Publications by authors named "Yun Jeong Kim"

104 Publications

Comparison of COVID-19 Pandemic-Related Stress among Frontline Medical Personnel in Daegu City, Korea.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jun 7;57(6). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu 41199, Korea.

: Frontline medical staff usually experience high levels of stress, which could greatly impact their work output. We conducted a survey to investigate the level of stress and its association with job types, work departments, and medical centers among COVID-19 pandemic frontline medical personnel. : We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire among 307 frontline medical staff who cared for COVID-19 patients in Daegu city. We used a 33-item questionnaire to assess respondents' general characteristics, job stress, personal effects associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, and their stress level. A general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was included in our questionnaire. : Majority (74.3%) of the respondents were in the stress group. The mean GHQ-12 score was 14.31 ± 4.96. More females (67.4%, < 0.05) and nurses (73.3%, = 0.001) were in the stress group compared to males and doctors. Medical staff in the general ward considered the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic situation higher. Nurses perceived work changes ( < 0.05), work burden ( < 0.05), and personal impact ( < 0.05) more serious than doctors. Medical staff in Level 3 emergency department (ED) perceived a lack of real-time information ( = 0.012), a lack of resources, and negative personal impacts associated with the pandemic as more serious than staff in Level 1 and Level 2 EDs. Medical staff in the intensive care unit perceived work changes ( < 0.05), work burden ( < 0.05), and lack of personal protective equipment ( = 0.002) as more serious than staff in the ED and general ward. : Providing real-time information and resources for reducing work burden and negative personal impact is central to maximizing the work output of the COVID-19 pandemic frontline medical staff. Supporting their mental health through regular programs and intervention is also imperative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57060583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229877PMC
June 2021

Association between the Number of Prosthetic Crowns and Periodontitis: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNANES VII) from 2016-2018.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 2;18(11). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Although the presence of prosthetic restorations has been associated with plaque accumulation, gingivitis, and periodontitis, there is a lack of large epidemiological investigations providing evidence on the association of prosthetic crowns with periodontitis. This study aimed to analyze the association between the number of prosthetic crowns and the presence of periodontitis. This study was based on the Seventh Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016-2018). A total of 12,689 participants over the age of 19 years were surveyed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the association between the number of prosthetic crowns and periodontitis after adjusting for potential confounders, including demographic variables, socio-economic characteristics, oral health-related variables, and oral and systemic clinical variables. The odds ratio of periodontitis showed statistically significant differences in the anterior and posterior regions, and the prevalence of periodontal disease increased as the number of crown prostheses increased. Participants with 6-10 and 11 prosthetic crowns had 1.24 and 1.28 times higher prevalence of periodontitis, respectively, than patients with no prosthetic crown. The results of this study show that the number of prosthetic crowns present in adults is related to the prevalence of periodontitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199548PMC
June 2021

Correlation analysis of periodontal tissue dimensions in the esthetic zone using a non-invasive digital method.

J Periodontal Implant Sci 2021 Apr;51(2):88-99

Department of Periodontology and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University School of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Direct intraoral scanning and superimposing methods have recently been applied to measure the dimensions of periodontal tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze various correlations between labial gingival thickness and underlying alveolar bone thickness, as well as clinical parameters among 3 tooth types (central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) using a digital method.

Methods: In 20 periodontally healthy subjects, cone-beam computed tomography images and intraoral scanned files were obtained. Measurements of labial alveolar bone and gingival thickness at the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines were performed at points 0-5 mm from the alveolar crest on the superimposed images. Clinical parameters including the crown width/crown length ratio, keratinized gingival width, gingival scallop, and transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival sulcus were examined.

Results: Gingival thickness at the alveolar crest level was positively correlated with the thickness of the alveolar bone plate (<0.05). The central incisors revealed a strong correlation between labial alveolar bone thickness at 1 and 2 mm, respectively, inferior to the alveolar crest and the thickness of the gingiva at the alveolar crest line (G0), whereas G0 and labial bone thickness at every level were positively correlated in the lateral incisors and canines. No significant correlations were found between clinical parameters and hard or soft tissue thickness.

Conclusions: Gingival thickness at the alveolar crest level revealed a positive correlation with labial alveolar bone thickness, although this correlation at identical depth levels was not significant. Gingival thickness, at or under the alveolar crest level, was not associated with the clinical parameters of the gingival features, such as the crown form, gingival scallop, or keratinized gingival width.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5051/jpis.2003460173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8090792PMC
April 2021

Factors affecting successful esophageal foreign body removal using a Foley catheter in pediatric patients.

Clin Exp Emerg Med 2021 Mar 31;8(1):30-36. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pediatrics, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the factors that affect successful esophageal foreign body (FB) removal using a Foley catheter and to identify methods to increase the success rate.

Methods: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, we included pediatric patients who presented with esophageal FB impaction that was removed using a Foley catheter in the emergency departments of tertiary care and academic hospitals. We analyzed the effect of the patients' age, sex, and symptoms; FB type, size, and location; Foley catheter size; complications during FB removal; duration between FB ingestion and removal; operator's years of training; sedation; success rate of FB removal; endoscopy; and patient's posture during FB removal on the success of Foley catheter-based FB removal.

Results: Of the 43 patients we enrolled, Foley catheter-based FB removal was successful in 81.4% (35/43) but failed in 18.6% (8/43) of patients; no FB-removal-related complications were reported. There was no significant association between the success rate of Foley catheter-based FB removal and any study variable. A higher number of years in training tended to increase the success rate of Foley catheter-based FB removal, although statistical significance was not achieved.

Conclusion: Children's esophageal FB removal is a practical challenge in the emergency rooms, and using a Foley catheter is associated with a high success rate of the removal and low occurrence of complications. In this study, no single variable was found correlated with the success rate of Foley catheter-based esophageal FB removal in pediatric patients, which may indicate multiple variables interacting with one another to affect the success rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15441/ceem.20.070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8041577PMC
March 2021

Public awareness and willingness to use automated external defibrillators in a metropolitan city.

Clin Exp Emerg Med 2021 Mar 31;8(1):1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: Early defibrillation is crucial for the survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This study aimed to examine the trends and associated factors regarding public awareness and willingness to use automated external defibrillators (AEDs) through citywide surveys.

Methods: Three-round surveys were conducted in February 2012 (n=1,000), December 2016 (n=1,141), and December 2018 (n=1,001) among citizens in Daegu, South Korea, who were aged ≥19 years. The subjects were selected through a three-stage quota sampling. Awareness and willingness to use an AED were assessed in the three groups. The primary outcome was willingness to use AEDs.

Results: Of 3,142 respondents, 3,069 were eligible for analysis. The proportion of respondents who knew how to use AEDs increased from 4.7% in 2012 to 20.8% in 2018. Of the respondents in 2012, 2016, and 2018, 39.7%, 50.0%, and 43.2%, respectively, were willing to use an AED. Factors associated with willingness to use AEDs were male sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.75), cardiopulmonary resuscitation training experience in the previous 2 years (AOR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.43-2.28), recognition of the Good Samaritan law (AOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13-1.86), and awareness of how to use an AED (AOR, 4.40; 95% CI, 3.26-5.93).

Conclusion: To increase willingness to use AEDs, education in AED use and the Good Samaritan law, along with re-education to maintain knowledge of AED use, should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15441/ceem.20.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8041576PMC
March 2021

Obstruction of the Hepatic Venous Flow Caused by Intravenous Leiomyomatosis.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Dec 14;56(12). Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 41404, Korea.

Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare intrahepatic vascular disease that is characterized by a hepatic venous outflow obstruction. Intravenous leiomyomatosis (ILs) is a rare complication of a myoma. Here, we report a case of BCS that was caused by intracaval ILs. A woman presented to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal distension that had gradually progressed over a period of 3 years. Bedside ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) showed a large ascites and pelvic mass. The mass continued to the inferior vena cava and the right atrium. The intracaval mass was obstructing the left and middle hepatic veins. We established a tentative diagnosis of BCS caused by intracaval ILs and attempted surgical resection. Complete resection of the intracaval mass failed because of adhesion; however, she was discharged from the hospital without any postoperative complications. After 3 months, a pelvic ultrasonography showed a recurrence of a 4 × 3 cm pelvic mass. The mass size increased to 6 cm after 30 months. ILs can cause secondary BCS and can lead to life-threatening conditions. Owing to its extreme rarity, early detection in the ED is challenging. Bedside ultrasonography and CECT can enable the early recognition of BCS by ILs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56120696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764919PMC
December 2020

Luteolin Induces Selective Cell Death of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Biomedicines 2020 Oct 27;8(11). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Despite recent advances in clinical stem cell therapy applications based on human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), potential teratoma formation due to the presence of residual undifferentiated hPSCs remains a serious risk factor that challenges widespread clinical application. To overcome this risk, a variety of approaches have been developed to eliminate the remaining undifferentiated hPSCs via selective cell death induction. Our study seeks to identify natural flavonoids that are more potent than quercetin (QC), to selectively induce hPSC death. Upon screening in-house flavonoids, luteolin (LUT) is found to be more potent than QC to eliminate hPSCs in a p53-dependent manner, but not hPSC-derived smooth muscle cells or perivascular progenitor cells. Particularly, treating human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes with LUT efficiently eliminates the residual hESCs and only results in marginal effects on cardiomyocyte (CM) functions, as determined by calcium influx. Considering the technical limitations of isolating CMs due to a lack of exclusive surface markers at the end of differentiation, LUT treatment is a promising approach to minimize teratoma formation risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8110453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692041PMC
October 2020

Relations of Augmented Systolic Annular Expansion and Leaflet/Papillary Muscle Dynamics in Late-Systolic Mitral Valve Prolapse Evaluated by Echocardiography with a Speckle Tracking Analysis.

Int Heart J 2020 ;61(5):970-978

Second Department of Internal Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine.

The mechanism of systolic annular expansion in mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is not clarified. Since annular expansion is systolic outward shift of MV leaflet/chorda tissue complex at superior and outer ends, annular expansion could be related to inward (superior) shift of the complex at another inferior and inner end of the papillary muscle (PM) tip and/or systolic lengthening of the tissue complex, especially MV leaflets.MV annulus systolic expansion, PMs' systolic superior shift, and MV leaflets' systolic lengthening were evaluated by echocardiography with a speckle tracking analysis in 25 normal subjects, 25 subjects with holo-systolic MVP and 20 subjects with late-systolic MVP.PMs' superior shift, MV leaflets' lengthening, MV annular area at the onset of systole and subsequent MV annulus expansion were significantly greater in late-systolic MVP than in holo-systolic MVP (4.6 ± 1.6 versus 1.5 ± 0.7 mm/m, 2.5 ± 1.4 versus 0.6 ± 2.0 mm/m, 6.8 ± 2.5 versus 5.7 ± 1.0 cm/m and 1.6 ± 0.8 versus 0.1 ± 0.5 cm/m, P < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified MV leaflets' lengthening and PMs' superior shift as independent factors associated with MV annular expansion.Conclusions: These results suggest that systolic MV annular expansion in MVP is related to abnormal MV leaflets' lengthening and PMs' superior shift.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1536/ihj.20-236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946168PMC
October 2020

Systematic identification of a nuclear receptor-enriched predictive signature for erastin-induced ferroptosis.

Redox Biol 2020 10 12;37:101719. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea; Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Erastin, a synthetic lethal compound against cancer expressing an oncogenic RAS, inhibits cystine/glutamate antiporters and causes ferroptosis. However, despite recent evidence for the mechanisms underlying ferroptosis, molecular biomarkers of erastin-dependent ferroptosis have not been identified. Here, we employed isogenic lung cancer cell models to show that a redox imbalance leads to glutathione depletion and ferroptosis. Subsequent transcriptome analysis of pan-cancer cell lines revealed that the activity of transcription factors, including NRF2 and AhR, serve as important markers of erastin resistance. Based on the integrated expression of genes in the nuclear receptor meta-pathway (NRM), we constructed an NRM model and validated its robustness using an independent pharmacogenomics dataset. The NRM model was further evaluated by sensitivity tests on nine cancer cell lines for which erastin sensitivities had not been determined. Our pharmacogenomics approach has the potential to pave the way for the efficient classification of patients for therapeutic intervention using erastin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2020.101719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519368PMC
October 2020

How to keep patients and staff safe from accidental SARS-CoV-2 exposure in the emergency room: Lessons from South Korea's explosive COVID-19 outbreak.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 01 30;42(1):18-24. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Clinical Pathology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Objectives: We report our experience with an emergency room (ER) shutdown related to an accidental exposure to a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who had not been isolated.

Setting: A 635-bed, tertiary-care hospital in Daegu, South Korea.

Methods: To prevent nosocomial transmission of the disease, we subsequently isolated patients with suspected symptoms, relevant radiographic findings, or epidemiology. Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays (RT-PCR) were performed for most patients requiring hospitalization. A universal mask policy and comprehensive use of personal protective equipment (PPE) were implemented. We analyzed effects of these interventions.

Results: From the pre-shutdown period (February 10-25, 2020) to the post-shutdown period (February 28 to March 16, 2020), the mean hourly turnaround time decreased from 23:31 ±6:43 hours to 9:27 ±3:41 hours (P < .001). As a result, the proportion of the patients tested increased from 5.8% (N=1,037) to 64.6% (N=690) (P < .001) and the average number of tests per day increased from 3.8±4.3 to 24.7±5.0 (P < .001). All 23 patients with COVID-19 in the post-shutdown period were isolated in the ER without any problematic accidental exposure or nosocomial transmission. After the shutdown, several metrics increased. The median duration of stay in the ER among hospitalized patients increased from 4:30 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 2:17-9:48) to 14:33 hours (IQR, 6:55-24:50) (P < .001). Rates of intensive care unit admissions increased from 1.4% to 2.9% (P = .023), and mortality increased from 0.9% to 3.0% (P = .001).

Conclusions: Problematic accidental exposure and nosocomial transmission of COVID-19 can be successfully prevented through active isolation and surveillance policies and comprehensive PPE use despite longer ER stays and the presence of more severely ill patients during a severe COVID-19 outbreak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431852PMC
January 2021

ERK Dephosphorylation through MKP1 Deacetylation by SIRT1 Attenuates RAS-Driven Tumorigenesis.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Apr 8;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Stem Cell Convergence Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141, Korea.

The role of Situin 1 (SIRT1) in tumorigenesis is still controversial due to its wide range of substrates, including both oncoproteins and tumor suppressors. A recent study has demonstrated that SIRT1 interferes in the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-driven activation of the Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK pathway, thereby inhibiting tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanism of SIRT1 as a tumor suppressor in RAS-driven tumorigenesis has been less clearly determined. This study presents evidence that the ectopic expression of SIRT1 attenuates RAS- or MEK-driven ERK activation and reduces cellular proliferation and transformation in vitro. The attenuation of ERK activation by SIRT1 results from prompt dephosphorylation of ERK, while MEK activity remains unchanged. We identified that MKP1, a dual specific phosphatase for MAPK, was deacetylated by SIRT1. Deacetylation of MKP1 by direct interaction with SIRT1 increased the binding affinity to ERK which in turn facilitated inactivation of ERK. Taken together, these results suggest that SIRT1 would act as a tumor suppressor by modulating RAS-driven ERK activity through MKP1 deacetylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12040909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225992PMC
April 2020

A simple blood preparation method for nucleic acid amplification tests using membranes.

Technol Health Care 2019 ;27(6):651-659

Departments of Physiology, Molecular Diagnostics and Imaging Center, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Background: To detect most of bloodborne pathogens, serum must be separated from whole blood for efficient nucleic acid amplification. Centrifugation is the most commonly used preparation step for whole blood, but it is not easy to use a centrifuge in rural areas where electricity is not accessible.

Objective: This study aimed to develop a simple method for obtaining serum suitable for nucleic acid amplification without the use of any instruments.

Methods: Whole blood spiked with Escherichia coli (E. coli) was separated into serum and cellular fraction using 2 closely attached membranes with different characteristics. After brief heating, bacterial DNA in the serum was used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results: Serum was successfully separated from cellular fraction after filtration of one membrane sheet. Membrane sheet containing serum was heated and bacterial DNA in the serum was used for PCR. The quality and concentration of DNA in the heated serum was sufficient for PCR and amplified E. coli gene products were observed.

Conclusions: Separation of bacteria-containing serum was feasible using two membrane sheets and the DNA isolated from serum can be used for PCR after brief heating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/THC-191715DOI Listing
May 2020

Prospective cohort study of patients with early gastric cancer to detect prodromal Parkinson disease (EGC-PPD): A study protocol and baseline characteristics.

J Clin Neurosci 2019 Aug 29;66:26-32. Epub 2019 May 29.

Department of Neurology, MRC and Movement Disorder Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Parkinson Study Group, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The aim of the current study is to determine the predictive value of alpha-synuclein (AS) aggregation in stomach surgical specimens in combination with selected clinical prodromal markers (CPMs) for development of Parkinson disease (PD) in a normal population. We organized a prospective, long-term, clinicopathologic cohort of patients without neurological diseases who received a radical operation for early gastric cancer (EGC) between ages 50 and 65 years. The participants will be followed for up to 10 years and screened for CPMs and motor symptoms by annual telephone interview. If a participant reports one or more positive answers to screening questions about motor symptoms, they will be regarded as having possible parkinsonism. A movement disorder specialist will then evaluate whether that participant has PD. The primary outcome is the development of PD during the 10-year follow-up. The recruitment period has been completed, and the baseline clinical characteristics are compared between participants with and without possible parkinsonism. A total of 718 participants (mean age: 60.1 ± 5.9) was recruited. The motor symptom screening questionnaire revealed 65 patients with possible parkinsonism (9.0%) at baseline. Patients with possible parkinsonism answered that they had subjective loss of smell more than those without parkinsonism at the time of recruitment (18.5% vs 8.3%) and operation (15.4% vs 6.3%). However, the objective odor discrimination test showed no difference between patients with and without possible parkinsonism. Baseline assessments revealed a sufficient number of patients with possible parkinsonism, which will be confirmed as PD or not in subsequent follow-up visits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2019.05.033DOI Listing
August 2019

Effects of laser-assisted thinning versus opening on clinical outcomes according to maternal age in patients with repeated implantation failure.

Lasers Med Sci 2019 Dec 1;34(9):1889-1895. Epub 2019 May 1.

Agaon Fertility Clinic, Seoul, 08391, South Korea.

Laser-assisted thinning (LAT) and laser-assisted opening (LAO) are performed as part of human in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the implantation rate in patients with a poor prognosis and in cases of repeated implantation failure. However, an insufficient number of studies have directly compared LAT and LAO using the same methods. Therefore, we compared the effects of LAT and LAO on clinical outcomes according to maternal age in patients with repeated implantation failure. This retrospective study was performed in 509 IVF cycles (458 patients). The cycles were divided based on maternal age and the method used (< 38 years LAT, n = 119 vs. LAO, n = 179 and ≥ 38 years LAT, n = 72 vs. LAO, n = 139). Cleavage-stage embryos before transfer were either thinned or opened using a 1.46-μm noncontact diode laser. We compared the implantation rates and pregnancy outcomes of cycles between LAT and LAO according to maternal age. The characteristics of patients did not differ significantly among the groups (p > 0.05), with the exception of mixed factor infertility, which was more common in the LAT group than in the LAO group among patients < 38 years of age (10.1% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.008). The LAT and LAO groups showed similar rates of biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, abortion, implantation, singleton pregnancy, and twin pregnancy (p > 0.05). In conclusion, LAT and LAO had similar clinical outcomes. Therefore, we did not find any evidence that LAT is superior to LAO. In fact, the patients ≥ 38 years of age who underwent LAO tended to have a lower abortion rate. Further study is necessary to confirm these results in a larger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-019-02787-4DOI Listing
December 2019

Comparison of traffic collision victims between older and younger drivers in South Korea: Epidemiologic characteristics, risk factors and types of collisions.

PLoS One 2019 9;14(4):e0214205. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea.

Objective: This study aimed to show the epidemiological characteristics and the difference in the risk factors and types of collision between older and younger drivers in Korea.

Methods: We collected data from the Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance retrieved by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2011 to 2015. We included injured drivers aged ≥ 18 years who were registered in the database, who were limited to drivers of four-wheeled vehicles. The enrolled patients were divided according to age into older (≥ 65 years) and younger (< 65 years) drivers. The total number of enrolled drivers was 37,511; 2,361 (6.3%) of them were older drivers. The epidemiological characteristics (e.g., age, sex, fatality rate) of traffic collision victims for 5 years were determined, and the risk factors (e.g., seat belt use) and types of collision (single- vs. multi-vehicle) between the two groups were compared.

Results: The median age and interquartile range (IQR; 25th and 75th percentiles) of all drivers were 41.0 (IQR, 32.0-52.0), and 24,544 (65.4%) of them were men. The median age increased from 40.0 (IQR, 31.0-50.0) to 43.0 (IQR, 33.0-54.0) between 2010 and 2015 (P < 0.001). The proportion of older drivers increased from 5.0% to 8.4% annually during the study period (P < 0.001). Between 2010 and 2015, the fatality rate decreased from 3.1% to 1.2% (P = 0.287) for older drivers and from 0.9% to 0.5% (P = 0.009) for younger drivers. The proportion of single-vehicle collision (25.9% vs. 20.3%) was higher in older than in younger drivers (P < 0.001). Older drivers had a lower rate of seat-belt use than younger drivers (79.0% vs. 83.0%, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The proportion of older drivers increased annually during the study period, and older drivers experienced more single-vehicle collision and used seat belt less frequently than younger drivers. A national policy support to reduce traffic collision in older drivers and public relation activities to enhance their seat belt use should be strengthened in the future.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214205PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456194PMC
December 2019

Changes in the healthcare utilization after establishment of emergency centre in Yaoundé, Cameroon: A before and after cross-sectional survey analysis.

PLoS One 2019 8;14(2):e0211777. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Laboratory of Emergency Medical Services, Seoul National University Hospital Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul, Korea.

In effort to address the shortage of emergency medical care in Cameroon, the Yaoundé Emergency Center (CURY) was established in June, 2015 in Yaoundé, Cameroon. To evaluate its impact on the communities of Yaoundé, we assessed the changes in utilizations of emergency medical care since the establishment of the CURY. In 2014 the first survey was conducted on randomly selected 619 households (3,201 individuals) living in six health districts of Yaoundé. In 2017 the second quantitative survey was conducted on 622 households (3,472 individuals) using the same survey methods as the first survey. In both surveys, data on demographic information, socioeconomic status, and utilization of healthcare, including emergency care in the past year were collected on every member of the households via face-to-face interview. Data on two surveys were compared. Participants in the both surveys had similar age and gender distribution with mean age of 21-22 and 46% being male. In 2014 survey, healthcare utilization rates for emergency unit, outpatient, and hospitalization were 4.8%, 36.7%, and 10.0%, respectively. In 2017 survey, corresponding rates were 5.8%, 32.5%, and 9.2%%, respectively. The increase in the utilization of emergency unit between two surveys showed a marginal statistical significance (p = 0.08), while outpatient utilization showed statistically significant decrease from 2014 to 2017 survey (from 36.7% to 32.5%; p <0.001). After the establishment of a dedicated emergency medical center in Yaoundé, Cameroon, the utilization of emergency care was increased in the Yaoundé community. Further studies are warranted to examine the direct effect of the establishment of the CURY on healthcare utilization in Yaoundé.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211777PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368305PMC
November 2019

Possible mechanism of late systolic mitral valve prolapse: systolic superior shift of leaflets secondary to annular dilatation that causes papillary muscle traction.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2019 03 21;316(3):H629-H638. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Second Department of Internal Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine , Kitakyushu , Japan.

Progressive superior shift of the mitral valve (MV) during systole is associated with abnormal papillary muscle (PM) superior shift in late systolic MV prolapse (MVP). The causal relation of these superior shifts remains unclarified. We hypothesized that the MV superior shift is related to augmented MV superiorly pushing force by systolic left ventricular pressure due to MV annular dilatation, which can be corrected by surgical MV plasty, leading to postoperative disappearance of these superior shifts. In 35 controls, 28 patients with holosystolic MVP, and 28 patients with late systolic MVP, the MV coaptation depth from the MV annulus was measured at early and late systole by two-dimensional echocardiography. The PM tip superior shift was monitored by echocardiographic speckle tracking. MV superiorly pushing force was obtained as MV annular area × (systolic blood pressure - 10). Measurements were repeated after MV plasty in 14 patients with late systolic MVP. Compared with controls and patients with holosystolic MVP, MV and PM superior shifts and MV superiorly pushing force were greater in patients with late systolic MVP [1.3 (0.5) vs. 0.9 (0.6) vs. 3.9 (1.0) mm/m, 1.3 (0.5) vs. 1.2 (1.0) vs. 3.3 (1.3) mm/m, and 487 (90) vs. 606 (167) vs. 742 (177) mmHg·cm·m, respectively, means (SD), P < 0.001]. MV superior shift was correlated with PM superior shift ( P < 0.001), which was further related to augmented MV superiorly pushing force ( P < 0.001). MV and PM superior shift disappeared after surgical MV plasty for late systolic MVP. These data suggest that MV annulus dilatation augmenting MV superiorly pushing force may promote secondary superior shift of the MV (equal to late systolic MVP) that causes subvalvular PM traction in patients with late systolic MVP. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Late systolic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is associated with mitral valve (MV) and papillary muscle (PM) abnormal superior shifts during systole, but the causal relation remains unclarified. MV and PM superior shifts were correlated with augmented MV superiorly pushing force by annular dilatation and disappeared after surgical MV plasty with annulus size and MV superiorly pushing force reduction. This suggests that MV annulus dilatation may promote secondary superior shifts of the MV (late systolic MVP) that cause subvalvular PM traction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00618.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459314PMC
March 2019

A comprehensive analysis of the Korean fir (Abies koreana) genes expressed under heat stress using transcriptome analysis.

Sci Rep 2018 07 6;8(1):10233. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Division of Ecological Conservation, Bureau of Ecological Research, National Institute of Ecology, Seocheon, Republic of Korea.

Korean fir (Abies koreana), a rare species endemic to South Korea, is sensitive to climate change. Here, we used next-generation massively parallel sequencing technology and de novo transcriptome assembly to gain a comprehensive overview of the Korean fir transcriptome under heat stress. Sequencing control and heat-treated samples of Korean fir, we obtained more than 194,872,650 clean reads from each sample. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 42,056 unigenes were generated with an average length of 908 bp. In total, 6,401 differentially expressed genes were detected, of which 2,958 were up-regulated and 3,443 down-regulated, between the heat-treated and control samples. A gene ontology analysis of these unigenes revealed heat-stress-related terms, such as "response to stimulus". Further, in depth analysis revealed 204 transcription factors and 189 Hsps as differentially expressed. Finally, 12 regulated candidate genes associated with heat stress were examined using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In this study, we present the first comprehensive characterisation of Korean fir subjected to heat stress using transcriptome analysis. It provides an important resource for future studies of Korean fir with the objective of identifying heat stress tolerant lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-28552-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6035224PMC
July 2018

Probability of Early Retirement Among Emergency Physicians.

J Prev Med Public Health 2018 May 17;51(3):154-162. Epub 2018 May 17.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Nowon Eulji Medical Center, Eulji University, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: Early retirement occurs when one's job satisfaction suffers due to employment mismatch resulting from factors such as inadequate compensation. Medical doctors report high levels of job stress and burnout relative to other professionals. These levels are highest among emergency physicians (EPs), and despite general improvements in their working conditions, early retirement continues to become more common in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors influencing EPs intention to retire early and to develop a probability equation for its prediction.

Methods: A secondary analysis of data from the 2015 Korean Society of Emergency Physicians Survey was performed. The variables potentially influencing early retirement were organized into personal characteristics, extrinsic factors, and intrinsic factors. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors and to develop a probability equation; these findings were then arranged in a nomogram.

Results: Of the 377 survey respondents included in the analysis, 48.0% intended to retire early. Risk factors for early retirement included level of satisfaction with the specialty and its outlook, slanderous reviews, emergency room safety, health status, workload intensity, age, and hospital type. Intrinsic factors (i.e., slanderous reviews and satisfaction with the specialty and its outlook) had a stronger influence on early retirement than did extrinsic factors.

Conclusions: To promote career longevity among EPs, it is vital to improve emergency room safety and workload intensity, to enhance medical professionalism through a stronger vision of emergency medicine, and to strengthen the patient-doctor relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996188PMC
May 2018

Efficacy of embryo transfer on day 2 versus day 3 according to maternal age in patients with normal ovarian response.

Clin Exp Reprod Med 2017 Sep 26;44(3):141-145. Epub 2017 Sep 26.

Agaon Fertility Clinic, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: Delaying embryo transfer (ET) enables us to select among the embryos available for transfer and is associated with positive effects on implantation and pregnancy outcomes. However, the optimal day for ET of human cleavage-stage embryos remains controversial.

Methods: A retrospective study of 3,124 fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (2,440 patients) was conducted. We compared the effects of day 2 and 3 ET on rates of implantation and pregnancy outcomes between young maternal age (YMA; <38 years old, n=2,295) and old maternal age (OMA; ≥38 years old, n=829) patient groups.

Results: The YMA and OMA groups did not differ in terms of patient characteristics except for the proportion of unexplained factor infertility, which was significantly greater in the OMA group, and the proportion of arrested embryos, which was significantly greater in the YMA group. However, the biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, abortion, and implantation rates per cycle were not significantly different between day 2 and 3 ET in the YMA group or the OMA group.

Conclusion: We suggest that offering patients the opportunity to decide which day would be suitable for ET could be part of a patient-friendly protocol that takes into consideration an infertile woman's circumstances and work schedule by allowing ET to be performed on day 2 instead of the traditional transfer on day 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5653/cerm.2017.44.3.141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5636926PMC
September 2017

Association between public cardiopulmonary resuscitation education and the willingness to perform bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a metropolitan citywide survey.

Clin Exp Emerg Med 2017 Jun 30;4(2):80-87. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea.

Objective: Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important factor associated with improved survival rates and neurologic prognoses in cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We assessed how factors related to CPR education including timing of education, period from the most recent education session, and content, affected CPR willingness.

Methods: In February 2012, trained interviewers conducted an interview survey of 1,000 Daegu citizens through an organized questionnaire. The subjects were aged ≥19 years and were selected by quota sampling. Their social and demographic characteristics, as well as CPR and factors related to CPR education, were investigated. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate how education-related factors affected the willingness to perform CPR.

Results: Of total 1,000 cases, 48.0% were male. The multivariate analyses revealed several factors significantly associated with CPR willingness: didactic plus practice group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3 to 5.0), group with more than four CPR education session (AOR, 7.68; 95% CI, 3.21 to 18.35), interval of less than 6 months from the last CPR education (AOR, 4.47; 95% CI 1.29 to 15.52), and education with automated external defibrillator (AOR, 5.98; 95% CI 2.30 to 15.53).

Conclusion: The following were associated with increased willingness to perform CPR: practice sessions and automated electrical defibrillator training in public CPR education, more frequent CPR training, and shorter time period from the most recent CPR education sessions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15441/ceem.16.160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5511954PMC
June 2017

Diurnal variation in outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Asian communities: The Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study.

Emerg Med Australas 2017 Oct 9;29(5):551-562. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether the time of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with survival rate and neurological outcome after OHCA, as well as to compare the effect size of time of OHCA across six Asian regions.

Methods: We collected data from the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study registry, six Asian regions (Tokyo, Osaka, Aichi, Seoul, Taipei and Singapore) from 2009 to 2012. Adult OHCA cases were divided depending on the arrest time: I (00.01-06.00 hours), II (06.01-12.00 hours), III (12.01-18.00 hours) and IV (18.01-24.00 hours). Using a multivariable logistic regression analysis, we compared the outcomes of survival and good neurological recovery.

Results: Of 65 413 cases treated by the emergency medical service, 36 706 (56.1%) cases were analysed. There was the lowest OHCA incidence in time block I. Compared with time block I, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the standardised survival rate were 1.6 (1.3-1.9) in time block II, 1.4 (1.2-1.7) in time block III and 1.2 (1.0-1.4) in time block IV. Regarding the good neurological recovery rate, compared with time block I, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 1.9 (1.5-2.4) in time block II, 1.7 (1.3-2.1) in time block III and 1.4 (1.1-1.7) in time block IV. However, in the subgroup analysis, there were regional differences between Japan and the other regions.

Conclusions: We found diurnal similarities in OHCA occurrence, as well as differences in survival rate and good neurological recovery rate among Asian regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1742-6723.12822DOI Listing
October 2017

New method of assessing the relationship between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness.

J Periodontal Implant Sci 2016 Dec 26;46(6):372-381. Epub 2016 Dec 26.

Department of Periodontology, Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University School of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea .

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness by means of a noninvasive and relatively accurate digital registration method

Methods: In 20 periodontally healthy subjects, cone-beam computed tomographic images and intraoral scanned files were obtained. Measurements of buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness at the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines were performed at points 0-5 mm from the alveolar crest on the superimposed images. The Friedman test was used to compare buccal bone and gingival thickness for each depth between the 3 tooth types. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness.

Results: Of the central incisors, 77% of all sites had a buccal thickness of 0.5-1.0 mm, and 23% had a thickness of 1.0-1.5 mm. Of the lateral incisors, 71% of sites demonstrated a buccal bone thickness <1.0 mm, as did 63% of the canine sites. For gingival thickness, the proportion of sites <1.0 mm was 88%, 82%, and 91% for the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines, respectively. Significant differences were observed in gingival thickness at the alveolar crest level (G0) between the central incisors and canines (=0.032) and between the central incisors and lateral incisors (=0.013). At 1 mm inferior to the alveolar crest, a difference was found between the central incisors and canines (=0.025). The lateral incisors and canines showed a significant difference for buccal bone thickness 5 mm under the alveolar crest (=0.025).

Conclusions: The gingiva and buccal bone of the anterior maxillary teeth were found to be relatively thin (<1 mm) overall. A tendency was found for gingival thickness to increase and bone thickness to decrease toward the root apex. Differences were found between teeth at some positions, although the correlation between buccal bone thickness and soft tissue thickness was generally not significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5051/jpis.2016.46.6.372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5200863PMC
December 2016

The association between artificial light at night and prostate cancer in Gwangju City and South Jeolla Province of South Korea.

Chronobiol Int 2017 20;34(2):203-211. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

b Department of Preventive Medicine , College of Medicine and School of Public Health Korea University , Seoul , South Korea.

ABSRACT Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) has been reported to be associated with various pathological changes including sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm disruption, and melatonin suppression with increase in various cancers such as breast or prostate cancers. In this study, we sought to elucidate the association between ALAN and prostate cancer in 27 districts within Gwangju City and urban and rural areas from South Jeolla Province in South Korea. We analyzed the correlation between ALAN and the incidence of a range of cancers by Poisson regression analysis, after adjustment for confounding risk factors, such as smoking, drinking, obesity, stress, air pollution (particulate matter <10 μm in diameter), urbanization (proportion of urbanized area), and the cancer screening rate. Interestingly, the incidence of prostate cancer was significantly associated with ALAN (risk ratio = 1.02, p = 0.0369) and urbanization (risk ratio = 1.06, p = 0.0055). In particular, comparing the prostate cancer incidence at 25% and 75% level of ALAN, the risk ratio was 1.726 (12.6 over 7.3, respectively). No significant association was observed between ALAN and other cancers, including stomach, esophageal, liver, pancreatic, laryngeal, lung and tracheal, bladder, and brain and central nervous system cancers, as well as lymphoma and multiple myeloma. In conclusion, this study shows that a high incidence of prostate cancer may be independently associated with light pollution and urbanization, which represent significant factors in the rapid process of industrialization of South Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2016.1259241DOI Listing
February 2018

Long Cut Straw Provides Stable the Rates of Survival, Pregnancy and Live Birth for Vitrification of Human Blasotcysts.

Dev Reprod 2016 Sep;20(3):219-225

College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Most of the commercial devices for vitrification are directly immersed into the warming solution (WS) for increasing of warming rate. However, the previous modified cut standard straw (MCS) which has reported is difficult to immerse into the WS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the long cut straw (LCS) could be useful as a stable tool for vitrified-warmed human blastocysts. A total of 138 vitrified-warmed cycles were performed between November 2013 and November 2014 (exclusion criteria: women ≥38 years old, poor responder, surgical retrieval sperm, and severe male factor). The artificial shrinkage was conducted using 29-gauge needles. Ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide (7.5% and 15% (v/v)) were used as cryoprotectants. Freezing and warming were conducted using the LCS tool. The cap of LCS was removed using the forceps in the liquid nitrogen (LN) and then directly immersed into the first WS for 1 min at 37℃ (1 M sucrose). Only re-expanded blastocysts were transferred after it was cultured in sequential media for 18-20 h. A total of 294 blastocysts were warmed, and all were recovered (100%). Two hundred eighty-five embryos were survived (96.9%). The vitrifiedwarmed blastocysts of all patients were transferred without any cancellation. We were able to achieve a reasonable implantation (24.2%), following by clinical pregnancy (36.2%), which then continued to ongoing pregnancy (36.2%), and live birth (31.2%). Using LCS is achieved the acceptable rates of survival, pregnancy and live birth. Therefore, the LCS could be considered as a stable and simple tool for human embryo vitrificaton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12717/DR.2016.20.3.219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5078147PMC
September 2016

Preventable trauma death rate in Daegu, South Korea.

Clin Exp Emerg Med 2015 Dec 28;2(4):236-243. Epub 2015 Dec 28.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: This study investigated the preventable death rate in Daegu, South Korea, and assessed affecting factors and preventable factors in order to improve the treatment of regional trauma patients.

Methods: All traumatic deaths between January 2012 and December 2012 in 5 hospitals in Daegu were analyzed by panel review, which were classified into preventable and non-preventable deaths. We determined the factors affecting trauma deaths and the preventable factors during trauma care.

Results: There were overall 358 traumatic deaths during the study period. Two hundred thirty four patients were selected for the final analysis after excluding cases of death on arrival, delayed death, and unknown causes. The number of preventable death was 59 (25.2%), which was significantly associated with mode of arrival, presence of head injury, date, and time of injury. A multivariate analysis revealed that preventable death was more likely when patients were secondly transferred from another hospital, visited hospital during non-office hour, and did not have head injuries. The panel discovered 145 preventable factors, which showed that majority of factors occurred in emergency departments (49.0%), and were related with system process (76.6%).

Conclusion: The preventable trauma death rate in Daegu was high, and mostly process-related.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15441/ceem.15.085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5052913PMC
December 2015

Basal Left Ventricular Dilatation and Reduced Contraction in Patients With Mitral Valve Prolapse Can Be Secondary to Annular Dilatation: Preoperative and Postoperative Speckle-Tracking Echocardiographic Study on Left Ventricle and Mitral Valve Annulus Interaction.

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2016 Oct;9(10)

From the Second Department of Internal Medicine (S.F., H.K., T.M., Y.O., S.S., Y.O.), Departments of Laboratory and Transfusion Medicine (M.T.), and Cardiovascular Surgery (M.E., Y.N.), University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan; Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center Heart Institute, Seoul, South Korea (J.-K.S., J.Y.J., B.J.S., J.K.); Departments of Cardiology (K.M., S.T.) and Cardiovascular Surgery (K.M., S.T.), Sakakibara Heart Institute, Fuchu, Japan; and Cardiac Ultrasound Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (R.A.L.).

Background: Prominent mitral valve (MV) annular dilatation with only modest left ventricular (LV) dilatation in patients with MV prolapse (MVP) suggests predominant dilatation in adjacent basal LV, which may augment regional wall tension and attenuate contraction by Laplace's law. We hypothesized that MV annular dilatation in patients with MVP is associated with the basal predominance of LV dilatation and attenuated contraction, which can be altered by surgical MV plasty with annulus reduction.

Methods And Results: Echocardiography with speckle-tracking analysis to assess regional cross-sectional short-axis area and longitudinal contraction (strain) of basal, middle, and apical LV was performed in 30 controls and 130 patients with MVP. The basal value/averaged middle and apical values (B/M·A ratio) of LV cross-sectional area and strain were obtained. Patients with MVP showed significantly greater MV annular area (6.4±1.6 versus 3.7±0.6 cm/m), increased B/M·A LV area ratio (2.4±0.5 versus 1.8±0.2), and reduced B/M·A LV strain ratio (0.83±0.14 versus 0.96±0.09) than controls (P<0.001). Multivariable analyses identified that MV annular dilatation was independently associated with increased B/M·A LV area ratio (β=0.60, P<0.001), which was associated with reduced B/M·A LV strain ratio (β=-0.32, P<0.001). In 35 patients with MVP, B/M·A LV area and strain ratio significantly altered after surgical MV plasty with annulus reduction (2.5±0.5-1.8±0.3 and 0.73±0.10-0.89±0.17, P<0.001, respectively).

Conclusions: In patients with MVP, MV annular dilatation was associated with the basal predominance of LV dilatation and reduced contraction, which can be altered by surgical MV plasty with annulus reduction, suggesting unfavorable influence from MV annular dilatation on basal LV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.115.005113DOI Listing
October 2016

Characterization of 4 TaGAST genes during spike development and seed germination and their response to exogenous phytohormones in common wheat.

Mol Biol Rep 2016 Dec 20;43(12):1435-1449. Epub 2016 Sep 20.

Division of Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul, 136-713, Republic of Korea.

Gibberellic acid (GA) is involved in the regulation of plant growth and development. We defined GA-stimulated transcript (GAST) gene family and characterized its four members (TaGAST1, 2, 3, and 4) in wheat spikes. Triticum aestivum whole spikes were collected at ten developmental stages and dehulled spikelets were obtained at various days after flowering. Expression of TaGAST1, 2, 3, and 4 was analyzed using RT-PCR at inflorescence development stages, in different tissues, and after phytohormones application. To identify proteins interacting with TaGAST1, yeast two-hybridization was performed and BiFC analysis was used for verification. TaGAST1 was expressed at the inflorescence stage and only expressed in seedlings under abscisic acid (ABA) treatment after phytohormone treatment. TaGAST2 and TaGAST3 showed moderate expression in the spike, vigorous transcript accumulation in the seedling, and up-regulation by exogenous GA in early germination stages. TaGAST4 was predominantly expressed in the seedling. Wheat cyclophilin A-1 (TaCypA1), identified as a TaGAST1-interacting protein, showed opposite expression pattern in the developing spike to TaGAST1. TaCypA1 transcript was slightly up-regulated by GA, slightly down-regulated by paclobutrazol, and was maintained after ABA treatment. The interaction of TaGAST1 with TaCypA1 is targeted to the plasma membrane. TaGAST1 was specifically expressed in the wheat spike and was stimulated by exogenous GA treatment. TaGAST2 and TaGAST3 expression in germinating seeds and seedlings was higher than that in the spike stage. TaGAST4 was not expressed in all developmental stages. TaGAST1 and TaCypA1 might be expressed antagonistically during wheat spike development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-016-4077-9DOI Listing
December 2016

Early predictors of a clinical response at 8 weeks in patients with first-episode psychosis treated with paliperidone ER.

J Psychopharmacol 2016 08 21;30(8):810-8. Epub 2016 Jun 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea.

Identification of early clinical markers that predict later treatment outcomes in first-episode psychosis is highly valuable. The present study was conducted to determine the best time at which to predict the late treatment response in first-episode psychosis patients treated with paliperidone extended release (ER), the factors predicting early treatment responses (at Week 2 and Week 3) and the relationships between the paliperidone ER plasma concentrations at Week 2 and Week 3, and the treatment responses at Week 2, Week 3 and Week 8. Various criteria for assessing treatment response were employed. We determined the plasma paliperidone concentrations at Week 2 and Week 3, using validated high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The treatment response at Week 3 optimally predicted the later (Week 8) response, in terms of negative predictive value (NPV). Independent predictors for good treatment responses at Week 2 and Week 3 were: Female gender, a higher educational level, a higher Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) excited score, and/or a shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP). The plasma paliperidone concentration at Week 3, but not Week 2, was a significant predictor of the late treatment response at Week 8. These results may help appropriate clinical decision-making for early non-responders after having their first episode of psychosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881116654698DOI Listing
August 2016

High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(1):361-7

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea E-mail :

We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2016.17.1.361DOI Listing
November 2016
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