Publications by authors named "Yun Yang"

874 Publications

THE GRAPE REMOTE SENSING ATMOSPHERIC PROFILE AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION EXPERIMENT.

Bull Am Meteorol Soc 2018 Sep;99(9):1791-1812

Kustas, Anderson, Alfieri, Knipper, White, Gao, L. McKee, Yang, Wilson, and Lei-Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory, USDA ARS, Beltsville, Maryland; Torres-Rua and M. McKee-Utah Water Research Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan, Utah; Parry and McElrone-Crops Pathology and Genetics Research, University of California, Davis, and USDA ARS, Davis, California; Nieto-Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology, Lleida, Spain; Agam-Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba, Israel; Prueger-National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment, USDA ARS, Ames, Iowa; Hipps, Los, and Jones-Department of Plants, Soils and Climate, Utah State University, Logan, Utah; Alsina, Sanchez, Sams, and Dokoozlian-Viticulture, Chemistry and Enology, E. & J. Gallo Winery, Modesto, California; Heitman And Howard-Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University at Raleigh, Raleigh, North Carolina; Post-School of Natural Resources, California State University, Monterey Bay, Marina, California; Melton-School of Natural Resources, California State University, Monterey Bay, Marina, California, and NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California; Hain-NASA MSFC, Huntsville, Alabama.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/bams-d-16-0244.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022860PMC
September 2018

Herbal formula of Bushen Jianpi combined with sorafenib inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth by promoting cell apoptosis and blocking the cell cycle.

J Tradit Chin Med 2021 04;41(2):194-202

Oncology Department, Shanghai TCM-Integrated Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200082, China.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of an herbal formula of Bushen Jianpi ( BSJP) combined with sorafenib on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro and in vivo, and to study the underlying mechanisms of action.

Methods: BSJP, a mixture of 12 raw herbs, was extracted in 70% alcohol/30% water and freeze-dried into a powder. The in vitro effects of BSJP alone, sorafenib alone, and their combination on cell survival, apoptosis, and cell cycle distribution were evaluated in HCC cell lines HCCLM3, HepG2, and SMMC-7721. The expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), caspase-3, and caspase-9 in HCCLM3 cells was measured using Western blots after drug administration. The in vivo effects of BSJP and sorafenib were evaluated in a tumor surgical resection model using 4-week old male athymic BALB/c nude mice injected with HCCLM3 cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues was performed to evaluate the effects of BSJP alone, sorafenib alone, and their combination on the expression of caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bcl-2.

Results: BSJP decreased the survival rate of HCC cell lines, and the combination of BSJP and sorafenib further decreased the survival rate. BSJP significantly promoted cell apoptosis and blocked cell-cycle progression in HCCLM3, HepG2, and SMMC-7721 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the administration of BSJP and sorafenib inhibited the growth of HCCLM3 cell xenografts in nude mice, with no reduction in body weight. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that BSJP combined with sorafenib could significantly decrease the expression of Bcl-2.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the herbal formula of BSJP is a potential HCC antitumor agent.
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April 2021

Sharpening ECOSTRESS and VIIRS land surface temperature using harmonized Landsat-Sentinel surface reflectances.

Remote Sens Environ 2020 Dec 8;251:112055. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

Land surface temperature (LST) is a key diagnostic indicator of agricultural water use and crop stress. LST data retrieved from thermal infrared (TIR) band imagery, however, tend to have a coarser spatial resolution (e.g., 100 m for Landsat 8) than surface reflectance (SR) data collected from shortwave bands on the same instrument (e.g., 30 m for Landsat). Spatial sharpening of LST data using the higher resolution multi-band SR data provides an important path for improved agricultural monitoring at sub-field scales. A previously developed Data Mining Sharpener (DMS) approach has shown great potential in the sharpening of Landsat LST using Landsat SR data co-collected over various landscapes. This work evaluates DMS performance for sharpening ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) LST (~70 m native resolution) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) LST (375 m) data using Harmonized Landsat and Sentinel-2 (HLS) SR data, providing the basis for generating 30-m LST data at a higher temporal frequency than afforded by Landsat alone. To account for the misalignment between ECOSTRESS/VIIRS and Landsat/HLS caused by errors in registration and orthorectification, we propose a modified version of the DMS approach that employs a relaxed box size for energy conservation (EC). Sharpening experiments were conducted over three study sites in California, and results were evaluated visually and quantitatively against LST data from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) flights and from Landsat 8. Over the three sites, the modified DMS technique showed improved sharpening accuracy over the standard DMS for both ECOSTRESS and VIIRS, suggesting the effectiveness of relaxing EC box in relieving misalignment-induced errors. To achieve reasonable accuracy while minimizing loss of spatial detail due to the EC box size increase, an optimal EC box size of 180-270 m was identified for ECOSTRESS and about 780 m for VIIRS data based on experiments from the three sites. Results from this work will facilitate the development of a prototype system that generates high spatiotemporal resolution LST products for improved agricultural water use monitoring by synthesizing multi-source remote sensing data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.112055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011572PMC
December 2020

Effect of Turmeric Concentrations on the Rate of Growth of Oral Bacteria-An In-Vitro Study.

Dent J (Basel) 2021 Mar 1;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4870, Australia.

Background And Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varying concentrations of a turmeric solution on the growth rates of oral bacteria sampled from dental students.

Methods: Bacterial cultures were grown overnight in aerobic conditions from plaque samples obtained from five test subjects. With the exception of the control, samples were exposed to different treatments; including chlorhexidine gluconate 2 mg/mL, prepared turmeric solution (TS) mouthwash: TS 0.25 mL (7.375 mg/mL), TS 0.5 mL (14.75 mg/mL), and TS 1 mL (29.50 mg/mL). Growth rate of the bacterial cultures were assessed by monitoring changes in optical density readings at 600 nm at hourly intervals for a six-hour period. The data were plotted and the exponential trend was used to calculate individual rates of growth. Data was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA with the significance confirmed using the Tukey-HSD test.

Results: Growth observed in the bacteria exposed to the turmeric solution, was significantly greater ( < 0.05) when compared with the bacteria exposed to the medium alone. There was a significant difference found between the bacterial growth rate of the 1 mL turmeric solution against the growth rate of the bacteria in the 0.25 and 0.5 mL turmeric solutions.

Conclusion: Comparison of growth rates of oral bacteria suggested that turmeric solutions of concentrations between 7.357 and 29.5 mg/mL (0.25-1 mL) were unlikely to exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal properties, and, conversely, increased bacterial growth. Considering this result, it is unlikely that turmeric mouthwash made from store-bought turmeric would have any antibacterial effects against oral bacteria, and may even promote bacterial growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj9030026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001890PMC
March 2021

Ultrasound performed shortly after birth can predict the respiratory support needs of late preterm infants-a diagnostic accuracy study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of neonatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 200011, China.

Background: Late preterm and term infants may develop respiratory issues with severe outcomes. Early identification of these diseases shortly after infants' birth can improve their management. Lung ultrasound (LUS) has been used to diagnose neonatal respiratory diseases. However, few LUS methods have been reported to predict the need for respiratory support, the basis of infant respiratory disease management.

Methods: We conducted a prospective diagnostic accuracy study following the STARD (Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) guidelines at a tertiary academic hospital between 2019 and 2020. A total of 310 late preterm and term infants with mild respiratory symptoms were enrolled. The LUS assessment was performed for each participant at one of the following times: 0.5 h, 1.0 h, 2.0 h, or 4.0 h after birth. Predictive reliability was tested by ROC analysis. The main outcome was the need for any respiratory support determined according to international guidelines.

Results: Seventy-four infants needed respiratory support, and 236 were healthy according to a 3-day follow-up confirmation. Six LUS imaging patterns were found. Two "high-risk" patterns were strongly correlated with respiratory support needs (AUC = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.92-0.98, p<0.001). The optimal cut-off value for "high-risk" patterns was 2 (sensitivity=87.8% and specificity=91.1%). The predictive value of LUS was greater than that of a symptom-based method (the ACoRN score) (AUCs' p value <0.01).

Conclusions: LUS can be used to predict the need for respiratory support in late preterm and term infants and is more reliable than tools based on respiratory symptoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25389DOI Listing
March 2021

Rapid Weight Change Over Time Is a Risk Factor for Adverse Outcomes in Patients With Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study.

J Ren Nutr 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objective: Both obesity and being underweight are risk factors for adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, the effects of longitudinal weight changes on patients with predialysis CKD have not yet been studied. In this study, we analyzed the effects of weight change over time on the adverse outcomes in predialysis CKD population.

Methods: Longitudinal data from a multicenter prospective cohort study (KNOW-CKD) were analyzed. In a total of 2,022 patients, the percent weight change per year were calculated using regression analysis and the study subjects were classified into five categories: group 1, ≤ -5%/year; group 2, -5< to ≤ -2.5%/year; group 3, -2.5< to <2.5%/year; group 4, 2.5≤ < 5%/year; and group 5, ≥5%/year. The incidences of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the composite outcome of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death were calculated in each group and compared to group 3 as reference.

Results: During a median 4.4 years of follow-up, 414 ESRD, and 188 composite of CVD and mortality events occurred. Both weight gain and loss were independent risk factors for adverse outcomes. There was a U-shaped correlation between the degree of longitudinal weight change and ESRD (hazard ratio 3.61, 2.15, 1.86 and 3.66, for group 1, 2, 4 and 5, respectively) and composite of CVD and death (hazard ratio 2.92, 2.15, 1.73 and 2.54, respectively), when compared to the reference group 3. The U-shape correlation was most prominent in the subgroup of estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min/1.73 m.

Conclusion: Both rapid weight gain and weight loss are associated with high risk of adverse outcomes, particularly in the advanced CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2021.01.026DOI Listing
March 2021

Fatal Infections Among Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study in the United States.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Introduction: Cancer patients are prone to infections, but the mortality of fatal infections remains unclear. Understanding the patterns of fatal infections in patients with cancer is imperative. In this study, we report the characteristics, incidence, and predictive risk factors of fatal infections among a population-based cancer cohort.

Methods: A total of 8,471,051 patients diagnosed with cancer between 1975 and 2016 were retrospectively identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The primary outcome was dying from fatal infections. Mortality rates and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusted for age, sex, race, and calendar year were calculated to characterize the relative risks of dying from fatal infections and to compare with the general population. Furthermore, cumulative mortality rates and the Cox regression models were applied to identify predictive risk factors of fatal infections.

Results: In cancer patients, the mortality rate of fatal infections was 260.1/100,000 person-years, nearly three times that of the general population [SMR, 2.92; 95% (confidence interval) CI 2.91-2.94]. Notably, a decreasing trend in mortality rate of fatal infections was observed in recent decades. SMRs of fatal infections were highest in Kaposi sarcoma (SMR, 162.2; 95% CI 159.4-165.1), liver cancer (SMR, 30.9; 95% CI 30.0-31.8), acute lymphocytic leukemia (SMR, 19.1; 95% CI 17.0-21.4), and acute myeloid leukemia (SMR, 13.3; 95% CI 12.4-14.3). Patients aged between 20 and 39 years old exhibited a higher cumulative mortality rate in the first few years after cancer diagnosis, whereas the cumulative mortality rate of those > 80 years old was rapidly increasing and became the highest approximately 3 years post-cancer diagnosis. Predictive risk factors of dying from fatal infections in cancer patients were the age of 20-39 or > 80 years, male sex, black race, diagnosed with cancer before 2000, unmarried status, advanced cancer stage, and not receiving surgery and radiotherapy, but receiving chemotherapy.

Conclusion: Cancer patients were at high risks of dying from infectious diseases. Certain groups of cancer patients, including those aged between 20 and 39 or > 80 years, as well as those receiving chemotherapy, should be sensitized to the risk of fatal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-021-00433-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Study of circular RNA translation using reporter systems in living cells.

Methods 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Bio-med Big Data Center, CAS Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:

Recently, a large number of circular RNAs (circRNAs) were discovered in eukaryotes, some of which were reported to be translated through a cap-independent fashion. However, study of circRNA translation is still not trivial. Here we describe two distinct systems to generate the translatable circRNAs containing validated open reading frames (ORF) to analyze their translation in living cells. The first system is a plasmid reporter containing a single exon with split GFP fragments in reverse order, which can be efficiently back-spliced to generate a circRNA encoding intact GFP. The second system is a self-splicing reporter containing an intact Renilla luciferase (Rluc) ORF and the flanking split group I introns in reverse order, which can produce circRNAs through in vitro self-splicing of the precursor RNAs. Both circRNA systems can serve as the platforms for mechanistic studies of circRNA translation, and also serve as the reliable systems to measure the activity of IRES-mediated translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2021.03.011DOI Listing
March 2021

Berberine-photodynamic induced apoptosis by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress-autophagy pathway involving CHOP in human malignant melanoma cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 19;552:183-190. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering & Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, PR China. Electronic address:

Malignant melanoma is a critical and aggressive skin tumor with a steeply rising incidence and a less favorable prognosis due to the lack of efficient treatment. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new promising treatment for this tumor through photosensitizers-mediated oxidative cytotoxicity. In this study, we explored the role of berberine-mediated PDT (BBR-PDT) in the anti-proliferative effect on human malignant melanoma cells (MMCs). We found that there were significant differences between MMCs with BBR-PDT and MMCs with BBR or PDT only. Further research showed that BBR-PDT induced apoptosis via up-regulating the expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein. We also observed that LC3-related autophagy level was upregulated in MMCs with BBR-PDT. Besides, it was also found that BBR-PDT activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, involving a dramatic increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, the knockdown of CHOP protein expression inhibited apoptosis, autophagy and ER stress levels caused by BBR-PDT, suggesting that CHOP protein may be related to apoptosis, autophagy and ER stress in MMCs with BBR-PDT. Collectively, our results indicated that BBR-PDT had an essential impact on MMCs' growth inhibition, and therefore may reveal the possibility of developing BBR-PDT into human malignant melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.02.147DOI Listing
May 2021

MKRN3-mediated ubiquitination of Poly(A)-binding proteins modulates the stability and translation of GNRH1 mRNA in mammalian puberty.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China.

The family of Poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) regulates the stability and translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Here we reported that the three members of PABPs, including PABPC1, PABPC3 and PABPC4, were identified as novel substrates for MKRN3, whose deletion or loss-of-function mutations were genetically associated with human central precocious puberty (CPP). MKRN3-mediated ubiquitination was found to attenuate the binding of PABPs to the poly(A) tails of mRNA, which led to shortened poly(A) tail-length of GNRH1 mRNA and compromised the formation of translation initiation complex (TIC). Recently, we have shown that MKRN3 epigenetically regulates the transcription of GNRH1 through conjugating poly-Ub chains onto methyl-DNA bind protein 3 (MBD3). Therefore, MKRN3-mediated ubiquitin signalling could control both transcriptional and post-transcriptional switches of mammalian puberty initiation. While identifying MKRN3 as a novel tissue-specific translational regulator, our work also provided new mechanistic insights into the etiology of MKRN3 dysfunction-associated human CPP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab155DOI Listing
March 2021

Nomogram for prediction of fatal outcome in patients with severe COVID-19: a multicenter study.

Mil Med Res 2021 03 17;8(1):21. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

The Third Affiliated Hospital of Second Military Medical University, 225 Changhai Road, Shanghai, 200438, China.

Background: To develop an effective model of predicting fatal outcomes in the severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.

Methods: Between February 20, 2020 and April 4, 2020, consecutive confirmed 2541 COVID-19 patients from three designated hospitals were enrolled in this study. All patients received chest computed tomography (CT) and serological examinations at admission. Laboratory tests included routine blood tests, liver function, renal function, coagulation profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and arterial blood gas. The SaO was measured using pulse oxygen saturation in room air at resting status. Independent high-risk factors associated with death were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard model. A prognostic nomogram was constructed to predict the survival of severe COVID-19 patients.

Results: There were 124 severe patients in the training cohort, and there were 71 and 76 severe patients in the two independent validation cohorts, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that age ≥ 70 years (HR = 1.184, 95% CI 1.061-1.321), panting (breathing rate ≥ 30/min) (HR = 3.300, 95% CI 2.509-6.286), lymphocyte count < 1.0 × 10/L (HR = 2.283, 95% CI 1.779-3.267), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) >  10 pg/ml (HR = 3.029, 95% CI 1.567-7.116) were independent high-risk factors associated with fatal outcome. We developed the nomogram for identifying survival of severe COVID-19 patients in the training cohort (AUC = 0.900, 95% CI 0.841-0.960, sensitivity 95.5%, specificity 77.5%); in validation cohort 1 (AUC = 0.811, 95% CI 0.763-0.961, sensitivity 77.3%, specificity 73.5%); in validation cohort 2 (AUC = 0.862, 95% CI 0.698-0.924, sensitivity 92.9%, specificity 64.5%). The calibration curve for probability of death indicated a good consistence between prediction by the nomogram and the actual observation. The prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients with high levels of IL-6 receiving tocilizumab were better than that of those patients without tocilizumab both in the training and validation cohorts, but without difference (P = 0.105 for training cohort, P = 0.133 for validation cohort 1, and P = 0.210 for validation cohort 2).

Conclusions: This nomogram could help clinicians to identify severe patients who have high risk of death, and to develop more appropriate treatment strategies to reduce the mortality of severe patients. Tocilizumab may improve the prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients with high levels of IL-6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-021-00315-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967101PMC
March 2021

Cross Knowledge-based Generative Zero-Shot Learning approach with Taxonomy Regularization.

Neural Netw 2021 Feb 24;139:168-178. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

National Pilot School of Software, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China.

Although zero-shot learning (ZSL) has an inferential capability of recognizing new classes that have never been seen before, it always faces two fundamental challenges of the cross modality and cross-domain challenges. In order to alleviate these problems, we develop a generative network-based ZSL approach equipped with the proposed Cross Knowledge Learning (CKL) scheme and Taxonomy Regularization (TR). In our approach, the semantic features are taken as inputs, and the output is the synthesized visual features generated from the corresponding semantic features. CKL enables more relevant semantic features to be trained for semantic-to-visual feature embedding in ZSL, while Taxonomy Regularization (TR) significantly improves the intersections with unseen images with more generalized visual features generated from generative network. Extensive experiments on several benchmark datasets (i.e., AwA1, AwA2, CUB, NAB and aPY) show that our approach is superior to these state-of-the-art methods in terms of ZSL image classification and retrieval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2021.02.009DOI Listing
February 2021

Berberine-photodynamic therapy sensitizes melanoma cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis through ROS-mediated P38 MAPK pathways.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Mar 11;418:115484. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering and Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, PR China. Electronic address:

The clinical use of cisplatin are limited due to its drug resistance. Thus, it is urgent to find effective combination therapy that sensitizes tumor cells to this drug. The combined chemo-photodynamic therapy could increase anti-tumor efficacy while also reduce the side effects of cisplatin. Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid, which has been reported to show high photosensitizing activity. In this study, we have examined the effect of a combination of cisplatin and berberine-PDT in cisplatin-resistant melanoma cells. The cytotoxic effects of berberine-PDT alone or in combination with cisplatin were tested by MTT assays. We then examined the subcellular localization of berberine with confocal fluorescence microscopy. The percentage of apoptotic cells, the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation assessed using flow cytometry analysis. Western blotting used in this study to determine the expression levels of MAPK signaling pathways and apoptosis-related proteins. Experimental data revealed that the mode of cell death is the caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. Excessive accumulation of ROS played a key role in this process, which is confirmed by alleviation of cytotoxicity upon pretreatment with NAC. Furthermore, we found that the combined treatment activated MAPK signaling pathway. The inhibition of p38 MAPK by pretreating with SB203580 block the combined treatment-induced apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, berberine-PDT could be used as a chemo-sensitizer by promoting cell death through activation of a ROS/p38/caspase cascade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2021.115484DOI Listing
March 2021

Reservoir Hosts Prediction for COVID-19 by Hybrid Transfer Learning Model.

J Biomed Inform 2021 Mar 9:103736. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

The MOH Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, China;; The NHC Key Laboratory of Drug Addiction Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China;. Electronic address:

The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has infected millions of people around the world, which is leading to the global emergency. In the event of the virus outbreak, it is crucial to get the carriers of the virus timely and precisely, then the animal origins can be isolated for further infection. Traditional identifications rely on fields and laboratory researches that lag the responses to emerging epidemic prevention. With the development of machine learning, the efficiency of predicting the viral hosts has been demonstrated by recent researchers. However, the problems of the limited annotated virus data and imbalanced hosts information restrict these approaches to obtain a better result. To assure the high reliability of predicting the animal origins on COVID-19, we extend transfer learning and ensemble learning to present a hybrid transfer learning model. When predicting the hosts of newly discovered virus, our model provides a novel solution to utilize the related virus domain as auxiliary to help building a robust model for target virus domain. The simulation results on several UCI benchmarks and viral genome datasets demonstrate that our model outperforms the general classical methods under the condition of limited target training sets and class-imbalance problems. By setting the coronavirus as target domain and other related virus as source domain, the feasibility of our approach is evaluated. Finally, we show the animal reservoirs prediction of the COVID-19 for further analysing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2021.103736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7942058PMC
March 2021

Two-Stage Selective Ensemble of CNN via Deep Tree Training for Medical Image Classification.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Mar 11;PP. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Medical image classification is an important task in computer-aided diagnosis systems. Its performance is critically determined by the descriptiveness and discriminative power of features extracted from images. With rapid development of deep learning, deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been widely used to learn the optimal high-level features from the raw pixels of images for a given classification task. However, due to the limited amount of labeled medical images with certain quality distortions, such techniques crucially suffer from the training difficulties, including overfitting, local optimums, and vanishing gradients. To solve these problems, in this article, we propose a two-stage selective ensemble of CNN branches via a novel training strategy called deep tree training (DTT). In our approach, DTT is adopted to jointly train a series of networks constructed from the hidden layers of CNN in a hierarchical manner, leading to the advantage that vanishing gradients can be mitigated by supplementing gradients for hidden layers of CNN, and intrinsically obtain the base classifiers on the middle-level features with minimum computation burden for an ensemble solution. Moreover, the CNN branches as base learners are combined into the optimal classifier via the proposed two-stage selective ensemble approach based on both accuracy and diversity criteria. Extensive experiments on CIFAR-10 benchmark and two specific medical image datasets illustrate that our approach achieves better performance in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and F1 score measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3061147DOI Listing
March 2021

Bifenthrin induces DNA damage and autophagy in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2021 Mar 10;57(3):264-271. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China.

Bifenthrin is one of the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. It targets the nervous system of insects, mainly acting on sodium channels in nerve cell membranes. The high use of bifrenthrin may lead to an increase in pest insect resistance. Additionally, there are only a few studies describing its cytotoxic action. A series of bioassays were carried out, and the results showed that bifenthrin has a significant ability to induce DNA damage and the inhibition of viability in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. Monodansylcadaverine staining and transmission electron microscope assays were used to observe significant levels of autophagosomes and mitochondrial dysfunction in the cytoplasm. Additionally, western blot analysis showed an upregulation in LC3-II and beclin-1 protein expression and a downregulation in p62 expression, which contributed to the cytotoxic effect of bifenthrin on Sf9 cells. Overall, bifenthrin significantly impacts the viability of Sf9 cells by inducing DNA damage and autophagy. These results provide a theoretical basis for understanding bifrenthin's mechanism of cytotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11626-021-00554-wDOI Listing
March 2021

Tocilizumab in patients with moderate or severe COVID-19: a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter trial.

Front Med 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China (Anhui Provincial Hospital), Hefei, 230001, China.

Tocilizumab has been reported to attenuate the "cytokine storm" in COVID-19 patients. We attempted to verify the effectiveness and safety of tocilizumab therapy in COVID-19 and identify patients most likely to benefit from this treatment. We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label multicenter trial among COVID-19 patients. The patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either tocilizumab in addition to standard care or standard care alone. The cure rate, changes of oxygen saturation and interference, and inflammation biomarkers were observed. Thirty-three patients were randomized to the tocilizumab group, and 32 patients to the control group. The cure rate in the tocilizumab group was higher than that in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (94.12% vs. 87.10%, rate difference 95% CI-7.19%-21.23%, P = 0.4133). The improvement in hypoxia for the tocilizumab group was higher from day 4 onward and statistically significant from day 12 (P = 0.0359). In moderate disease patients with bilateral pulmonary lesions, the hypoxia ameliorated earlier after tocilizumab treatment, and less patients (1/12, 8.33%) needed an increase of inhaled oxygen concentration compared with the controls (4/6, 66.67%; rate difference 95% CI-99.17% to-17.50%, P = 0.0217). No severe adverse events occurred. More mild temporary adverse events were recorded in tocilizumab recipients (20/34, 58.82%) than the controls (4/31, 12.90%). Tocilizumab can improve hypoxia without unacceptable side effect profile and significant influences on the time virus load becomes negative. For patients with bilateral pulmonary lesions and elevated IL-6 levels, tocilizumab could be recommended to improve outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0824-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940448PMC
March 2021

In situ manipulation of the d-band center in metals for catalytic activity in CO oxidation.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Apr 9;57(27):3403-3406. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, 1, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

A combination of in situ XANES, temperature programmed oxidation, kinetic and density functional theory results demonstrate that the d-band centers (ε) of Au and Pt metals are upshifted when 39.9 V m of electric field is applied. This leads to the enhancement of the adsorption strength of CO on both metals, and, thus, results in the promotion (+15%) and the depression (-23%) of CO conversions on Au and Pt, respectively, in the CO oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc06979eDOI Listing
April 2021

Development of a chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticle vaccine for protection against Escherichia coli K1 caused meningitis in mice.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Mar 5;19(1):69. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

National Engineering Research Center of Immunological Products, Department of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, The 30th, Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400038, China.

Background: Escherichia coli K1 (E. coli K1) caused neonatal meningitis remains a problem, which rises the urgent need for an effective vaccine. Previously, we rationally designed and produced the recombinant protein OmpAVac (Vo), which elicited protective immunity against E. coli K1 infection. However, Vo has limited stability, which hinders its future industrial application.

Method: Chitosan-modified poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were prepared and used as carried for the recombinant Vo. And the safety, stability and immunogenicity of Vo delivered by chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles were tested in vitro and in a mouse model of bacteremia.

Results: We successfully generated chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles for the delivery of recombinant Vo (VoNP). In addition, we found that a freeze-drying procedure increases the stability of the VoNPs without changing the shape, size distribution and encapsulation of the Vo protein. Unlike aluminum adjuvant, the nanoparticles that delivered Vo were immunoprotective in mice even after storage for as long as 180 days.

Conclusions: We identified an effective strategy to improve the stability of Vo to maintain its immunogenicity, which will contribute to the future development of vaccines against E. coli K1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00812-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934409PMC
March 2021

Nonparametric Testing under Randomized Sketching.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Mar 3;PP. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

A common challenge in nonparametric inference is its high computational complexity when data volume is large. In this paper, we develop computationally efficient nonparametric testing by employing a random projection strategy. In the specific kernel ridge regression setup, a simple distance-based test statistic is proposed. Notably, we derive the minimum number of random projections that is sufficient for achieving testing optimality in terms of the minimax rate. An adaptive testing procedure is further established without prior knowledge of regularity. One technical contribution is to establish upper bounds for a range of tail sums of empirical kernel eigenvalues. Simulations and real data analysis are conducted to support our theory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3063223DOI Listing
March 2021

Highly Efficient and Super Stable Full-Color Quantum Dots Light-Emitting Diodes with Solution-Processed All-Inorganic Charge Transport Layers.

Small 2021 Mar 3;17(12):e2007363. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China.

High performance and super stable all-inorganic full-color quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) are constructed by adopting solution-processed Mg-doped NiO (Mg-NiO ) nanoparticles as hole transport layer (HTL) and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) as electron transport layer (ETL). Mg-NiO nanoparticles possess the advantages of low-temperature solution processability, intrinsic stability, and controllable electronic properties. UV-ozone (UVO) treatment is applied to the Mg-NiO film to modulate its surface composition. By carefully controlling the UVO treating time, favorable energy levels can be achieved to minimize the energy barrier for hole injection. At the cathode side, Al-doping can reduce the conductivity of ZnO ETL and decrease the interface charge transfer, effectively, thus leading to more balanced charge injection and consequent high luminance and efficiency. The maximum luminance and EQE can reach as high as 38 444 cd m and 5.09% for R-QLEDs, 177 825 cd m and 10.1% for G-QLEDs, and 3103 cd m and 2.19% for B-QLEDs. The luminance values are the highest ever reported for all-inorganic QLEDs. Furthermore, the all-inorganic devices show much better resistance to water and oxygen existing in air. The results show that the ion-doped NiO and AZO nanoparticles would facilitate the design and development of highly efficient and super stable QLEDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202007363DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of preoperative TACE on incidences of microvascular invasion and long-term post-hepatectomy survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients: A propensity score matching analysis.

Cancer Med 2021 Mar 1;10(6):2100-2111. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

The Third Department of Hepatic Surgery, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Background: To study the influence of preoperative transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) on the incidence of microvascular invasion (MVI) and long-term survival outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.

Methods: Between January 1, 2010 and December 1, 2014, consecutive HCC patients who underwent curative liver resection were enrolled in this study. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were used to identify independent predictive factors of MVI. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to compare the incidences of MVI and prognosis between patients who did and did not receive preoperative TACE. Factors associated with Disease-Free Survival (DFS) and Overall survival (OS) were identified using Cox regression analyses.

Results: Of 1624 patients, 590 received preoperative TACE. The incidence of MVI was significantly lower in patients with preoperative TACE than those without preoperative TACE (39.15% vs. 45.36%, p = 0.015). After PSM, the incidences of MVI were similar in the two groups (38.85% vs. 41.10%, p = 0.473). Multivariable regression analysis revealed preoperative TACE to have no impact on the incidence of MVI. Before PSM, survival of patients with preoperative TACE was significantly worse than those without preoperative TACE (p = 0.032 for DFS and p = 0.027 for OS). After PSM, the difference became insignificant (p = 0.465 for DFS and p = 0.307 for OS). After adjustment for other prognostic variables in the propensity-matched cohort, preoperative TACE was still found not to be associated with DFS and OS after HCC resection. Both before and after PSM, the prognosis of patients was not significantly different between the two groups for BCLC stages 0, A, and B.

Conclusions: Preoperative TACE did not influence the incidence of MVI and prognosis of patients with HCC who underwent 'curative' liver resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957201PMC
March 2021

[Effect of Nrf2 in tumor progression and its inhibitors in cancer therapy].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Jan;46(1):24-32

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xinxiang Medical University Xinxiang 453003, China Henan International Joint Laboratory of Recombinant Protein Development Xinxiang 453003, China.

Nrf2 is the key transcription factor mainly for regulating oxidative homeostasis and cytoprotective responses against oxidative stress. Nrf2/Keap1 pathway is one of the most important cellular defense mechanisms against endogenous or exogenous oxidative stress. With its activation, a wide range of stress-related genes is transactivated to restore the cellular homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that the aberrant activation of Nrf2 is related to the malignant progression, chemotherapeutic drug resistance and poor prognosis. Nrf2 plays a crucial role in cancer malignancy and chemotherapeutic resistance by controlling the intracellular redox homeostasis through the activation of cytoprotective antioxidant genes. Nrf2 inhibitor containing many natural products has been deemed as a novel therapeutic strategy for human malignancies. This article reviews the progress of studies of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway, and its biological impact in solid malignancies and molecular mechanisms for causing Nrf2 hyperactivation in cancer cells. In conclusion, we summarized the deve-lopment of Nrf2 inhibitors in recent years, in the expectation of providing reference for further drug development and clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200915.601DOI Listing
January 2021

Prediction of Patient Survival Following Hepatic Resection in Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Indexed Ratios of Aspartate Aminotransferase to Platelets: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 19;13:1733-1746. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

The Third Department of Hepatic Surgery, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Naval Medical University (Second Military Medical University), Shanghai, 201805, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To predict patient survival in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following hepatic resection. We evaluated the prognostic potential of the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) in order to use it to model a nomogram.

Patients And Methods: We randomized 901 early-stage HCC patients treated with hepatic resection at our center into training and validation cohorts that were followed from January 2009 to December 2012. X-tile software was used to establish the APRI cut-off threshold in the training cohort. The validation cohort was subsequently assessed to determine threshold value accuracy. Data generated from the multivariate analysis in the training cohort were used to design a prognostic nomogram. Decision curve analyses (DCA), concordance index values (C-index) and calibration curves were used to determine the performance of the nomogram.

Results: X-tile software revealed that the optimal APRI cut-off threshold in the training cohort that distinguished between patients with different prognoses was 0.9. We, therefore, validated its prognostic value. Multivariate analyses showed that poor overall survival was associated with APRI above 0.9, blood loss of more than 400 mL, liver cirrhosis, multiple tumors, tumor size greater than 5 cm, microvascular invasion and satellite lesions. When the independent risk factors were integrated into the prognostic nomogram, it performed well with accurate predictions. Indeed, the performance was better than comparative prognosticators (<0.05 for all) with 0.752 as the C-index (95% CI: 0.706-0.798). These results were verified by the validation cohort.

Conclusion: APRI was a noninvasive and accurate predictive indicator for patients with early-stage HCC. Following hepatic resection to treat early-stage HCC, individualized patient survival predictions can be aided by the nomogram based on APRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S284950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903956PMC
February 2021

Prognostic Value of Right Ventricular Ejection Fraction Assessed by 3D Echocardiography in COVID-19 Patients.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 9;8:641088. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Ultrasound, Tongji Medical College, Union Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

RVEF (right ventricular ejection fraction) measured by three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has been used in evaluating right ventricular (RV) function and can provide useful prognostic information in other various cardiovascular diseases. However, the prognostic value of 3D-RVEF in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unknown. We aimed to investigate whether 3D-RVEF can predict the mortality of COVID-19 patients. A cohort of 128 COVID-19-confirmed patients who had undergone echocardiography were studied. Thirty-one healthy volunteers were also enrolled as controls. COVID-19 patients were divided into three subgroups (general, severe, and critical) according to COVID-19 severity-of-illness. Conventional RV structure and function parameters, RV free wall longitudinal strain (FWLS) and 3D-RVEF were acquired. RVFWLS was measured by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. RVEF was acquired by 3DE. Compared with controls, 2D-RVFWLS and 3D-RVEF were both significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients (-27.2 ± 4.4% vs. -22.9 ± 4.8%, < 0.001; 53.7 ± 4.5% vs. 48.5 ± 5.8%, < 0.001). Critical patients were more likely to have a higher incidence of acute cardiac injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and worse prognosis than general and severe patients. The critical patients exhibited larger right-heart chambers, worse RV fractional area change (RVFAC), 2D-RVFWLS, and 3D-RVEF and higher proportion of pulmonary hypertension than general and severe patients. Eighteen patients died during a median follow-up of 91 days. The multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed the acute cardiac injury, ARDS, RVFAC, RVFWLS, and 3D-RVEF were independent predictors of death. 3D-RVEF (chi-square to improve 18.3; < 0.001), RVFAC (chi-square to improve 4.5; = 0.034) and 2D-RVFWLS (chi-square to improve 5.1; = 0.024) all provided additional prognostic value of higher mortality over clinical risk factors. Moreover, the incremental predictive value of 3D-RVEF was significantly ( < 0.05) higher than RVFAC and RVFWLS. 3D-RVEF was the most robust independent predictor of mortality in COVID-19 patients and provided a higher predictive value over conventional RV function parameters and RVFWLS, which may be helpful to identify COVID-19 patients at a higher risk of death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.641088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902006PMC
February 2021

Identification of HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL Epitopes for MLAA-34-specific Immunotherapy for Acute Monocytic Leukemia.

J Immunother 2021 May;44(4):141-150

Department of Hematology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China.

Our previous research has shown that monocytic leukemia-associated antigen-34 (MLAA-34) was a novel antiapoptotic molecule with unique expression in acute monocytic leukemia (M5), making it an ideal target for T-cell-based immunotherapy. Here, we sought to identify HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope of MLAA-34 by reverse immunology. In all, 10 HLA-A*0201 restricted epitopes of MLAA-34 were predicted by bioinformatics. MLAA-34324-332, MLAA-34293-301, and MLAA-34236-244 showed the strongest HLA-A*0201-binding affinity. The percentages of HLA-A*0201-MLAA-34236-244 tetramer+ CD8+ T cells in MLAA-34236-244-induced CTLs were raised apparently. Enzyme-linked immunospot showed that MLAA-34236-244 and MLAA-34324-332-specific CTLs produced a higher amount of interferon-γ. MLAA-34236-244-induced CTLs presented a stronger cytotoxic effect on THP-1 cells (HLA-A*0201+MLAA-34+) at various effector to target ratios. MLAA-34236-244 peptide vaccine could inhibit the tumor growth and improve mean survival time of leukemia-bearing human peripheral blood lymphocyte reconstituting severe combined immunodeficient mice. Mice immunized with MLAA-34236-244 vaccine had increased percentages of MLAA-34236-244 tetramer+ CD8+ T cells in the spleen after each round of immunization. High-purity CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were sorted by Dynabeads as effector cells. The killing activity of CD8+ T cells was higher than that of CD4+ T cells. CTLs derived from the MLAA-34 peptide vaccine group were significantly higher than other therapeutic groups and showed specific cytotoxicity to THP-1 cells. Increased interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 and decreased IL-10 and IL-4 were seen in the MLAA-34236-244 peptide vaccine group. MLAA-34236-244 peptide (ILDRHNFAI) is an effective HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitope and that it may serve as a promising strategy in designing antigen-specific immunotherapy against MLAA-34-positive acute monocytic leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CJI.0000000000000350DOI Listing
May 2021

Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia: an expert consensus in China.

Transl Neurodegener 2021 Feb 16;10(1). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Paroxysmal dyskinesias are a group of neurological diseases characterized by intermittent episodes of involuntary movements with different causes. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is the most common type of paroxysmal dyskinesia and can be divided into primary and secondary types based on the etiology. Clinically, PKD is characterized by recurrent and transient attacks of involuntary movements precipitated by a sudden voluntary action. The major cause of primary PKD is genetic abnormalities, and the inheritance pattern of PKD is mainly autosomal-dominant with incomplete penetrance. The proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) was the first identified causative gene of PKD, accounting for the majority of PKD cases worldwide. An increasing number of studies has revealed the clinical and genetic characteristics, as well as the underlying mechanisms of PKD. By seeking the views of domestic experts, we propose an expert consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of PKD to help establish standardized clinical evaluation and therapies for PKD. In this consensus, we review the clinical manifestations, etiology, clinical diagnostic criteria and therapeutic recommendations for PKD, and results of genetic analyses in PKD patients performed in domestic hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40035-021-00231-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885391PMC
February 2021

Promotion of early breast milk expression among mothers of preterm infants in the neonatal ICU in an obstetrics and gynaecology hospital: a best practice implementation project.

JBI Evid Implement 2020 Sep;18(3):278-287

The JBI, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Introduction: The supply of breast milk to preterm infants is low. It is important to adopt strategies to promote early, frequent and effective expression of breast milk.

Objectives: The aim of this best practice implementation project was to promote early breast milk expression among mothers of preterm infants in the neonatal ICU in an obstetrics and gynaecology hospital.

Methods: The JBI Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research into Practice audit and feedback tool were used in this project. Questionnaire surveys and interviews were used for baseline and follow-up audits.

Results: An overall improvement was observed after the implementation of various strategies. The compliance regarding education provided to healthcare professionals, and mothers after delivery, as well as mothers' access to breast pump increased to 100%. The compliance concerning mothers' education before delivery rose from 0 to 77%. A remarkable increase from 23 to 87% was observed for compliance related to expression of breast milk within 6 h following delivery. The compliance of expression for 8-12 times daily in the first 48 h after delivery also experienced dramatic improvement from 0 to 50%.

Conclusion: The current project has demonstrated that the implementation of evidence-based practice was effective in promotion of early breast milk expression among mothers of preterm infants in the neonatal ICU. The role of a nurse specialist in breastfeeding, involvement of multidisciplinary staff and utilization of online networking software were highlighted in this project. Future audits may be undertaken to evaluate the long-term effect of the implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/XEB.0000000000000223DOI Listing
September 2020

A Novel Prognostic Model of Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma Integrating Methylation and Immune Biomarkers.

Front Genet 2020 21;11:634634. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Shanghai Center for Bioinformation Technology, Shanghai Academy of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is caused by multiple biological factors. Therefore, it will be more meaningful to study the prognosis from the perspective of omics integration. Given the significance of epigenetic modification and immunity in tumorigenesis and development, we tried to combine aberrant methylation and tumor infiltration CD8 T cell-related genes to build a prognostic model, to explore the key biomarkers of early-stage LUAD. On the basis of RNA-seq and methylation microarray data downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), differentially expressed genes and aberrant methylated genes were calculated with "DEseq2" and "ChAMP" packages, respectively. A Chi-square test was performed to obtain methylation driver genes. Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) was utilized to mine cancer biomarkers related to CD8 T cells. With the consequences of univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) COX regression analysis, the prognostic index based on 17 methylation driver genes (ZNF677, FAM83A, TRIM58, CLDN6, NKD1, NFE2L3, FKBP5, ITGA5, ASCL2, SLC24A4, WNT3A, TMEM171, PTPRH, ITPKB, ITGA2, SLC6A17, and CCDC81) and four CD8 T cell-related genes (SPDL1, E2F7, TK1, and TYMS) was successfully established, which could make valuable predictions for the survival risk of patients with early-stage LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.634634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859522PMC
January 2021

Volumetric Deficit Within the Fronto-Limbic-Striatal Circuit in First-Episode Drug Naïve Patients With Major Depression Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2020 20;11:600583. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Depression is a major psychiatric disorder and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Previous evidence suggested certain pattern of structural alterations were induced by major depression disorder (MDD) with heterogeneity due to patients' clinical characteristics and proposed that early impairment of fronto-limbic-striatal circuit was involved. Yet the hypothesis couldn't be replicated fully. Accordingly, this study aimed to validate this hypothesis in a new set of first-episode, drug naïve MDD patients and further explore the neuroimaging biomarker of illness severity using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A total of 93 participants, 30 patients with first-episode medication-naïve MDD, and 63 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. VBM was applied to analyze differences in the gray matter volume (GMV) between these two groups. The correlation between the GMV of the identified brain regions and the severity of clinical symptoms quantified by the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) was further conducted in the analysis to confirm the role of GMV structural alteration in clinical symptoms. Our results revealed that the brain gray matter volume of the prefrontal lobe, limbic system, striatum, cerebellum, temporal lobe, and bilateral lingual gyri were significantly decreased in MDD patients compared with healthy controls. Besides, the HAMD scores were negatively correlated with GMV of the right insula and positively correlated with that of the right lingual gyrus. Our findings provide robust evidence that gray matter structural abnormalities within the prefronto-limbic-striatal circuit are implicated in the pathophysiology of MDD at an early stage without confounding influence of medication status. Besides, our data suggest that the cerebellum, lingual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus should also be integrated into the brain alterations in MDD. Future synthesis of individual neuroimaging studies and more advanced statistical analysis comparing subfields of the aforementioned regions are warranted to further shed light on the neurobiology of the disease and assist in the diagnosis of this burdensome disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.600583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854541PMC
January 2021