study included patients from a lung cancer screening program conducted in Sichuan Province, China using a mobile computed tomography (CT) scanner which traveled to medium-size cities between July 10, 2020 and September 10, 2020. Cases that were suspected to have malignant nodules by junior radiologists, senior radiologists or AI were labeled a high risk (HR) tag as HR-junior, HR-senior and HR-AI, respectively, and included into final analysis. The diagnosis efficacy of the AI was evaluated by calculating negative predictive value and positive predictive value when referring to the senior readers' final results as the gold standard. Besides, characteristics of the lesions were compared among cases with different HR labels.

Results: In total, 251/3,872 patients (6.48%, male/female: 91/160, median age, 66 years) with HR lung nodules were included. The AI algorithm achieved a negative predictive value of 88.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 62.2-98.0%] and a positive predictive value of 55.6% (95% CI: 49.0-62.0%). The diagnostic duration was significantly reduced when AI was used as a second reader (223±145.6 . 270±143.17 s, P<0.001). The information yielded by AI affected the radiologist's decision-making in 35/145 cases. Lesions of HR cases had a higher volume [309.9 (214.9-732.5) . 141.3 (79.3-380.8) mm, P<0.001], lower average CT number [-511.0 (-576.5 to -100.5) . -191.5 (-487.3 to 22.5), P=0.010], and pure ground glass opacity rather than solid.

Conclusions: The AI algorithm had high negative predictive value but low positive predictive value in diagnosing HR lung lesions in a clinical setting. Deploying AI as a second reader could help avoid missed diagnoses, reduce diagnostic duration, and strengthen diagnostic confidence for radiologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-22-2157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9279799PMC
June 2022
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