Publications by authors named "Yulong Yin"

525 Publications

Ellagic acid ameliorates paraquat-induced liver injury associated with improved gut microbial profile.

Environ Pollut 2021 Nov 24;293:118572. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, 410125, Hunan, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100008, China.

Paraquat, a widely used herbicide, causes environmental pollution, and liver injury in humans and animals. As a natural compound in fruits, ellagic acid (EA) shows anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study examines the beneficial effects of dietary EA against the paraquat-induced hepatic injury and further explores the underlying molecular mechanisms using a piglet model. Post-weaning piglets are fed basal diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, or 200 mg/kg EA for 3 weeks. At week 2, hepatic injury is induced by 4 mg/kg paraquat followed by 7 days recovery. EA supplementation significantly mitigates paraquat-induced hepatic fibrosis, steatosis, and high apoptotic rate. In agreement, EA supplementation reduces serum pro-inflammatory levels, ameliorates inflammatory cells infiltration into hepatic tissue, which are associated with suppressed NF-κB signaling during paraquat exposure. In addition, EA supplementation significantly improves activities of antioxidative enzymes which were correlated with activated Nrf2/Keap 1 signaling during paraquat exposure. Furthermore, EA supplementation restores cecal microbial community during paraquat exposure. The protective effect of EA is strongly linked with increased relative abundance of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus amylovorus. Taken together, EA supplementation effectively reduced the occurrence of hepatic oxidative damage and inflammation induced by paraquat through modulating cecal microbial communities, which provides a novel nutritional therapeutic strategy for hepatic injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118572DOI Listing
November 2021

MyD88 deficiency ameliorates weight loss caused by intestinal oxidative injury in an autophagy-dependent mechanism.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Gut health plays a vital role in the overall health and disease control of human and animals. Intestinal oxidative stress is a critical player in the induction and progression of cachexia which is conventionally diagnosed and classified by weight loss. Therefore, reduction of intestinal oxidative injury is a common and highly effective strategy for the maintenance of human and animal health. Here we identify intestinal myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) as a novel target for intestinal oxidative stress using canonical oxidative stress model induced by paraquat (PQ) in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: Intestinal oxidative stress was induced by administration of PQ in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and mouse model. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage, mitochondrial function, oxidative status, and autophagy process were measured in wild-type and MyD88-deficient IECs during PQ exposure. Autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine) and activator (rapamycin) were employed to assess the role of autophagy in MyD88-deficient IECs during PQ exposure. MyD88 specific inhibitor, ST2825, was used to verify function of MyD88 during PQ exposure in mouse model.

Results: MyD88 protein levels and apoptotic rate of IECs are increased in response to PQ exposure (P < 0.001). Intestinal deletion of MyD88 blocks PQ-induced apoptosis (~42% reduction) and DNA damage (~86% reduction), and improves mitochondrial fission (~37% reduction) and function including mitochondrial membrane potential (~23% increment) and respiratory metabolism capacity (~26% increment) (P < 0.01). Notably, there is a marked decrease in reactive oxygen species in MyD88-deficient IECs during PQ exposure (~70% reduction), which are consistent with high activity of antioxidative enzymes (~83% increment) (P < 0.001). Intestinal ablation of MyD88 inhibits mTOR signalling, and further phosphorylates p53 proteins during PQ exposure, which eventually promotes intestinal autophagy (~74% increment) (P < 0.01). Activation of autophagy (rapamycin) promotes IECs growth as compared with 3-methyladenine-treatment during PQ exposure (~173% increment), while inhibition of autophagy (3-methyladenine) exacerbates oxidative stress in MyD88-deficient IECs (P < 0.001). In mouse model, inhibition of MyD88 using specific inhibitor ST2825 followed by PQ treatment effectively ameliorates weight loss (~4% increment), decreased food intake (~92% increment), gastrocnemius and soleus loss (~24% and ~20% increment, respectively), and intestinal oxidative stress in an autophagy dependent manner (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: MyD88 modulates intestinal oxidative stress in an autophagy-dependent mechanism, which suggests that reducing MyD88 level may constitute a putative therapeutic target for intestinal oxidative injury-induced weight loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12858DOI Listing
November 2021

A water-soluble β-glucan improves growth performance by altering gut microbiome and health in weaned pigs.

Anim Nutr 2021 Dec 1;7(4):1345-1351. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, 410125, Hunan, China.

Beta-glucan has been shown to have a beneficial effect on gastrointestinal health. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of β-glucan isolated from sp. on growth performance and intestinal health of weaning pigs. A total of 108 weaned pigs (21 d of age; 6.05 ± 0.36 kg) were randomly divided into 3 groups (6 pens/group; 6 pigs/pen), and the groups were each treated with the following diets: 1) basal diet, 2) basal diet supplemented with 20 mg/kg olaquindox, 3) basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg β-glucan, for 21 d. Compared with the control group, pigs fed with 200 mg/kg β-glucan had greaterBW, average daily gain and duodenal villus height to crypt depth ratio ( < 0.05). Olaquindox increased the duodenal or jejunal villus height of pigs compared with β-glucan. Compared with the control group, β-glucan tended to increase the occludin mRNA expression in the jejunum (0.05 <  < 0.10). Beta-glucan enriched the beneficial microbiota in the ileum of pigs ( < 0.05). In conclusion, β-glucan may promote growth performance by improving intestinal health and increasing beneficial microbiota of weaned pigs. The study results will provide valuable theoretical guidance for the utilization of β-glucan in weaned pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2021.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8571503PMC
December 2021

Long-read assembly of the Chinese indigenous Ningxiang pig genome and identification of genetic variations in fat metabolism among different breeds.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Nov 10. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, PR China.

Advances in long-read sequencing technology and genome assembly provide an opportunity to improve the pig genome and reveal the full range of structural variations (SVs) between local Chinese and European pigs. To date, little is known about the genomes of some unique Chinese indigenous breeds, such as the Ningxiang pig. Here, we report the sequencing and assembly of a highly contiguous Ningxiang pig genome (NX) via an integration of PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing, Illumina next-generation sequencing, BioNano optical mapping and Hi-C (chromosome conformation capture) approaches. The assembled genome comprises 2.44 Gb with a contig N50 of 26.1 Mb and 418 contigs in total. These contigs are organized into 121 scaffolds with a scaffold N50 of 139.0 Mb. More than 99.1% of the assembled sequence could be localized to 19 pseudochromosomes and is annotated with 20,914 protein-coding genes and 34.04% repetitive sequences. Comparisons between the NX and European Duroc assemblies revealed many SVs in genes involved in the immune system, nervous system, lipid metabolism and environmental adaptation. The genetic variants include 47 Chinese domestic pig-specific SVs and the associated 74 genes may contribute to the differences in domestic traits compared to European pigs. Moreover, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from whole genome resequencing data of 73 Chinese pigs, representing 17 geographically isolated breeds, showed their specific genetic variations, population structure and evolutionary patterns. Finally, we explore transcriptional regulation in the first intron of the MYL4 gene, as the genomic SV (281-bp deletion) in Ningxiang pig promotes its subcutaneous fat compared to European pig breeds. This work identifies a set of Asian-specific SVs and SNPs, which will be important resources for modern pig breeding and genetic conservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13550DOI Listing
November 2021

Starch supplementation improves the reproductive performance of sows in different glucose tolerance status.

Anim Nutr 2021 Dec 27;7(4):1231-1241. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Control, National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, Institute of Subtropical Animal Nutrition and Feed, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642, China.

This study was to evaluate the effects of glucose tolerance status, maternal starch supplementation and soybean substitution in diets on the performance of dams and their offspring. Eighty-eight pregnant sows (Landrace × Large White) were selected from an initial total of 120 sows, based on blood glucose test values, and assigned to 4 experimental treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The factors were glucose tolerance status (glucose intolerant [GIT] vs. normal glucose tolerant [NGT]) or dietary treatments (corn starch diet [CS] vs. soybean substitution diet [SS]). A higher area under the curve (AUC) for post-meal glucose was observed ( < 0.05) in the GIT group than in the NGT group on d 109 of gestation. The CS group had a lower value of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance than the SS group ( < 0.05) on d 109 of gestation. Corn starch supplementation for sows decreased the stillbirth rate ( < 0.05), regardless of the sows' glucose tolerance status. The villus height of the jejunum and the villus height to crypt depth ratio of the ileum were greater in normal birth weight piglets from the CS group than from the SS group ( < 0.01), and so was the activity of sucrase in the jejunum and ileum ( < 0.01). Compared with the SS group, the CS group showed a reduction in pre-weaning mortality rate, an increase in the number of high-birth-weight piglets, and a decrease in the number of low-birth-weight piglets ( < 0.05) under GIT status. In conclusion, sows fed CS decreased stillbirth rate and improved insulin resistance, as well as improving the intestinal morphology and digestive enzyme activities of their progeny, regardless of glucose tolerance status. Additionally, the CS group improved birth weight distribution and decreased pre-weaning mortality rate of piglets under GIT status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2021.03.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8556606PMC
December 2021

Dietary high protein-induced diarrhea and intestinal inflammation by activation of NF-κB signaling in piglets.

Anim Nutr 2021 Dec 8;7(4):1070-1077. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Hunan International Joint Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Ecology and Health, Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Human Health, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China.

The present study aimed to investigate whether inflammation-associated responses in piglets are induced by high protein (HP) through activating nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Sixteen piglets (35 d of age, Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire], weaned at d 21, initial BW = 9.70 ± 0.11 kg) were allocated to 18% and 26% CP (HP group) at random, comprising 8 replicate pens per treatment. The piglets were slaughtered to collect intestinal tissues when apparent, persistent, and stable diarrhea syndromes happened (on d 12). No significant differences were observed in their growth performance ( > 0.05), but reduction by 19.11%, 25.31%, 23.64% of ADFI, ADG, and G:F, respectively was detected in the HP group. The HP group had greater ( = 0.002) diarrhea rates. Furthermore, dietary HP had lower ileal villus height (VH;  = 0.048), ratio of villus height to crypt depth (VH/CD ratio;  = 0.016), and colonic CD ( = 0.034), as well as had the trend ( = 0.075) to reduce the ileal villus absorptive area. Moreover, HP diets significantly elevated the goblet cell numbers in the ileal villi ( = 0.016) and colonic crypts ( < 0.001) and up-regulated ( = 0.012) the mRNA expression of mucin2 () in the ileum. In addition, HP diets increased the myeloperoxidase concentration in the ileum ( = 0.002) and colon ( = 0.007) of piglets. Dietary HP significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (;  < 0.001) in the ileum, induced nitric oxide synthase (;  = 0.040) and interleukin-22 (;  = 0.008) in the colon, and inclined to down-regulate interleukin-1β (;  = 0.076) expression in the colon. The relative protein abundance of Galectin-3 ( = 0.046) in the colon and the ratio of phosphorylation NF-κB to NF-κB (p-NF-κB/NF-κB ratio) in the ileum of HP piglets were also greater ( = 0.038). These results suggest that dietary HP may cause diarrhea in piglets by activating NF-κB signaling induced intestinal inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2021.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8546374PMC
December 2021

4-Phenylbutyric acid accelerates rehabilitation of barrier function in IPEC-J2 cell monolayer model.

Anim Nutr 2021 Dec 3;7(4):1061-1069. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Animal Nutritional Genome and Germplasm Innovation Research Center, College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan 410128, China.

As the first line of defence against pathogens and endotoxins crossing the intestine-blood barrier, the intestinal epithelial barrier plays a determinant role in pigs' health and growth. 4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), an aromatic fatty acid, was reported to benefit homeostasis of endoplasmic reticulum and protein synthesis. However, whether 4-PBA affects intestinal epithelial barrier function in pigs is unknown. This study aimed to explore the effects of 4-PBA on the intestinal barrier function, using in vitro models of well-differentiated intestinal porcine epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) monolayers in the transwell plates. Cell monolayers with or without 4-PBA (1.0 mmol/L) treatment were challenged with physical scratch, deoxynivalenol (DON, 2.0 μg/mL, 48 h), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5.0 μg/mL, 48 h), respectively. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD-4) permeability were measured to indicate barrier integrity and permeability. Real-time PCR and Western blot were conducted to determine relative gene and protein expressions of tight junction proteins. As expected, physical scratch, DON, and LPS challenges decreased TEER and increased FD-4 permeability. 4-PBA treatment accelerated cell mitigation and rehabilitation of the physical scratch-damaged intestinal epithelial barrier but did not alleviate DON or LPS induced barrier damage. However, once 48-h DON and LPS challenges were removed, rehabilitation of the epithelial barrier function of IPEC-J2 monolayer was accelerated by the 4-PBA treatment. Also, the relative gene and protein expressions of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and claudin-1 were further upregulated by the 4-PBA treatment during the barrier rehabilitation. Taken together, 4-PBA accelerated the IPEC-J2 cell monolayer barrier recovering from physical scratch, DON-, and LPS-induced damage, via enhancing cell mitigation and expressions of tight junction proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2021.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8546315PMC
December 2021

Effects of dietary tributyrin and physterol ester supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology, microbiota and metabolites in weaned piglets.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 Oct 27. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Hunan Co-Innovation of Animal Production Safety, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary tributyrin (TB) and physterol ester (PSE) supplementation on the growth performance and intestinal health of weaned piglets.

Methods And Results: Ninety-six piglets were randomly allocated to one of four groups, including a control group (basal diet), TB group (basal diet + 1500 g t  TB), PSE group (basal diet + 300 g t PSE) and TB + PSE group (basal diet + 1500 g t  TB + 300 g t PSE). All groups had eight replicates with three piglets per replicate. The experiment lasted for 28 days. The results showed that dietary TB supplementation increased (p < 0.05) average daily feed intake and average daily gain, as well as the acetate and butyrate concentration in ileum, and dietary PSE supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) the ratio of feed to gain (F/G) on days 1-14 of the trial. Dietary TB or PSE alone supplementation improved the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (VH/CD) and the expression level of Occludin in ileum. The linear discriminant analysis effect size analysis identified eight biomarkers in the control group, 18 in the TB + PSE group, two in the PSE group in ileum respectively. Correlation analysis showed that the relative abundances of Enterococcus, and Streptococcus were positively correlated (p < 0.05) with propionate concentration, while the relative abundance of Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 was negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with acetate concentration in ileum.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that dietary TB or PSE alone supplementation could alter the growth performance, intestinal morphology, microbiota community and metabolites of weaned piglets.

Significance And Impact Of The Study: Weaning stress is a major cause of slow growth and increased diarrhoea in piglets. This study demonstrated that dietary TB and PSE presented a beneficial role in growth performance and gut health via regulating intestinal morphology, microbiota composition and metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jam.15321DOI Listing
October 2021

Plant Extracts in Obesity: A Role of Gut Microbiota.

Front Nutr 2021 23;8:727951. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Regulation, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Obesity has become one of the most serious chronic diseases threatening human health. Its occurrence and development are closely associated with gut microbiota since the disorders of gut microbiota can promote endotoxin production and induce inflammatory response. Recently, numerous plant extracts have been proven to mitigate lipid dysmetabolism and obesity syndrome by regulating the abundance and composition of gut microbiota. In this review, we summarize the potential roles of different plant extracts including mulberry leaf extract, policosanol, cortex moutan, green tea, honokiol, and capsaicin in regulating obesity via gut microbiota. Based on the current findings, plant extracts may be promising agents for the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related metabolic diseases, and the mechanisms might be associated with gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.727951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495072PMC
September 2021

The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Balance in Pregnancy.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 27;2021:9962860. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128 Hunan, China.

It has been widely known that oxidative stress disrupts the balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant system in the body. During pregnancy, the physiological generation of ROS is involved in a variety of developmental processes ranging from oocyte maturation to luteolysis and embryo implantation. While abnormal overproduction of ROS disrupts these processes resulting in reproductive failure. In addition, excessive oxidative stress impairs maternal and placental functions and eventually results in fetal loss, IUGR, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Although some oxidative stress is inevitable during pregnancy, a balancing act between oxidant and antioxidant production is necessary at different stages of the pregnancy. The review aims to highlight the importance of maintaining oxidative and antioxidant balance throughout pregnancy. Furthermore, we highlight the role of oxidative stress in pregnancy-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9962860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8490076PMC
September 2021

Probiotics and Polysaccharides Improve Growth Performance via Promoting Intestinal Nutrient Utilization and Enhancing Immune Function of Weaned Pigs.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Sep 7;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, Hunan Research Center of Livestock and Poultry Sciences, South Central Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in the Ministry of Agriculture, National Engineering Laboratory for Poultry Breeding Pollution Control and Resource Technology, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China.

The experiment aimed to investigate the effects of probiotics and polysaccharides on the growth performance, nutrients digestibility, and immune function of weaned pigs. One hundred and twenty weaned pigs (about 7 kg BW, 23 ± 2 d) were allotted to five dietary treatments (CON: antibiotics-free basal diet; ANT: CON + antibiotics; PRO: CON + probiotics; ABPS: CON + polysaccharides; P-ABPS: PRO + ABPS) for a 28-day trial. Compared with CON, pigs in ANT, PRO, ABPS, and P-ABPS had greater ( < 0.05) ADG, ATTD of CP and GE, serum ALB, IgA and IL-2, duodenal intraepithelial lymphocyte, ileal VH and jejunal mucosa sIgA, but lower ( < 0.05) fecal scores, serum BUN, and IL-1β. Meanwhile, ANT, PRO, ABPS, and P-ABPS exhibited similar beneficial roles on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, serum parameters, and immune function. Interestingly, P-ABPS effects were similar to those obtained with ANT rather than with PRO or ABPS. In conclusion, Dietary PRO or ABPS used alone or in combination (P-ABPS), the combination augmenting the positive effect more than the independent supplement, could improve piglets' growth performance via promoting intestinal nutrient digestion and absorption and enhancing immune function, indicating it had the potential to act as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics used in piglet diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11092617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8467685PMC
September 2021

Dietary Copper Improves Intestinal Morphology via Modulating Intestinal Stem Cell Activity in Pigs.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Aug 26;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Human Health, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Function and Regulation, Hunan International Joint Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Ecology and Health, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China.

Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for animals. Many studies have been conducted on the effects of dietary Cu on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and function of piglets. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be explored. Intestinal stem cells (ISC) drive the development and constant renewal of intestinal epithelium. Therefore, we hypothesized that dietary Cu affects piglets' intestinal development via modulating ISC activity. A total of eighty-five 21-day-old piglets were randomly assigned to five groups, where 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 mg CuSO/kg on a dry matter basis were supplemented to the basal diet at phase 1 (day 0 to 21). Increasing the dietary Cu concentration decreased ( < 0.05) villus width but increased ( < 0.001) the number of Ki67-positive cells. At phase 2 (day 22 to 163), the other 45 pigs were offered the same diets. Villus height in the 125 mg/kg Cu group was greater ( < 0.001) than in the other groups. Moreover, the effects of Cu on ISC activity in vitro were tested to explore the underlying mechanism. Compared to the control group, 10 μmol/L CuSO·5HO increased ( < 0.001) the organoid budding efficiency, crypt depth, and crypts per organoid. Dietary Cu improved the intestinal morphology of finishing pigs via promoting cell proliferation and modulating ISC activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11092513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8471658PMC
August 2021

A steady-state N balance approach for sustainable smallholder farming.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 09;118(39)

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Hundreds of millions of smallholders in emerging countries substantially overuse nitrogen (N) fertilizers, driving local environmental pollution and global climate change. Despite local demonstration-scale successes, widespread mobilization of smallholders to adopt precise N management practices remains a challenge, largely due to associated high costs and complicated sampling and calculations. Here, we propose a long-term steady-state N balance (SSNB) approach without these complications that is suitable for sustainable smallholder farming. The hypothesis underpinning the concept of SSNB is that an intensively cultivated soil-crop system with excessive N inputs and high N losses can be transformed into a steady-state system with minimal losses while maintaining high yields. Based on SSNB, we estimate the optimized N application range across 3,824 crop counties for the three staple crops in China. We evaluated SSNB first in ca. 18,000 researcher-managed on-farm trials followed by testing in on-farm trials with 13,760 smallholders who applied SSNB-optimized N rates under the guidance of local extension staff. Results showed that SSNB could significantly reduce N fertilizer use by 21 to 28% while maintaining or increasing yields by 6 to 7%, compared to current smallholder practices. The SSNB approach could become an effective tool contributing to the global N sustainability of smallholder agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2106576118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488683PMC
September 2021

Resveratrol Improves Growth Performance, Intestinal Morphology, and Microbiota Composition and Metabolism in Mice.

Front Microbiol 2021 3;12:726878. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Function and Regulation, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.

Background: Resveratrol (RSV) plays a vital role in alleviating various stresses and improving intestinal health. The current study was conducted to explore whether RSV alleviates weaning stress through improving gut health in a weaning mouse model. Forty 21-day-old weaned mice were randomly assigned to a control group without RSV treatment and three treatment groups with 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg RSV for 28 days.

Results: The results showed that RSV at a dose of 20 mg/kg improved total body weight, intestinal morphology (villus length and the ratio of villus length to crypt depth), and the levels of intestinal barrier proteins (claudin-1 and occludin), but had little effect on the food intake, crypt depth, and serum free amino acids of mice. Compared with the control group, mice supplemented with RSV had decreased mRNA expression of genes related to inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1β), but increased mRNA expression of genes related to host defense peptides (Defa3, Defa5, Defa20, and Lyz) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production (propionic acid, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid). In addition, 16S rRNA sequencing results showed that RSV supplementation increased the richness indices of intestinal microbiota (Chao, ACE) and shaped the composition of intestinal microbiota (e.g., increased β-diversity of intestinal microbiota community). Meanwhile, RSV supplementation increased genes of , , and , which are producers of SCFAs. Furthermore, RSV supplementation significantly influenced the metabolism of intestinal microbiota, namely, amino acids metabolism, lipid metabolism, and defense mechanisms.

Conclusion: RSV can improve growth performance and intestinal morphology in weaning mice, possibly through improving gut immune response and microbiota function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.726878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446547PMC
September 2021

The Role of Polyphenols in Regulation of Heat Shock Proteins and Gut Microbiota in Weaning Stress.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 6;2021:6676444. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, 410125 Hunan, China.

Gut microbiota is the natural residents of the intestinal ecosystem which display multiple functions that provide beneficial effects on host physiology. Disturbances in gut microbiota in weaning stress are regulated by the immune system and oxidative stress-related protein pathways. Weaning stress also alters gut microbiota response, limits digestibility, and influences animal productive performance through the production of inflammatory molecules. Heat shock proteins are the molecular chaperones that perform array functions from physiological to pathological point of view and remodeling cellular stress response. As it is involved in the defense mechanism, polyphenols ensure cellular tolerance against enormous stimuli. Polyphenols are nature-blessed compounds that show their existence in plenty of amounts. Due to their wider availability and popularity, they can exert strong immunomodulatory, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. Their promising health-promoting effects have been demonstrated in different cellular and animal studies. Dietary interventions with polyphenols may alter the gut microbiome response and attenuate the weaning stress related to inflammation. Further, polyphenols elicit health-favored effects through ameliorating inflammatory processes to improve digestibility and thereby exert a protective effect on animal production. Here, in this article, we will expand the role of dietary polyphenol intervention strategies in weaning stress which perturbs gut microbiota function and also paid emphasis to heat shock proteins in gut health. This review article gives new direction to the feed industry to formulate diet containing polyphenols which would have a significant impact on animal health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6676444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440081PMC
September 2021

Supplementation With Polysaccharides Reduce Obesity in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice by Modulation of Gut Microbiota.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:719967. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Animal Nutritional Genome and Germplasm Innovation Research Center, College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China.

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have been proved to prevent obesity and modulate gut microbiota. However, the underlying mechanisms of LBPs' regulating lipid metabolism remain entirely unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether LBPs are able to modulate the gut microbiota to prevent obesity. The results showed that oral administration of LBPs alleviated dyslipidemia by decreasing the serum levels of total triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and elevating the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese mice. Furthermore, LBP treatment decreased the number and size of adipocytes in epididymal adipose tissues and downregulated the expression of adipogenesis-related genes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed that LBPs increased the diversity of bacteria, reduced the / ratio, and improved the gut dysbiosis induced by a high-fat diet; for example, LBPs increased the production of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria , , and . LBPs treatment also increased the content of fecal short-chain fatty acids, including butyric acid. These findings illustrate that LBPs might be developed as a potential prebiotic to improve lipid metabolism and intestinal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.719967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427603PMC
August 2021

Eugenol Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis Independent of Intestinal Microbiota in Mice.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Sep 3;69(36):10506-10514. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China.

The present study investigated the effect of eugenol (EUG) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and explored the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were intragastrically administered normal saline or EUG (20 mg/kg body weight) for 17 days, and colitis was induced by using 3% DSS from day 7. The results showed that EUG increased the body weight and reduced the disease activity index score and colon pathological scores in DSS-treated mice ( < 0.05). Further, EUG preserved the proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, -12, -21, and -23), lowered ( < 0.05) colonic malondialdehyde (MDA), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) expression and p65 phosphorylation, and activated ( < 0.05) colonic kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 expressions but did not affect the intestinal microbiota in DSS-treated mice. Furthermore, EUG ameliorated colitis in antibiotic-treated mice, while fecal microbiota transplantation from EUG preadministered mice failed to ameliorate colitis. In conclusion, EUG could alleviate colitis by attenuating colonic inflammation and oxidative stress independent of intestinal microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c00917DOI Listing
September 2021

Evaluation of variation in background nitrous oxide emissions: A new global synthesis integrating the impacts of climate, soil, and management conditions.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Center for Resources, Environment and Food Security, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Robust global simulation of soil background N O emissions (BNEs) is a challenge due to the lack of a comprehensive system for quantification of the variations in their magnitude and location. We mapped global BNEs based on 1353 field observations from globally distributed sites and high-resolution climate and soil data. We then calculated global and national total BNE budgets and compared them to the IPCC-estimated values. The average BNE was 1.10, 0.92, and 0.84 kg N ha  year with variations from 0.18 to 3.47 (5th-95th percentile, hereafter), 0.20 to 3.44, and -1.16 to 3.70 kg N ha  year for cropland, forestland, and grassland, respectively. Soil pH, soil N mineralization, atmospheric N deposition, soil volumetric water content, and soil temperature were the principle significant drivers of BNEs. The total BNEs of three land use types was lower than IPCC-estimated total BNEs by 0.83 Tg (10  g) N year , ranging from -47% to 94% across countries. The estimated BNE with cropland values were slightly higher than the IPCC estimates by 0.11 Tg N year , and forestland and grassland lower than the IPCC estimates by 0.4 and 0.54 Tg N year , respectively. Our study underlined the necessity for detailed estimation of the spatial distribution of BNEs to improve the estimates of global N O emissions and enable the establishment of more realistic and effective mitigation measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15860DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of iron, vitamin A, and the interaction between the two nutrients on intestinal development and cell differentiation in piglets.

J Anim Sci 2021 Oct;99(10)

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Function and Regulation, Hunan International Joint Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Ecology and Health, Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Human Health, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081, China.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of iron, vitamin A (VA) and their interaction on intestinal development and differentiation of cells in suckling piglets. Therefore, 32 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire 0-d-old newborn boars with similar body weights were randomly divided into four groups, with eight replicates in each group and one pig in each replicate. All the piglets were breastfed. In addition, the piglets were given normal saline (CON group) or ferrous sulfate (OAFe group) or VA (VA group) or ferrous sulfate and VA (OAFe + VA group) on the 2nd, 7th, 12th, and 17th day, respectively. The piglets were then slaughtered on the 21st day, and intestinal samples were collected. The results showed that: 1) iron (P < 0.001) significantly increased the length, weight, relative weight, and the length to weight ratio of the small intestine. On the other hand, VA had a significant effect on the weight to length ratio (P = 0.015) and relative weight (P < 0.001) of the small intestine; 2) with regard to intestinal morphology, supplementation with iron (P <0.05) had obvious effects on the villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD), villus width (VW), and surface area. Additionally, both VA and interaction of VA and iron increased the VH (P < 0.05) and surface area (P = 0.001). The results also showed that iron (P < 0.01) increased the number of crypt goblet cells, Ki67-positive cells, and endocrine cells. Moreover, both VA and the interaction between VA and iron increased the number of endocrine cells in the villi (P = 0.05); 3) With regard to the mRNA expression levels of stem cell differentiation marker genes, iron (P < 0.05) decreased the expression of trophinin 2 (Trop2), leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 positive (Lgr5+), male-specific lethal 1(Msl1), BMI 1 proto-oncogene, polycomb ring finger (Bmi1), and achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 2 (Ascl2). On the other hand, VA increased the expression of Ascl2 (P = 0.001) although the interaction of VA and iron (P < 0.05) had an effect on the expression of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1) and Bmi1. In addition, VA decreased the gene or mRNA expression of aconitase 1 (Aco1; P < 0.001), transferrin receptor (TFRC; P = 0.001), and solute carrier family 11 member 2 (DMT1; P = 0.003) in the Iron Reactive Element/Iron Regulatory Protein (IRE/IRP) signaling pathway although iron and the interaction of VA and iron had no effect on the genes' expression. The results therefore showed that VA, iron, and their interaction can promote intestinal development and epithelial cell differentiation in piglets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8557844PMC
October 2021

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Physiological Stage, Breed, and Diet Effects on the Intramuscular Metabolism of Amino Acids and Related Nutrients in Pigs.

Front Vet Sci 2021 10;8:681192. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, China.

Skeletal muscle is a complex tissue that exhibits considerable plasticity in response to nutrients, animal, or its growth stage, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of physiological stage, breed, and diet on the metabolome of the skeletal muscle of pigs. Ninety-six barrows, including 48 purebred Bama mini-pigs, representing the fat type, and 48 Landrace pigs, representing the lean type, were randomly assigned to either a low- or adequate-protein diet ( = 24 per group). The experimental period commenced at 5 weeks of age and extended to the finishing period. muscles (PMMs) were collected at the nursery, growing, and finishing stages; and the contents of amino acids (AAs), fatty acids (FAs), and metabolites were analyzed using a nuclear magnetic resonance-based approach. Results showed that most AAs and monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs; including C16:1 and C18:1) contents were increased ( < 0.05) gradually, while those of polyunsaturated FAs (including C18:2, C20:4-6, C20:5-3, and C22:6-3) were decreased ( < 0.05) in the PMM with increasing age. Compared with Landrace pigs, Bama mini-pigs had higher ( < 0.05) contents of flavor-related AAs (including methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, and serine) in the nursery and growing stages and higher ( < 0.05) percentages of saturated FAs and MUFAs throughout the trial. Dietary protein levels affected the muscular profiles of AAs and FAs in an age-dependent manner. In addition, the adequate-protein diet increased ( < 0.05) the muscular contents of α-ketoglutarate in the two breeds. These findings indicate that the dynamic profiles of AAs, FAs, and metabolites in pig muscle tissues are regulated by breed, diet, and physiological stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.681192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382954PMC
August 2021

Dietary Tributyrin Administration Improves Intestinal Morphology and Selected Bacterial and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Profiles in Broilers Under an Isocaloric Feeding Regime.

Front Microbiol 2021 4;12:715712. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, China.

The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary tributyrin (TB) administration on the intestinal and growth performances in Arbor Acres (AA) broilers under an isocaloric feeding regime. A total of 540 day-old healthy AA broilers were randomly assigned to five treatments with 12 replicates (pens) per treatment and nine birds per pen for 42 days. The dietary treatments were basal diet (control) and basal diet with TB at doses of 0.23 g/kg (TB1), 0.46 g/kg (TB2), 0.92 g/kg (TB3), and 1.84 g/kg (TB4). Particularly, to achieve the isocaloric and cost-saving experimental diets, soybean oil was replaced by the TB product (Eucalorie) with equivalent metabolic energy contents, and the formulas were rebalanced with zeolite to get the sum of all the feed ingredients to 100%. On days 21 and 42, after weighing, the birds (one bird per replicate) whose body weight was close to the replicate average were euthanized to investigate the effect of dietary TB on intestinal morphology, intestinal bacterial population, and short-chain fatty acid contents. The results revealed that dietary TB administration increased the average daily gain, gain/feed ratio, and European broiler index ( < 0.05) and improved the intestinal morphology ( < 0.05) as indicated by higher villus height and the ratios of villus height/crypt depth in broilers. The incremental levels of TB increased the ileal content ( = 0.05) and cecal content ( = 0.02), respectively. Moreover, dietary TB administration also increased the contents of most of the selected short-chain fatty acids in ileal and cecal digesta ( < 0.05). Collectively, dietary TB administration quadratically improved the growth performance, intestinal morphology, beneficial bacterial population, and short-chain fatty acid levels under the isocaloric feeding regime, indicating better profit return potential in practical poultry operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.715712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371336PMC
August 2021

Effects of dietary rosemary extract supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology, and microbiota of weaning pigs.

J Anim Sci 2021 Sep;99(9)

Animal Nutritional Genome and Germplasm Innovation Research Center, College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan 410128, PR China.

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract (RE) has multiple pharmacological and biological activities, including the use as a food additive and medicine. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary RE supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology, and microbiota of weaning piglets. A total of 192 crossbred weaned piglets [Duroc × (Large White × Landrace)] (initial body weight = 6.65 ± 0.33 kg, weaned days = 23 ± 1 d) were group housed (six pigs per pen; n = 8 pens/treatment). Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based control diet or the basal diet supplemented with 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg RE. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to fed for 21 d. The growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients, and intestinal morphology and antioxidant status were evaluated. The components of the microbial microflora were also determined in the cecal samples. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with RE increased the final body weight, average daily gain, and average daily feed intake (linear, P = 0.038, 0.016, and 0.009, respectively), and decreased the diarrhea ratio in piglets (linear, P < 0.05). The digestibility of crude protein (linear, P = 0.034) and gross energy (linear, P = 0.046) increased with treatment with RE. Piglets fed RE showed longer villus height (linear, P = 0.037 and 0.028, respectively) and villus height/crypt depth (linear, P = 0.004 and 0.012; quadratic, P = 0.023 and 0.036, respectively) in the jejunum and ileum, in addition to a lesser crypt depth in the jejunum (linear, P = 0.019) and ileum (quadratic, P = 0.042). The addition of RE increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (linear, P = 0.035 and 0.008, respectively) and glutathione peroxidase activity (linear, P = 0.027 and 0.039, respectively) and decreased the content of malondialdehyde (linear, P = 0.041 and 0.013; quadratic, P = 0.023 and 0.005, respectively) in the serum and liver. Dietary RE supplementation, compared with the control, increased the number of Bifidobacterium (linear, P = 0.034) and Bacteroidetes (linear, P = 0.029), while decreased Escherichia coli (linear, P = 0.008; quadratic, P = 0.014) in the cecal contents. Thus, dietary RE supplementation can improve growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology, and the microbiota in weaned piglets, and 200 mg/kg may be considered the optimum dosage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8420665PMC
September 2021

Effect of Dietary Amylose/Amylopectin Ratio on Intestinal Health and Cecal Microbes' Profiles of Weaned Pigs Undergoing Feed Transition or Challenged With Lipopolysaccharide.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:693839. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Hunan International Joint Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Ecology and Health, Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Hunan Health, College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.

Background: Dietary amylose/amylopectin ratio (DAR) plays an important role in piglets' intestinal health. It is controversial whether diarrhea could be relieved by changing DAR in weaning piglets.

Methods: Sixty (Landrace × Yorkshire) castrated male pigs (initial body weight (BW) 6.51 ± 0.64 kg) were randomly allocated to five groups (one pig per cage and 12 replicates per group) according to their BW. Piglets received diets with different DARs (0.00, 0.20, 0.40, 0.60, and 0.80) for 29 days. Feed transition occurs at day 15. The piglets were challenged with lipopolysaccharides ( LPS, 100 μg/kg BW) on day 29 by intraperitoneal injection at 12 h before slaughter. Chyme was collected for pH value, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), and cecal microbe analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing; mucosa was sampled for detecting gene expression.

Results: Rate and degree of diarrhea were higher when DAR was 0.40 than when it was 0.20 and 0.80 during the third week ( < 0.05). The chyme pH value in the cecum was higher ( < 0.05) in 0.20 DAR than in 0.00 and 0.80 DARs, but with no significant difference compared with 0.40 and 0.60 DARs ( > 0.05). Cecal isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid concentrations were higher in 0.20 than in other groups ( < 0.01). Cecal SCFAs such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and total SCFA, concentrations were higher in 0.40 DAR than in 0.00, 0.60, and 0.80 DARs ( < 0.05), but with no significant difference when compared with 0.20 ( > 0.05). Cecal crypt depth was lower ( < 0.05) in 0.80 than in other groups, but not 0.40. Claudin mRNA expression in the mucosa of the ileum was higher in 0.20 than in other groups ( < 0.01). The alpha diversity of cecal microbe representative by goods coverage was higher in group 0.40 when compared with group 0.20 ( < 0.05). At the genus level, the abundances of the and were higher but that of was lower in the cecal chyme of group 0.20 than that of group 0.60 ( < 0.05), with no significant difference compared with other groups ( > 0.05). The diarrhea rate during the third week was negatively correlated with the abundances of and ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Compared with diet high in amylose or amylopectin, diet with DAR 0.40 showed a worse degree of diarrhea in weaned piglets during feed transition. But the intestinal health will be improved the week after the microbes and metabolites are regulated by DAR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.693839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329381PMC
July 2021

Dynamic Changes of Metabolite Profiles in Maternal Biofluids During Gestation Period in Huanjiang Mini-Pigs.

Front Vet Sci 2021 6;8:636943. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, China.

The biochemical parameters related to nitrogenous metabolism in maternal biofluids may be linked and even reflect the fetal metabolism and growth. The present study have measured the concentrations of various parameters related to amino acid (AA) and lipid metabolism, as well as different metabolites including the free AAs in maternal plasma and amniotic and allantoic fluid corresponding to fetuses with different body weight (BW) during different gestation periods, in order to identify the possible relationships between biochemical parameters and fetal growth. A total of 24 primiparous Huanjiang mini-pigs were fed with a standard diet. Data showed that, from day 45 to day 110 of gestation, the maternal plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin (ALB), Ile, Orn, Car, α-ABA, and β-AiBA increased ( < 0.05); while the levels of ammonia (AMM), choline esterase (CHE), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), Leu, Glu, Cys, Asp, and Hypro decreased ( < 0.05). From day 45 to 110 of gestation, the amniotic fluid levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), CHE, total protein (TP), and urea nitrogen (UN) increased ( < 0.05), as well as the level of CHE and TP and concentration of Pro in allantoic fluid; while the amniotic fluid concentrations of Arg, Glu, Orn, Pro, and Tau decreased ( < 0.05), as well as allantoic fluid concentrations of Arg and Glu. At day 45 of gestation, the amniotic fluid concentrations of Arg, Orn, and Tau corresponding to the highest BW (HBW) fetuses were higher ( < 0.05), whereas the allantoic fluid concentrations of His and Pro were lower ( < 0.05) when compared with the lowest BW (LBW) fetuses. At day 110 of gestation, the amniotic fluid concentration of Tau corresponding to the HBW fetuses was higher ( < 0.05) than the LBW fetuses. These findings show that the sows display increased protein utilization and decreased lipid metabolism and deposition from day 75 to 110 of gestation. In addition, our data are indicative of a likely stronger ability of HBW fetuses to metabolize protein; and finally of a possible key role of Arg, Gln, Glu, Pro, Tau, and His for the fetal growth and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.636943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290061PMC
July 2021

From gut microbiota to host appetite: gut microbiota-derived metabolites as key regulators.

Microbiome 2021 07 20;9(1):162. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, China.

Feelings of hunger and satiety are the key determinants for maintaining the life of humans and animals. Disturbed appetite control may disrupt the metabolic health of the host and cause various metabolic disorders. A variety of factors have been implicated in appetite control, including gut microbiota, which develop the intricate interactions to manipulate the metabolic requirements and hedonic feelings. Gut microbial metabolites and components act as appetite-related signaling molecules to regulate appetite-related hormone secretion and the immune system, or act directly on hypothalamic neurons. Herein, we summarize the effects of gut microbiota on host appetite and consider the potential molecular mechanisms. Furthermore, we propose that the manipulation of gut microbiota represents a clinical therapeutic potential for lessening the development and consequence of appetite-related disorders. Video abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-021-01093-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293578PMC
July 2021

Effect of dietary histamine on intestinal morphology, inflammatory status, and gut microbiota in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Oct 17;117:95-103. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Open Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510070, China; Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangdong, 510282, China; College of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China. Electronic address:

The toxic effect of dietary histamine on the intestine of aquatic animals has been demonstrated, but reports on the morphological observation of the intestine are limited. Thus, a feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary histamine on intestinal histology, inflammatory status and gut microbiota of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Here, we showed that histamine-rich diets caused severe abnormality and damage to the intestine, including a decreased villi length and reduced villi number. In addition, the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrates that histamine-rich diets increased the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Tnfα, Il1β, and Il8) and decreased the expression of an anti-inflammatory gene (Il10). Furthermore, the alpha-diversity (observed OTUs, Chao1, Shannon and Simpson) and beta-diversity (non-metric multidimensional scaling, with the stress value of 0.17) demonstrated that histamine-rich diets caused alterations in gut microbiota composition and diversity. Co-occurrence networks analysis of the gut microbiota community showed that the histamine influenced the number and the relationship between bacteria species in the phyla of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, which caused the instability of the intestinal microbiota community. Additionally, random forest selected six bacterial species as the biomarkers to separate the three groups, which are Lachnospiraceae Blautia (V520), Bacteroidales S24.7 (V235), Chloroplast Streptophyta (V368), Actinomycetales Streptomycetaceae (V152), Clostridia Clostridiales (V491) and Paraprevotellaceae Prevotella (V245). Finally, Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated that V520, V235, and V491 were negatively correlated with pro-inflammatory factors (Tnfα, Il1β, and Il8) and positively correlated with an anti-inflammatory factor (Il10), which indicated that V520, V235, and V491 might be anti-inflammatory. These findings improved our understanding of the toxic effect of dietary histamine to intestinal histological damage, the induction of mucosa inflammatory status, and the alteration of gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2021.07.017DOI Listing
October 2021

Mulberry leaf powder regulates antioxidative capacity and lipid metabolism in finishing pigs.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 18;7(2):421-429. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center of Healthy Livestock and Poultry, and Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, 410125, China.

This study evaluated the potential of mulberry leaf powder as an unconventional feed material for finishing pigs by assessing the growth performance, antioxidative properties, fatty acid profile, and lipid metabolism in 180 Xiangcun black pigs. Pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of 71.64 ± 1.46 kg were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups, including the control diet and 4 experimental diets. The corn, soybean meal, and wheat bran in the control diet were partly replaced by 3%, 6%, 9%, or 12% mulberry leaf powder in experimental diets. There were 6 replicates (pens) of 6 pigs per replicate in each treatment. Blood and muscle samples were collected after the 50-day feed experiment. Compared with the control group, the 3%, 6%, and 9% mulberry diets had no adverse effect ( > 0.05) on the growth performance of pigs. The serum glutathione peroxidase activity and glutathione concentration increased linearly ( < 0.05) with the increase in dietary mulberry inclusion. There was no significant difference in the relative expression levels of antioxidant-related genes in muscle tissue between the control and mulberry groups. Inclusion of dietary mulberry powder increased ( < 0.05) the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, up-regulated ( < 0.05) the relative mRNA expression level of uncoupling protein-3 in muscle tissue, but down-regulated ( < 0.05) the relative mRNA expression levels of hormone-sensitive lipase, acetyl CoA carboxylase α, lipoprotein lipase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in LD in a linear pattern. The nuclear respiratory factor 2 expression level in the LD muscle of pigs fed the 9% mulberry diet was higher ( < 0.01) than that in the other mulberry groups and control group. The inclusion of less than 12% dietary mulberry did not detrimentally affect the growth performance of Xiangcun black pigs, but enhanced the serum antioxidant property, increased the polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and inhibited lipid oxidation by regulating gene expression levels of lipid metabolism and mitochondrial uncoupling protein in muscle tissue. Mulberry leaves can be utilized as a forage crop in the diet of finishing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245823PMC
June 2021

Low-protein diets supplemented with glutamic acid or aspartic acid ameliorate intestinal damage in weaned piglets challenged with hydrogen peroxide.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 10;7(2):356-364. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agriculture University; Hunan Co-Innovation Center of Animal Production Safety, Changsha, 410128, China.

Glutamic acid (Glu) and aspartic acid (Asp) are acidic amino acids with regulatory roles in nutrition, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-protein diets supplemented with Glu and Asp on the intestinal barrier function and energy metabolism in weaned piglets challenged with hydrogen peroxide (HO). Forty piglets were randomly divided into 5 groups: NC, PC, PGA, PG, and PA ( = 8 for each group). Pigs in the NC and PC groups were fed a low-protein diet, while pigs in the PGA, PG, or PA groups were fed the low-protein diet supplemented with 2.0% Glu +1.0% Asp, 2.0% Glu, or 1.0% Asp, respectively. On day 8 and 11, pigs in the NC group were intraperitoneally injected with saline (1 mL/kg BW), while pigs in the other groups were intraperitoneally administered 10% HO (1 mL/kg BW). On day 14, all pigs were sacrificed to collect jejunum and ileum following the blood sample collection in the morning. Notably, low-protein diets supplemented with Glu or Asp ameliorated the intestinal oxidative stress response in HO-challenged piglets by decreasing intestinal expression of genes ( < 0.05) (e.g., manganese superoxide dismutase [], glutathione peroxidase [], and ) encoding oxidative stress-associated proteins, reducing the serum concentration of diamine oxidase ( < 0.05), and inhibiting apoptosis of the intestinal epithelium. Glu and Asp supplementation attenuated the upregulated expression of energy metabolism-associated genes (such as hexokinase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) and the HO-induced activation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in the jejunum and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-acetyl-ACC signaling in the ileum. Dietary Glu and Asp also ameliorated intestinal barrier damage as indicated by restored intestinal histology and morphology. In conclusion, low-protein diets supplemented with Glu and Asp protected against oxidative stress-induced intestinal dysfunction in piglets, suggesting that this approach could be used as a nutritional regulatory protectant against oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245806PMC
June 2021

Dietary Improves Serum Antioxidant Capacity and Intestinal Immunity and Alters Colonic Microbiota in Weaned Piglets.

Front Nutr 2021 17;8:679129. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources/Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

(MCR), as a common traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used as an antipyretic, antiseptic, and anti-inflammatory agent in China. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary MCR supplementation on the antioxidant capacity and intestinal health of the pigs and to explore whether MCR exerts positive effects on intestinal health regulating nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway and intestinal microbiota. MCR powder was identified by LC-MS analysis. Selected 32 weaned piglets (21 d of age, 6.37 ± 0.10 kg average BW) were assigned (8 pens/diet, 1 pig/pen) to 4 groups and fed with a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with 0, 2,000, 4,000, and 8,000 mg/kg MCR for 21 d. After the piglets were sacrificed, antioxidant indices, histomorphology examination, and inflammatory signaling pathway expression were assessed. The 16s RNA sequencing was used to analyze the effects of MCR on the intestinal microbiota structure of piglets. Supplemental 4,000 mg/kg MCR significantly increased ( < 0.05) the average daily weight gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), total antioxidative capability, colonic short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentrations, and the crypt depth in the jejunum but decreased ( < 0.05) the mRNA expression levels of interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, inhibiting kappa-B kinase β (IKKβ), inhibiting nuclear factor kappa-B (IκBα), and NF-κB in the jejunum and ileum. Microbiota sequencing identified that MCR supplementation significantly increased the microbial richness indices (Chao1, ACE, and observed species, < 0.05) and the relative abundances of and ( < 0.05), decreased the relative abundances of , and ( < 0.05) and had no significant effects on the diversity indices (Shannon and Simpson, > 0.05). Microbial metabolic phenotypes analysis also showed that the richness of aerobic bacteria and facultative anaerobic bacteria, oxidative stress tolerance, and biofilm forming were significantly increased ( < 0.05), and the richness of anaerobic bacteria and pathogenic potential of gut microbiota were reduced ( < 0.05) by MCR treatment. Regression analysis showed that the optimal MCR supplemental level for growth performance, serum antioxidant capacity, and intestinal health of weaned piglets was 3,420 ~ 4,237 mg/kg. MCR supplementation improved growth performance and serum antioxidant capacity, and alleviated intestinal inflammation by inhibiting the IKKβ/IκBα/NF-κB signaling pathway and affecting intestinal microbiota in weaned piglets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.679129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247480PMC
June 2021

Nox2 impairs VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis in placenta via mitochondrial ROS-STAT3 pathway.

Redox Biol 2021 09 18;45:102051. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Control, National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, Institute of Subtropical Animal Nutrition and Feed, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510642, China. Electronic address:

Aberrant placental angiogenesis is associated with fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), but the mechanism underlying abnormal placental angiogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, lower vessel density and higher expression of NADPH oxidases 2 (Nox2) were observed in the placentae for low birth weight (LBW) fetuses versus normal birth weight (NBW) fetuses, with a negative correlation between Nox2 and placental vessel density. Moreover, it was revealed for the first time that Nox2 deficiency facilitates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) has an essential role in Nox2-controlled inhibition of angiogenesis in porcine vascular endothelial cells (PVECs). Mechanistically, Nox2 inhibited phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in the nucleus by inducing the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dual-luciferase assay confirmed that knockdown of Nox2 reduces the expression of VEGF-A in an STAT3 dependent manner. Our results indicate that Nox2 is a potential target for therapy by increasing VEGF-A expression to promote angiogenesis and serves as a prognostic indicator for fetus with IUGR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.102051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258686PMC
September 2021
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