Publications by authors named "Yumi Kirino"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pseudorabies virus infection in hunting dogs in Oita, Japan: Report from a prefecture free from Aujeszky's disease in domestic pigs.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Apr 15;83(4):680-684. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Centre for Animal Disease Control, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

We isolated two pseudorabies virus (PRV) isolates (designated OT-1 and OT-2) from two hunting dogs exhibiting neurological manifestations after eating the flesh of wild boar hunted in Oita prefecture, Kyushu Island, Japan. The isolates corresponded to a previously reported PRV (MY-1 strain) isolated from a hunting dog in neighboring Miyazaki prefecture, and it clustered into genotype II based on the glycoprotein C sequence. Our results suggest that this common PRV strain may have been maintained in wild boars on Kyushu Island even though domestic pigs in this area have attained an Aujeszky's disease-free status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.20-0450DOI Listing
April 2021

Seroprevalence of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Small-Animal Veterinarians and Nurses in the Japanese Prefecture with the Highest Case Load.

Viruses 2021 02 2;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Center for Animal Disease Control, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is the causative agent of SFTS, an emerging tick-borne disease in East Asia, and is maintained in enzootic cycles involving ticks and a range of wild animal hosts. Direct transmission of SFTSV from cats and dogs to humans has been identified in Japan, suggesting that veterinarians and veterinary nurses involved in small-animal practice are at occupational risk of SFTSV infection. To characterize this risk, we performed a sero-epidemiological survey in small-animal-practice workers and healthy blood donors in Miyazaki prefecture, which is the prefecture with the highest per capita number of recorded cases of SFTS in Japan. Three small-animal-practice workers were identified as seropositive by ELISA, but one had a negative neutralization-test result and so was finally determined to be seronegative, giving a seropositive rate of 2.2% (2 of 90), which was significantly higher than that in healthy blood donors (0%, 0 of 1000; < 0.05). The seroprevalence identified here in small-animal-practice workers was slightly higher than that previously reported in other high-risk workers engaged in agriculture and forestry in Japan. Thus, enhancement of small-animal-practice workers' awareness of biosafety at animal hospitals is necessary for control of SFTSV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13020229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912989PMC
February 2021

Isolation of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus from Various Tick Species in Area with Human Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Cases.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 May 3;21(5):378-384. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), caused by , generally called SFTS virus (SFTSV), is an emerging zoonosis in East Asia. In Japan, 50-100 cases of SFTS have been reported each year since the first case was reported in 2013. SFTS is a tick-borne infectious disease, and SFTSV has been isolated from ticks in China and South Korea. and are considered the primary vectors in Japan. However, the other tick species seldom feeding on humans might also play an important role in maintaining the virus in nature. In this study, we collected ticks on vegetation around the location where two SFTS patients were estimated to have been infected in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, isolated live SFTSV, and performed a phylogenetic analysis. A total of 257 ticks were collected, and SFTSV RNA was detected in 19.5% (9/46) of tick pools. A total of 10 infectious SFTSVs were successfully isolated from , , , , and . Furthermore, the whole viral sequences isolated from ticks were highly homologous to sequences isolated from SFTS patients in the same sampling area in the past. These results suggest that SFTSVs are maintained in these tick species in the sampling area and sporadically transmitted to humans. Surveillance of SFTSV in ticks provides important information about the risk of incidental transmission to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2020.2720DOI Listing
May 2021

Radiographic diagnosis and surgical management for successful outcomes for osteochondrosis in Japanese Black calves.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jan 28;83(1):151-157. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibana-dai Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

Osteochondrosis (OC) is not well recognized in cattle. Japanese Black (JB) cattle are valued for their beef and studies regarding OC are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to retrospectively discuss clinical and radiographical findings, diagnosis and treatment options for OC in JB cattle for successful outcomes. Medical records of 11 calves affected with OC were reviewed, retrospectively. Clinical and radiographic findings, treatment and outcomes and postmortem examination findings were analyzed. All calves had lameness. Stifle (4/14) and tarsal (4/14) were the most affected joints. Subchondral bone lucencies were observed in all joints (14/14) and accompanied with sclerosis (10/14). Radiographic grading was performed in calves. Calves were treated surgically (8/11) or conservatively (1/11). Surgically treated calves were auctioned (5/8). Postmortem examination was performed (2/11). Gross findings revealed ulcerative lesion at articular surface. Histopathologically, cartilage layer was defected at lesion. Inflammation (2/2) and granulation tissue (1/2) was also observed. In conclusion, OC in JB cattle can be diagnosed on the basis of radiography with history and clinical signs in clinical setting. Surgery should be performed in mild cases for successful outcomes. A modified radiographic grading criteria for clinical cases may hold potential in evaluating prognosis and outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.20-0310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870393PMC
January 2021

Direct Transmission of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus from Domestic Cat to Veterinary Personnel.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 12;26(12):2994-2998

Two veterinary personnel in Japan were infected with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) while handling a sick cat. Whole-genome sequences of SFTSV isolated from the personnel and the cat were 100% identical. These results identified a nosocomial outbreak of SFTSV infection in an animal hospital without a tick as a vector.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2612.191513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7706950PMC
December 2020

Bilateral rostral mandibulectomy for treatment of necrotic mandibular open fractures in two Japanese Black cattle.

J Vet Med Sci 2020 Feb 27;82(2):204-208. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibana-dai Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

Two-month-old (Case 1) and one-year-old (Case 2) Japanese Black cattle presented with bilateral rostral mandibular open fractures. At presentation, the proximal edges of each fracture were discolored and had a severe stench, indicating necrosis caused by infection. In both cases, a bilateral rostral mandibulectomy over the symphysis was performed. Although the tongues of both animals prolapsed post-surgery, they had no significant problems with eating or drinking. Case 1 showed excellent growth during fattening, and Case 2 successfully became pregnant and gave birth. Rostral mandibulectomy can be an effective surgical option for the treatment of cattle with difficulty in internal or external fixation due to unfavorable necrotic cranial mandibular open fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.19-0160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041992PMC
February 2020

Large-scale genome analysis of bovine commensal reveals that bovine-adapted lineages are serving as evolutionary sources of the emergence of human intestinal pathogenic strains.

Genome Res 2019 09 22;29(9):1495-1505. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Bacteriology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

How pathogens evolve their virulence to humans in nature is a scientific issue of great medical and biological importance. Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) are the major foodborne pathogens that can cause hemolytic uremic syndrome and infantile diarrhea, respectively. The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded type 3 secretion system (T3SS) is the major virulence determinant of EPEC and is also possessed by major STEC lineages. Cattle are thought to be the primary reservoir of STEC and EPEC. However, genome sequences of bovine commensal are limited, and the emerging process of STEC and EPEC is largely unknown. Here, we performed a large-scale genomic comparison of bovine commensal with human commensal and clinical strains, including EPEC and STEC, at a global level. The analyses identified two distinct lineages, in which bovine and human commensal strains are enriched, respectively, and revealed that STEC and EPEC strains have emerged in multiple sublineages of the bovine-associated lineage. In addition to the bovine-associated lineage-specific genes, including fimbriae, capsule, and nutrition utilization genes, specific virulence gene communities have been accumulated in and LEE-positive strains, respectively, with notable overlaps of community members. Functional associations of these genes probably confer benefits to these strains in inhabiting and/or adapting to the bovine intestinal environment and drive their evolution to highly virulent human pathogens under the bovine-adapted genetic background. Our data highlight the importance of large-scale genome sequencing of animal strains in the studies of zoonotic pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.249268.119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6724679PMC
September 2019

A Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin M1 Exposure in Low and Mid-Income Dairy Consumers in Kenya.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 08 29;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.

Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁), a human carcinogen, is found in milk products and may have potentially severe health impacts on milk consumers. We assessed the risk of cancer and stunting as a result of AFM₁ consumption in Nairobi, Kenya, using worst case assumptions of toxicity and data from previous studies. Almost all (99.5%) milk was contaminated with AFM₁. Cancer risk caused by AFM₁ was lower among consumers purchasing from formal markets (0.003 cases per 100,000) than for low-income consumers (0.006 cases per 100,000) purchasing from informal markets. Overall cancer risk (0.004 cases per 100,000) from AFM₁ alone was low. Stunting is multifactorial, but assuming only AFM₁ consumption was the determinant, consumption of milk contaminated with AFM₁ levels found in this study could contribute to 2.1% of children below three years in middle-income families, and 2.4% in low-income families, being stunted. Overall, 2.7% of children could hypothetically be stunted due to AFM₁ exposure from milk. Based on our results AFM₁ levels found in milk could contribute to an average of -0.340 height for age z-score reduction in growth. The exposure to AFM₁ from milk is 46 ng/day on average, but children bear higher exposure of 3.5 ng/kg bodyweight (bw)/day compared to adults, at 0.8 ng/kg bw/day. Our paper shows that concern over aflatoxins in milk in Nairobi is disproportionate if only risk of cancer is considered, but that the effect on stunting children might be much more significant from a public health perspective; however, there is still insufficient data on the health effects of AFM₁.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10090348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6162552PMC
August 2018

New hematological key for bovine leukemia virus-infected Japanese Black cattle.

J Vet Med Sci 2018 Feb 22;80(2):316-319. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Center for Animal Disease Control, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

The European Community's (EC) Key, which is also called Bendixen's Key, is a well-established bovine leukemia virus (BLV) diagnostic method that classifies cattle according to the absolute lymphocyte count and age. The EC Key was originally designed for dairy cattle and is not necessarily suitable for Japanese Black (JB) beef cattle. This study revealed the lymphocyte counts in the BLV-free and -infected JB cattle were significantly lower than those in the Holstein cattle. Therefore, applying the EC Key to JB cattle could result in a large number of undetected BLV-infected cattle. Our proposed hematological key, which was designed for JB cattle, improves the detection of BLV-infected cattle by approximately 20%. We believe that this study could help promote BLV control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.17-0455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5836770PMC
February 2018

Dembo polymerase chain reaction technique for detection of bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complex infectious agents in potential vectors and reservoirs.

J Vet Sci 2018 May;19(3):350-357

Research and Education Center for Prevention of Global Infectious Diseases of Animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-0045, Japan.

Bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complexes, caused by infectious agents, result in high and significant economic losses for the cattle industry. These pathogens are likely transmitted by various vectors and reservoirs including insects, birds, and rodents. However, experimental data supporting this possibility are scarce. We collected 117 samples and screened them for 44 bovine abortive, diarrheal, and respiratory disease complex pathogens by using Dembo polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is based on TaqMan real-time PCR. Fifty-seven samples were positive for at least one pathogen, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine enterovirus, ser. Dublin, ser. Typhimurium, and ; some samples were positive for multiple pathogens. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine enterovirus were the most frequently detected pathogens, especially in flies, suggesting an important role of flies in the transmission of these viruses. Additionally, we detected the genome from a cockroach sample for the first time. Our data suggest that insects (particularly flies), birds, and rodents are potential vectors and reservoirs of abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory infectious agents, and that they may transmit more than one pathogen at the same time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2018.19.3.350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5974516PMC
May 2018

Population structure of Escherichia coli O26 : H11 with recent and repeated stx2 acquisition in multiple lineages.

Microb Genom 2017 11;3(11)

1​Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

A key virulence factor of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the bacteriophage-encoded Shiga toxin (Stx). Stxs are classified into two types, Stx1 and Stx2, and Stx2-producing strains are thought to cause more severe infections than strains producing only Stx1. Although O26 : H11 is the second most prevalent EHEC following O157 : H7, the majority of O26 : H11 strains produce Stx1 alone. However, Stx2-producing O26 strains have increasingly been detected worldwide. Through a large-scale genome analysis, we present a global phylogenetic overview and evolutionary timescale for E. coli O26 : H11. The origin of O26 has been estimated to be 415 years ago. Sequence type 21C1 (ST21C1), one of the two sublineages of ST21, the most predominant O26 : H11 lineage worldwide, emerged 213 years ago from one of the three ST29 sublineages (ST29C2). The other ST21 lineage (ST21C2) emerged 95 years ago from ST21C1. Increases in population size occurred in the late 20th century for all of the O26 lineages, but most remarkably for ST21C2. Analysis of the distribution of stx2-positive strains revealed the recent and repeated acquisition of the stx2 gene in multiple lineages of O26, both in ST21 and ST29. Other major EHEC virulence genes, such as type III secretion system effector genes and plasmid-encoded virulence genes, were well conserved in ST21 compared to ST29. In addition, more antimicrobial-resistance genes have accumulated in the ST21C1 lineage. Although current attention is focused on several highly virulent ST29 clones that have acquired the stx2 gene, there is also a considerable risk that the ST21 lineage could yield highly virulent clones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mgen.0.000141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5729918PMC
November 2017

Cattle with the BoLA class II DRB3*0902 allele have significantly lower bovine leukemia proviral loads.

J Vet Med Sci 2017 Sep 28;79(9):1552-1555. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Laboratory of Animal Infectious Disease and Prevention, Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

The bovine MHC (BoLA) class II DRB3 alleles are associated with polyclonal expansion of lymphocytes caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle. To examine whether the DRB3*0902 allele, one of the resistance-associated alleles, is associated with the proviral load, we measured BLV proviral load of BLV-infected cattle and clarified their DRB3 alleles. Fifty-seven animals with DRB3*0902 were identified out of 835 BLV-infected cattle and had significantly lower proviral load (P<0.000001) compared with the rest of the infected animals, in both Japanese Black and Holstein cattle. This result strongly indicates that the BoLA class II DRA/DRB3*0902 molecule plays an important immunological role in suppressing viral replication, resulting in resistance to the disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.16-0601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5627326PMC
September 2017

Phylogenetic analysis of env gene of bovine leukemia virus strains spread in Miyazaki prefecture, Japan.

J Vet Med Sci 2017 May 23;79(5):912-916. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Laboratory of Animal Infectious Disease and Prevention, Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

To understand how the latest dominant bovine leukemia virus (BLV) strains were introduced and spread in the Miyazaki prefecture, we collected blood samples from 3 geographic areas (north, central and south) and carried out sequence analysis of the BLV env gene. Two genotypes, genotype I, and III, were identified and the majority of the strains belonged to genotype I (71/74). To clarify a route of BLV introduction, we divided the strains into 20 subgenotypes based on their nucleotide sequences and performed phylogenetic analysis. Our study indicated that common BLV strains were comparatively evenly distributed even in the area, where the farmers have not introduced cattle from other areas and the cattle have limited exposure to BLV infection in grazing fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.17-0055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447981PMC
May 2017

Use of Direct LAMP Screening of Broiler Fecal Samples for and in the Positive Flock Identification Strategy.

Front Microbiol 2016 30;7:1582. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of MiyazakiMiyazaki, Japan; Center for Animal Disease Control, University of MiyazakiMiyazaki, Japan.

Rapid identification of -positive flocks before slaughter, following freezing and heat treatment for the -positive carcasses at the slaughterhouses is an effective control strategy against foodborne campylobacteriosis. We evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the direct screening of naturally contaminated chicken cloacal swabs for / to compare this assay with conventional quantitative culture methods. In a comparison study of 165 broilers, the LAMP assay showed 82.8% (48/58 by conventional culture) sensitivity, 100% (107/107) specificity, 100% (48/48) positive predictive value (PPV), and 91.5% (107/117) negative predictive value (NPV). In a comparison of 55 flocks, LAMP showed 90.5% (19/21) sensitivity, 100% (34/34) specificity, 100% (19/19) PPV, and 94.4% (34/36) NPV. In the cumulative total of 28 farm-level comparisons, LAMP showed 100% (12/12) sensitivity, 100% (16/16) specificity, 100% (12/12) PPV, and 100% (16/16) NPV. The LAMP assay required less than 90 min from the arrival of the fecal samples to final results in the laboratory. This suggests that the LAMP assay will facilitate the identification of /-positive broiler flocks at the farm level or in slaughterhouses before slaughtering, which would make it an effective tool in preventing the spread of contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5043150PMC
September 2016

Towards better-informed consent: Research with livestock-keepers and informal traders in East Africa.

Prev Vet Med 2016 Jun 22;128:135-41. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

Food Safety and Zoonoses Program, Mara House, International Livestock Research Institute, Naivasha Road, Postal Box 30709-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. Electronic address:

With the rise of the One Health paradigm, ethicists have called for new research approaches, considering the interdependent relationships of humans, animals, and their environment. These relationships can be particularly complex within resource-poor, smallholder livestock systems, necessitating a rigorous informed-consent process. Little has been published on informed consent beyond human-subject research. This paper outlines two studies on informed consent, for research identifying diseases of animal and human importance, within smallholder livestock value chains. Firstly, a randomized independent-group study compared three communication tools (written, cartoons, and photographs) for informing 22 Tanzanian livestock-keepers before seeking their consent. A significant difference in comprehension and engagement in the informed-consent process was found between tools, and cartoons had the highest (i.e. best combined comprehension and engagement) scores. Most (21 out of 22) farmers answered half or more the questions correctly, but none were able to answer all questions. Comprehension testing allowed identification of common misunderstandings, such as immediate benefits the farmers would receive and the process to be used for relaying research results. Dialogue stimulated by cartoons and photographs allowed researchers to determine and respond to participants' varied relationships with their livestock. The second study assessed preferred methods for indicating consent among informal-sector milk vendors in Nairobi, Kenya. Of consenting participants, 61% (140/230) indicated consent verbally, 39% (90/230) signed consent and none chose thumbprint. There was a significant enumerator-effect on both overall consent and the methods chosen. Several of these findings echo those published in human-medical research. Additionally, highlighted here is the importance of facilitating dialogue during the informed-consent process in One Health research, for a more nuanced understanding of relationships between humans, animals, and their environment. Also discussed is how a requirement to sign consent forms might limit consent among workers in informal markets, which are commonly studied in One Health research. We suggest expansion of these, and development of further, studies towards improving consent processes in One Health research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.04.008DOI Listing
June 2016

Partial costectomy for tracheal collapse and stenosis associated with perinatal rib fracture in three Japanese Black calves.

J Vet Med Sci 2016 Mar 30;78(3):451-5. Epub 2015 Oct 30.

Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibana-dai Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

2.3-month-old (Case 1), one-month-old (Case 2) and 6-month-old (Case 3), Japanese Black calves presented with mild to severe wheezing. All calves had histories of dystocia at birth with breech presentation. Physical examination, thoracic radiography, endoscopy or computed tomography indicated wheezing associated with tracheal collapse and stenosis caused by perinatal rib fractures. Partial resection of the fractured first and second ribs was performed on all calves. The respiration in Cases 1 and 2 immediately improved after the surgery, while Case 3 required two weeks to improve. Cases 1 and 3 grew up healthy and were sold at auction, but Case 2 had a recurrence of wheezing at three months post-discharge and showed growth retarding. Partial costectomy may be an effective solution for control of respiration, however, further cases are required to discuss the criteria for surgical management and to obtain favorable postoperative prognosis in calves with tracheal collapse and stenosis caused by perinatal rib fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.15-0378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4829516PMC
March 2016

Horizontal transmission and phylogenetic analysis of bovine leukemia virus in two districts of Miyazaki, Japan.

J Vet Med Sci 2015 Sep 19;77(9):1115-20. Epub 2015 Apr 19.

Project for Zoonoses Education and Research, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

Horizontal transmission is recognized as a major infection route for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), and cattle with high viral loads are considered to be a major infectious source in a herd. However, a correlation between viral loads and the risk of infection has been insufficient to use as a foundation for BLV control strategies. In this report, we examined the epidemiology of BLV infection and the infectious source in a local area. In 2013-2014, BLV infection was investigated in 1,823 cattle from 117 farms in two adjacent districts, Miyazaki, Japan. Seropositive samples for BLV were detected with 88 cattle and in 14 farms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 94% of the isolates clustered into genotype I and the remaining isolate into genotype III. Among genotype I, genetically distinct strains were spread at each farm, and cattle infected with less than 3 copies/100 cells did not transmit BLV to other cattle for more than thirty months. This is the first report of concrete data of viral load in relation to viral horizontal transmission under the field condition. The data facilitate farmers and veterinarians understanding the status of BLV infected cattle. This research contributes to BLV infection control and the development of effective BLV eradication programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.14-0624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4591153PMC
September 2015

Evaluation of the natural perinatal transmission of bovine leukaemia virus.

Vet Rec 2015 Mar 15;176(10):254. Epub 2014 Dec 15.

Laboratory of Animal Infectious Disease and Prevention, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan Center for Animal Disease Control, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

The perinatal transmission of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) plays a critical role in the spread and persistence of BLV infection in cattle herds. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of perinatal infections in an area in Japan and investigate some risk factors associated with infection. Altogether, 129 calves born to BLV-infected cows in a herd in Japan were tested for infection immediately after birth and again at one month of age using nested PCR. Twenty-four calves (18.6 per cent) were infected with BLV, of which 14 (10.8 per cent) and 10 (7.7 per cent) calves were infected via the transplacental and the birth canal routes, respectively. Maternal viral loads, breed, the presence or absence of assistance during parturition and the number of births per dam were evaluated to investigate risk factors associated with infection. Maternal viral load was significantly correlated with the frequency of perinatal infection, and more than 40 per cent of newborn calves born to dams with high viral loads were infected with BLV. The results of this study could contribute towards developing effective eradication programmes by providing necessary data for replacement of breeding cow in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.102464DOI Listing
March 2015

Identification of O serotypes, genotypes, and virulotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates, including non-O157 from beef cattle in Japan.

J Food Prot 2014 Aug;77(8):1269-74

Center for Animal Disease Control, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki, 889-2192, Japan.

Bovines are recognized as an important reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Although STEC strains are significant foodborne pathogens, not all of the STEC held by cattle are pathogenic, and which type of STEC that will become epidemic in humans is unpredictable. Information about the prevalence of serotype and virulence gene distribution in beef cattle is insufficient to develop monitoring and controlling activities for a food safety and security program. Thus, this study investigated the prevalence of O157 and non-O157 STEC in Japanese beef cattle and characterized the isolates by the type of O antigen and several virulence markers to help predict the pathogenicity. In this study, 64.2% (176 of 274) of enrichment cultures of fecal samples collected from an abattoir and farms were stx1 and/or stx2 positive by PCR. STEC strains were isolated from 22.1% (39 of 176) of the positive fecal samples, and these isolates represented 17 types of O antigen (O1, O2 or O50, O5, O8, O55, O84, O91, O109, O113, O136, O150, O156, O157, O163, O168, O174, and O177). Two selective media targeting major STEC groups, cefixime-tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar and CHROMagar O26/O157, allowed isolation of a variety of STEC strains. The most frequently isolated STEC was O113 (8 of 39), which has previously been reported as a cause of foodborne infections. Although most of the O113 STEC isolated from infected patients possessed the enterohemolysin (hlyA) gene, none of the O113 STEC cattle isolates possessed the hlyA gene. The second most common isolate was O157 (6 of 39), and all these isolates contained common virulence factors, including eae, tir, lpf1, lpf2, and hlyA. This study shows the prevalence of O157 and non-O157 STEC in Japanese beef cattle and the relationship of O antigen and virulotypes of the isolates. This information may improve identification of the source of infection, developing surveillance programs or the current understanding of virulence factors of STEC infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-506DOI Listing
August 2014

Epidemiological study and control trial of taeniid cestode infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China.

J Vet Med Sci 2014 Mar 21;76(3):395-400. Epub 2013 Nov 21.

Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitic Diseases, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki, 889-2192, Japan.

An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taeniid species in dogs from Xinghai, Haiyan, Gangcha and Chengduo counties. Analysis of 277 dog feces revealed that taeniid cestodes, including Taenia spp. and Echinococcus granulosus, were highly prevalent in Xinghai (34.4%), but eggs were not found in Haiyan where a control trial on canine echinococcosis had been conducted 20 years previously. A control trial involving the administration of 5-10 mg/kg praziquantel to 90 farm dogs at 45-day intervals was conducted in Xinghai. The prevalence of taeniid cestodes in the dogs was reduced to 9.6% and 4.9% after one and two years, respectively, indicating that some dogs were not administered praziquantel properly. A questionnaire survey of farmers in Xinghai and Haiyan revealed that most farmers in Xinghai were not familiar with echinococcosis or the transmission route of the disease, while most farmers in Haiyan had a more thorough understanding of the disease. The findings implied that a program for educating local farmers would be important for efficiently controlling canine taeniid infection in the region.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4013366PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.13-0504DOI Listing
March 2014

Continuous Moniezia benedeni infection in confined cattle possibly maintained by an intermediate host on the farm.

J Vet Med Sci 2013 Dec 5;75(12):1585-9. Epub 2013 Aug 5.

Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitic Diseases, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

Infection with Moniezia benedeni is sometimes found in confined cattle in Japan. Between October 2011 and January 2013, we monitored the fecal egg prevalence at a confined cattle farm in Miyazaki prefecture where continuous M. benedeni infection has been recognized for years to evaluate the possible infection routes. Fecal egg prevalence changed seasonally with the highest in October 2011 (27.3%: 9/33). This was followed by a gradual decrease until July 2012 (9.4%: 3/32) and then an increase between August to December 2012 when new egg-excreting cases were observed. The pattern of seasonal changes was similar to that reported previously for cattle kept in a barn with an outside playing yard. Although M. benedeni-infected mites were not found, we constantly detected an oribatid mite, Oribatula sakamorii Aoki, 1970, in the litter of cattle bedding from May to October 2012. This species belongs to a genus which has been reported to be a suitable intermediate host for M. benedeni, suggesting that M. benedeni infection may have been autonomously maintained at the farm via oribatid mites living in the cowshed. When infected cattle were treated with praziquantel, it was found that a single oral inoculation with a dose of 5 mg/kg was effective for deworming.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3942953PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.13-0250DOI Listing
December 2013

Acute colic possibly caused by phytobezoar derived from napier grass in 5 Japanese black cows reared in the same farm.

J Vet Med Sci 2011 Aug 18;73(8):1093-6. Epub 2011 Apr 18.

Shepherd Central Livestock Clinic, Kagoshima 899–1611, Japan.

For 6 years, 5 Japanese Black cows of the same herd showed anorexia, depression, and dehydration with no feces in the rectum. Biomedical examination of 3 animals showed severe hypokalemia and hypochloremia. Although the first 3 animals died or were slaughtered (causes unknown), necropsy results showed that the cow in case 4 had intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoar derived from napier grass, fed mainly to the cattle as roughage. Therefore, farmers were recommended to avoid the hard root-stem portion of napier grass as roughage. Consequently, less phytobezoar was recovered from the fifth cow, and no similar clinical case of intestinal obstruction was observed thereafter. This is the first report on intestinal obstruction caused by phytobezoars derived from napier grass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.10-0449DOI Listing
August 2011

Large-group infection of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, with special reference to a case of sudden death due to bilateral pneumothorax.

J Vet Med Sci 2009 May;71(5):657-60

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan.

We recently found a group of 5 boar-hunting dogs infected with Paragonimus westermani. As wild boars are known to be the potential paratenic hosts for this parasite, boar-hunting dogs have obviously a high risk of infection by this parasite. In the present study, therefore, we investigated 20 dogs of another group kept by a hunter in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, in order to determine whether paragonimosis is a common problem among boar-hunting dogs. The results showed that P. westermani eggs were present in the feces of 10 out of 20 dogs, while 17 dogs were seropositive on ELISA. Taken together with our previous results, it appears that paragonimosis is a serious problem in boar-hunting dogs. The possible risks of infected dogs acting as a source for maintaining the P. westermani life cycle are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.71.657DOI Listing
May 2009

A seroepidemiological survey for paragonimosis among boar-hunting dogs in central and southern Kyushu, Japan.

Vet Parasitol 2009 May 24;161(3-4):335-8. Epub 2009 Jan 24.

Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

A seroepidemiological survey for paragonimosis among boar-hunting dogs was conducted throughout central and southern Kyushu, Japan. Among a total of 224 sera collected from boar-hunting dogs kept by 38 owners, 147 (65.6%) were positive for IgG antibodies against Paragonimus westermani antigen by ELISA. In the 147 seropositive dogs, 83 (56.5%) dogs demonstrated high antibody titers (OD>0.700), which appeared to indicate active infection. There were no obvious differences noted in age, sex and the genetic background of the dogs. The seroprevalence was dependent on the feeding manner of the owners and was extremely variable (0-100%). The majority (34/38) of owners fed their dogs uncooked boar meat and/or allowed them free-access to the residues of hunted boars after dissection, resulting in dogs with seropositive results. The dogs that were never fed wild boar meat were entirely seronegative. These results clearly demonstrate that boar-hunting dogs play an important role as a definitive Paragonimus host and that wild boars serve as a reservoir host for the maintenance of the Paragonimus life-cycle, presumably P. westermani, in the mountainous areas of central and southern Kyushu, Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.01.011DOI Listing
May 2009

Infection of a group of boar-hunting dogs with Paragonimus westermani in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan.

Vet Parasitol 2008 Dec 21;158(4):376-9. Epub 2008 Sep 21.

Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitic Diseases, Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Gakuen-kibanadai Nishi 1-1, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan.

A 5-year-old male mixed-bred boar-hunting dog with a Plott hound background weighing 23 kg was brought to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Miyazaki, in October 2002. The dog was diagnosed with active infection with the lung fluke Paragonimus westermani by serological testing and also by detection of parasite eggs in his feces. Subsequent examination of four other dogs working with this dog as a boar-hunting team revealed that all five dogs were infected with P. westermani.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.09.017DOI Listing
December 2008