Publications by authors named "Yumi Fukuchi"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

MEK inhibition preferentially suppresses anchorage-independent growth in osteosarcoma cells and decreases tumors in vivo.

J Orthop Res 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Osteosarcoma is the most common high-grade malignancy of bone, and novel therapeutic options are urgently required. Previously, we developed mouse osteosarcoma AXT cells that can proliferate both under adherent and nonadherent conditions. Based on metabolite levels, nonadherent conditions were more similar to the in vivo environment than adherent conditions. A drug screen identified MEK inhibitors, including trametinib, that preferentially decreased the viability of nonadherent AXT cells. Trametinib inhibited the cell cycle and induced apoptosis in AXT cells, and both effects were stronger under nonadherent conditions. Trametinib also potently decreased viability in U2OS cells, but its effects were less prominent in MG63 or Saos2 cells. By contrast, MG63 and Saos2 cells were more sensitive to PI3K inhibition than AXT or U2OS cells. Notably, the combination of MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) and PI3K inhibition synergistically decreased viability in U2OS and AXT cells, but this effect was less pronounced in MG63 or Saos2 cells. Therefore, signal dependence for cell survival and crosstalk between MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT pathways in osteosarcoma are cell context-dependent. The activation status of other kinases including CREB varied in a cell context-dependent manner, which might determine the response to MEK inhibition. A single dose of trametinib was sufficient to decrease the size of the primary tumor and circulating tumor cells in vivo. Moreover, combined administration of trametinib and rapamycin or conventional anticancer drugs further increased antitumor activity. Thus, given optimal biomarkers for predicting its effects, trametinib holds therapeutic potential for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.25023DOI Listing
March 2021

OGT Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Maintenance via PINK1-Dependent Mitophagy.

Cell Rep 2021 Jan;34(1):108579

Department of Stem Cell and Immune Regulation, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan. Electronic address:

O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) is a unique enzyme introducing O-GlcNAc moiety on target proteins, and it critically regulates various cellular processes in diverse cell types. However, its roles in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) remain elusive. Here, using Ogt conditional knockout mice, we show that OGT is essential for HSPCs. Ogt is highly expressed in HSPCs, and its disruption induces rapid loss of HSPCs with increased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. In particular, Ogt-deficient hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) lose quiescence, cannot be maintained in vivo, and become vulnerable to regenerative and competitive stress. Interestingly, Ogt-deficient HSCs accumulate defective mitochondria due to impaired mitophagy with decreased key mitophagy regulator, Pink1, through dysregulation of H3K4me3. Furthermore, overexpression of PINK1 restores mitophagy and the number of Ogt-deficient HSCs. Collectively, our results reveal that OGT critically regulates maintenance and stress response of HSCs by ensuring mitochondrial quality through PINK1-dependent mitophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108579DOI Listing
January 2021

Establishment of a High-risk MDS/AML Cell Line YCU-AML1 and its Xenograft Model Harboring t(3;3) and Monosomy 7.

Hemasphere 2020 Oct 17;4(5):e469. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Stem Cell and Immune Regulation, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with both inv(3)(q21q26.2)/t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) and monosomy 7 defines an extremely aggressive myeloid cancer whose molecular pathogenesis and optimal therapeutic strategy still remain unclear. We established a new MDS/AML cell line, YCU-AML1, and its patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model from a high-risk MDS patient who later transformed into AML harboring both t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) and monosomy 7. YCU-AML1 cells propagated in co-culture system with stromal cells in granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent manner. CD34 bone marrow cells derived from our PDX model showed high and low expression. Moreover, mutational profile of our MDS/AML model was consistent with recently published mutational spectrum of myeloid malignancies with inv(3)/t(3;3). These data suggest that YCU-AML1 cells and its MDS/AML model strongly mimics a high-risk human myeloid cancer with inv(3)(q21q26.2)/t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) and monosomy 7 in terms of both clinical phenotype and molecular basis. We believe our model can be used as a feasible tool to further explore molecular pathogenesis and novel treatment strategy of high-risk MDS/AML with t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) and monosomy 7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643909PMC
October 2020

Activation of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons reverses pathological allodynia resulting from nerve injury or bone cancer.

Mol Pain 2018 Jan-Dec;14:1744806918756406. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

1 Department of Pharmacology, Hoshi University School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Chronic pain induced by nerve damage due to trauma or invasion of cancer to the bone elicits severe ongoing pain as well as hyperalgesia and allodynia likely reflecting adaptive changes within central circuits that amplify nociceptive signals. The present study explored the possible contribution of the mesolimbic dopaminergic circuit in promoting allodynia related to neuropathic and cancer pain. Mice with ligation of the sciatic nerve or treated with intrafemoral osteosarcoma cells showed allodynia to a thermal stimulus applied to the paw on the injured side. Patch clamp electrophysiology revealed that the intrinsic neuronal excitability of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (N.Acc.) was significantly reduced in those mice. We used tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-cre mice that were microinjected with adeno-associated virus (AAV) to express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to allow optogenetic stimulation of VTA dopaminergic neurons in the VTA or in their N.Acc. terminals. Optogenetic activation of these cells produced a significant but transient anti-allodynic effect in nerve injured or tumor-bearing mice without increasing response thresholds to thermal stimulation in sham-operated animals. Suppressed activity of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons is likely to contribute to decreased inhibition of N.Acc. output neurons and to neuropathic or cancer pain-induced allodynia suggesting strategies for modulation of pathological pain states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1744806918756406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5802605PMC
October 2018

Calcitriol exerts an anti-tumor effect in osteosarcoma by inducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

Cancer Sci 2017 Sep 16;108(9):1793-1802. Epub 2017 Jul 16.

Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary bone tumor, and novel therapeutic approaches for this disease are urgently required. To identify effective agents, we screened a panel of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs in AXT cells, our newly established mouse osteosarcoma line, and identified calcitriol as a candidate compound with therapeutic efficacy for this disease. Calcitriol inhibited cell proliferation in AXT cells by blocking cell cycle progression. From a mechanistic standpoint, calcitriol induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which was potentially responsible for downregulation of cyclin D1, activation of p38 MAPK, and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Knockdown of Atf4 or Ddit3 restored cell viability after calcitriol treatment, indicating that the ER stress response was indeed responsible for the anti-proliferative effect in AXT cells. Notably, the ER stress response was induced to a lesser extent in human osteosarcoma than in AXT cells, consistent with the weaker suppressive effect on cell growth in the human cells. Thus, the magnitude of ER stress induced by calcitriol might be an index of its anti-osteosarcoma effect. Although mice treated with calcitriol exhibited weight loss and elevated serum calcium levels, a single dose was sufficient to decrease osteosarcoma tumor size in vivo. Our findings suggest that calcitriol holds therapeutic potential for treatment of osteosarcoma, assuming that techniques to diminish its toxicity could be established. In addition, our results show that calcitriol could still be safely administered to osteosarcoma patients for its original purposes, including treatment of osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.13304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5581526PMC
September 2017

Simvastatin-Induced Apoptosis in Osteosarcoma Cells: A Key Role of RhoA-AMPK/p38 MAPK Signaling in Antitumor Activity.

Mol Cancer Ther 2017 01 31;16(1):182-192. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary bone tumor, novel therapeutic agents for which are urgently needed. To identify such agents, we screened a panel of approved drugs with a mouse model of osteosarcoma. The screen identified simvastatin, which inhibited the proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells in vitro Simvastatin also induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells in a manner dependent on inhibition of the mevalonate biosynthetic pathway. It also disrupted the function of the small GTPase RhoA and induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 MAPK, with AMPK functioning upstream of p38 MAPK. Inhibitors of AMPK or p38 MAPK attenuated the induction of apoptosis by simvastatin, whereas metformin enhanced this effect of simvastatin by further activation of AMPK. Although treatment with simvastatin alone did not inhibit osteosarcoma tumor growth in vivo, its combination with a fat-free diet induced a significant antitumor effect that was enhanced further by metformin administration. Our findings suggest that simvastatin induces apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells via activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK, and that, in combination with other approaches, it holds therapeutic potential for osteosarcoma. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 182-92. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-16-0499DOI Listing
January 2017

Bone marrow-derived macrophages distinct from tissue-resident macrophages play a pivotal role in Concanavalin A-induced murine liver injury via CCR9 axis.

Sci Rep 2016 10 11;6:35146. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The fundamental mechanism how heterogeneous hepatic macrophage (Mφ) subsets fulfill diverse functions in health and disease has not been elucidated. We recently reported that CCR9 inflammatory Mφs play a critical role in the course of acute liver injury. To clarify the origin and differentiation of CCR9Mφs, we used a unique partial bone marrow (BM) chimera model with liver shielding for maintaining hepatic resident Mφs. First, irradiated mice developed less liver injury with less Mφs accumulation by Concanavalin A (Con A) regardless of liver shielding. In mice receiving further BM transplantation, CD11bF4/80 hepatic-resident Mφs were not replaced by transplanted donors under steady state, while under inflammatory state by Con A, CCR9Mφs were firmly replaced by donors, indicating that CCR9Mφs originate from BM, but not from hepatic-resident cells. Regarding the mechanism of differentiation and proliferation, EdUCCR9Mφs with a proliferative potential were detected specifically in the inflamed liver, and in vitro study revealed that BM-derived CD11b cells co-cultured with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) or stimulated with retinoic acids could acquire CCR9 with antigen-presenting ability. Collectively, our study demonstrates that inflammatory Mφs originate from BM and became locally differentiated and proliferated by interaction with HSCs via CCR9 axis during acute liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep35146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5057133PMC
October 2016

IGF2 preserves osteosarcoma cell survival by creating an autophagic state of dormancy that protects cells against chemotherapeutic stress.

Cancer Res 2014 Nov 1;74(22):6531-41. Epub 2014 Oct 1.

Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan. CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo, Japan.

Osteosarcoma is a malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents characterized by intrinsic therapeutic resistance. The IGF2 is expressed at elevated levels in osteosarcoma after treatment with chemotherapy, prompting an examination of its functional contributions to resistance. We found that continuous exposure to IGF2 or insulin in the absence of serum created a dormant growth state in osteosarcoma cells that conferred resistance to various chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro. Mechanistic investigations revealed that this dormant state correlated with downregulation of downstream signaling by the IGF1 receptor, heightened cell survival, enhanced autophagy, and the presence of extracellular glutamine. Notably, inhibiting autophagy or depleting glutamine was sufficient to increase chemotherapeutic sensitivity in osteosarcoma xenografts in mice. Clinically, we confirmed that IGF expression levels were elevated in human osteosarcoma specimens from patients who received chemotherapy. Together, our results suggest that activation of IGF or insulin signaling preserves the survival of osteosarcoma cells under chemotherapeutic stress, providing a drug-resistant population that may engender minimal residual disease. Attenuating this survival mechanism may help overcome therapeutic resistance in osteosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-0914DOI Listing
November 2014

Tet2-mutated myeloid progenitors possess aberrant in vitro self-renewal capacity.

Blood 2014 May;123(18):2897-9

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-01-552471DOI Listing
May 2014

Robo4 plays a role in bone marrow homing and mobilization, but is not essential in the long-term repopulating capacity of hematopoietic stem cells.

PLoS One 2012 30;7(11):e50849. Epub 2012 Nov 30.

Division of Cellular Therapy, Advanced Clinical Research Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Roundabout (Robo) family proteins are immunoglobulin-type surface receptors critical for cellular migration and pathway finding of neuronal axons. We have previously shown that Robo4 was specifically expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and its high expression correlated with long-term repopulating (LTR) capacity. To reveal the physiological role of Robo4 in hematopoiesis, we examined the effects of Robo4 disruption on the function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors. In Robo4-deficient mice, basic hematological parameters including complete blood cell count and differentiation profile were not affected. In contrast to the previous report, HSC/hematopoietic progenitor (HPC) frequencies in the bone marrow (BM) were perfectly normal in Robo4(-/-) mice. Moreover, Robo4(-/-) HSCs were equally competitive as wild-type HSCs in transplantation assays and had normal long-term repopulating (LTR) capacity. Of note, the initial engraftment at 4-weeks after transplantation was slightly impaired by Robo4 ablation, suggesting a marginal defect in BM homing of Robo4(-/-) HSCs. In fact, homing efficiencies of HSCs/HPCs to the BM was significantly impaired in Robo4-deficient mice. On the other hand, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-induced peripheral mobilization of HSCs was also impaired by Robo4 disruption. Lastly, marrow recovery from myelosuppressive stress was equally efficient in WT- and Robo4-mutant mice. These results clearly indicate that Robo4 plays a role in HSC trafficking such as BM homing and peripheral mobilization, but is not essential in the LTR and self-renewal capacity of HSCs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0050849PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3511340PMC
May 2013

Direct reprogramming of terminally differentiated B cells into erythroid lineage.

FEBS Lett 2012 Oct 30;586(20):3645-52. Epub 2012 Aug 30.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Hematopoietic progenitors have been shown to retain plasticity and switch lineages by appropriate stimuli. However, mature blood cells hardly showed such differentiation plasticity. In this paper, we tried to reprogram mature B cells into erythroid lineage by expressing various hematopoietic transcription factors. Among various factors, GATA-1, SCL together with CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) α turned out to be a minimal set of factors that efficiently reprogrammed terminally differentiated mature B cells into erythroid lineage, as evidenced by colony forming assays and erythroid-specific gene expressions. This study sets an avenue to generate autologous erythrocytes from peripheral B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2012.08.019DOI Listing
October 2012

Tet2 disruption leads to enhanced self-renewal and altered differentiation of fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells.

Sci Rep 2012 17;2:273. Epub 2012 Feb 17.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Somatic mutation of ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) gene is frequently found in human myeloid malignancies. Recent reports showed that loss of Tet2 led to pleiotropic hematopoietic abnormalities including increased competitive repopulating capacity of bone marrow (BM) HSCs and myeloid transformation. However, precise impact of Tet2 loss on the function of fetal liver (FL) HSCs has not been examined. Here we show that disruption of Tet2 results in the expansion of Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+) (LSK) cells in FL. Furthermore, Tet2 loss led to enhanced self-renewal and long-term repopulating capacity of FL-HSCs in in vivo serial transplantation assay. Disruption of Tet2 in FL also led to altered differentiation of mature blood cells, expansion of common myeloid progenitors and increased resistance for hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) to differentiation stimuli in vitro. These results demonstrate that Tet2 plays a critical role in homeostasis of HSCs and HPCs not only in the BM, but also in FL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep00273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281275PMC
April 2013

Two types of C/EBPα mutations play distinct but collaborative roles in leukemogenesis: lessons from clinical data and BMT models.

Blood 2011 Jan 30;117(1):221-33. Epub 2010 Sep 30.

Division of Cellular Therapy, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Two types of mutations of a transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) are found in leukemic cells of 5%-14% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients: N-terminal mutations expressing dominant negative p30 and C-terminal mutations in the basic leucine zipper domain. Our results showed that a mutation of C/EBPα in one allele was observed in AML after myelodysplastic syndrome, while the 2 alleles are mutated in de novo AML. Unlike an N-terminal frame-shift mutant (C/EBPα-N(m))-transduced cells, a C-terminal mutant (C/EBPα-C(m))-transduced cells alone induced AML with leukopenia in mice 4-12 months after bone marrow transplantation. Coexpression of both mutants induced AML with marked leukocytosis with shorter latencies. Interestingly, C/EBPα-C(m) collaborated with an Flt3-activating mutant Flt3-ITD in inducing AML. Moreover, C/EBPα-C(m) strongly blocked myeloid differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells, suggesting its class II mutation-like role in leukemogenesis. Although C/EBPα-C(m) failed to inhibit transcriptional activity of wild-type C/EBPα, it suppressed the synergistic effect between C/EBPα and PU.1. On the other hand, C/EBPα-N(m) inhibited C/EBPα activation in the absence of PU.1, despite low expression levels of p30 protein generated by C/EBPα-N(m). Thus, 2 types of C/EBPα mutations are implicated in leukemo-genesis, involving different and cooperating molecular mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-02-270181DOI Listing
January 2011

TIMP-3 recruits quiescent hematopoietic stem cells into active cell cycle and expands multipotent progenitor pool.

Blood 2010 Nov 26;116(22):4474-82. Epub 2010 Aug 26.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Regulating transition of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) between quiescent and cycling states is critical for maintaining homeostasis of blood cell production. The cycling states of HSCs are regulated by the extracellular factors such as cytokines and extracellular matrix; however, the molecular circuitry for such regulation remains elusive. Here we show that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3), an endogenous regulator of metalloproteinases, stimulates HSC proliferation by recruiting quiescent HSCs into the cell cycle. Myelosuppression induced TIMP-3 in the bone marrow before hematopoietic recovery. Interestingly, TIMP-3 enhanced proliferation of HSCs and promoted expansion of multipotent progenitors, which was achieved by stimulating cell-cycle entry of quiescent HSCs without compensating their long-term repopulating activity. Surprisingly, this effect did not require metalloproteinase inhibitory activity of TIMP-3 and was possibly mediated through a direct inhibition of angiopoietin-1 signaling, a critical mediator for HSC quiescence. Furthermore, bone marrow recovery from myelosuppression was accelerated by over-expression of TIMP-3, and in turn, impaired in TIMP-3-deficient animals. These results suggest that TIMP-3 may act as a molecular cue in response to myelosuppression for recruiting dormant HSCs into active cell cycle and may be clinically useful for facilitating hematopoietic recovery after chemotherapy or ex vivo expansion of HSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-01-266528DOI Listing
November 2010

Wnt modulators, SFRP-1, and SFRP-2 are expressed in osteoblasts and differentially regulate hematopoietic stem cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009 Dec 22;390(1):65-70. Epub 2009 Sep 22.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Wnt signaling has been implicated in the self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) are a family of soluble proteins containing a region homologous to a receptor for Wnt, Frizzled, and are thought to act as endogenous modulators for Wnt signaling. This study examined the role of SFRPs in HSC regulation. Among the four family members, SFRP-1 and SFRP-2 are specifically induced in the bone marrow in response to myelosuppression, and immunostaining revealed that both proteins were expressed in osteoblasts. Interestingly, SFRP-1 reduced the number of multipotent progenitors in in vitro culture of CD34(-)KSL cells, while SFRP-2 did not. Furthermore, SFRP-1 compromised the long-term repopulating activity of HSCs, whereas SFRP-2 did not affect or even enhanced it in the same setting. These results indicate that although both SFRP-1 and SFRP-2 act as inhibitors for Wnt signaling in vitro, they differentially affect the homeostasis of HSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.09.067DOI Listing
December 2009

Roundabout 4 is expressed on hematopoietic stem cells and potentially involved in the niche-mediated regulation of the side population phenotype.

Stem Cells 2009 Jan;27(1):183-90

Advanced Clinical Research Center, University of Tokyo, Japan.

Roundabout (Robo) family proteins are immunoglobulin-type cell surface receptors that are expressed predominantly in the nervous system. The fourth member of this family, Robo4, is distinct from the other family members in that it is expressed specifically in endothelial cells. In this study, we examined the expression of Robo4 in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and its possible role in HSC regulation. Robo4 mRNA was specifically expressed in murine HSCs and the immature progenitor cell fraction but not in lineage-positive cells or differentiated progenitors. Moreover, flow cytometry showed a correlation between higher expression of Robo4 and immature phenotypes of hematopoietic cells. Robo4(high) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells presented higher clonogenic activity or long-term repopulating activity by colony assays or transplantation assays, respectively. A ligand for Robo4, Slit2, is specifically expressed in bone marrow stromal cells, and its expression was induced in osteoblasts in response to myelosuppressive stress. Interestingly, overexpression of Robo4 or Slit2 in HSCs resulted in their decreased residence in the c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+)Lineage(-)-side population fraction. These results indicate that Robo4 is expressed in HSCs, and Robo4/Slit2 signaling may play a role in HSC homeostasis in the bone marrow niche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2008-0292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2883560PMC
January 2009

SHD1 is a novel cytokine-inducible, negative feedback regulator of STAT5-dependent transcription.

Blood 2009 Jan 6;113(5):1027-36. Epub 2008 Oct 6.

Center of Excellence, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

STAT5 is a critical mediator of a variety of cytokine signaling whose transcriptional activity is regulated by associating with various proteins. During a search for STAT5-interacting proteins, we identified SHD1, a mammalian homologue of yeast gene Sac3, as a potential interacter. SHD1 was localized in the nucleus, and induced by cytokines that activate STAT5, such as erythropoietin, interleukin-2 (IL-2), or IL-3. SHD1 interacted specifically with STAT5A and STAT5B, and interestingly, it specifically repressed STAT5-dependent transcription in vitro without affecting the stability or phosphorylation of STAT5 protein. Gene disruption study revealed that T, B, or bone marrow cells from mice lacking SHD1 were hyperresponsive to T-cell-receptor engagement, or stimulation with various STAT5-activating cytokines. These results suggest that SHD1 is a novel cytokine-inducible negative feedback regulator of STAT5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-01-133405DOI Listing
January 2009

Activation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha or PU.1 in hematopoietic stem cells leads to their reduced self-renewal and proliferation.

Stem Cells 2008 Dec 11;26(12):3172-81. Epub 2008 Sep 11.

Center of Excellence, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Previous studies using loss-of-function mutants revealed that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) and PU.1 are potential regulators for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). To gain further insight into the HSC regulation by C/EBPalpha or PU.1, we used transgenic mice expressing conditional forms of these transcription factors to examine whether their activation alone is sufficient for modulating HSC functions. The activation of C/EBPalpha or PU.1 in HSCs in vitro or in vivo led to their suppression of growth, decreased mixed colony formation, and impaired competitive repopulating activities because of their defective self-renewal. These effects were more prominently observed when C/EBPalpha was activated, and the differentiation capacity to megakaryocytic lineage was selectively impaired upon C/EBPalpha activation. Unexpectedly, the expression of Bmi-1 and HoxB4, well-known regulators for self-renewal of HSCs, was not affected by the activation of C/EBPalpha or PU.1, suggesting that they regulate HSC function through an as yet unknown mechanism. Our data suggest that the activation of C/EBPalpha or PU.1 is sufficient to repress stem cell capacities in HSCs, and their fine-tuned regulation is critical for HSC homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2008-0320DOI Listing
December 2008

p27KIP1 and GATA-1 are potential downstream molecules in activin A-induced differentiation and apoptosis pathways in CML cells.

Oncol Rep 2006 Nov;16(5):1099-103

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinanomachi, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

p27KIP1 is known as a regulator of cellular differentiation and apoptosis in human cancer cells. We have previously reported that human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) KU812 and K562 cells show inhibited cellular proliferation in response to treatment with activin A, a member of TGF-beta superfamily. Apoptosis and erythroid differentiation can be induced in KU812 and K562 cells, respectively. We report herein that activin A induced the expression of p27KIP1 in CML cells along with the induction of cellular differentiation and apoptosis. There are putative binding sequences of erythroid-related transcription factor GATA-1 in the promoter region of the human p27KIP1 gene. Expression of GATA-1 protein in activin A-treated KU812 and K562 cells showed dissimilar regulation in these two cell lines. Induction of p27KIP1 was commonly observed, but it did not correspond to the expression levels of GATA-1 in either line of activin A-treated CML cells. In addition, ERK protein was rapidly and transiently activated with activin A in both types of CML cells, suggesting that phosphorylation of ERK is required for activin A signaling in CML cells. These results indicate that both p27KIP1 induction and regulation of GATA-1 play essential roles in activin A-induced erythroid differentiation and apoptosis.
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November 2006

Comprehensive analysis of myeloid lineage conversion using mice expressing an inducible form of C/EBP alpha.

EMBO J 2006 Jul 6;25(14):3398-410. Epub 2006 Jul 6.

Division of Cellular Therapy, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) alpha is a critical regulator for early myeloid differentiation. Although C/EBPalpha has been shown to convert B cells into myeloid lineage, precise roles of C/EBPalpha in various hematopoietic progenitors and stem cells still remain obscure. To examine the consequence of C/EBPalpha activation in various progenitors and to address the underlying mechanism of lineage conversion in detail, we established transgenic mice expressing a conditional form of C/EBPalpha. Using these mice, we show that megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors (MEPs) and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) could be redirected to functional macrophages in vitro by a short-term activation of C/EBPalpha, and the conversion occurred clonally through biphenotypic intermediate cells. Moreover, in vivo activation of C/EBPalpha in mice led to the increase of mature granulocytes and myeloid progenitors with a concomitant decrease of hematopoietic stem cells and nonmyeloid progenitors. Our study reveals that C/EBPalpha can activate the latent myeloid differentiation program of MEP and CLP and shows that its global activation affects multilineage homeostasis in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.emboj.7601199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1523173PMC
July 2006

Immune suppressor factor confers stromal cell line with enhanced supporting activity for hematopoietic stem cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006 Feb 6;340(1):35-42. Epub 2005 Dec 6.

Center of Excellence, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

Immune suppressor factor (ISF) is a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase proton pump. We earlier identified a short form of ISF (ShIF) as a stroma-derived factor that supports cytokine-independent growth of mutant Ba/F3 cells. Here, we report that ISF/ShIF supports self-renewal and expansion of primary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Co-culture of murine bone marrow cells with a stromal cell line overexpressing ISF or ShIF (MS10/ISF or MS10/ShIF) not only enhanced their colony-forming activity and the numbers of long-term culture initiating cells, but also maintained the competitive repopulating activity of HSC. This stem cell supporting activity depended on the proton-transfer function of ISF/ShIF. Gene expression analysis of ISF/ShIF-transfected cell lines revealed down-regulation of secreted frizzled-related protein-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3, and the restoration of their expressions in MS10/ISF cells partially reversed its enhanced LTC-IC supporting activity to a normal level. These results suggest that ISF/ShIF confers stromal cells with enhanced supporting activities for HSCs by modulating Wnt-activity and the extracellular matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.11.146DOI Listing
February 2006

Human placenta-derived cells have mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell potential.

Stem Cells 2004 ;22(5):649-58

Division of Cellular Therapy, The Advanced Clinical Research Center, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, 108-8639, Japan.

Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) are widely distributed in a variety of tissues in the adult human body (e.g., bone marrow [BM], kidney, lung, and liver). These cells are also present in the fetal environment (e.g., blood, liver, BM, and kidney). However, MSCs are a rare population in these tissues. Here we tried to identify cells with MSC-like potency in human placenta. We isolated adherent cells from trypsin-digested term placentas and established two clones by limiting dilution. We examined these cells for morphology, surface markers, gene expression patterns, and differentiation potential and found that they expressed several stem cell markers, hematopoietic/ endothelial cell-related genes, and organ-specific genes, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis. They also showed osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials under appropriate conditions. We suggest that placenta-derived cells have multilineage differentiation potential similar to MSCs in terms of morphology, cell-surface antigen expression, and gene expression patterns. The placenta may prove to be a useful source of MSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.22-5-649DOI Listing
March 2005

A metal chelator, diphenylthiocarbazone, induces apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells mediated by a caspase-dependent pathway without a modulation of retinoic acid signaling pathways.

Leuk Res 2002 Jul;26(7):661-8

Division of Hematology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

A metal chelator, diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone), has been reported to induce differentiation and apoptosis of the human myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60, however, very little is known about the mechanism of dithizone-induced apoptosis. Here, we report for the first time that dithizone can induce inhibition of cellular growth of retinoic acid (RA)-sensitive NB4 and RA-resistant UF-1 APL cells via induction of apoptosis but not differentiation. Treatment of NB4 cells with dithizone markedly-induced apoptosis, which was associated with the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potentials (Delta Psi(m)) and activation of caspase-3 and -9. Further investigation of the RA-resistant UF-1 APL cells showed that dithizone-induced apoptosis to a lesser extent. However, neither dithizone alone nor in combination with all-trans RA induced the expression of myeloid differentiation antigen CD11b. Concomitantly, the degradation of PML/RARalpha fusion protein was not observed after treatment with dithizone alone, and the degradation was not enhanced by the combination of dithizone and all-trans RA. We conclude that dithizone, a metal chelator, induced apoptosis without differentiation in APL cells in association with Delta Psi(m) collapse and caspase-3 and -9 activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0145-2126(01)00186-2DOI Listing
July 2002