Publications by authors named "Yun Liang"

320 Publications

BF group chelated AIE fluorescent probe for polarity mapping of lipid droplets in cells and in vivo.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Nov 18:120637. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Energy Materials, Institute of Optical Materials and Chemical Biology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004, PR China. Electronic address:

Lipid droplets (LDs), are multi-functional organelles with the storage of neutral lipids and proteins, participating in various of physiological processes. However, abnormal of LDs in morphology and numbers always lead to multiple diseases, including cancer, viral infection, obesity, inflammation. To better understand the physiological function of LDs in living cells, we designed two new fluorescent probes LDs-CA and LDs-BCA based on the triphenylamine and coumarin fluorophores to monitor LDs polarity and numbers variation in this work. The one-step strategy for the regulation of BF group realized a gratifying in emission wavelengths from orange fluorescence of LDs-CA to the red fluorescence of LDs-BCA, surprisingly. The two novel probes showed strong positive solvatochromism effect in different solvents and exhibited the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect. Based on the above excellent optical properties, LDs-CA and LDs-BCA were applied for imaging of the LDs with high overlap coefficient when co-stained with commercial dyes, respectively. The probes of LDs-CA and LDs-BCA provided an intuitive method to visualize the dynamic changes of LDs in morphology, size, and numbers under nutritionalstimulation, affording a powerful tool for fluorescence visualization of LDs related biological processes. Notably, the near-infrared emissive probe LDs-BCA successfully imaged the gastric fat in living obese mouse, which may provide a new idea for medical diagnostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120637DOI Listing
November 2021

Three species of hackled-orb web spider genus Miagrammopes from China (Araneae, Uloboridae).

Zootaxa 2021 Jul 22;5004(4):564-576. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, The National Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Animal Peptide Drug Development, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, Hunan, China.

Three species of the genus Miagrammopes O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1870 are described from China, including two new species, M. rutundus Liang Xu, n. sp. from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and M. auriculatus Cai Xu, n. sp. from Tibet Autonomous Region, and one known species, M. bifurcatus Dong, Yan, Zhu Song, 2004. The female of M. bifurcatus is described for the first time. Both detailed illustration and a distribution map of the three species are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5004.4.5DOI Listing
July 2021

Double C-S bond formation multiple Csp-H bond cleavage: synthesis of 4-hydroxythiazoles from amides and elemental sulfur under metal-free conditions.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Dec 1;19(46):10068-10072. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for New Petro-chemical Materials and Fine Utilization of Resources, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of the Assembly and Application of Organic Functional Molecules of Hunan Province, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, China.

A novel and efficient approach for the synthesis of 4-hydroxythiazoles from amides and elemental sulfur has been developed. In the presence of PO, DMSO and HMPA, this metal-free protocol proceeds smoothly and tolerates a spectrum of functional groups. Furthermore, this strategy involves the process of double Csp-S bond formation through the cleavage of multiple Csp-H bonds for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob01989aDOI Listing
December 2021

Silencing ferritin alleviates atherosclerosis in mice via regulating the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases and interleukins.

Acta Biochim Pol 2021 Nov;68(4):705-710

1Department of Internal Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China; 2Department of Cardiology, Shijiazhuang People's Hospital, Shijiazhuang, China; 2Department of Cardiology, Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, China.

This study was conducted to investigate the roles of ferritin in atherosclerosis. The mouse model of atherosclerosis was established by feeding ApoE knockout mice with a high-fat diet. The mice were then treated with ferritin-overexpressing and -silencing constructs, and assessed for interleukins (ILs) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) levels using ELISA and Western blot analysis. After being fed with a high-fat diet, the ApoE knockout mice developed pro-atherogenic lipid profiles with elevated total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). They also showed increased atherosclerotic lesions including narrowed lumen diameter, reduced lumen area, and increased plaque size. Following injection of the overexpression and silencing constructs, mRNA levels of ferritin were increased and decreased, respectively, and at the same time the atherosclerotic lesions were aggravated and alleviated, respectively. Further analysis indicated that silencing of ferritin gene reduced IL-1β and IL-10 levels while overexpressing ferritin increased them. On other hand, the TNF-α levels showed an opposite trend. MMP8, MMP12 and MMP13 levels were increased or decreased significantly after the mice were injected with ferritin over-expression or silencing vectors, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that compared to the control, overexpressing ferritin resulted in increased expression of p-JNK while silencing ferritin decreased the expression. Meanwhile, the levels of pc-Jun remained unchanged. Our work demonstrates that ferritin can regulate the progress of atherosclerosis via regulating the expression levels of MMPs and interleukins. Silencing ferritin inhibits the development of atherosclerosis and is, therefore, worth being further investigated as a potential therapeutic approach for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18388/abp.2020_5605DOI Listing
November 2021

MeSiSiMe(O Bu): a disilane reagent for the synthesis of diverse silacycles Brook- and retro-Brook-type rearrangement.

Chem Sci 2021 Sep 2;12(35):11756-11761. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for New Petro-Chemical Materials and Fine Utilization of Resources, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of the Assembly and Application of Organic Functional Molecules of Hunan Province, Hunan Normal University Changsha 410081 China

Herein, a readily available disilane MeSiSiMe(O Bu) has been developed for the synthesis of diverse silacycles Brook- and retro-Brook-type rearrangement. This protocol enables the incorporation of a silylene into different starting materials, including acrylamides, alkene-tethered 2-(2-iodophenyl)-1-indoles, and 2-iodobiaryls, the cleavage of Si-Si, Si-C, and Si-O bonds, leading to the formation of spirobenzosiloles, fused benzosiloles, and π-conjugated dibenzosiloles in moderate to good yields. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicate that this transformation is realized by successive palladium-catalyzed bis-silylation and Brook- and retro-Brook-type rearrangement of silane-tethered silanols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc03487aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8442712PMC
September 2021

Single Fraction Frameless Stereotactic Radiosurgery on the Gamma Knife Icon for Patients With Brain Metastases: Time to Abandon the Frame?

Adv Radiat Oncol 2021 Sep-Oct;6(5):100736. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Division of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny Health Network Cancer Institute, Allegheny, Pennsylvania.

Purpose: The latest version of the Gamma Knife, the Icon, allows for immobilization with a mask in lieu of the traditional frame during stereotactic radiosurgery. There have been some concerns regarding extent of immobilization during single fraction frameless treatment and potential effect on outcomes. As such, we reviewed outcomes in patients with brain metastases treated in a single fraction using either a frame or mask on the Gamma Knife Icon at our institution.

Methods And Materials: We reviewed the records of 95 patients with a total of 374 metastases treated between May 2019 and January 2021. Thirty-nine patients (41%) were treated using the Leksell frame with the remainder being immobilized with a mask. The median number of metastatic lesions was 2 (1-20). The median prescription dose was 20 Gy (11.5-24 Gy). Odds ratios were generated to identify predictors of mask use. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate survival, local failure, and distant failure rates. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of survival. Propensity matching was used to account for indication bias.

Results: Of the 95 patients treated, 88 (93%) had follow-up with a median duration of 5 months (1-18). Frame utilization was more likely with 6 to 10 brain metastases. Median overall survival was not reached and was 70% and 60% at 6 and 12 months for the entire cohort, respectively. There was no significant difference in survival by immobilization method ( = .12). Six patients had local failure in 10 total lesions (3 patients in each group). After propensity matching the 12 month tumor local control was 96% and 85% for framed and frameless cases, respectively ( = .07).

Conclusions: Frameless mask-based stereotactic radiosurgery using the Gamma Knife Icon is feasible and maintains the excellent local control seen with the use of the headframe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2021.100736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8498737PMC
June 2021

The S100A10-AnxA2 complex is associated with the exocytosis of hepatitis B virus in intrauterine infection.

Lab Invest 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

The Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, No. 1 Xueshi Road, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310001, China.

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the major cause of chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients. However, whether and how HBV crosses the placenta to cause infection in utero remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the mechanism as to how the HBV virions pass through layers of the trophoblast. Our data demonstrate the exocytosis of virions from the trophoblast after exposure to HBV where the endocytosed HBV virions co-localized with an S100A10/AnxA2 complex and LC3, an autophagosome membrane marker. Knockdown of either AnxA2 or S100A10 in trophoblast cells led to a reduction of the amount of exo-virus in Transwell assay. Immunohistochemistry also showed a high expression of AnxA2 and S100A10 in the placental tissue samples of HBV-infected mothers with congenital HBV-positive infants (HBV). We conclude that in HBV intrauterine infection and mother-to-child transmission, a proportion of HBV hijacks autophagic protein secretion pathway and translocate across the trophoblast via S100A10/AnxA2 complex and multivesicular body (MVB)-mediated exocytosis. Our study provides a potential target for the interference of the mechanisms of HBV intrauterine infection and mother-to-child transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00681-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512653PMC
October 2021

A non-peptide probe for detecting chymotrypsin activity based on protection-deprotection strategy in living systems.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Oct 20;9(40):8417-8423. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Energy Materials, Institute of Optical Materials and Chemical Biology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004, P. R. China.

Chymotrypsin (CHT) plays a vital role in the metabolism of organisms and affects cell proliferation and apoptosis. Abnormal levels of CHT will lead to a variety of diseases, such as inflammatory arthritis, diabetes, pharyngitis, indigestion, and pancreatic cancer. Therefore, it is significant to design an effective method for the detection of CHT in living systems. Here, we synthesized a specific deep-red non-peptide probe DT by effectively combining isophorone and -hydroxybenzaldehyde for the detection of CHT using 3-phenylpropionate chloride as the recognition group based on a protection-deprotection strategy. The DT probe exhibited an emission range of 525-700 nm and showed excellent photostability, high sensitivity (LOD = 0.071 U mL), and selectivity for CHT detection. The cellular experiments demonstrated that DT could sensitively recognize CHT activity in three cell lines and the content of CHT was much higher in P815 cells than in MCF-7 and 3T3 cells. Also, DT was successfully used to visualize the endogenous CHT in zebrafish. Notably, the DT probe provided an intuitive way to visualize endogenous CHT in mouse pancreas for the first time, demonstrating the potential for application in the future clinical diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. Therefore, the small-molecule probe DT is expected to be a useful molecular tool for CHT-related disease diagnosis and drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb01509eDOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of microplastics on organic matter decomposition in paddy soil amended with crop residues and labile C: A three-source-partitioning study.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 26;416:126221. Epub 2021 May 26.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, Institute of Plant Virology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics (MPs) are a widespread pollutant in terrestrial ecosystems. However, knowledge on how MPs impact soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and the priming effect (PE) in rice paddy soil remains limited. By employing a three-source-partitioning approach, we investigated the interactive impact of MP dosage (none, low [0.01% w/w] or high [1% w/w]), labile C (C-labeled glucose), and C-labeled rice straw addition on SOM decomposition and PE. Compared to soil without C addition (i.e., control), total SOM-derived CO in low-MP soil declined by 13.2% and 7.1% after straw and glucose addition, respectively. Under combined glucose and rice straw addition, glucose-induced PE was up to 10 times stronger in the presence of low-MPs compared to that in high-MPs. However, glucose induced negative PE on rice straw decomposition in the presence of MPs. SOM decomposition was much higher under low MP dosage than under high MP dosage. However, MPs had a negligible effect on the mineralization of exogenous C substrate (glucose or straw). This study provides a novel and valuable insight on how MPs affect SOM turnover and C sequestration in paddy soil, highlighting the significance of interactions between environmental pollutants and biogeochemical processes that affect CO fluxes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126221DOI Listing
August 2021

A coumarin-based TICT fluorescent probe for real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging of mitochondrial viscosity and systemic inflammation .

J Mater Chem B 2021 Oct 6;9(38):8067-8073. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Energy Materials, Institute of Optical Materials and Chemical Biology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004, P. R. China.

Systemic inflammation, linked with abnormal mitochondrial viscosity, is reported to be associated with cerebro-cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, it is of great significance to detect the mitochondrial viscosity to indicate the inflammatory signal . Considering the strategies of fluorescent molecular rotors (FMRs) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), we have rationally designed a novel mitochondrial viscosity-specific fluorescent probe Mito-VCI, based on coumarin fluorophores with benzo[]indolium as the rotor group. In a high viscosity solution system, the fluorescence lifetime of the probe Mito-VCI was prolonged due to the planarization and rigidity enhancement of the molecular rotor. Satisfactorily, the probe was only sensitive to viscosity, instead of non-viscosity factors such as pH and polarity. Furthermore, the probe sensitively targeted mitochondria in HeLa cells with a Pearson's correlation of 0.93, and specifically detected dynamics variation of mitochondrial viscosity with FLIM imaging in HeLa cells induced by LPS. Notably, significant fluorescence lifetime changes of Mito-VCI between normal and inflammatory tissues also occurred (for example, the fluorescence lifetime in the spleen changed from 1.128 to 1.432 ns). It can be inferred from the above observations that Mito-VCI could work as an effective and sensitive fluorescent molecular rotor for mitochondrial viscosity monitoring through FLIM imaging with a systemic inflammatory response, and provide potential applications for the diagnosis of systemic inflammation in pharmacology and toxicology studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb01150bDOI Listing
October 2021

Atmosphere-Controlled Palladium-Catalyzed Divergent Decarboxylative Cyclization of 2-Iodobiphenyls and α-Oxocarboxylic Acids.

Org Lett 2021 Sep 31;23(18):7150-7155. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for New Petro-chemical Materials and Fine Utilization of Resources, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of the Assembly and Application of Organic Functional Molecules of Hunan Province, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, People's Republic of China.

A novel palladium-catalyzed divergent decarboxylative cyclization of 2-iodobiphenyls and α-oxocarboxylic acids utilizing the atmosphere as a controlled switch is reported. Under the protection of a nitrogen atmosphere, tribenzotropones are synthesized by a [4 + 3] decarboxylative cyclization. Employing a palladium/O system enables a [4 + 2] decarboxylative cyclization to assemble triphenylenes. Notably, preliminary mechanistic studies indicate that the formation of triphenylenes involves a double decarboxylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c02559DOI Listing
September 2021

Phosphorous-Nitrogen Modification of Epoxy Grafted Poly-Acrylic Resin: Synergistic Flame Retardment Effect.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Aug 23;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 23.

National Engineering Research Center of Papermaking and Pollution Control, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

A novel high-efficient flame retardant epoxy grafted poly-acrylic resin modified by phosphorus and nitrogen was successfully synthesized by radical grafting polymerization and solution polymerization simultaneously. The flame retardancy of copolymer resin was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), cone calorimetric test (CONE), limiting oxygen index (LOI) and so on. The micro-morphology and chemical composition of char formed after a CONE calorimetric test was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The Kissinger method was used to evaluate the kinetics of thermal decomposition on copolymer resin. The results showed that the flame retardant property of copolymer resin increased with the increase in phosphorus content. With the increase in nitrogen content, however, the flame retardant property first increased and then decreased. The flame retardant property of the resin was the best and the limiting oxygen index could reach 34.3% when the phosphorus content and nitrogen content of the copolymer resin were 6.45 wt% and 2.33 wt%, respectively. Meanwhile, nitrogen-containing compounds will interact with phosphorus-containing compounds to form P-N intermediates during combustion, which have stronger dehydration and carbonization and could further enhance the flame retardant performance of the resin and generate phosphorus-nitrogen synergistic interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13162826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401131PMC
August 2021

Retraction Note to: Circ_0008035 contributes to cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis and ferroptosis in gastric cancer via miR-599/EIF4A1 axis.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Aug 9;21(1):416. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Gastrointestinal Colorectal and Anal Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, No.126, Xiantai Street, Changchun, 130031, Jilin, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-02122-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351097PMC
August 2021

Genetic Continuity of Bronze Age Ancestry with Increased Steppe-Related Ancestry in Late Iron Age Uzbekistan.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Oct;38(11):4908-4917

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Although Uzbekistan and Central Asia are known for the well-studied Bronze Age civilization of the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC), the lesser-known Iron Age was also a dynamic period that resulted in increased interaction and admixture among different cultures from this region. To broaden our understanding of events that impacted the demography and population structure of this region, we generated 27 genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism capture data sets of Late Iron Age individuals around the Historical Kushan time period (∼2100-1500 BP) from three sites in South Uzbekistan. Overall, Bronze Age ancestry persists into the Iron Age in Uzbekistan, with no major replacements of populations with Steppe-related ancestry. However, these individuals suggest diverse ancestries related to Iranian farmers, Anatolian farmers, and Steppe herders, with a small amount of West European Hunter Gatherer, East Asian, and South Asian Hunter Gatherer ancestry as well. Genetic affinity toward the Late Bronze Age Steppe herders and a higher Steppe-related ancestry than that found in BMAC populations suggest an increased mobility and interaction of individuals from the Northern Steppe in a Southward direction. In addition, a decrease of Iranian and an increase of Anatolian farmer-like ancestry in Uzbekistan Iron Age individuals were observed compared with the BMAC populations from Uzbekistan. Thus, despite continuity from the Bronze Age, increased admixture played a major role in the shift from the Bronze to the Iron Age in southern Uzbekistan. This mixed ancestry is also observed in other parts of the Steppe and Central Asia, suggesting more widespread admixture among local populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8557446PMC
October 2021

α-Bromoacrylic Acids as C1 Insertion Units for Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Synthesis of Diverse Dibenzofulvenes.

Org Lett 2021 08 28;23(15):5744-5749. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for New Petro-chemical Materials and Fine Utilization of Resources, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of the Assembly and Application of Organic Functional Molecules of Hunan Province, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, China.

Herein α-bromoacrylic acids have been employed as C1 insertion units to achieve the palladium-catalyzed [4 + 1] annulation of 2-iodobiphenyls, which provides an efficient platform for the construction of diverse dibenzofulvenes. This protocol enables the formation of double C(aryl)-C(vinyl) bonds via a C(vinyl)-Br bond cleavage and decarboxylation. It is particularly noteworthy that the method features a broad substrate scope, and various interesting frameworks, such as bridged ring, fused (hetero)aromatic ring, and divinylbenzene, can be successfully incorporated into the products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01888DOI Listing
August 2021

Transcultural Adaptation of Tibetan Nursing Trainees: A Case Study of "9+3" Vocational Technical Students in Sichuan Province, China.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Jun 6;27:e931729. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Nursing Department, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Nursing education is an important part of the "9+3" vocational education program led by Sichuan Province. In the internship stage, nursing students of Tibetan ethnicity may have problems of intercultural adaptation in the process of getting along with patients, which may affect the effective nursing outcome. The purpose of this study was to clarify the current situation of transcultural adaptation of Tibetan trainee nurses and to provide more theoretical support and guidance. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected 237 valid survey questionnaires, based on Ward's acculturation process model, from a total of 363 Tibetan trainee nurses in the "9+3" free vocational education program in Chengdu, Luzhou, and Nanchong of Sichuan Province. The SPSSAU project (2020), an online application software retrieved from https://www.spssau.com, was used for data coding and archiving. RESULTS The results of questionnaire and data analysis showed that the overall level of transcultural adaptation of Tibetan trainee nurses was that the number of people with poor adaptation was slightly higher than those with good adaptation, and most Tibetan trainee nurses were in the middle level. Meanwhile, sociocultural adaptation was better than psychological adaptation. There were no statistically significant differences among the 4 grouping variables: gender, student home region, the city where the internship hospital was located, and whether they were from a single-child family or not. CONCLUSIONS The results revealed that there was still transcultural maladjustment among Tibetan nurses in the internship stage, and the psychological maladjustment was more obvious than the sociocultural maladjustment. We provide countermeasures and suggestions to solve the problems of transcultural adaptation reflected in the research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.931729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191521PMC
June 2021

Automatic Detection and Segmentation for Group-Housed Pigs Based on PigMS R-CNN.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 7;21(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Mathematics and Informatics, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Instance segmentation is an accurate and reliable method to segment adhesive pigs' images, and is critical for providing health and welfare information on individual pigs, such as body condition score, live weight, and activity behaviors in group-housed pig environments. In this paper, a PigMS R-CNN framework based on mask scoring R-CNN (MS R-CNN) is explored to segment adhesive pig areas in group-pig images, to separate the identification and location of group-housed pigs. The PigMS R-CNN consists of three processes. First, a residual network of 101-layers, combined with the feature pyramid network (FPN), is used as a feature extraction network to obtain feature maps for input images. Then, according to these feature maps, the region candidate network generates the regions of interest (RoIs). Finally, for each RoI, we can obtain the location, classification, and segmentation results of detected pigs through the regression and category, and mask three branches from the PigMS R-CNN head network. To avoid target pigs being missed and error detections in overlapping or stuck areas of group-housed pigs, the PigMS R-CNN framework uses soft non-maximum suppression (soft-NMS) by replacing the traditional NMS to conduct post-processing selected operation of pigs. The MS R-CNN framework with traditional NMS obtains results with an F1 of 0.9228. By setting the soft-NMS threshold to 0.7 on PigMS R-CNN, detection of the target pigs achieves an F1 of 0.9374. The work explores a new instance segmentation method for adhesive group-housed pig images, which provides valuable exploration for vision-based, real-time automatic pig monitoring and welfare evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21093251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125813PMC
May 2021

Visible-light-mediated cascade cyanoalkylsulfonylation/cyclization of alkynoates leading to coumarins via SO insertion.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Apr 23;19(14):3181-3190. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006, China.

A visible-light-mediated tandem cyanoalkylsulfonylation/cyclization of alkynoates with cycloketone oxime compounds for the preparation of 3-cyanoalkylsulfonylcoumarins via SO insertion is reported. The difunctionalization of carbon-carbon triple bonds includes a radical mechanism and involves the formation of an iminyl radical, ring-opening of the cycloketone, insertion of SO, addition of the sulfonyl radical to carbon-carbon triple bonds, ipso-cyclization and ester migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob00142fDOI Listing
April 2021

infection prevents recurrence and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma possibly via inhibition of the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition.

Mol Med Rep 2021 06 13;23(6). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan 650101, P.R. China.

Postoperative recurrence causes a high mortality rate among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The current study aimed to determine the effects of infection on HCC metastasis and recurrence. The antitumor effects of infection were determined using two murine orthotopic HCC models: The non‑resection model and the resection model. Tumour tissues derived from tumour‑bearing mice treated with or without infection were harvested 15 days post‑tumour inoculation. The expression levels of biomarkers related to epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and molecules associated with CC‑chemokine receptor 10 (CCR10)‑mediated PI3K/Akt/GSK‑3β/Snail signalling were identified using reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blotting. The results demonstrated that infection significantly suppressed the progression, recurrence and metastasis of HCC in the two mouse models. The expression levels of E‑cadherin were significantly higher in the ‑treated group compared with that in the control group, whereas the expression levels of Vimentin and Snail were significantly lower in the ‑treated group. Furthermore, infection inhibited the activation of Akt and GSK‑3β in the tumour tissues by downregulating the expression levels of CCR10 and subsequently suppressing the accumulation of Snail, which may contribute to the suppression of EMT and the prevention of tumour recurrence and metastasis. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that infection inhibited the recurrence and metastasis and improved the prognosis of HCC by suppressing CCR10‑mediated PI3K/Akt/GSK‑3β/Snail signalling and preventing the EMT. These results may be important for the development of novel therapies for HCC recurrence and metastasis, especially for patients in the perioperative period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025467PMC
June 2021

α-Oxocarboxylic Acids as Three-Carbon Insertion Units for Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Cascade Synthesis of Diverse Fused Heteropolycycles.

Org Lett 2021 04 29;23(8):2878-2883. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for New Petro-chemical Materials and Fine Utilization of Resources, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of the Assembly and Application of Organic Functional Molecules of Hunan Province, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, China.

A novel palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative cascade cyclization for the assembly of diverse fused heteropolycycles by employing α-oxocarboxylic acids as three-carbon insertion units is reported. This protocol enables the synthesis of isoquinolinedione- and indolo[2,1-]isoquinolinone-fused benzocycloheptanones in moderate to good yields by the use of different aryl iodides, including alkene-tethered 2-iodobenzamides and 2-(2-iodophenyl)-1-indoles. Notably, the approach achieves simultaneous construction of both six- and seven-membered rings via sequential intramolecular carbopalladation, C-H activation, and decarboxylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c00493DOI Listing
April 2021

Palladium-Catalyzed [4 + 3] or [2 + 2 + 3] Annulation via C-H Activation and Subsequent Decarboxylation: Access to Heptagon-Embedded Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

Org Lett 2021 Apr 17;23(7):2610-2615. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for New Petro-chemical Materials and Fine Utilization of Resources, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of the Assembly and Application of Organic Functional Molecules of Hunan Province, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, China.

The construction of a seven-membered ring in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon skeleton remains a notoriously difficult but attractive challenge. Herein a novel palladium-catalyzed [4 + 3] decarboxylative annulation of 2-iodobiphenyls with 2-(2-halophenyl)acrylic acids is reported, which provides an efficient approach for assembling various tribenzo[7]annulenes via a C-H activation and decarboxylation process. Moreover, tribenzo[7]annulenes can be also synthesized via a [2 + 2 + 3] decarboxylative annulation strategy by employing readily available 1,2-halobenzenes, phenylboronic acids, and 2-(2-halophenyl)acrylic acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c00520DOI Listing
April 2021

Sexual dimorphism in immunometabolism and autoimmunity: Impact on personalized medicine.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 Apr 17;20(4):102775. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Electronic address:

Immune cells play essential roles in metabolic homeostasis and thus, undergo analogous changes in normal physiology (e.g., puberty and pregnancy) and in various metabolic and immune diseases. An essential component of this close relationship between the two is sex differences. Many autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematous and multiple sclerosis, feature strikingly increased prevalence in females, whereas in contrast, infectious diseases, such as Ebola and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, affect more men than women. Therefore, there are fundamental aspects of metabolic homeostasis and immune functions that are regulated differently in males and females. This can be observed in sex hormone-immune interaction where androgens, such as testosterone, have shown immunosuppressive effects whilst estrogen is on the opposite side of the spectrum with immunoenhancing facilitation of mechanisms. In addition, the two sexes exhibit significant differences in metabolic regulation, with estrous cycles in females known to induce variability in traits and more pronounced metabolic disease phenotype exhibited by males. It is likely that these differences underlie both the development of metabolic and autoimmune diseases and the response to current treatment options. Sexual dimorphism in immunometabolism has emerged to become an area of intense research, aiming to uncover sex-biased effector molecules in the various metabolic tissues and immune cell types, identify sex-biased cell-type-specific functions of common effector molecules, and understand whether the sex differences in metabolic and immune functions influence each other during autoimmune pathogenesis. In this review, we will summarize recent findings that address these critical questions of sexual dimorphism in immunometabolism as well as their translational implications for the clinical management of autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2021.102775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026567PMC
April 2021

CD19 CAR-T expressing PD-1/CD28 chimeric switch receptor as a salvage therapy for DLBCL patients treated with different CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapies.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 02 16;14(1):26. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Hematology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cell therapy is a promising option to treat relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (R/R DLBCL). However, the majority of CAR T-treated patients will eventually progress and require salvage treatment, for which there is no current standard. In this study, we analyzed data from 6 patients with R/R DLBCL who experienced progression following CD19-CAR T therapy, and then received CD19-specific CAR T cells that express a PD-1/CD28 chimeric switch-receptor (CD19-PD-1/CD28-CAR T) as salvage therapy at our institution. After the second infusion of CAR T cells, 3 of 6 patients achieved complete remissions and the duration of the response of responsive patients ranged from 8 to 25 months. One patient showed a stable disease. In contrast, 2/6 patients died on 60 days because of progression disease. Importantly, no severe neurologic toxicity or cytokine release syndrome was observed. These data suggest that CD19-PD-1/CD28-CAR-T cells, a novel anti-CD19 CAR-T cell therapy, elicit a potent and durable anticancer response, and can be used in the post-CD19-CAR T failure setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01044-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885572PMC
February 2021

Hsa_circ_0006571 promotes spinal metastasis through sponging microRNA-138 to regulate sirtuin 1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2020 Dec;9(6):2411-2427

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are known to participate in lung cancer. However, their role in spinal metastasis (SM) of lung adenocarcinoma remains elusive. In this study, we determined that hsa_circ_0006571 serves as a sponge for miR-138, which targets sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) in the development of SM.

Methods: A human circRNA microarray was performed to compare SM and lung adenocarcinoma samples. The expression of hsa_circ_0006571 and miR-138 was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and . Cell proliferation was performed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin V/PI staining. RNA-pulldown and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) were used to analyze the interaction between hsa_circ_0006571. Tumor metastasis was determined through a xenograft experiment .

Results: Hsa_circ_0006571 was observed to be significantly upregulated in SM tissues through circRNA microarray and qPCR. We detected a lower expression of miR-138 in SM tissues compared with lung adenocarcinoma. Hsa_circ_0006571 silencing suppressed lung cancer cell proliferation and migration while promoting apoptosis. Hsa_circ_0006571 interacted with miR-138 to promote expression of Sirt1, leading to activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Xenograft experiments showed that downregulation of hsa_circ_0006571 delayed the SM of lung adenocarcinoma cells via the miR-138-Sirt1 axis.

Conclusions: Hsa_circ_0006571 promoted tumor cell migration and invasion via the miR-138/Sirt1 pathway. Our observations indicate that circRNAs are possible novel therapeutic targets for SM of lung adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-20-1250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7815347PMC
December 2020

Tillandsia-Inspired Hygroscopic Photothermal Organogels for Efficient Atmospheric Water Harvesting.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 10 26;59(43):19237-19246. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201, China.

Tillandsia species with degenerated roots have evolved into hygroscopic leaves that absorb moisture from air. This interesting biological adaptability has inspired us to develop an integrated hygroscopic photothermal organogel (POG) to achieve a solar-powered atmospheric water harvesting (AWH). The well-designed hydrophilic co-polymeric skeleton is fabricated to accommodate hygroscopic glycerin medium, which enables the POG self-contained property, mechanically flexibility and synergistic enhancement of moisture sorption. The integration of interpenetrated photothermal component of poly-pyrrole-dopamine (P-Py-DA) can endow the POG an efficient solar-to-thermal property for controllable solar-driven interfacial water releasing. The integrated POG has an equilibrium moisture sorption of 16.01 kg m at the RH of 90 %, and daily water production as high as 2.43 kg m day is achieved in actual outdoor experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202007885DOI Listing
October 2020

Influences Morphology and Grain Size in Rice.

J Plant Biol 2021 Jan 4:1-14. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Guangxi Crop Genetic Improvement and Biotechnology Laboratory, Nanning, 530007 China.

Although morphology and grain size are important to rice growth and yield, the identity of abundant natural allelic variations that determine agronomically important differences in crops is unknown. Here, we characterized the function of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 from Wall. ex Watt encoded by . Different alternative splicing variants occurred in . Green fluorescent protein (GFP)- fusion proteins localized to the cell membrane and nuclei of rice protoplasts. Overexpression of influenced the expression levels of the grain size-related genes , , , , and Phylogenetic analysis showed that is well conserved in plants while showing large amounts of variation between , , and wild rice. In addition, slightly influenced brassinosteroid (BR) responses and the expression levels of BR-related genes. Our findings thus identify a new gene, , influencing morphology and grain size and that represents a possible link between mitogen-activated protein kinase and BR response pathways in grain growth.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12374-020-09290-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12374-020-09290-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780602PMC
January 2021

Loss-Based Attention for Interpreting Image-Level Prediction of Convolutional Neural Networks.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 11;30:1662-1675. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Although deep neural networks have achieved great success on numerous large-scale tasks, poor interpretability is still a notorious obstacle for practical applications. In this paper, we propose a novel and general attention mechanism, loss-based attention, upon which we modify deep neural networks to mine significant image patches for explaining which parts determine the image decision-making. This is inspired by the fact that some patches contain significant objects or their parts for image-level decision. Unlike previous attention mechanisms that adopt different layers and parameters to learn weights and image prediction, the proposed loss-based attention mechanism mines significant patches by utilizing the same parameters to learn patch weights and logits (class vectors), and image prediction simultaneously, so as to connect the attention mechanism with the loss function for boosting the patch precision and recall. Additionally, different from previous popular networks that utilize max-pooling or stride operations in convolutional layers without considering the spatial relationship of features, the modified deep architectures first remove them to preserve the spatial relationship of image patches and greatly reduce their dependencies, and then add two convolutional or capsule layers to extract their features. With the learned patch weights, the image-level decision of the modified deep architectures is the weighted sum on patches. Extensive experiments on large-scale benchmark databases demonstrate that the proposed architectures can obtain better or competitive performance to state-of-the-art baseline networks with better interpretability. The source codes are available on: https://github.com/xsshi2015/Loss-based-Attention-for-Interpreting-Image-level-Prediction-of-Convolutional-Neural-Networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2020.3046875DOI Listing
January 2021

Genome-wide analysis of long non-coding RNA expression profile in lung adenocarcinoma compared to spinal metastasis.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Nov;8(22):1516

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in tumor metastasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate their expression profile and potential functions in spinal metastasis (SM) of lung adenocarcinoma.

Methods: We conducted lncRNA and mRNA expression in lung adenocarcinoma and its SM tissue using microarray analysis. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed 10 differentially expressed lncRNAs. Gene ontology and pathway analysis were performed to test the gene effect. Possible target genes of lncRNAs were predicted based on precise algorithms.

Results: Microarray analysis found many significantly differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma compared with SM. qRT-PCR results aligned with those of the microarray analysis. The expression level of 10 lncRNAs showed the same trend (P<0.05). Biologic pathways known to be involved in cancer were identified among the differentially expressed mRNAs; these include cell adhesion molecules (related to 42 genes), focal adhesion (related to 31 genes), cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction (related to 48 genes), and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction (related to 23 genes). About 9,458 lncRNAs were found to have cis- or trans-genes. A total of 2,317 cis target genes were discovered to be abnormally expressed and could be regulated by lncRNAs in SM of lung adenocarcinoma.

Conclusions: Our results offer a genome-wide differential expression of lncRNA in lung adenocarcinoma and SM, as well as laying the foundation for further investigations of lncRNAs correlated with lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-7046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729335PMC
November 2020

Predictors of Treatment Interruption During Frameless Gamma Knife Icon Stereotactic Radiosurgery.

Adv Radiat Oncol 2020 Nov-Dec;5(6):1152-1157. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Division of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny Health Network Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Purpose: The Gamma Knife (GK) Icon allows for the delivery of stereotactic radiosurgery using a thermoplastic mask in combination with intrafraction motion monitoring using high definition motion management. The system pauses treatment if the magnitude of motion in all directions exceeds 1 to 1.5 mm, causing a break in treatment and prolongation of the session. We reviewed the records of patients treated in a frameless manner on our GK Icon system to determine predictors for treatment interruption.

Methods And Materials: We reviewed the records of patients treated between May 2019 and May 2020 on the GK Icon using a frameless technique for brain metastases, gliomas, schwannomas, and meningiomas. We recorded treatment time as noted in the plan document, actual treatment delivery time, and any pauses in treatment. We tabulated baseline characteristics including age, gender, diagnosis, performance status, and shifts at time of treatment. We used a receiver operating curve analysis to determine a timepoint corresponding with treatment interruption. We then conducted a logistic regression analysis to generate odds ratios for likelihood of treatment.

Results: We identified 150 patients meeting inclusion criteria. The majority (82%) were patients with brain metastases. The median age was 63 and the median dose was 27 Gy (16-30 Gy) in 3 fractions (1-5 fractions). The median treatment time was 23 minutes (4-108 minutes). Sixty-nine patients (46%) had at least 1 pause in treatment (range, 1-7). Receiver operating curve analysis revealed treatment time >19 minutes and rotation >0.47 degrees to be associated with interruption. Multivariable logistic regression revealed rotation >0.47 degrees and treatment time >19 minutes as predictive of interruption.

Conclusions: For patients with rotations exceeding 0.47 degrees or an extended treatment time, physicians should expect treatment interruptions, consider fractionation to lessen table time, or use a frame-based approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2020.06.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718496PMC
July 2020

Minor salivary gland mesenchymal stromal cells derived from patients with Sjӧgren's syndrome deploy intact immune plasticity.

Cytotherapy 2021 04 28;23(4):301-310. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Background Aims: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) provide minor salivary glands (MSGs) with support and niche cells for epithelial glandular tissue. Little is known about resident MSG-derived MSCs (MSG-MSCs) in primary Sjӧgren's syndrome (PSS). The authors' objective is to define the immunobiology of endogenous PSS MSG-MSCs.

Methods: Using culture-adapted MSG-MSCs isolated from consenting PSS subjects (n = 13), the authors performed in vitro interrogation of PSS MSG-MSC immunobiology and global gene expression compared with controls. To this end, the authors performed phenotypic and immune functional analysis of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and intercellular adhesion marker 1 (ICAM-1) before and after interferon γ (IFNγ) licensing as well as the effect of MSG-MSCs on T-cell proliferation. Considering the female predominance of PSS, the authors also addressed the influence of 17-β-estradiol on estrogen receptor α-positive-related MSC function.

Results: The authors found that MSG-MSCs deployed normal immune regulatory functionality after IFNγ stimulation, as demonstrated by increased protein-level expression of IDO, PD-L1 and ICAM-1. The authors also found that MSG-MSCs suppressed T-cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner independent of 17-β-estradiol exposure. Gene ontology and pathway analysis highlighted extracellular matrix deposition as a possible difference between PSS and control MSG-MSCs. MSG-MSCs demonstrated increased α-smooth muscle actin expression in PSS, indicating a partial myofibroblast-like adaptation.

Conclusions: These findings establish similar immune regulatory function of MSG-MSCs in both PSS and control patients, precluding intrinsic MSC immune regulatory defects in PSS. PSS MSG-MSCs show a partial imprinted myofibroblast-like phenotype that may arise in the setting of chronic inflammation, providing a plausible etiology for PSS-related glandular fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2020.09.008DOI Listing
April 2021
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