Publications by authors named "Yumin He"

43 Publications

Viral Metagenomics Reveals Diverse Viruses in the Feces Samples of Raccoon Dogs.

Front Vet Sci 2021 12;8:693564. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Raccoon dogs as an ancient species of are the host of many viruses, including rabies virus, canine distemper virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and so on. With the development of raccoon dog breeding in recent years, some viruses which infected poultry or pigs were also detected from raccoon dogs. At present, the fecal virome of raccoon dogs has been rarely studied. Using an unbiased viral metagenomic approach, we investigated the fecal virome in raccoon dogs collected from one farm of Jilin Province, China. Many DNA or RNA viruses identified in those fecal samples were mainly from seven families, including , and . This study increased our understanding of the fecal virome in raccoon dog and provided valuable information for the monitoring, prevention, and treatment of viral diseases of these animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.693564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8311183PMC
July 2021

Saponins from Panax japonicus alleviate HFD-induced impaired behaviors through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome to upregulate AMPA receptors.

Neurochem Int 2021 Sep 12;148:105098. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China; New Medicine Innovation and Development Institute, Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China. Electronic address:

Obesity is characterized by a condition of low-grade chronic inflammation that facilitates development of numerous comorbidities and dysregulation of brain homeostasis. It is reported that obesity can lead to behavioral alterations such as cognitive decline and depression-like behaviors both in humans and rodents. Saponins from panax japonicus (SPJ) have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory action in mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We evaluated the neuroprotection of SPJ on high fat diet (HFD) induced impaired behaviors such as memory deficit and depressive-like behaviors, and explored the underlying mechanisms. 6-week male Balb/c mice were divided into normal control group (NC, 17% total calories from fat), HFD group (60% total calories from fat), and HFD treated with SPJ groups (orally gavaged with dosages of 15 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg), respectively. After treatment for 16 weeks, behavioral tests were performed to evaluate the cognition and depression-like behaviors of the mice. The underling mechanisms of SPJ on HFD-induced impaired behaviors were investigated through histopathological observation, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Our results showed that HFD-fed mice caused behavioral disorders, neuronal degeneration as well as elevated neuroinflammation, which was partly involved in NLRP3 inflammasome that finally resulted in decreased protein levels of AMPA receptors and down-regulated phosphorylated levels of CaMKII and CREB in cortex and hippocampus. All the above changes in cortex and hippocampus induced by HFD were mitigated by SPJ treatment. SPJ treatment alleviated HFD-induced recognitive impairment and depression-like behaviors of mice, which could be partly due to the capacity of SPJ to mitigate neuroinflammation through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and upregulation of AMPA receptors signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2021.105098DOI Listing
September 2021

Saponins from ameliorate age-related renal fibrosis by inhibition of inflammation mediated by NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad signaling and suppression of oxidative stress via activation of Nrf2-ARE signaling.

J Ginseng Res 2021 May 9;45(3):408-419. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

College of Medical Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China.

Background: The decreased renal function is known to be associated with biological aging, of which the main pathological features are chronic inflammation and renal interstitial fibrosis. In previous studies, we reported that total saponins from (SPJs) can availably protect acute myocardial ischemia. We proposed that SPJs might have similar protective effects for aging-associated renal interstitial fibrosis. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the overall effect of SPJs on renal fibrosis.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) aging rats were given SPJs by gavage beginning from 18 months old, at 10 mg/kg/d and 60 mg/kg/d, up to 24 months old. After the experiment, changes in morphology, function and fibrosis of their kidneys were detected. The levels of serum uric acid (UA), β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) and cystatin C (Cys C) were assayed with ELISA kits. The levels of extracellular matrix (ECM), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), inflammatory factors and changes of oxidative stress parameters were examined.

Results: After SPJs treatment, SD rats showed significantly histopathological changes in kidneys accompanied by decreased renal fibrosis and increased renal function; As compared with those in 3-month group, the levels of serum UA, Cys C and β2-MG in 24-month group were significantly increased ( < 0.05). Compared with those in the 24-month group, the levels of serum UA, Cys C and β2-MG in the SPJ-H group were significantly decreased. While ECM was reduced and the levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were increased, the levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad signaling were decreased; the expression level of phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) was down-regulated with reduced inflammatory factors; meanwhile, the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) signaling was aggrandized.

Conclusion: These results suggest that SPJs treatment can improve age-associated renal fibrosis by inhibiting TGF-β1/Smad, NFκB signaling pathways and activating Nrf2-ARE signaling pathways and that SPJs can be a potentially valuable anti-renal fibrosis drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2020.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134850PMC
May 2021

Identification and Characterization of a Novel Recombinant Porcine Astrovirus from Pigs in Anhui, China.

Pol J Microbiol 2020 Dec 27;69(4):471-478. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Porcine astroviruses (PAstVs) have wide distribution in swine herds worldwide. At present, five porcine astrovirus genotypes have been identified. In this study, using viral metagenomics, a novel PAstV strain (designated as Ahast) was identified in fecal samples from pigs in Anhui of China, and the complete genomic sequence of Ahast was obtained by assembling and PCR amplification. Genomic structural analysis indicated that Ahast had a typical ribosomal frameshifting signal, and some conserve amino acid motifs were also found in virally encoded proteins. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison indicated that this virus belonged to porcine astrovirus genotype 4 (PAstV4), which formed a clade clustered with other PAstV4. Multiple recombinant events were confirmed by recombination analysis and indicated that Ahast was a potential recombinant. Epidemiological investigation indicated that PAstV4 has a 10.7% prevalence in this pig farm. The new recombinant identified in this study will be beneficial to comprehend the origin, genetic diversity, and evolution of porcine astroviruses in Anhui of China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33073/pjm-2020-051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812366PMC
December 2020

SOX2-dependent expression of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase regulates oral squamous cell carcinoma cell proliferation.

Int J Oral Sci 2021 01 29;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Research Unit of Oral Carcinogenesis and Management, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) become a heavy burden of public health, with approximately 300 000 newly diagnosed cases and 145 000 deaths worldwide per year. Nucleotide metabolism fuel DNA replication and RNA synthesis, which is indispensable for cell proliferation. But how tumor cells orchestrate nucleotide metabolic enzymes to support their rapid growth is largely unknown. Here we show that expression of pyrimidine metabolic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is upregulated in OSCC tissues, compared to non-cancerous adjacent tissues. Enhanced expression of DHODH is correlated with a shortened patient survival time. Inhibition of DHODH by either shRNA or selective inhibitors impairs proliferation of OSCC cells and growth of tumor xenograft. Further, loss of functional DHODH imped de novo pyrimidine synthesis, and disrupt mitochondrial respiration probably through destabilizing the MICOS complex. Mechanistic study shows that transcriptional factor SOX2 plays an important role in the upregulation of DHODH in OSCC. Our findings add to the knowledge of how cancer cells co-opt nucleotide metabolism to support their rapid growth, and thereby highlight DHODH as a potential prognostic and therapeutic target for OSCC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41368-020-00109-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844284PMC
January 2021

Polysaccharides extracted from balanophora polyandra Griff (BPP) ameliorate renal Fibrosis and EMT via inhibiting the Hedgehog pathway.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Mar 28;25(6):2828-2840. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

College of Medical Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China.

Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is a crucial pathological change leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Currently, no effective medicines have been available for treating it. In our research, we examined the effects of polysaccharides extracted from Balanophora polyandra Griff (BPPs) on kidney fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vivo and in vitro, aiming to explore the underlying mechanisms. By using the mice with unilateral urethral obstruction (UUO) as experimental subjects, we examined the medicinal values of BPPs on alleviating RIF. The effects of BPPs were evaluated by examining the histological staining and relative mRNA and protein expression levels of the related genes. The possible underlying mechanisms were further explored with human normal renal proximal tubular epithelia (HK-2 cells) as in vitro model. In UUO mice, BPP treatment could significantly alleviate interstitial fibrosis through reducing the components (Collagens I, III and IV) of extracellular matrix (ECM), and reducing the activation of fibroblasts producing these components, as revealed by inhibiting the hallmarks (fibronectin and α-SMA) of fibroblast activation. Furthermore, BPP administration increased the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and declined those of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). BPPs markedly ameliorated EMT in both the kidneys of UUO mice and TGF-β1 treated HK-2 cells. Moreover, BPP treatment decreased the expression levels of several transcriptional factors involved in regulating E-cadherin expression, including snail, twist and ZEB1. Additionally, the Hedgehog pathway was found to be closely correlated with renal fibrosis and EMT. Altogether, our results clearly demonstrated that BPP treatment effectively inhibited the Hedgehog pathway both in renal tissues of UUO mice and TGF-β1-treated HK-2 cells. Thus, BPPs ameliorated RIF and EMT in vivo and in vitro via suppressing Hedgehog signalling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957266PMC
March 2021

InSexBase: an annotated genomic resource of sex chromosomes and sex-biased genes in insects.

Database (Oxford) 2021 Jan;2021

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects & Key Laboratory of Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Yuhangtang Rd 866, Xihu District, Hanzghou, 310058, China.

Sex determination and the regulation of sexual dimorphism are among the most fascinating topics in modern biology. As the most species-rich group of sexually reproducing organisms on Earth, insects have multiple sex determination systems. Though sex chromosomes and sex-biased genes are well-studied in dozens of insects, their gene sequences are scattered in various databases. Moreover, a shortage of annotation hinders the deep mining of these data. Here, we collected the chromosome-level sex chromosome data of 49 insect species, including 34 X chromosomes, 15 Z chromosomes, 5 W chromosomes and 2 Y chromosomes. We also obtained Y-linked contigs of four insects species-Anopheles gambiae, Drosophila innubila, Drosophila yakuba and Tribolium castaneum. The unannotated chromosome-level sex chromosomes were annotated using a standard pipeline, yielding a total of 123 030 protein-coding genes, 2 159 427 repeat sequences, 894 miRNAs, 1574 rRNAs, 5105 tRNAs, 395 snoRNAs (small nucleolar RNA), 54 snRNAs (small nuclear RNA) and 5959 other ncRNAs (non-coding RNA). In addition, 36 781 sex-biased genes were identified by analyzing 62 RNA-seq (RNA sequencing) datasets. Together with 5707 sex-biased genes from the Drosophila genus collected from the Sex-Associated Gene Database, we obtained a total of 42 488 sex-biased genes from 13 insect species. All these data were deposited into InSexBase, a new user-friendly database of insect sex chromosomes and sex-biased genes. Database URL: http://www.insect-genome.com/Sexdb/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/database/baab001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904046PMC
January 2021

Protective effects of saponins from Panax japonicus on neurons of the colon myenteric plexus in aging rats through reduction of α-synuclein through endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021 Jan 27;21(1):85-93. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Medical College of China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China.

Aim: The enteric nervous system degenerates gradually with age, and α-synuclein (α-syn) is a suitable marker of enteric nervous system degeneration, which is intimately related with endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response (UPR ). Saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ) have obvious protective effects on neurons in several degenerative disease models. Here, the study was designed to investigate whether SPJ could reverse the neuron degeneration through regulating the UPR in the colon myenteric plexus of aging rats.

Methods: Aging rats had been treated with SPJ for 6 months since they were aged 18 months. Then, the colon samples were collected and neuron morphology in the myenteric plexus was observed. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to detect the expressions of NeuN, α-syn, GRP78 and three different UPR branches. Double immunofluorescence was used to determine the co-localization of α-syn and NeuN, GRP78 and NeuN.

Results: Neurons degenerated in the colon myenteric plexus of aging rats, but co-localization of α-syn and NeuN increased. In addition, both the expressions of GRP78 and three UPR branch signaling pathway proteins decreased in the colon myenteric plexus of aging rats. Treatment of SPJ almost alleviated the above effects in aging rats, except for ATF6.

Conclusions: SPJ could reverse the neuron loss caused by accumulation of α-syn in the myenteric plexus of colon in aging rats, which is potentially associated with increased GRP78 and most URP changes. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 85-93.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.13882DOI Listing
January 2021

Panax notoginseng Saponins Attenuate Neuroinflammation through TXNIP-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Aging Rats.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2021 ;22(10):1369-1379

Pharmacy Department, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430065, China.

Introduction: Microglia-mediated inflammatory responses play a crucial role in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. The TXNIP/NLRP3 pathway is a key pathway leading to microglial activation. Panax notoginseng Saponins (PNS) have been widely used for the treatment of stroke in China.

Objective: This study evaluates the anti-neuroinflammatory effect of PNS and investigates the mechanism via TXNIP-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in aging rats.

Material And Methods: Eighteen-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the aging control group and PNS treated groups (n=15 each group). For PNS-treated groups, rats were administrated food with PNS at the doses of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg for consecutive 6 months until they were 24-month old. Rats from the aging control group were given the same food without PNS. Twomonth- old rats were purchased and given the same food until they were 6-months old as the adult control group (n = 15). Then, the cortex and hippocampus were rapidly harvested and deposited. H&E staining was used to assess histo-morphological changes. Western blotting was carried out to detect the protein expression. Immunofluorescence was employed to measure the co-localization of NLRP3, TXNIP and Iba-1. In vitro model was established by LPS+ATP co-incubation in the BV2 microglia cell line.

Results: Aging rats exhibited increased activation of microglia, accompanied by a high level of IL-1β expression. Meanwhile, aging rats showed enhanced protein expression of TXNIP and NLRP3 related molecules, which co-localized with microglia. PNS treatment effectively reduced the number of degenerated neurons and reversed the activation of the TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammatory pathway. In vitro results showed that PNS up to 100 μg/ml had no significant toxicity on BV2 microglia. PNS (25, 50 μg/ml) effectively reduced the inflammatory response induced by LPS and ATP co-stimulation, thus inhibiting the expression of TXNIP/NLRP3 pathway-related proteins.

Discussion And Conclusion: PNS treatment improved aging-related neuronal damage through inhibiting TXNIP mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which provided a potential target for the treatment of inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201021999201110204735DOI Listing
January 2021

Endometrial Cancer Cells Promote M2-Like Macrophage Polarization by Delivering Exosomal miRNA-21 under Hypoxia Condition.

J Immunol Res 2020 13;2020:9731049. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Medical College of China Three Gorges University, China.

Increasing evidence has demonstrated that hypoxia was an aggressive feature in endometrial cancer (EC), which is significantly associated with the tumor grade, lymph node metastasis, and tumor resistance to chemotherapy. However, the relationship between hypoxia and the immune microenvironment in EC is not very clear. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted from a variety of cell types which mediate cell-to-cell communication through transported biomolecules. Here, we investigated whether exosomes can play an immunomodulatory role in intercellular communication between EC cells and macrophages. EC KEL cells were cultured under hypoxia or normoxic condition to collect exosomes. After identification, the exosomes derived from hypoxic or normoxic KEL cells were cultured with the monocyte cell line THP-1 to study the immunoregulation function of KEL cells. The results showed that the total number of exosomes produced by hypoxic KEL cells was significantly higher than that in normoxic condition. In addition, hypoxia markedly stimulated the increase in miRNA-21 expression in the exosomes. After coculture, we found that exosomal miRNA-21 could be horizontally transferred into THP-1 cells. And then, the notably enhanced mRNA expression levels of IL-10 and CD206 in THP-1 cells were observed, suggestive of M2 polarization. To further study the effect of miRNA-21-containing exosomes, we transfected miRNA-21 mimics or inhibitor into THP-1 cells. The results showed that miRNA-21 mimics promoted IL-10 and CD206 mRNA expression levels, and the miRNA-21 inhibitor significantly prevented the alteration induced by intake of hypoxic KEL cell-derived exosomes. In summary, we found that endometrial cancer KEL cells in hypoxic condition promoted monocyte THP-1 cell transformation to M2-like polarization macrophages through delivering exosomal miRNA-21, which may be a potential mechanism of the formation of the immune microenvironment in EC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9731049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579677PMC
July 2021

Saturated Fatty Acids Promote Hepatocytic Senecence through Regulation of miR-34a/Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2020 Sep 24:e2000383. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Medical College, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei, 443002, China.

Scope: Obesity increases intracellular lipid accumulation in hepatocytes, which can induce non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). With progression of NAFLD, a sizable fraction of patients develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), eventually leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanism involved in obesity-induced NAFLD remains unclear. Free fatty acids and high-fat diets, which induce hepatocyte senescence, are major risk factors for NAFLD. Therefore in this study, the mechanism of lipotoxicity-induced hepatocyte senescence is investigated.

Methods And Results: The mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and BNL CL.2 cells are treated with palmitate acid (PA) to establish in vivo and in vitro models of lipotoxicity, respectively. SA-β-gal staining is used to analyze the positively stained senescent hepatocytes. The results show that both PA and HFD induce cellular senescence. Real-time-PCR quantitative analysis reveals that miR-34a is significantly upregulated in the liver tissues of the HFD mice and in the PA-treated BNL CL.2 cells. Western blotting analysis shows that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (CDKN1, also known as p21) is upregulated, while cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) is downregulated. Further investigation of the mechanism reveals that CDK6 is a target of miR-34a, which binds to the 3' UTR of CDK6 and inhibits its expression.

Conclusion: The findings reveal that miR-34a is upregulated in a high-fat environment in the liver, and induces hepatocyte senescence by targeting CDK6. The miR-34a-CDK6 signaling axis may promote NAFLD development in a high-fat environment and therefore represents a potential target for NAFLD therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202000383DOI Listing
September 2020

An electrochemical impedimetric sensing platform based on a peptide aptamer identified by high-throughput molecular docking for sensitive l-arginine detection.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 Feb 14;137:107634. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center for Healthy Livestock and Poultry Production, Scientific Observational and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central, Ministry of Agriculture, Changsha, Hunan 410125, PR China; Animal Nutrition and Human Health Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, PR China.

As a primary building block for protein synthesis, l-arginine (l-Arg) is also a precursor for the synthesis of important metabolites, and is involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. l-Arg is a potential biomarker in clinical diagnosis and nutritional status assessment, making it valuable to quantify and monitor this biomolecule. In this study, peptide aptamers that specifically interact with l-Arg were identified by high-throughput molecular docking, and the binding capacities between the synthesized peptide aptamers and l-Arg were then measured by isothermal titration calorimetry. We hypothesized that the peptide aptamer with the greatest binding capacity could be used as the recognition element in a biosensor. A chemosynthetic peptide aptamer modified with mercaptan and spacer units (thioctic acid-GGGG-FGHIHEGY) was thus used to construct label-free electrochemical impedimetric biosensors for l-Arg based on gold electrodes. The optimum biosensor showed good sensitivity to l-Arg with a linear range of 0.1 pM-0.1 mM, and the calculated limit of detection (three times the signal-to-noise ratio) was 0.01 pM. Interference studies and assays of diluted serum samples were also carried out, and satisfactory results obtained. In conclusion, a potential method of peptide aptamer screening and biosensor fabrication for detecting small biological molecules was demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2020.107634DOI Listing
February 2021

Balanophora polyandra Griff. prevents dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine experimental colitis via the regulation of NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome.

Food Funct 2020 Jul;11(7):6104-6114

College of Medical Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, 443002, China.

Balanophora polyandra Griff. (B. polyandra) is a folk medicine used as an antipyretic, antidote, haemostatic, dressing and haematic tonic, for the treatment of gonorrhea, syphilis, wounds, and the bleeding of the alimentary tract by the local people in China. This study was designed to investigate the effects of B. polyandra on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated colitis mice in vivo and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. Mice were induced with B. polyandra total extract (BPE, 250 and 1000 mg kg-1) and B. polyandra polysaccharides (BPP, 100 and 400 mg kg-1) for 22 days and treated with 3.5% DSS in their drinking water for the last 7 days and the LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with BPE (100 μg ml-1) and BPP (100 μg ml-1). Mice treated with DSS developed severe mucosal colitis, with a marked distortion and crypt loss of colonic surface epithelium and a colonic shortening. B. polyandra significantly inhibited colonic shortening and reduced the severity of colitis in the colon and lowered the colonic inflammation score (p < 0.05) and decreased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and anti-serum amyloid A3 (SAA3) as well as the pro-inflammatory chemokine C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10). B. polyandra also significantly suppressed the activation of nucleotide-binding domain like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and the nuclear factor kB (NF-κB). These results suggest that dietary intake of B. polyandra ameliorates colitis. Such activities of B. polyandra in humans remain to be investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo02494hDOI Listing
July 2020

Icariin Improves Age-Related Testicular Dysfunction by Alleviating Sertoli Cell Injury Upregulation of the ER/Nrf2-Signaling Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2020 12;11:677. Epub 2020 May 12.

College of Medical Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China.

Sertoli cells play crucial roles in spermatogenesis and are impaired by aging. Icariin, a flavonoid from , has been reported to exhibit anti-aging effects and improve testicular dysfunction in the clinical setting. However, whether icariin improves age-related degeneration of testicular function protection from Sertoli cell injury remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effect of icariin on Sertoli cell injury and explored the possible mechanism(s) and . Dietary administration of icariin for 4 months significantly ameliorated the age-related decline in testicular function by increasing testicular and epididymal weights and indices, sperm count and sperm viability, testicular testosterone and estradiol concentrations, and seminiferous tubule diameters and heights. In addition, icariin protected age-related Sertoli cells from injury as evidenced by an analysis of Sertoli cell number, ultrastructure, and function. Such changes were accompanied by upregulation of ER and Nrf2 signaling in Sertoli cells. Parallel studies also demonstrated that icariin inhibited untoward effects on the TM4 mouse Sertoli cell line with concomitant upregulation of ER and Nrf2 signaling. Conversely, ER siRNA reversed icariin-mediated protection of Sertoli cell injury. Our data suggest that icariin effectively ameliorates age-related degeneration of testicular function by alleviating Sertoli cell injury the ER/Nrf2 signal-transduction pathway. Thus, mitigating Sertoli cell damage the ER/Nrf2 signaling pathway likely represents a promising strategy for the prevention of age-related testicular dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247842PMC
May 2020

Polysaccharides derived from Balanophora polyandra significantly suppressed the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells through P53-mediated pathway.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 07 10;24(14):8115-8125. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

College of Medical Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China.

Ovarian cancer (OC) is ranked the first among the cancers threatening women's health. It attracts tremendous attention of cancer researchers because of its extremely high mortality rate. Recent studies have indicated that traditional herbal medicines (THMs) can play a pivotal role in cancer prevention and treatment. THMs are gaining popularity as a source of anti-cancer agents. The plant of Balanophora polyandra, which has been used as a traditional herbal medicine, has been known for exhibiting potential haemostatic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, few studies on inhibitory effect of B. polyandra on OC have been performed. In the present study, we found that B. polyandra polysaccharides (BPP) induced cell cycle arrest at S phase, triggered apoptosis and inhibited migration and invasion of OC cells. Furthermore, we also found that there was a potential and close relationship between BPP and P53-mediated pathway. Overall, these findings suggest that BPP can be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of OC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7348173PMC
July 2020

Molecule mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum treated hepatocellular carcinoma based on the transcriptional profiles and miRNA-target network.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 May 25;125:110028. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Institute of Interdisciplinary Integrative Medicine Research, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Ganoderma lucidum has salutary effects on tumor treatment, including pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Ganoderma lucidum therapy is obscure. In this study, the Hepa1-6-bearing C57 BL/6 mouse model was utilized to explore the therapeutic efficacy of Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE), documenting that it could effectively inhibit tumor growth. The microRNA (miRNA) profiles of GLE-treated and untreated mice were detected, and 25 differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs were determined, including 24 up-expressed and one down-expressed miRNAs. Using the ClusterOne algorithm, 8 hub miRNAs were isolated from the established miRNA-target network. The qRT-PCR assay demonstrated that these 8 miRNAs were up-expressed in the GLE treated tumor mice. Furthermore, the mRNA profiles showed that there are 76 DE mRNAs between GLE treated and model groups. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network shows that Cntn1, Irs1, Nfkbia, Rybp and Ywhaz playing important roles, and qRT-PCR further revealed they were down-expressed in GLE treated Hepa1-6-bearing C57 BL/6 mice. The rebuilt miRNA-target network was shown that these 5 mRNAs were regulated by mmu-mir-23a-5p, -3102-3p, -337-3p, and -467a-3p, respectively. This study suggested that these 4 interesting miRNAs were potential biomarkers for evaluation of GLE efficacy, which may down-regulate the expression of Cntn1, Irs1, Nfkbia, Rybp and Ywhaz, and mediate many signaling pathways occurring in tumor treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110028DOI Listing
May 2020

Distinct expression patterns of aging effects on the UPR signaling pathway in rat colon and regulatory role of saponins from .

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2019 1;12(9):3279-3289. Epub 2019 Sep 1.

Medical College of China Three Gorges University Yichang 443002, Hubei, China.

Background: Studies have reported that the unfolded protein response of ER (UPR) declines in the several organs of aging mice. However, changes of UPR during the aging process in the intestine are rarely reported. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Saponins from (SPJ) have anti-aging effects in different murine models and can modulate ER stress. In the present study, we focused on age-dependent expressions of UPR in the intestine of 6- to 24-month-old rats by an immunohistochemical (IHC) method and determined whether SPJ could regulate the three different UPR branches of the colon in aging rats.

Methods: Aging rats had been treated with different doses (10 and 30 mg/kg) of SPJ for 6 months, which were mixed with feed, since they were 18 months old. Then the expressions of GRP78 and three different UPR branches were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). : Total expressions of GRP78 and p-JNK increased, and other UPR proteins decreased in the colon of aging rats, while SPJ treatment relieved the corresponding changes in aging rats. Here we also found different patterns of GRP78 and the three UPR branches in the different layers of colon in rats.

Conclusion: The study demonstrated that UPR declined and GRP78 increased in the colon of aging rats. SPJ could reverse most URP changes in the colon of aging rats. This study also showed different expression patterns of the three branches of UPR in different layers of the colon in rats.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6949813PMC
September 2019

Total triterpenoids from the fruits of Chaenomeles speciosa exerted gastroprotective activities on indomethacin-induced gastric damage via modulating microRNA-423-5p-mediated TFF/NAG-1 and apoptotic pathways.

Food Funct 2020 Jan;11(1):662-679

Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Products Research and Development, College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002, China.

Our previous studies have demonstrated that the total triterpenes from the fruits of Chaenomeles speciosa (CSTT) exhibit effective therapeutic effects on gastric ulcer patients and animals. The present aim is to further investigate the mechanisms involved. The results indicated that CSTT could ameliorate IND-induced gastric injury, which was related to promoting IND-damaged GES-1 cell proliferation and migration, improving the IND-damaged rat GBF, ulcer area, inhibition rate and pathologic changes of gastric mucous tissue, increasing the amount of adhered gastric mucus, attenuating the volume and total acidity of the gastric effluents, and augmenting the gastric pH; further studies showed that CSTT obviously downregulated miR-423-5p mRNA, NAG-1 mRNA and protein expression, Bax, Bad, cytosol cytochrome C, Apaf-1, cleaved-caspase-3, and cleaved-caspase-9 protein expression and cytosol cytochrome C concentration, and upregulated TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 mRNA and protein expression, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, pro-caspase-3, and pro-caspase-9 protein expression, mitochondrial viability, mitochondrial cytochrome C concentration and Bcl-2/Bax, Bcl-xl/Bad ratios. These findings demonstrated that CSTT protected against IND-induced gastric damage by depressing miR-423-5p expression and modulating the TFF/NAG-1 pathway, which in turn restrained mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo02322dDOI Listing
January 2020

Total triterpenes from the fruits of Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai protects against indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury: involvement of TFF1-mediated EGF/EGFR and apoptotic pathways.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2020 Mar 20;72(3):409-423. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Products Research and Development, College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China.

Objectives: Our previous studies indicated that the triterpenes from the fruits of Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai (TCS) owned effectively therapeutic effects on gastric ulcer patients and animals, but its mechanisms have not been fully understood. The current study was to further investigate its protective effect on indomethacin (IND)-damaged RGM-1 cells and rats, as well as its mechanisms involved.

Methods: The gastroprotection of TCS was evaluated with IND-induced gastric lesions model in RGM-1 cells and rats. In vitro, the proliferation, migration, mitochondrial viability and apoptosis were assessed. In vivo, ulcer index, ulcer inhibition rate, gastric juice acidity, gastric wall mucus (GWM) and histopathology of gastric mucosa were detected. The gastroprotective effects of TCS through the TFF1-mediated EGF/EGFR and apoptotic pathways were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot assays.

Key Findings: The results demonstrated that TCS had gastroprotective function, which was related to the amelioration in promoting IND-damaged RGM-1 cell proliferation and migration, hoisting gastric juice acidity and GWM, improving ulcer index and ulcer inhibition rate, attenuating the haemorrhage, oedema, epithelial cell loss and inflammatory cell infiltration of gastric mucosa, upregulating PCNA, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl mRNA and TFF1, EGF, p-EGFR, p-Src, pro-caspase-3, pro-caspase-9 protein expressions, mitochondrial viability, mitochondrial cytochrome c concentration and p-EGFR/EGFR, p-Src/Src, Bcl-2/Bax, Bcl-xl/Bad ratioes, downregulating Bax, Bad, Apaf-1 mRNA and cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-9, cleaved PARP-1 protein expressions and cytosol cytochrome c concentration.

Conclusions: Our present study demonstrated that TCS's gastroprotective effect was closely connected with boosting TFF1 expression, activating TFF1-mediated EGF/EGFR pathway, thus restraining mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis, which provided new insights into interpreting its underlying mechanism and promised to act as a candidate drug to treat gastric mucosal injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.13207DOI Listing
March 2020

Surface chemistry and photoelectrochemistry-Case study on tantalum nitride.

J Chem Phys 2019 Oct;151(13):130902

Department of Chemistry, Boston College, Merkert Chemistry Center, 2609 Beacon St., Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, USA.

Solar water splitting promises a solution to challenges associated with the intermittent nature of solar energy. Of different implementations, photoelectrochemical water splitting, where one or more photoelectrodes harvest light and catalyze water splitting, represents a convenient platform to understand the governing principles of charge behaviors, especially at the light absorber|HO interface. This Perspective recognizes and discusses the importance of the photoelectrode surface to solar water splitting performance. It presents discussions within the context of a prototypical water splitting material, TaN, which has gained growing attention lately for its outstanding initial performance. Insights into the mechanisms by which TaN functions are presented, followed by examples of recent efforts to circumvent the issues that TaN decays rapidly under solar water splitting conditions. Our visions on the future directions of semiconductor-based solar water splitting will be presented at the end.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5122996DOI Listing
October 2019

Monosodium L-glutamate and fats change free fatty acid concentrations in intestinal contents and affect free fatty acid receptors express profile in growing pigs.

Food Nutr Res 2019 17;63. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Hunan international joint laboratory of Animal Intestinal Ecology and Health, Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Human Health, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.

Background: Obesity and its related metabolic syndrome continue to be major public health problems. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) may cause metabolic diseases such as obesity. Meanwhile, the Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. There is little information available on the effect of MSG and fat alone, or in combination, on free fatty acids (FFAs), lipid metabolism and FFA receptors.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MSG and fat alone, or in combination, on intestinal luminal FFAs and expression of gastrointestinal FFA receptors. The aim was also to test whether dietary fat and/or MSG could affect expression of genes related to fatty acid metabolism.

Design: A total of 32 growing pigs were used and fed with four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets. Pigs in the four treatments received diets with one of two fat concentrations levels (4.4 and 9.4%) and one of two MSG dose levels (0 and 3%), in which most of the fat were brought by soybean oil. The concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecum and colon, long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in ileum, cecum and colon, and FFAs receptors expression in hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract were determined.

Results: MSG and/or fat changed intestinal luminal SCFAs, levels of LCFAs, and showed an antagonistic effect on most of LCFAs. Simultaneously, MSG and/or fat decreased the expression of FFA receptors in hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract. MSG and/or fat promoted fat deposition through different ways in back fat.

Conclusion: Our results support that MSG and/or fat can alter intestinal luminal FFAs composition and concentration, especially LCFAs, in addition, the expression of FFA receptors in ileum and hypothalamus could be decreased. Moreover, MSG and/or fat can promote protein deposition in back fat, and affect the distribution and metabolism of fatty acids in the body tissues and the body's ability to perceive fatty acids; these results provide a reference for the occurrence of fat deposition and obesity caused by high-fat and monosodium glutamate diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v63.1444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6642617PMC
July 2019

Chikusetsu saponin IVa attenuates isoprenaline-induced myocardial fibrosis in mice through activation autophagy mediated by AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling.

Phytomedicine 2019 May 19;58:152764. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Medical College of China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, PR China; Yichang Key Laboratory of ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease translational medicine (Three Gorges University), Yichang 443000, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Myocardial fibrosis is a common pathological manifestation of many cardiovascular diseases at the end stage. Autophagy has been demonstrated to play a protective role in the cardiac fibrosis. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the Saponins from Panax japonicus effectively ameliorated the degree of fibrosis in rat acute myocardial ischemia injury model though the mechanisms are not clear.

Hypothesis: We hypothesized that Chikusetsusaponin IVa (CS), a major component of Saponins from Panaxjaponicus, may improve isoprenaline induced myocardial fibrosis via AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 mediated autophagy METHODS: Continuous subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol for 21 days was used to induce myocardial fibrosis in mice and high and low doses (15 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) of CS was administered by oral gavage to observe the efficacy. Animals were sacrificed 12 h after the last administration and samples were collected. H&E staining, Masson staining and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining were used to evaluate histopathological changes, collagen deposition and myocardial cell hypertrophy. Autophagy-related markers (LC3β, Beclin1 and p62) and AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway-related markers were evaluated by western blot.

Results: CS effectively attenuated isoprenaline-induced myocardial fibrosis in vivo, reduced the heart index, inhibited inflammatory infiltration, decreased collagen deposition and myocardial cell size. CS treatment rescued the expression of autophagy-related markers. CS activated autophagy through the activation of AMPK, which in turn inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and ULK1(Ser757), rather than directly phosphorylate ULK1(Ser555) by AMPK.

Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that CS attenuated isoprenaline-induced myocardial fibrosis by activating autophagy through AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway. Our findings suggested that CS is a potential candidate drug against cardiac fibrosis and have identified potential drug targets for the treatment of heart diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.11.024DOI Listing
May 2019

Trametenolic acid B protects against cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury through modulation of microRNA-10a and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Apr 21;112:108692. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Products Research and Development, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China.

Trametenolic acid B (TAB) was a lanostane-type triterpenoid isolated from the trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat. We have previously reported that extract from trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat and TAB could efficiently improve learning and memory ability of the cerebral ischemia injury rats and suppress mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in hydrogen peroxide damaged SH-SY5Y cells. However, the potential mechanisms have not been fully understood yet. The current study was to further investigate the protective effect of TAB on oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-damaged SH-SY5Y cells and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury rats, as well as its mechanisms involved. Cell experiments demonstrated that TAB (10, 20 and 40 μg/mL) protected OGD/R-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury by promoting cell proliferation and suppressing LDH leakage; Meanwhile, the results in vivo showed that TAB (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) might significantly ameliorate the neurological deficit score, cerebral edema, neuronal cell loss and apoptosis, suppress cerebral infarction volume of the cerebral I/R injury rats. Further studies in vitro and in vivo indicated TAB could efficiently reduce OGD/R-damaged SH-SY5Y cell and cerebral I/R rat serum ROS, LDH and MDA levels, elevate SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities, downregulate miR-10a mRNA and Bax, cytochrome C, cleaved-caspase-3 and cleaved-caspase-9 protein expressions, upregulate p-PIK3CA, p-Akt, p-mTOR, Bcl-2, pro-caspase-9 and pro-caspase-3 protein expressions and p-PIK3CA/PIK3CA, p-Akt/Akt, p-mTOR/mTOR ratios (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01, respectively). Our present study indicated that TAB possessed neuroprotective property against ODG/R and I/R injury by suppressing miR-10a expression, activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, thereby reducing mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, which provided a new insight for interpreting the underlying mechanisms of TAB' neuroprotective effect and a candidate agent to treat cerebral I/R injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108692DOI Listing
April 2019

Selectivity of HO and O by water oxidation on metal oxide surfaces.

J Chem Phys 2019 Jan;150(4):041712

Department of Chemistry, Merkert Chemistry Center, Boston College, 2609 Beacon Street, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, USA.

Water oxidation is an important chemical reaction that yields electrons for downstream reduction reactions such as hydrogen generation or CO and/or N reduction. When producing O, the reaction involves 4 electrons and 4 protons and tends to be kinetically unfavored. A competing pathway leading to the formation of HO would only involve 2 electrons and 2 protons and may serve as a favorable alternative to O formation while meeting the needs for electron production by water oxidation. Although HO as a product of water oxidation has been observed experimentally, the bifurcating point that determines whether O or HO is the favored product has not been identified by experiments previously. Here, we report a detailed experimental study aimed at correcting this deficiency. We propose that the ease or difficulty of protonation or deprotonation of -OOH intermediates is a key to the selectivity between HO and O. That is, we hypothesize that the (de)protonation of M-OOH, where M represents an active metal center, is the bifurcating point of the water oxidation catalytic cycle. Ready deprotonation of this intermediate leads to the eventual formation and release of O, whereas the protonation of this intermediate enables the formation of HO. The dependence of product selectivity on pH as observed by quantitative HO detection supports this hypothesis. Additional experimental evidence based on isotope effects is also obtained. The results will likely find broad implications in catalyst design for high-performance water oxidation reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5046886DOI Listing
January 2019

Thin film photoelectrodes for solar water splitting.

Chem Soc Rev 2019 Apr;48(7):2182-2215

Department of Chemistry, Merkert Chemistry Center, Boston College, 2609 Beacon St., Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, USA.

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting has been intensively studied in the past decades as a promising method for large-scale solar energy storage. Among the various issues that limit the progress of this field, the lack of photoelectrode materials with suitable properties in all aspects of light absorption, charge separation and transport, and charge transfer is a key challenge, which has attracted tremendous research attention. A large variety of compositions, in different forms, have been tested. This review aims to summarize efforts in this area, with a focus on materials-related considerations. Issues discussed by this review include synthesis, optoelectronic properties, charge behaviors and catalysis. In the recognition that thin-film materials are representative model systems for the study of these issues, we elected to focus on this form, so as to provide a concise and coherent account on the different strategies that have been proposed and tested. Because practical implementation is of paramount importance to the eventual realization of using solar fuel for solar energy storage, we pay particular attention to strategies proposed to address the stability and catalytic issues, which are two key factors limiting the implementation of efficient photoelectrode materials. To keep the overall discussion focused, all discussions were presented within the context of water splitting reactions. How the thin-film systems may be applied for fundamental studies of the water splitting chemical mechanisms and how to use the model system to test device engineering design strategies are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cs00868jDOI Listing
April 2019

Gastroprotective effect of araloside A on ethanol- and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in mice: involvement of H/K-ATPase and mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathway.

J Nat Med 2019 Mar 6;73(2):339-352. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Natural Products Research and Development, College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, China Three Gorges University, 8 University Avenue, Yichang, 443002, China.

The aim of this study was to elucidate the gastroprotective activity and possible mechanism of involvement of araloside A (ARA) against ethanol- and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in mice. The experimental mice were randomly divided into control, model, omeprazole (20 mg/kg, orally) and ARA (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, orally). Gastric ulcer in mice was induced by intragastric administration of 80% ethanol (10 mL/kg) containing 15 mg/mL aspirin 4 h after drug administration on day 7. The results indicated that ARA could significantly raise gastric juice volume and acidity; ameliorate gastric mucosal blood flow, gastric binding mucus volume, ulcer index and ulcer inhibition rate; suppress H/K-ATPase activity, which was confirmed by computer-aided docking simulations; inhibit the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytoplasm; inhibit caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities and down-regulate mRNA expression levels; down-regulate the mRNA and protein expressions of apoptosis protease-activating factor-1 and protein expression of cleaved poly(ADP ribose) polymerase-1; and up-regulate Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expressions and down-regulate Bax mRNA and protein expressions, thus elevating the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological observations further provided supportive evidence for the aforementioned results. The results demonstrated that ARA exerted beneficial gastroprotective effects on alcohol- and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in mice, which was related to suppressing H/K-ATPase activity as well as pro-apoptotic protein expression, and promoting anti-apoptotic protein expression, thus alleviating gastric mucosal injury and cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11418-018-1256-0DOI Listing
March 2019

Complete Genome Sequences of Papillomavirus Isolates from the Oral Cavity, Skin, and Feces of Wild Rats.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Nov 1;7(17). Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

Six genome sequences of papillomavirus were determined from oral and skin swabs and fecal samples collected from wild rats. Three genomes were 7,722 bp, two genomes were 7,716 bp, and one was 7,730 bp, displaying typical papillomavirus genome organizations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these six genomes belonged to two different clusters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01258-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6256490PMC
November 2018

Protective effect of Wuzi Yanzong recipe on testicular dysfunction through inhibition of germ cell apoptosis in ageing rats via endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Andrologia 2019 Mar 4;51(2):e13181. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

College of Medicine, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China.

It has been demonstrated that excessively activated endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is closely associated with ageing-related diseases and male reproductive dysfunction. Wuzi Yanzong recipe (WZ) is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription for treatment of male reproductive system diseases. However, it remains unknown whether WZ improves testicular dysfunction with ageing via ERS. In this study, we investigated the protective effects and its mechanism of WZ on testicular dysfunction in ageing rats. The results showed that treatment with WZ for 4 months significantly increased the testicular weight and index, sperm count and viability, and the levels of testosterone and decreased the levels of estradiol. In addition, WZ significantly activated the onset of ERS and prevented germ cell apoptosis by upregulating the expression levels of ERS-responsive proteins GRP78, phospho-PERK, phospho-eIF2α, ATF4, phospho-IRE-1α, XBP1 and ATF6α, and downregulating the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins p-JNK, Caspase12 and CHOP in testicular germ cell of ageing rats. Besides, WZ significantly decreased the numbers of TUNEL-positive cells. Taken together, WZ effectively improves ageing-related testicular dysfunction through inhibition of germ cell apoptosis via ERS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.13181DOI Listing
March 2019

Facet-Dependent Kinetics and Energetics of Hematite for Solar Water Oxidation Reactions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Feb 24;11(6):5616-5622. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Chemistry, Merkert Chemistry Center , Boston College , 2609 Beacon Street , Chestnut Hill , Massachusetts 02467 , United States.

The performance of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system is highly dependent on the charge separation, transport and transfer characteristics at the photoelectrode|electrolyte interface. Of the factors that influence the charge behaviors, the crystalline facets of the semiconductor in contact with the electrolyte play an important role but has been poorly studied previously. Here, we present a study aimed at understanding how the different facets of hematite affect the charge separation and transfer behaviors in a solar water oxidation reaction. Specifically, hematite crystallites with predominantly {012} and {001} facets exposed were synthesized. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that hematite {012} surfaces feature higher OH coverage, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These surface OH groups act as active sites to mediate water oxidation reactions, which plays a positive role for the PEC system. These surface OH groups also facilitate charge recombination, which compromises the charge separation capabilities of hematite. Indeed, intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) confirmed that hematite {012} surfaces exhibit higher rate constants for both charge transfer and recombination. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements revealed that the hematite {012} surface exhibits a greater degree of Fermi level pinning effect. Our results shed light on how different surface crystal structures may change surface kinetics and energetics. The information is expected to contribute to efforts on optimizing PEC performance for practical solar fuel synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b05190DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of Increasing Exercise Intensity and Dose on Multiple Measures of HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) Function.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2018 04 8;38(4):943-952. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

From the Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia (M.A.S., J.J.R.-R., J.L.B.); Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (C.A.S., R.W.M., W.E.K.); Ingestive Behavior and Preventive Medicine Laboratories, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA (J.W.A., M.N.H., T.S.C., C.K.M.); Center for Prevention of Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA (M.S.B., Y.H., M.N.O.); and Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (A.R.).

Objective: Measures of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) function are associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of regular exercise on these measures is largely unknown. Thus, we examined the effects of different doses of exercise on 3 measures of HDL function in 2 randomized clinical exercise trials.

Approach And Results: Radiolabeled and boron dipyrromethene difluoride-labeled cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) exchange were assessed before and after 6 months of exercise training in 2 cohorts: STRRIDE-PD (Studies of Targeted Risk Reduction Interventions through Defined Exercise, in individuals with Pre-Diabetes; n=106) and E-MECHANIC (Examination of Mechanisms of exercise-induced weight compensation; n=90). STRRIDE-PD participants completed 1 of 4 exercise interventions differing in amount and intensity. E-MECHANIC participants were randomized into 1 of 2 exercise groups (8 or 20 kcal/kg per week) or a control group. HDL-C significantly increased in the high-amount/vigorous-intensity group (3±5 mg/dL; =0.02) of STRRIDE-PD, whereas no changes in HDL-C were observed in E-MECHANIC. In STRRIDE-PD, global radiolabeled efflux capacity significantly increased 6.2% (SEM, 0.06) in the high-amount/vigorous-intensity group compared with all other STRRIDE-PD groups (range, -2.4 to -8.4%; SEM, 0.06). In E-MECHANIC, non-ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) radiolabeled efflux significantly increased 5.7% (95% CI, 1.2-10.2%) in the 20 kcal/kg per week group compared with the control group, with no change in the 8 kcal/kg per week group (2.6%; 95% CI, -1.4 to 6.7%). This association was attenuated when adjusting for change in HDL-C. Exercise training did not affect BODIPY-labeled cholesterol efflux capacity or HDL-apoA-I exchange in either study.

Conclusions: Regular prolonged vigorous exercise improves some but not all measures of HDL function. Future studies are warranted to investigate whether the effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease are mediated in part by improving HDL function.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00962962 and NCT01264406.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.117.310307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5864525PMC
April 2018
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