Publications by authors named "Yulin Liu"

135 Publications

Association Between Elevated Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Function Moderated by APOE4 Status: Framingham Offspring Study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Depression and Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) are associated with decreased cognitive function and differences in brain structure.

Objective: This study investigated whether APOE4 status moderates the association between elevated depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and brain structure.

Methods: Stroke- and dementia-free participants (n = 1,968) underwent neuropsychological evaluation, brain MRI, and depression screening. Linear and logistic regression was used to examine all associations. Secondary analyses were performed using interaction terms to assess effect modification by APOE4 status.

Results: Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with lower cognitive performance in several domains. In stratified analyses, elevated depressive symptoms were associated with poorer visual short- and long-term memory performance for APOE4 + participants. Elevated depressive symptoms were not associated with any brain structure in this study sample.

Conclusion: Elevated depressive symptoms impact cognitive function in non-demented individuals. Having the APOE4 allele may exacerbate the deleterious effects of elevated depressive symptoms on visual memory performance. Screening for elevated depressive symptoms in both research studies and clinical practice may be warranted to avoid false positive identification of neurodegeneration, particularly among those who are APOE4 + .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200998DOI Listing
February 2021

Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Variations in Arterial Blood Pressure During the Induction Period of General Anesthesia in Elderly Patients.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Jan;31(1):8-13

Department of Anesthesiology, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center (Chongqing University Central Hospital), Chongqing, China.

Objective: To determine the correlation of old age, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) during anesthetic induction in elderly patients.

Study Design: Prospective cohort study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Central Hospital affiliated to Chongqing Medical University from September 2016 to September 2019.

Methodology: A total of 75 elderly patients with pulmonary hypertension, who underwent surgery under general anesthesia, were inducted. Each 25 patients were allocated into 65-74 years, 75-84 years, and ≥85 years groups. PAP was invasively measured using a right heart floating catheter before induction, while MAP was measured using an invasive radial artery catheter at one minute before and within five minutes after anesthetic induction.

Results: PAP and PAMP, both increased with age (p <0.001). MAP at one minute before induction significantly increased with aging, while MAP measured at 1, 3 and 5 minutes after anesthetic induction, exhibited tendencies of significant decrease with aging (p <0.05). The correlation analysis results revealed that mean MAP during anesthesia induction was significantly associated with PASP before induction (r = -0.384 and -0.532 for Kendall and Spearman correlation analyses; both p<0.05).

Conclusion: Increased PAP may be involved in the association between with aging and increased risk of hypotension during induction. Key Words: General anesthesia, Hypotension, Pulmonary arterial blood pressure, Old age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2021.01.8DOI Listing
January 2021

ZbAGL11, a class D MADS-box transcription factor of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, is involved in sporophytic apomixis.

Hortic Res 2021 Feb 1;8(1):23. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

College of Forestry, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

Apomixis is a reproductive model that bypasses sexual reproduction, so it does not require the combination of paternal and maternal gametes but instead results in the production of offspring directly from maternal tissues. This reproductive mode results in the same genetic material in the mother and the offspring and has significant applications in agricultural breeding. Molecular and cytological methods were used to identify the reproductive type of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (ZB). Fluorescence detection of the amplified products of 12 pairs of polymorphic SSR primers showed consistent fluorescence signals for mother and offspring, indicating that no trait separation occurred during reproduction. In addition, the cytological observation results showed differentiation of ZB embryos (2n) from nucellar cells (2n) to form indefinite embryonic primordia and then form adventitious embryos (2n), indicating that the apomictic type of ZB is sporophytic apomixis. The MADS-box transcription factor ZbAGL11 was highly expressed during the critical period of nucellar embryo development in ZB. Unpollinated ZbAGL11-OE Arabidopsis produced fertile offspring and exhibited an apomictic phenotype. The overexpression of ZbAGL11 increased the callus induction rate of ZB tissue. In addition, the results of the yeast two-hybrid experiment showed that ZbAGL11 could interact with the ZbCYP450 and ZbCAD11 proteins. Our results demonstrate that ZbAGL11 can cause developmental disorders of Arabidopsis flower organs and result in apomixis-like phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-00459-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7848008PMC
February 2021

Revealing the Dynamic Mechanism by Which Transferrin Promotes the Cellular Uptake of HAIYPRH Peptide-Conjugated Nanostructures by Force Tracing.

Mol Pharm 2021 Mar 31;18(3):1480-1485. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

School of Chemistry and Life Science, Advanced Institute of Materials Science, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012, China.

The HAIYPRH (T7) peptide has been widely used as a ligand for constructing tumor-targeted nanodrug delivery systems since it can target the transferrin receptor (TfR) and then enter cells easily with the help of transferrin (Tf). However, the dynamic mechanism by which transferrin promotes the entry of T7-conjugated nanostructures into cells remains unclear. Herein, a force tracing technique based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to track the ultrafast dynamic process of a T7-conjugated gold nanoparticle (AuNP-T7) entering a cell at the single-particle level in real time. Tf helped decrease the endocytosis force and increase the endocytosis speed of AuNP-T7 in A549 cells. However, Tf only increased the endocytosis speed of AuNP-T7 in HeLa cells. In contrast, in Vero cells without TfR overexpression, Tf decreased the endocytosis speed. This report provides important insights for redesigning and developing T7-conjugated nanodrug carriers in targeted nanodrug delivery systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.0c01119DOI Listing
March 2021

Dynamics of delivering aptamer targeted nano-drugs into cells.

J Mater Chem B 2021 01 13;9(4):952-957. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

School of Chemistry and Life Science, Advanced Institute of Materials Science, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012, China.

A targeted nano-drug delivery system has provided great potential and benefits to the diagnosis and therapy of cancers. Cell entry is a critical step for taking effect of the targeted nano-drug. In this report, the dynamics of delivering a single aptamer targeted polyamindoamine-camptothecin-AS1411 (PAMAM-CPT-AS1411) nano-drug into cells was investigated using a force tracing technique based on atomic force microscopy. The results show that the specific interaction of AS1411 and nucleolin, which is overexpressed on cancer cells, enhances the efficiency of the PAMAM-CPT-AS1411 cell entry. Moreover, the specific interaction induced receptor-mediated endocytosis prolongs the duration and decreases the speed of a single PAMAM-CPT-AS1411 cell entry, which is helpful to understand the targeted nano-drugs prolonging the therapeutic drug level. However, the required force for PAMAM-CPT-AS1411 cell entry is not changed. This report will provide a novel and potential method for achieving the precise dynamics of targeted nano-drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb02527eDOI Listing
January 2021

The Improvement of Immune Effect of Recombinant Human Beta-Defensin 2 on Hepatitis B Vaccine in Mice.

Viral Immunol 2020 Dec 28. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang, People's Republic of China.

Immunization with hepatitis B vaccine is an effective measure for prevention and control of hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. Although lots of efforts to improve the effect of hepatitis B vaccine have been made, the function of human beta defensin 2 (hBD2) on hepatitis B vaccine keeps unclear. In this article, we report that hBD2 not only promoted the activation and maturation of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) by increasing MHC II and CD86 expression, but it also significantly upregulated the mRNA level of and in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. The serum concentrations of IFN- in mice stimulated with 300 ng hBD2 increased from 25.21 to 42.04 pg/mL, with a time extension from 4 to 12 h post-injection. During the process of three times immunization (1, 14, 28 days) with 3 μg hepatitis B vaccine combined with or without 300 ng hBD2 with a 2 week interval in BALB/c mice, the antibody against HBsAg (HBsAb) concentration in serum at every time point of observation in the combined group was statistically higher than the hepatitis B vaccine group. The serum concentration of IgG2a subclass HBsAb on the 14th day post last injection in the combined group was significantly higher than the hepatitis B vaccine group. Further, the splenic cells from the mice treated with both hBD2 and hepatitis B vaccine possessed a greater ability to produce a surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) specific IFN- than those treated with hepatitis B vaccine alone. The percentages of CD3/CD4 T cells and CD3/CD8 T lymphocytes in spleens from the mice treated with 300 ng hBD2 were statistically higher than the phosphate buffered saline group. These data suggest that hBD2 improves iDC maturation and the immune efficiency of hepatitis B vaccine in BALB/c mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2020.0052DOI Listing
December 2020

Severity Distribution of Alzheimer's Disease Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Framingham Heart Study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;79(2):807-817

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Studies providing Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevalence data have largely neglected to characterize the proportion of AD that is mild, moderate, or severe. Estimates of the severity distribution along the AD continuum, including the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage, are important to plan research and allocate future resources, particularly resources targeted at particular stages of disease.

Objective: To characterize the distribution of severity of AD dementia and MCI among prevalent cases in the population-based Framingham Heart Study.

Methods: Participants (aged 50-94) with prevalent MCI or AD dementia clinical syndrome were cross-sectionally selected from three time-windows of the population-based Framingham Heart Study in 2004-2005 (n = 381), 2006-2007 (n = 422), and 2008-2009 (n = 389). Summary estimates of the severity distribution were achieved by pooling results across time-windows. Diagnosis and severity were assessed by consensus dementia review. MCI-progressive was determined if the participant had documented progression to AD dementia clinical syndrome using longitudinal data.

Results: Among AD dementia participants, the pooled percentages were 50.4%for mild, 30.3%for moderate, and 19.3%for severe. Among all MCI and AD participants, the pooled percentages were 29.5%, 19.6%, 25.7%, and 45.2%for MCI-not-progressive, MCI-progressive, mild AD dementia, and the combined group of MCI-progressive and mild AD dementia, respectively. Distributions by age and sex were presented.

Conclusion: The finding that half of the people living with AD have mild disease underscores the need for research and interventions to slow decline or prevent progression of this burdensome disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200786DOI Listing
January 2021

Nrf2-induced miR-23a-27a-24-2 cluster modulates damage repair of intestinal mucosa by targeting the Bach1/HO-1 axis in inflammatory bowel diseases.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Feb 7;163:1-9. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, 250021, China. Electronic address:

IBD is an idiopathic, chronic autoimmune disease associated with intense oxidative stress. As a master modulator of oxidative stress, Nrf2 has an important anti-inflammatory role in colitis by activating HO-1 transcription. Meanwhile, HO-1 expression is transcriptionally suppressed by Bach1. The Nrf2-activated HO-1 transcription depends on the inactivation of Bach1. However, how Bach1 is inactivated and how Nrf2, Bach1 and HO-1 participate in IBD remains elusive. We found that in response to inflammatory stimuli, Nrf2-induced transcription of miR-23a-27a-24-2 cluster directly inhibits Bach1 expression by binding to the 3'UTR and thereby relieved the Bach1-mediated suppression of HO-1. Besides, elevated miR-23a, miR-27a and miR-24-2 promotes the proliferation and wound healing through regulating Bach1/HO-1 expression in SW480 cell. Additionally, miR-23a, miR-27a and miR-24-2 exert a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa in DSS-induced colitis mouse model. In conclusion, our study revealed that the Nrf2/miR-23a-27a-24-2/Bach1/HO-1 regulatory axis promotes the damage repair of intestinal mucosa during the development of inflammatory bowel diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.11.006DOI Listing
February 2021

Distributed Attack Modeling Approach Based on Process Mining and Graph Segmentation.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 Sep 14;22(9). Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Network Computing and Intelligent Information Processing, College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China.

Attack graph modeling aims to generate attack models by investigating attack behaviors recorded in intrusion alerts raised in network security devices. Attack models can help network security administrators discover an attack strategy that intruders use to compromise the network and implement a timely response to security threats. However, the state-of-the-art algorithms for attack graph modeling are unable to obtain a high-level or global-oriented view of the attack strategy. To address the aforementioned issue, considering the similarity between attack behavior and workflow, we employ a heuristic process mining algorithm to generate the initial attack graph. Although the initial attack graphs generated by the heuristic process mining algorithm are complete, they are extremely complex for manual analysis. To improve their readability, we propose a graph segmentation algorithm to split a complex attack graph into multiple subgraphs while preserving the original structure. Furthermore, to handle massive volume alert data, we propose a distributed attack graph generation algorithm based on Hadoop MapReduce and a distributed attack graph segmentation algorithm based on Spark GraphX. Additionally, we conduct comprehensive experiments to validate the performance of the proposed algorithms. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms achieve considerable improvement over comparative algorithms in terms of accuracy and efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22091026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597119PMC
September 2020

First orally bioavailable prodrug of proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) degrades cyclin-dependent kinases 2/4/6 in vivo.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jan 9;209:112903. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

The State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Pharmacy, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, PR China. Electronic address:

A growing number of reports suggested that the inhibitor targeting cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 2/4/6 can act as a more feasible chemotherapy strategy. In the present paper, a novel PROTAC molecule was developed based on the structure of Ribociclib's derivative. In malignant melanoma cells, the degrader can not only degrade CDK 2/4/6 simultaneously and effectively, but also remarkably induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of melanoma cells. Moreover, PROTAC molecules with CRBN ligands always have poor oral bioavailability. We developed the orally bioavailable prodrug for the first time. It would provide general solution for oral administration of the PROTAC molecules, derived from CRBN ligands, for animal test conveniently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112903DOI Listing
January 2021

Does environmental pollution influence household asset allocation? Evidence from China.

Authors:
Min Zhang Yulin Liu

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

School of Public Affairs, Campus A, Chongqing University, Shapingba District, Chongqing, China.

This paper establishes a causal relation between households' decision of asset allocation and environmental pollution based on urban PM2.5 concentration data and a nationally representative survey in China. We find a significantly negative effect of environmental pollution on households' demand for housing assets but an inverted U-shaped effect on the demand for risky assets. The effects are remarkably robust to correcting the endogenous issue and a battery of robustness checks. Social interaction can partly explain such an effect of pollution. Furthermore, we also find that because households with lower economic status are at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollution and lack of economic capabilities, their holdings of financial assets decrease more than that of the households with higher economic status when faced with pollution; however, their holdings of low liquid assets declining less.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11710-2DOI Listing
November 2020

Oncological Outcomes of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery Plus Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Patients with High-Risk T1 and T2 Rectal Cancer.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2020 Oct 7. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Radical surgery is recommended for high-risk pathological stage T1 (pT1) or pT2 rectal cancer after transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). However, in clinical practice, many patients may unfit or decline radical surgery. In recent years, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) after TEM was considered as an alternative to radical surgery for these patients. This study aimed to assess oncological outcomes of adjuvant CRT after TEM for high-risk early rectal cancer. We collected retrospectively data of 97 patients who underwent TEM with pT1 and pT2 between January 2008 and December 2018. Of these, 35 patients were excluded. Of the remaining 62 patients, 42 were managed by TEM alone and 20 by TEM plus adjuvant CRT. Demographics, recurrence, and survival were analyzed between the two groups. At a median follow-up of 52.5 months, the 3-year local recurrence-free survival and disease-free survival (DFS) in TEM alone group were significantly lower than those in TEM+CRT group (66.6% versus 93.3%,  = .035; 63.7% versus 93.3%,  = .022). Although the 3-year overall survival in TEM+CRT group was higher than TEM alone group (100% versus 83.3%), the difference was not statistically significant ( = .13). The local recurrence rate in TEM alone was 31%, compared with 5% in TEM+CRT group ( = .025). Multivariate analysis showed that adjuvant CRT was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (hazard ratio: 0.094; 95% confidence interval: 0.001-0.764;  = .027). Our study suggests that adjuvant CRT after TEM may be an alternative for pT1 high-risk and T2 rectal cancer who are not suitable or unwilling to undergo salvage radical surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2020.0706DOI Listing
October 2020

Effects of Surface Modifications to Single and Multilayer Graphene Temperature Coefficient of Resistance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Oct 16;12(43):48890-48898. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, United States.

Interfacial effects on single-layer graphene (SLG) or multilayer graphene (MLG) properties greatly affect device performance. Thus, the effect of the interface on the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) on SLG and MLG due to surface-deposited core-shell metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) and various substrates was experimentally investigated. Observed substrates included glass, SiO, and SiN. We show that these modifications can be used to strongly influence SLG interface effects, thus increasing the TCR up to a 0.456% per K resistance change when in contact with the SiO substrate at the bottom surface and MNPs on the top surface. However, these surface interactions are muted in MLG due to the screening effect of nonsuperficial layers, only achieving a -0.0998% per K resistance change in contact with the bottom SiN substrate and the top MNPs. We also demonstrate contrary thermal sensitivity responses between SLG and MLG after the addition of MNP to the surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c09621DOI Listing
October 2020

Comprehensive profiling of phytochemical compounds, antioxidant activities, anti-HepG2 cell proliferation, and cholinesterase inhibitory potential of Elaeagnus mollis leaf extracts.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(9):e0239497. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

The aim of this work was to enrich the knowledge on the potential applications of Elaeagnus mollis leaf extracts. For this purpose, the bioactive compounds (phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid, proanthocyanidin, chlorophyll and carotene content), antioxidant activity, anti-HepG2 cell proliferation, and cholinesterase inhibitory potential (AChE and BChE) of E. mollis leaves which obtained from different habitats were quantitatively analyzed using various solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, and n-hexane). The results showed that the methanol extracts exhibited the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and the water extracts showed the best antioxidant activity in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and reducing power (RP) assays. Moreover, the methanol extracts showed the best inhibitory activity against cholinesterase and HepG2 cancer cells. Correlation analysis revealed that the high antioxidant and anti-HepG2 cell proliferation activities were mainly attributed to the total phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins while AChE inhibition was attributed to the total alkaloid and carotene content. The statistical results showed that the effect of habitats was lower than that of different solvents used. Additionally, the metabolic profiles of E. mollis leaves were evaluated using HPLC-ESI-Q TRAP-MS/MS, and a total of 1,017 chemical components were detected and classified into 23 classes. The organic acids and derivatives ranked the first, followed by flavone, amino acid and derivatives, and so on. In conclusion, the effects of different solvents were more significant than the effects of different habitats and the methanol extracts of E. mollis leaves could be used as an effective source of functional active components, provide benefits to physical health care and be applied to the food and pharmaceutical industries.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239497PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510975PMC
November 2020

Effect of acute normovolemic hemodilution on coronary artery bypass grafting: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 randomized trials.

Int J Surg 2020 Nov 18;83:131-139. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Anesthesia, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center (Chongqing University Central Hospital), Chongqing, 400014, China.

Background: Efficacy of minimal acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in avoiding homologous blood transfusion during cardiovascular surgery remains controversial. Postoperative bleeding and transfusion remain a source of morbidity and cost after open heart operations. To better understand the role of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), we compared ANH with standard intraoperative care in a systematic review including a standard pairwise meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Methods: We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) up to April 1, 2020. The primary outcome was to assess the incidence of ANH-related number of allogeneic red blood cell units (ARBCu) transfused. Secondary outcomes included the rate of allogeneic blood transfusion and estimated total blood loss.

Results: A total of 22 RCTs including 1688 patients were identified for the present meta-analysis. Of these studies, 19 were about CABG with on-pump and three with off-pump. Our pooled result indicated that patients received ANH experienced fewer ARBCu transfusions, with a standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.60 (95%CI -0.96 to -0.24; P = 0.001). The rate of allogeneic blood transfusion in ANH group was significant reduced when compared with controls, with a relative risk (RR) of 0.65 (95%CI 0.52 to 0.82; P = 0.0002). In addition, less postoperative estimated total blood loss was present, with a SMD of -0.53 (95%CI -0.88 to -0.17; P = 0.004).

Conclusions: The present meta-analysis indicated that ANH could reduce the number of ARBCu transfused in the CABG surgery setting. In addition, ANH could also reduce the rate of ARBCu transfusion and estimated total blood loss for CABG patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.09.016DOI Listing
November 2020

Environmental pollution, environmental regulation, and labor income share.

Authors:
Yulin Liu Jun Wang

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Dec 11;27(36):45161-45174. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

School of Public Administration, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.

China has maintained great economic growth in the past and reached the status of a middle-income country. Meanwhile, the relationships among environmental pollution, environmental regulation, and economic growth have attracted wide attention. In addition, some studies have shown that economic growth is not balanced in the division of income between labor and capital, and this has become one of the most important issues in China. The conflict over the environment and income distribution is supposed to cause social welfare loss; therefore, we want to examine the impact of environmental pollution and environmental governance on labor income share. Our empirical results show that the relationship between environmental pollution and share of labor income is positive at the present stage. However, the relationship is not linear but rather an inverted-U shape in the long run. In addition, we tested the effects of environmental regulation on labor income share and found an inverted-U-shaped relationship. Although growing concern about environmental pollution adds to the pressure on the government, our statistical results suggest that there is no perfect way to resolve environmental problems. Additionally, labor unions are expected to play a different role in income distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10408-9DOI Listing
December 2020

Cross‑validation of genes potentially associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and platinum‑based chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

Oncol Rep 2020 Sep 2;44(3):909-926. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, P.R. China.

Ovarian carcinomas have the poorest prognosis and the highest mortality among gynecological malignancies. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is considered as a novel therapeutic strategy and an alternative treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AEOC). The aim of the present study was to identify the core genes related to platinum‑based NACT resistance in AEOC and to allow screening at the molecular level for the most appropriate ovarian cancer patients for NACT. We obtained three drug‑resistant microarrays GSE114206, GSE41499 and GSE33482 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database as well as a microarray representing NACT, GSE109934. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the nature of the four potential candidate genes for using in functional enrichment analyses and interaction network construction. The potential associations and possible genetic alterations among the DEGs were summarized using the STRING database in Cytoscape and the cBioPortal visualization tool, respectively. A total of 63 genes were identified as DEGs from GSE109934 representing NACT. From the drug‑resistant GSE114206 and GSE41499 datasets, 106 DEGs containing 36 upregulated genes and 70 downregulated genes were selected, and from the drug‑resistant GSE114206 and GSE33482 datasets, 406 DEGs with 157 upregulated genes and 249 downregulated genes were selected. The 36 upregulated DEGs and the 70 downregulated genes were notably abundant in the different categories. In KEGG pathway analysis, the 157 upregulated genes and the 249 downregulated genes were concentrated in distinctive signaling pathways. Four potential genes associated with NACT and platinum‑based chemoresistance were screened, including nuclear factor of activated T‑cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NAFTc1), Kruppel‑like factor 4 (KLF4), nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (NR4A3) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Our study showed that the mRNA expression levels of NAFTc1, NR4A3 and HGF were increased in drug‑resistant OC cell lines (all P<0.01), whereas the mRNA expression levels of KLF4 were notably lower in the SKOV3‑CDDP and HeyA8‑CDDP cell line (all P<0.01) but higher in the A2780‑CBP cell line. The NAFTc1, KLF4, NR4A3 and HGF genes may be potential therapeutic targets for NACT and platinum‑based chemoresistance factors as well as candidate biomarkers in AEOC. Determination of the expression levels of these four genes in tumor tissues before planning NACT treatment or initial surgery would be beneficial for AEOC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2020.7668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7388274PMC
September 2020

Plant productivity and microbial composition drive soil carbon and nitrogen sequestrations following cropland abandonment.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 11;744:140802. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

Understanding the variations in soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (STN) stocks in the different ages of abandoned cropland ecosystems of different ages is essential for land use decisions to maximize C sinks or improve ecosystem services. However, knowledge of the dynamics of SOC and STN stocks and their controlling factors after cropland abandonment is limited. Thus, this study investigated the changes in the SOC and STN stocks of loessal soil (Calcaric Regosols) with a chronosequence of 3, 8, 13, 18, 23 and 30 years following cropland abandonment on the Loess Plateau. As a whole, we examined 42 field plots and implemented multivariable linear regression analysis (MLRA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) using 22 influencing variables related to plant, soil and microbial properties to quantify the controls of SOC and STN stocks. The results revealed that SOC and STN stocks significantly increased after cropland abandonment for 30 years, and there were minor decreases in C and N sequestrations in the early restoration stage (<18 years). The SOC and STN changes had significant positive correlations, in which that exhibited STN stocks shifted concurrently with the rate of relative SOC stock changes. The MLRA models demonstrated that the SOC stocks were primarily controlled by aboveground biomass, STN, fungi, and the ratio of fungi to bacteria, while STN stocks were mainly driven by root biomass, above-ground biomass, STN, fungi and the ratio of fungi to bacteria after cropland abandonment. The SEM models further demonstrated that plant productivity not only directly determined the variations in SOC and STN stocks but also changed the microbial community following post-cropland restoration. These results suggest that long-term (>18 years) cropland abandonment can be a successful approach for reinstating SOC and STN stocks, while plants and microbes together mediate microbial C and N stocks during vegetation succession in a semiarid region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140802DOI Listing
November 2020

Primary vaginal Ewing sarcoma with uterine fibroid: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jul;99(27):e20859

Department of Ultrasound.

Rationale: Extra osseous Ewing sarcoma (ES), an uncommon malignant neoplasm, accounts for about 15% of Ewing sarcoma, which mainly affects paravertebral region, lower extremity, chest wall, retroperitoneum, pelvis, and hip. Here is a 54-year-old woman of primary vaginal Ewing sarcoma with uterine fibroid, which has been fewly known or reported.

Patient Concerns: The patient was admitted to our hospital because of vaginal pain. Her uterus showed as parallel position and enlarged as about 3 months of pregnancy size.

Diagnosis: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US) demonstrated 2 heterogeneous masses in the vagina and uterus, respectively. Ultrasound-guided puncture biopsy revealed a malignant tumor in the right lateral vaginal wall.

Interventions: The patient was treated by hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and tumors excision, with the subsequent treatment of chemotherapy.

Outcomes: The patient recovered well without local recurrence for >1 year.

Lessons: Primary vaginal Ewing sarcoma is extremely rare. The treatments of uterine fibroid include uterine artery embolization and surgical options, While wide local excision followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy should be recommended for the vaginal ES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337545PMC
July 2020

Effect of Dexmedetomidine in children undergoing general anaesthesia with sevoflurane: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

J Int Med Res 2020 Jun;48(6):300060520927530

Department of Anaesthesiology, Chongqing Emergency Medical Centre, Chongqing, China.

Objective: The sedative effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) are similar to natural sleep, with easy wakening following Dex administration, and Dex has minor effects on breathing, reducing emergence agitation in children. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the effects of Dex on recovery quality in children following general anaesthesia with sevoflurane, to aid clinical decision making.

Methods: Relevant randomized controlled trials published before August 2019 were searched and selected from databases. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted data, and assessed included studies for bias risk. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 14.0 software.

Results: The study included 24 publications. Following general anaesthesia by sevoflurane, Dex was associated with reduced occurrence of emergence agitation (odds ratio [OR] 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11, 0.25) and nausea and vomiting (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.24, 0.60), along with shortened eye-opening time (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.72, 95% CI 0.41, 1.03), shortened extubation time (SMD 0.54, 95% CI 0.28, 0.81), and reduced duration of post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) stay (SMD 0.29, 95% CI 0.08, 0.51) versus placebo.

Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine has positive effects on recovery quality in children undergoing general anaesthesia with sevoflurane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520927530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318832PMC
June 2020

Genome survey of Zanthoxylum bungeanum and development of genomic-SSR markers in congeneric species.

Biosci Rep 2020 06;40(6)

College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Zanthoxylum bungeanum, a spice and medicinal plant, is cultivated in many parts of China and some countries in Southeast Asia; however, data on its genome are lacking. In the present study, we performed a whole-genome survey and developed novel genomic-SSR markers of Z. bungeanum. Clean data (∼197.16 Gb) were obtained and assembled into 11185221 scaffolds with an N50 of 183 bp. K-mer analysis revealed that Z. bungeanum has an estimated genome size of 3971.92 Mb, and the GC content, heterozygous rate, and repeat sequence rate are 37.21%, 1.73%, and 86.04%, respectively. These results indicate that the genome of Z. bungeanum is complex. Furthermore, 27153 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were identified from 57288 scaffolds with a minimum length > 1 kb. Mononucleotide repeats (19706) were the most abundant type, followed by dinucleotide repeats (5154). The most common motifs were A/T, followed by AT/AT; these SSRs accounted for 71.42% and 11.84% of all repeats, respectively. A total of 21243 non-repeating primer pairs were designed, and 100 were randomly selected and validated by PCR analysis using DNA from 10 Z. bungeanum individuals and 5 Zanthoxylum armatum individuals. Finally, 36 polymorphic SSR markers were developed with polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.75. Cluster analysis revealed that Z. bungeanum and Z. armatum could be divided into two major clusters, suggesting that these newly developed SSR markers are useful for genetic diversity and germplasm resource identification in Z. bungeanum and Z. armatum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20201101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322109PMC
June 2020

IL-6-induced CD39 expression on tumor-infiltrating NK cells predicts poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2020 Nov 10;69(11):2371-2380. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Biotherapy Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 1 Jianshe East Road, Zhengzhou, 450052, Henan, People's Republic of China.

Natural killer (NK) cells, a predominant innate lymphocyte subset, mediates eradicating malignant cells. Purinergic signaling by ectonucleotidase CD39 can suppress T-cell response in caner. However, the role of CD39 in NK cells has not been fully elucidated. Here, we characterized CD39 expression on NK cells and its clinical relevance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Peripheral blood and tissue samples were collected from 36 ESCC patients. We observed that the proportion of NK cells significantly decreased but CD39 was obviously up-regulated on NK cells from cancerous tissues compared to paired peripheral blood in ESCC patients. Furthermore, tumor-infiltrating NK cells with high CD39 expression exhibited a phenotype of functional impairment. In vitro, conditioned media of ESCC cell lines could induce CD39 expression on peripheral NK cells from healthy donors. IL-6 was identified as the major cytokine produced by ESCC cell lines and also elevated in both tumor tissues and blood serum from ESCC patients. Recombinant IL-6 significantly induced surface CD39 expression in human NK cells, while IL-6-receptor antagonist tocilizumab prevented this effect. Finally, tumor-infiltrating CD39 NK cells were correlated with poor prognosis in ESCC patients. Thus, tumor-derived IL-6 might impair NK cell functions through induction of CD39 expression. CD39 NK cells may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker for ESCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02629-1DOI Listing
November 2020

Size-Dependent Transmembrane Transport of Gold Nanocages.

ACS Omega 2020 May 21;5(17):9864-9869. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

School of Chemistry and Life Science, Advanced Institute of Materials Science, Changchun University of Technology, Yan'an St. 2055, Changchun 130012, China.

Gold nanocages (Au NCs), as drug carriers, have been widely applied for cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy (PTT). Transmembrane transporting efficacy of Au NCs is the fundamental and important issue for their use in PTT. Herein, we used a force tracing technique based on atomic force microscopy to track the dynamic transmembrane process of Au NCs at the single-particle level in real time. Meanwhile, we measured and compared the dynamic parameters of Au NCs with sizes of 50 and 100 nm usually used as nanodrug carriers of PTT. It is concluded that the 50 nm Au NC transmembrane transporting needs smaller force and shorter duration with a much faster speed. However, both the 50 and 100 nm Au NC transmembrane transporting depends on the caveolin-mediated endocytosis, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and macropinocytosis, which was also confirmed by confocal fluorescence imaging. This report will provide a potential technique for screening nanodrug carriers from the perspective of transmembrane transporting efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c00079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203911PMC
May 2020

Exploring the Hierarchical Influence of Cognitive Functions for Alzheimer Disease: The Framingham Heart Study.

J Med Internet Res 2020 04 23;22(4):e15376. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

The Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, United States.

Background: Although some neuropsychological (NP) tests are considered more central for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), there is a lack of understanding about the interaction between different cognitive tests.

Objective: This study aimed to demonstrate a global view of hierarchical probabilistic dependencies between NP tests and the likelihood of cognitive impairment to assist physicians in recognizing AD precursors.

Methods: Our study included 2091 participants from the Framingham Heart Study. These participants had undergone a variety of NP tests, including Wechsler Memory Scale, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and Boston Naming Test. Heterogeneous cognitive Bayesian networks were developed to understand the relationship between NP tests and the cognitive status. The performance of probabilistic inference was evaluated by the 10-fold cross validation.

Results: A total of 4512 NP tests were used to build the Bayesian network for the dementia diagnosis. The network demonstrated conditional dependency between different cognitive functions that precede the development of dementia. The prediction model reached an accuracy of 82.24%, with sensitivity of 63.98% and specificity of 92.74%. This probabilistic diagnostic system can also be applied to participants that exhibit more heterogeneous profiles or with missing responses for some NP tests.

Conclusions: We developed a probabilistic dependency network for AD diagnosis from 11 NP tests. Our study revealed important psychological functional segregations and precursor evidence of AD development and heterogeneity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/15376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206516PMC
April 2020

Genome of the webworm Hyphantria cunea unveils genetic adaptations supporting its rapid invasion and spread.

BMC Genomics 2020 Mar 18;21(1):242. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resource Conservation and Utilization, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Background: The fall webworm Hyphantria cunea is an invasive and polyphagous defoliator pest that feeds on nearly any type of deciduous tree worldwide. The silk web of H. cunea aids its aggregating behavior, provides thermal regulation and is regarded as one of causes for its rapid spread. In addition, both chemosensory and detoxification genes are vital for host adaptation in insects.

Results: Here, a high-quality genome of H. cunea was obtained. Silk-web-related genes were identified from the genome, and successful silencing of the silk protein gene HcunFib-H resulted in a significant decrease in silk web shelter production. The CAFE analysis showed that some chemosensory and detoxification gene families, such as CSPs, CCEs, GSTs and UGTs, were expanded. A transcriptome analysis using the newly sequenced H. cunea genome showed that most chemosensory genes were specifically expressed in the antennae, while most detoxification genes were highly expressed during the feeding peak. Moreover, we found that many nutrient-related genes and one detoxification gene, HcunP450 (CYP306A1), were under significant positive selection, suggesting a crucial role of these genes in host adaptation in H. cunea. At the metagenomic level, several microbial communities in H. cunea gut and their metabolic pathways might be beneficial to H. cunea for nutrient metabolism and detoxification, and might also contribute to its host adaptation.

Conclusions: These findings explain the host and environmental adaptations of H. cunea at the genetic level and provide partial evidence for the cause of its rapid invasion and potential gene targets for innovative pest management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6629-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079503PMC
March 2020

Immune response to acute heat stress in the intestine of the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 May 9;100:146-151. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Engineering Research Center of Ecology and Agricultural Use of Wetland, Ministry of Education, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, 434025, PR China.

High temperature is an important environmental factor that affects the survival and immunity of aquatic animals. The intestine of crustaceans is their first line of defense, and the physiological homeostasis of this organ can be influenced by high temperature stress. The red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii is an important commercial aquaculture species in China, but little is known about its intestinal immune response to acute heat stress. In this study, we investigated the intestinal immune response of P. clarkii individuals that were assigned to the control (25 °C) and heat stress (35 °C) groups. Biochemical assays were conducted for the oxidative stress parameters ·O generation capacity, lipid peroxide content, and malondialdehyde content; the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; and the activities of the immunity-related enzymes alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and lysozyme. The relative expression level of the antioxidant genes heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), ferritin (fer), and metallothione (met) was examined by RT-PCR. Based on the data obtained, all the parameters tended to increase, peak and then decrease with time, and were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.05). These findings reveal that acute heat stress adversely affects the antioxidant status and immune function in the P. clarkii intestine. They lay the groundwork for future studies on the effect of rising water temperatures on immune function and survival of this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.03.017DOI Listing
May 2020

miRNAs and their target genes regulate the antioxidant system of Zanthoxylum bungeanum under drought stress.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 May 7;150:196-203. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China; Research Centre for Engineering and Technology of Zanthoxylum State Forestry Administration, Yangling, Xianyang, 712100, China. Electronic address:

Plants can accumulate a large amount of reactive oxygen species under adverse conditions such as drought and high temperature, which seriously affect the normal growth and development of plants. The antioxidant system can scavenge the reactive oxygen species produced under drought conditions and so mitigate oxidative damage. However, the regulation patterns of many miRNAs under drought stress are still unclear. The content of antioxidant enzymes and the expression patterns of miRNAs and their target genes related to antioxidant systems were studied under drought stress in Zanthoxylum bungeanum. The results indicate that under drought stress, POD, CAT, APX, proline, MDA and related genes all show positive responses to drought, while SOD and its genes showed a negative response. It is indicated that in the antioxidant process of Z. bungeanum, POD, CAT, and APX play a major role, and SOD plays a supporting role. In addition, GUS histochemical and RT-qPCR experimental results show that the expression levels of miRNAs and their target genes are basically negatively correlated, indicating that miRNAs can inhibit the expression of related genes and are also important regulators in the antioxidant system of Z. bungeanum. According to the expression patterns of antioxidant enzymes, miRNA and its target genes under drought stress, combined with previous research results, a model of plant antioxidant mechanism was constructed to provide a reference for further understanding of plant antioxidant mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.01.040DOI Listing
May 2020

Pattern-based recognition of proteins by an array of fluorescent carbon-nanodot receptors.

Talanta 2020 Mar 13;209:120551. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Liaoning Province Key Laboratory for Green Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry of Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang, 110036, PR China. Electronic address:

Protein types and concentrations in human body fluid environment have a direct correlation to health conditions, and can be used for primary screening and diagnostics of a great variety of diseases. Herein, we synthesized a series of fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs) with various ratios of β-cyclodextrin doping, which can recognize proteins and adjust self-emission by combining both the cavity recognition effect of cyclodextrin and noncovalent bonding effect of carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups. The difference in β-cyclodextrin contents of various CDs will result in a differential response to various proteins, based on which a sensor array by four CDs was constructed to detect and discriminate six proteins with various subunit numbers. In order to improve the discriminative effect of the sensor array, CD-sensitive metal ions (Cu and Fe) were introduced as sensing media to increase the action sites between the CDs and proteins, and these proteins were well discriminated by the CD@metal ion sensor array with a detection limit of 50 μM. The sensor array could work in physiological conditions (such as urine and serum) and realize multiple proteins detection. Combining with the good repeatable detection results and higher sensitivity, the sensor array based on the CDs and metal ions provides an efficient and accurate method to detect proteins, which is important for disease diagnosis through assessing protein levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2019.120551DOI Listing
March 2020

Zn and mPTP mediate resveratrol-induced myocardial protection from endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Metallomics 2020 02;12(2):290-300

Affiliated Hospital & Clinic School of Medicine, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan 063000, China.

Resveratrol displays cardioprotective activity; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the current study, resveratrol-induced myocardial protection from endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) was investigated, focusing on the roles of Zn2+ and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). We found, using the MTT/LDH kit, that 2-DG-induced ERS significantly decreased H9c2 cell viability. Resveratrol markedly inhibited the expression of endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP 78/94 and ERS-related apoptosis proteins CHOP, Caspase12, and JNK induced by 2-DG. The zinc ion chelator TPEN, and ERK/GSK-3β inhibitors PD98059 and SB216763 and their siRNAs blocked resveratrol function. The AKT inhibitor LY294002 and siRNA did not alter the action of resveratrol. In addition, resveratrol significantly increased the phosphorylation of ERK and GSK-3β. Resveratrol prevented 2-DG-induced mPTP opening and increased intracellular Zn2+ concentration indicated by TMRE and Newport Green DCF fluorescence intensity, which were further abrogated by ERK/GSK-3β inhibitors and siRNAs. Our data suggested that resveratrol protected cardiac cells from ERS by mobilizing intracellular Zn2+ and preventing mPTP opening through the ERK/GSK-3β but not PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9mt00264bDOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of location, climate, soil conditions and plant species on levels of potentially toxic elements in Chinese Prickly Ash pericarps from the main cultivation regions in China.

Chemosphere 2020 Apr 28;244:125501. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China. Electronic address:

The presence of potentially toxic mineral elements is often reported in soil, fruits and vegetables. The concentrations of these are influenced by location, climate and soil conditions, and plant species. This study reports levels of aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni) in the soils where Chinese Prickly Ash - Zanthoxylum bungeanum (ZB) and Z. armatum (ZA) are grown. Soil and pericarp samples were taken from 72 ZB and ZA plantations in 12 provinces. The soil pollution index (PI) was generally low for As (0.04-0.35), Pb (0.01-0.74) and Ni (0.15-1.06). The PI was higher for Cd (0.06-6.99) and was assessed at three categorical levels: 'low' (in 26% of soils), 'moderate' (in 67% of soils) and high (in 7% of soils). The majority (94%) of soils were slightly polluted with Cd with the integrated pollution index in the range 0.17-2.02. More than 60% of pericarp samples posed a high non-cancer health risk based on the hazard index, while 43% of pericarp samples posed a considerable cancer risk based on the incremental lifetime cancer risk. The mean temperature and the mean relative humidity contributed most significantly (28% and 10%, respectively) to variation in the concentrations of potentially toxic elements in the pericarps. This study provides a comprehensive report on the concentrations of potentially toxic elements in the soils and associated pericarps, and the effects of location, climate, and soil on the levels of potentially toxic elements in the soil and pericarps, including the effects of tree species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125501DOI Listing
April 2020