Publications by authors named "Yulin Jiang"

42 Publications

3D-Printing Biodegradable PU/PAAM/Gel Hydrogel Scaffold with High Flexibility and Self-Adaptibility to Irregular Defects for Nonload-Bearing Bone Regeneration.

Bioconjug Chem 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Analytical & Testing Center, Research Center for Nano-biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P. R. China.

A three-dimensional (3D) printed biodegradable hydrogel scaffold with a strong self-expanding ability to conform to the contour of irregular bone defects and be closely adjacent to host tissues is reported herein. The scaffold has a triple cross-linked network structure consisting of photo-cross-linked polyacrylamide (PAAM) and polyurethane (PU) as the primary IPN network and chemical cross-linked gelatin (Gel) as the secondary network, which confers the scaffold with good mechanical properties. The addition of PU in the polymerization process of acrylamide (AAM) can improve the ultraviolet (UV) photocuring efficiency of the hydrogel and incorporate abundant hydrogen bonds between the PAAM copolymer chain and the PU chain. The results show that the hydrogel scaffold contains regular structures with smooth morphology, excellent dimensional stability, and uniform aperture. The degradation rate of the hydrogel scaffold is controllable through adjusting cross-linking agents and can be up to about 60% after degradation for 28 days. More importantly, the rapid self-inflating characteristic of the scaffold in water, that is, the volume of hydrogel scaffold can increase to about 8 times that of their own in an hour and can generate a slight compressive stress on the surrounding host tissue, thus stimulating the reconstruction and growth of new bone tissues. The in vitro experiment indicates that the scaffold is nontoxic and biocompatible. The in vivo experiment shows that the PU/PAAM/Gel chemically cross-linked scaffold displays the desirable osteogenic capability. This UV-curable 3D printed self-adaptive and degradable hydrogel scaffold holds great potential for nonload-bearing bone repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.1c00322DOI Listing
July 2021

Chitosan/Silver Nanoparticle/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites with Multi-Drug Release, Antimicrobial, and Photothermal Conversion Functions.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AH, UK.

In this work, we designed and fabricated a multifunctional nanocomposite system that consists of chitosan, raspberry-like silver nanoparticles, and graphene oxide. The room temperature atmospheric pressure microplasma (RT-APM) process provides a rapid, facile, and environmentally-friendly method for introducing silver nanoparticles into the composite system. Our composite can achieve a pH controlled single and/or dual drug release. Under pH 7.4 for methyl blue loaded on chitosan, the drug release profile features a burst release during the first 10 h, followed by a more stabilized release of 70-80% after 40-50 h. For fluorescein sodium loaded on graphene oxide, the drug release only reached 45% towards the end of 240 h. When the composite acted as a dual drug release system, the interaction of fluorescein sodium and methyl blue slowed down the methyl blue release rate. Under pH 4, both single and dual drug systems showed a much higher release rate. In addition, our composite system demonstrated strong antibacterial abilities against and , as well as an excellent photothermal conversion effect under irradiation of near infrared lasers. The photothermal conversion efficiency can be controlled by the laser power. These unique functionalities of our nanocomposite point to its potential application in multiple areas, such as multimodal therapeutics in healthcare, water treatment, and anti-microbials, among others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124926PMC
April 2021

Factors associated with test failure in pregnant women undergoing cell-free DNA-based testing for fetal trisomy.

J Med Screen 2021 Apr 22:9691413211009940. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

34732Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To investigate the factors associated with cell-free DNA test failure, and the optimal subsequent management of these pregnancies.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of 27,363 singleton pregnancies undergoing cell-free DNA testing. Women with cell-free DNA test failure were divided into a high-risk group and a low-risk group according to their indications. The subsequent management and pregnancy outcomes of these women were followed up.

Results: The rate of cell-free DNA test failure at the first sampling was 1.49%, and 78.4% of failures were due to a low fetal fraction. Of the 66 women who refused any subsequent management, an adverse pregnancy outcome was seen in 5 cases, all belonging to the high-risk group. Of the 13 low-risk women who chose second-trimester maternal serum screening, all obtained a low-risk maternal serum screening result and an unaffected pregnancy outcome. A redraw was chosen by 171 women, which yielded a result in 75.4% and their pregnancy outcomes were unaffected; 42 women had an uninformative result again and received an amniocentesis. As 158 women had an amniocentesis after the first sampling, this procedure was offered in 200 cases altogether. Abnormal genetic testing results were shown in six (3%, 6/200) cases, all in the high-risk group.

Conclusions: High-risk pregnant women with cell-free DNA test failure are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A second sampling for cell-free DNA test or maternal serum screening might be suggested to low-risk women. Invasive prenatal diagnosis should be offered to the high-risk patients, especially those with a second cell-free DNA test failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09691413211009940DOI Listing
April 2021

YSL3-mediated copper distribution is required for fertility, seed size and protein accumulation in Brachypodium.

Plant Physiol 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Soil and Crop Sciences Section, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Addressing the looming global food security crisis requires the development of high-yielding crops. In agricultural soils, deficiency in the micronutrient copper significantly decreases grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum), a globally important crop. In cereals, grain yield is determined by inflorescence architecture, flower fertility, grain size, and weight. Whether copper is involved in these processes, and how it is delivered to the reproductive organs is not well understood. We show that copper deficiency alters not only the grain set but also flower development in both wheat and its recognized model, Brachypodium distachyon. We then show that the Brachypodium yellow stripe-like 3 (YSL3) transporter localizes to the phloem, transports copper in frog (Xenopus laevis) oocytes, and facilitates copper delivery to reproductive organs and grains. Failure to deliver copper, but not iron, zinc or manganese to these structures in the ysl3 CRISPR-Cas9 mutant results in delayed flowering, altered inflorescence architecture, reduced floret fertility, grain size, weight, and protein accumulation. These defects are rescued by copper supplementation and are complemented by YSL3 cDNA. This knowledge will help to devise sustainable approaches for improving grain yield in regions where soil quality is a major obstacle for crop production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiab054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154065PMC
February 2021

A Rapid PCR-Free Next-Generation Sequencing Method for the Detection of Copy Number Variations in Prenatal Samples.

Life (Basel) 2021 Jan 28;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing 100730, China.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is emerging as a new method for the detection of clinically significant copy number variants (CNVs). In this study, we developed and validated rapid CNV-sequencing (rCNV-seq) for clinical application in prenatal diagnosis. Low-pass whole-genome sequencing was performed on PCR libraries prepared from amniocyte genomic DNA. From 10-40 ng of input DNA, PCR-free libraries consistently produced sequencing data with high unique read mapping ratios, low read redundancy, low coefficient of variation for all chromosomes and high genomic coverage. In validation studies, reliable and accurate CNV detection using PCR-free-based rCNV-seq was demonstrated for a range of common trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies as well as microdeletion and duplication syndromes. In reproducibility studies, CNV copy number and genomic intervals closely matched those defined by chromosome microarray analysis. Clinical testing of genomic DNA samples from 217 women referred for prenatal diagnosis identified eight samples (3.7%) with known chromosome disorders. We conclude that PCR-free-based rCNV-seq is a sensitive, specific, reproducible and efficient method that can be used in any NGS-based diagnostic laboratory for detection of clinically significant CNVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11020098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911416PMC
January 2021

Therapeutic effect of the injectable thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with SHP099 on intervertebral disc degeneration.

Life Sci 2021 Feb 10;266:118891. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Orthopedic Research Institute, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (IDD), a common musculoskeletal disease with limited self-healing ability, is challenging to treat. The development of innovative therapies to reverse IDD depends on the elucidation of its regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, the role of Src homology region 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) in the pathogenesis of IDD and the therapeutic effect of its small-molecule inhibitor, SHP099, were investigated.

Materials And Methods: The expression of SHP2 by nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in IVD was investigated in vitro and in vivo, and its molecular mechanism in IDD was explored using transfection technology. Injectable N-isopropylacrylamide-based thermosensitive hydrogels were synthesized for SHP099 delivery.

Key Findings: SHP2 was highly expressed in degenerated IVDs, where its overexpression in NP cells inhibited the expression of Sry-related HMG box-9 (Sox9), leading to the decreased expression of key proteins (collagen II and aggrecan) and consequently to IDD. SHP099 reversed the degeneration of NP cells in vitro. Moreover, its administration in rats via the injectable thermosensitive hydrogel had a therapeutic effect on IDD.

Significance: Our results suggest that SHP2 is a key factor in IDD progression, and SHP099 inhibits both its expression and NP cell degeneration. Therefore, SHP099 delivery via injectable thermosensitive hydrogels is a potential treatment strategy for IDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118891DOI Listing
February 2021

Simultaneous Detection of CNVs and SNVs Improves the Diagnostic Yield of Fetuses with Ultrasound Anomalies and Normal Karyotypes.

Genes (Basel) 2020 11 25;11(12). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.

The routine assessment to determine the genetic etiology for fetal ultrasound anomalies follows a sequential approach, which usually takes about 6-8 weeks turnaround time (TAT). We evaluated the clinical utility of simultaneous detection of copy number variations (CNVs) and single nucleotide variants (SNVs)/small insertion-deletions (indels) in fetuses with a normal karyotype with ultrasound anomalies. We performed CNV detection by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) or low pass CNV-sequencing (CNV-seq), and in parallel SNVs/indels detection by trio-based clinical exome sequencing (CES) or whole exome sequencing (WES). Eight-three singleton pregnancies with a normal fetal karyotype were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variations were identified in 30 cases (CNVs in 3 cases, SNVs/indels in 27 cases), indicating an overall molecular diagnostic rate of 36.1% (30/83). Two cases had both a CNV of uncertain significance (VOUS) and likely pathogenic SNV, and one case carried both a VOUS CNV and an SNV. We demonstrated that simultaneous analysis of CNVs and SNVs/indels can improve the diagnostic yield of prenatal diagnosis with shortened reporting time, namely, 2-3 weeks. Due to the relatively long TAT for sequential procedure for prenatal genetic diagnosis, as well as recent sequencing technology advancements, it is clinically necessary to consider the simultaneous evaluation of CNVs and SNVs/indels to enhance the diagnostic yield and timely TAT, especially for cases in the late second trimester or third trimester.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11121397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759943PMC
November 2020

Nucleus-located PDK1 regulates growth, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells.

Life Sci 2020 Jul 26;253:117722. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, PR China. Electronic address:

Aims: It is well known that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) is highly expressed in breast cancer (BC) tissues and promotes tumor growth, but the underlying mechanisms of this process are unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of nuclear PDK1 on growth, migration and invasion in human BC cells.

Main Methods: The sub-cellular localization of PDK1 in BC cells was performed with subcellular fractionation followed by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The localization of PDK1 in breast normal tissue and breast duct carcinoma was detected by Immunohistochemistry. Then the protein-protein interaction between PDK1 and Importin β was verified by co-immunoprecipitation assay. Finally, the effects of nuclear PDK1 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of BC cells were assessed.

Key Findings: In addition to its well-known sub-cellular localization, PDK1 was present in the nucleus of BC cells, and EGF treatment increased nucleus distribution of PDK1. Moreover, the level of nuclear PDK1 accumulation facilitated the growth of BC cells. We also found that the entry of PDK1 into nucleus mainly relied on the nuclear localization signal (NLS), and NLS mutation inhibited the entry of PDK1 into nucleus; as a result, the migration and invasion abilities of BC cells were impaired, and the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased.

Significance: Our findings provided a new supplement to the sub-cellular localization of PDK1 in BC cells and uncovered the function of nuclear PDK1 in facilitating BC cells growth, migration and invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117722DOI Listing
July 2020

Chitosan-based asymmetric topological membranes with cell-like features for healthcare applications.

J Mater Chem B 2019 04 20;7(16):2634-2642. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Analytical and Testing Center, Research Center for Nano-biomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, West China School of Preclinical and Forensic Medicine, & School of Materials Science & Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

Chitosan-based guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membranes are extensively used in orthopedic/stomatological regenerative medicine since chitosan shares many chemical and structural similarities with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the extracellular matrix. However, the available chitosan-based GTR membranes mostly lack topological features of natural tissues, resulting in unsatisfactory biocompatibility. To address this limitation, we developed a novel biologically-inspired asymmetric topological chitosan (ATCS) membrane supported by a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. We, thereafter, investigated the mechanical properties, degradation, and cytocompatibility of the ATCS membranes and compared them with those of the symmetric chitosan (SyCS) membranes, produced with a smooth Al template. The asymmetric topological structure significantly increased the tensile strength but decreased the extent of degradation of the ATCS membranes compared to those of SyCS. In the in vitro studies, the ATCS membranes outperformed the SyCS membranes in cytocompatibility due to their cell-like features. In addition to the ATCS membranes, the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) membranes with a similar cell-like structure were successfully fabricated using the AAO template to verify the universality of the AAO template-assisted technique. Accordingly, the AAO template-assisted strategy, defined in this study, is an innovative, universal, and facile way to fabricate polymeric asymmetric membranes with cell-like features. The bioengineered ATCS membranes with tunable degradability, prominent mechanical properties and biocompatibility are promising candidates for orthopedic healthcare applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8tb03296cDOI Listing
April 2019

Study on Weight Function Distribution of Hybrid Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Electromagnetic Flowmeter.

Authors:
Yulin Jiang

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Mar 5;20(5). Epub 2020 Mar 5.

College of Information Engineering, Zhongshan Polytechnic College, Zhongshan 528404, China.

The electromagnetic flowmeter is usually used for single-phase fluid parameter measurement. When the measured fluid is gas-liquid two-phase flow, the geometry of the sensor measurement space will change with the movement of the gas, which will cause measurement errors. The weight function distribution is an important parameter to analyze such measurement errors. The traditional method for calculating the weight function of gas-liquid two-phase flow involves complex dimensional space transformation, which is difficult to understand and apply. This paper presents a new method for calculating the weight function of the gas-liquid two-phase flow electromagnetic flowmeter. Firstly, based on the measurement principle of the electromagnetic flowmeter, a general model of weight function of the gas-liquid two-phase flow electromagnetic flowmeter is built. Secondly, the bubbles in the fluid are regarded as the "isolated" points in the flow field. According to the physical connection between the "field" of the measured fluid and the "source" of the sensor electrode, the Green's function expression based on gas-liquid two-phase flow is established. Then, combined with the boundary conditions of the measurement space of the electromagnetic flowmeter, the Green's function is analyzed. Finally, the general model of weight function is solved by using the expression of Green's function, then the expression of the weight function of the electromagnetic flowmeter is obtained when the measured fluid is hybrid gas-liquid two-phase flow. The simulation results show that the proposed method can reasonably describe the influence of the gas in the measured fluid on the output signal of the sensor, and the experimental results also indirectly prove the rationality of this method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20051431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085657PMC
March 2020

Multifunctional composite hydrogel bolus with combined self-healing, antibacterial and adhesive functions for radiotherapy.

J Mater Chem B 2020 04;8(13):2627-2635

Analytical & Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

Radiotherapy is a commonly used method for curing cancers that appear on or just below the skin. Because of the dose build-up effect of X-rays, boluses made of various materials such as silica and wax are clinically applied on patients to increase the skin dose for an enhanced therapeutic effect. However, these commercial boluses can't conform well to the skin's surface with some curvature, resulting in radiation dose attenuation/loss at the lesion location. To address this limitation, we have developed a nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2)-incorporated polyurethane/polyacrylamide (TPU/PAAm) hydrogel with multi-functions for fabricating a desirable bolus. The obtained hydrogel exhibits excellent mechanical, adhesive and self-healing properties and can fit closely to the surface of patients with any 3D curvature, eliminating the air gap which is a common problem for commercial boluses applied on patients. In particular, it is encouraging that when using the bolus made of TPU/PAAm hydrogel, the dose distribution including dose coverage, conformability and homogeneity within the planning target volume (PTV) is far superior to that when using the commercial bolus. A sufficient dose shifts toward the surface of the head model and is located only in the lesion site, demonstrating that TPU-PAAm hydrogel can provide an optimal dose distribution and be clinically effective for treating superficial tumors. Furthermore, nTiO2 particles feature uniform dispersion at the nanometer level in hydrogel after being modified by 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (DMPA) based on coordination chemistry, endowing the hydrogel with long-acting antibacterial ability. The good cell affinity of TPU-PAAm hydrogel is also confirmed in this study, further ensuring that the TPU-PAAm hydrogel prepared here is a desirable candidate as a tissue equivalent with the advantages of convenient use and effectiveness in radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9tb02967bDOI Listing
April 2020

In situ encapsulation of CoO polyhedra in graphene sheets for high-capacitance supercapacitors.

Dalton Trans 2019 Apr;48(17):5773-5778

Hubei Engineering Technology Research Centre of Energy Polymer Materials, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China.

Co3O4 polyhedra were well encapsulated in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets by in situ growth of Co-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) polyhedra in the presence of graphene oxide followed by thermal annealing. The resultant rGO/Co3O4 composites consist of a continuously-conductive double-network constructed from graphene sheets and the derived N-doped carbons from ZIF-67, showing a large specific surface area of 523 m2 g-1. The as-fabricated symmetrical supercapacitor based on rGO/Co3O4 exhibits a high specific capacitance of 277.5 F g-1 at 25 A g-1 and an energy density of 24.7 W h kg-1 at a power density of up to 40 kW kg-1. The supercapacitor also retains 87.5% of the initial capacitance over 5000 cycles at 5 A g-1. Such large capacitance, high energy density, and excellent cycling stability for rGO/Co3O4 are attributable to the 3D double conductive network from 2D graphene sheets and porous channels of pseudo-capacitive Co3O4 polyhedra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9dt00521hDOI Listing
April 2019

The miR-186-3p/EREG axis orchestrates tamoxifen resistance and aerobic glycolysis in breast cancer cells.

Oncogene 2019 07 9;38(28):5551-5565. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Key Laboratory of Diagnostic Medicine Designated by the Ministry of Education, Chongqing Medical University, 400016, Chongqing, China.

Tamoxifen resistance is one of the major challenges for its medical uses in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Aerobic glycolysis, an anomalous characteristic of glucose metabolism in cancer cells, has been shown to associate with the resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. It remains, however, largely unclear whether and how tamoxifen resistance contributes to aerobic glycolysis in breast cancer. Here, we report that tamoxifen resistance is associated with enhanced glycolysis in ER-positive breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that EREG, an agonist of EGFR, has an important role in enhancing glycolysis via activating EGFR signaling and its downstream glycolytic genes in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. We further show that EREG is a direct target of miR-186-3p and that downregulation of miR-186-3p by tamoxifen results in EREG upregulation in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. Importantly, systemic delivery of cholesterol-modified agomiR-186-3p to mice bearing tamoxifen-resistant breast tumors effectively attenuates both tumor growth and [F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose ([F]-FDG) uptake. Together, our results reveal a novel molecular mechanism of resistance to hormone therapies in which the miR-186-3p/EREG axis orchestrates tamoxifen resistance and aerobic glycolysis in ER-positive breast cancer, suggesting targeting miR-186-3p as a promising strategy for therapeutic intervention in endocrine-resistant breast tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-019-0817-3DOI Listing
July 2019

Maternal risk factors for severe microtia/atresia in China: A case-control study.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Dec 3;115:139-144. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Otolaryngology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, 100730, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Microtia/atresia is a severe malformation of the external ear. Previous studies have reported the potential risk factors on microtia, whereas few focused on severe microtia/atresia. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to environmental risk factors in patients with severe microtia/atresia in China.

Methods: A case-control study was conducted. Cases were patients with severe microtia/atresia who presented to PUMCH between January 2014 and October 2017. A total of 322 patients with severe microtia/atresia were enrolled and 322 normal controls matched 1:1 with the patients by sex, age and nationality were enrolled. The designed questionnaires were completed and data were gathered. Odds ratios were estimated with logistic regression models along with 95% confidence intervals in severe microtia/atresia.

Results: Most cases were males(68.6%), and the cases were observed more common in unilateral(80.7%), right-sided (54.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that threatened abortion (OR 4.066,95% CI = 2.360-7.007), NSAIDs (OR 2.576,95% CI = 1.079-6.148), virus infection (OR 1.933,95% CI = 1.148-3.256), anemia (OR 1.902,95% CI = 1.026-3.526), miscarriages (OR 1.804,95% CI = 1.425-2.285), maternal age (OR 1.079,95% CI = 1.015-1.148) and paternal age (OR 1.061,95% CI = 1.003-1.122) were associated with a higher risk of severe microtia/atresia.

Conclusion: These results support that some maternal risk factors could be associated with severe microtia/atresia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.09.033DOI Listing
December 2018

[Application for prenatal diagnosis using both chromosomal karyotype analysis and BACs-on-Beads assay].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2018 Jun;35(3):357-360

Prenatal Diagnose Center of Xinjiang Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Urumuqi, Xinjiang 830000, China.

Objective: To assess the application value in prenatal diagnosis using karyotype analysis combined with BACs-on-Beads (BoBs) assay.

Methods: Nine hundred sixty five pregnant women were subjected to amniocentesis, chromosomal karyotype analysis and detection of BoBs were employed simultaneously for abnormal number of chromosomes and 9 chromosome microdeletion syndrome in prenatal diagnosis.

Results: Fifty cases common chromosome aneupoidies were successfully detected by both karyotype analysis and BoBs which included 31 cases of trisomy 21,10 cases of trisomy 18 and 9 cases with sex chromosome abnormality. BoBs in addition detected 1 case of DiGeorge-1 microdeletion syndrome and 1 case of 7q11.23 microduplication syndrome. All 9 fetuses with chromosome abnormalities detected by karyotyping were missed by BoBs, including 2 cases of marker chromosomes,4 cases of chromosomal translocation,1 case of chromosomal inversion, 2 cases of Sex chromosome mosaicism; 2 cases of fetal inherited from the parents,7 cases for novel mutations.

Conclusion: Karyotype analysis combined with BoBs dedtection is a rapid, effective and highly accurate prenatal diagnosis model that may should be widely used in clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1003-9406.2018.03.011DOI Listing
June 2018

[Verteporfin inhibits proliferation, invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by down-regulating the expression of Yes-associated protein].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Sep;33(9):1223-1227

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To investigate the effects of verteporfin on the proliferation, invasion and migration of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and the underlying mechanism. Methods MDA-MB-231 cells in the logarithmic growth phase were randomly divided into control group and verteporfin treatment group. After MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with (0, 4, 8, 12, 16) μmol/mL verteporfin, the minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by CCK-8 assay. After treatment with 4 μmol/mL verteporfin, the invasion and migration abilities of MDA-MB-231 cells were detected by Transwell invasion assay and scratch wound healing assay, respectively. The expression levels of proliferation-associated proteins c-MYC, cyclin D1, Yes-associated protein (YAP), cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in MDA-MB-231 cells treated by (0, 4, 8, 12, 16) μmol/mL verteporfin were determined by Western blotting. Results Verteporfin markedly inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the minimal inhibitory concentration was 4 μmol/mL. The 4 μmol/mL verteporfin significantly inhibited the invasion and migration abilities of MDA-MB-231 cells. Verteporfin inhibited significantly the expressions of c-MYC, cyclin D1, YAP, CYR61 and CTGF. Conclusion Verteporfin significantly inhibits the proliferation, invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells by down-regulating the expressions of YAP and its target genes CYR61 and CTGF.
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September 2017

Cisplatin-induced autophagy protects breast cancer cells from apoptosis by regulating yes-associated protein.

Oncol Rep 2017 Dec 16;38(6):3668-3676. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Key Laboratory of Diagnostic Medicine Designated by the Ministry of Education, Chongqing Medical University, Yuzhong, Chongqing 400016, P.R. China.

Breast cancer is a common cause of cancer‑related deaths in women. Treatment with cisplatin exhibits some therapeutic efficacy. However, treatment optimization is required, and the mechanisms underlying the cisplatin's proapoptotic effects remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that cisplatin induced apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells. Autophagy induced by cisplatin played a protective role in breast cancer cells, which impaired its proapoptotic effect. Mechanistically, for the first time, we found that cisplatin treatment activated the MAPK signaling pathway and promoted autophagy via the ERK signaling pathway. Notably, we found that nuclear translocation of yes-associated protein (YAP) was regulated by cisplatin-induced autophagy, and we identified YAP as a survival input that promoted survival in cisplatin-treated breast cancer cells. These findings revealed that administration of cisplatin along with an autophagy inhibitor is a promising therapeutic strategy for treating breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2017.6035DOI Listing
December 2017

Comparative proteomics analysis of primary cutaneous amyloidosis.

Exp Ther Med 2017 Oct 31;14(4):3004-3012. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P.R. China.

Primary cutaneous amyloidosis (PCA) is a localized skin disorder that is characterized by the abnormal deposition of amyloid in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the dermis. The pathogenesis of PCA is poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to survey proteome changes in PCA lesions in order to gain insight into the molecular basis and pathogenesis of PCA. Total protein from PCA lesions and normal skin tissue samples were extracted and analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation technique. The function of differentially expressed proteins in PCA were analyzed by gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and protein-protein interaction analysis. The proteins that were most upregulated in PCA lesions were further analyzed by immunohistochemistry. A total of 1,032 proteins were identified in PCA lesions and control skin samples, with 51 proteins differentially expressed in PCA lesions, of which 27 were upregulated. In PCA lesions, the upregulated proteins were primarily extracellulary located. In addition, GO analysis indicated that the upregulated proteins were significantly enriched in the biological processes of epidermal development, collagen fiber organization and response to wounding (adjusted P<0.001). KEGG analysis indicated that the upregulated proteins were significantly enriched in the signaling pathways of cell communication, ECM receptor interaction and focal adhesion (adjusted P<0.001). Furthermore, the upregulated proteins were enriched in the molecular function of calcium ion binding, and the calcium binding proteins calmodulin-like protein 5, S100 calcium-binding protein A7 (S100A7)/fatty-acid binding protein and S100A8/A9 exhibited the highest levels of upregulation in PCA. This analysis of differentially expressed proteins in PCA suggests that increased focal adhesion, differentiation and wound healing is associated with the pathogenesis of PCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2017.4852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5585729PMC
October 2017

Leptin promotes the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by upregulating ACAT2.

Cell Oncol (Dordr) 2017 Dec 2;40(6):537-547. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Department of Otolarynology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Background: Previously, it has been shown that obesity may be considered as a risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Leptin, a hormone whose level is elevated in obesity, has been suggested to be involved in the development of breast cancer, and univariate survival analyses have shown that over-expression of ACAT2, an enzyme that is involved in the production of cholesteryl esters, may be associated with a poor prognosis. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of leptin on the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells, as well as to elucidate its underlying mode of action.

Methods: Gene expression changes in leptin treated breast cancer-derived MCF-7, T47D and BT474 cells were assessed using PCR array, qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses. The expression patterns of Ob-R (leptin receptor) and ACAT2 in breast cancer cells and primary breast cancer tissue samples were analyzed using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Leptin-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells was assessed using a CCK8 assay, and scratch wound and Transwell assays were used to assess breast cancer cell invasion and migration.

Results: We found that, among the genes tested, ACAT2 expression exhibited the most significant changes in the leptin treated cells. In addition, we found that inhibition of ACAT2 expression using pyripyropene A (PPPA) or siRNA-mediated gene silencing significantly decreased leptin-induced proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF-7 and T47D cells. Subsequent Western blot analyses strongly indicated that the PI3K/AKT/SREBP2 signaling pathway was involved in leptin-induced ACAT2 upregulation in both MCF-7 and T47D cells. Finally, through the analysis of primary breast cancer tissue samples we found that ACAT2 may affect cancer progression through activation of the Ob-R.

Conclusions: Our data indicate that leptin may enhance the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells via ACAT2 up-regulation through the PI3K/AKT/SREBP2 signaling pathway. Therefore, the leptin/ACAT2 axis may represent an attractive therapeutic target for breast cancer, particularly in postmenopausal and/or obese women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13402-017-0342-8DOI Listing
December 2017

Pyruvate kinase M2 interacts with mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 and inhibits tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

Tumour Biol 2017 Apr;39(4):1010428317692251

1 Key Laboratory of Diagnostic Medicine Designated by the Ministry of Education, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Tamoxifen has been reported to be associated with antagonism of estrogen-mediated cell growth signaling and activation of estrogen receptor-independent apoptosis events. It has been demonstrated that mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 is a direct target of Caspases to amplify the apoptotic signaling pathway. Here, we presented that breast cancer MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells under treatment with 4-hydroxytamoxifen displayed decreased level of pyruvate kinase M2. Western blot results also showed that 4-hydroxytamoxifen induced the activity of pro-apoptotic protein Caspase-3 in MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells, as evidenced by the cleavage of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 substrate in a dose-dependent manner. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence experiments were performed to clarify the relationship between pyruvate kinase M2 and mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1. The results indicated that mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 was associated with pyruvate kinase M2 in cultured mammalian cells, and the interaction between mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 and pyruvate kinase M2 was decreased in response to 4-hydroxytamoxifen treatment. In addition, knockdown of pyruvate kinase M2 upregulated the level of cleaved Caspase-3 and subsequently facilitated the nuclear translocation of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1. Our data further supplemented the extensive functions of pyruvate kinase M2 in mediating breast cancer cell viability by substantially abating the mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1-mediated apoptosis. In summary, our results identified that mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 is a novel downstream target of pyruvate kinase M2, and knockdown of pyruvate kinase M2 contributes apoptosis via promoting nuclear translocation of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 by enhancing Caspase-3-dependent cleavage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010428317692251DOI Listing
April 2017

Invalidation of mitophagy by FBP1-mediated repression promotes apoptosis in breast cancer.

Tumour Biol 2017 Jun;39(6):1010428317708779

Key Laboratory of Diagnostic Medicine Designated by the Ministry of Education, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China.

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, was recently shown to be a tumor suppressor. However, the functions of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 in the regulation of mitophagy and apoptosis remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 on mitophagy and apoptosis as well as their underlying mechanisms in breast cancer cells. In this work, the messenger RNA and protein expression of various molecules were determined by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. Gene-expression correlations were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas Breast Cancer database and analyzed using cBioPortal. The levels of cellular reactive oxygen species and apoptotic index were detected by flow cytometry. The mitochondrial membrane potentials were assessed with a JC-1 fluorescent sensor. Subcellular structures were observed under a transmission electron microscope. The intracellular distribution of translocase of outer membrane 20 was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Protein-protein interactions were analyzed by immunoprecipitation. Our results indicated that fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 expression was negatively correlated with autophagy level in breast cancer. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 restrained autophagy activity by increasing the level of p62 and decreasing the levels of LC3 and Beclin 1. Additionally, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 promoted cell apoptosis by upregulating the levels of intracellular ROS and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as cleaved PARP, cleaved Caspase 3, and Bax and downregulating the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins such as PARP, Caspase 3, and Bcl-2. Finally, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 limited the efficient removal of diseased mitochondria and reduced the messenger RNA and protein expressions of HIF-1α, BNIP3L/NIX, and BNIP3. More importantly, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 facilitated co-action between Bcl-2 and Beclin 1, which may be important in the mechanism of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1-mediated mitophagy inhibition. In summary, loss of mitophagy by fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1-mediated repression promotes apoptosis in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010428317708779DOI Listing
June 2017

[Prenatal diagnosis of a rare case of 7q11.23 duplication syndrome].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2017 Apr;34(2):244-246

Center for Prenatal Diagnosis, Maternal and Child's Health Hospital of Xinjiang Ughur Autonomous Region, Urumuqi, Xinjiang 830000, China.

Objective: To explore the application of combined techniques for the prenatal diagnosis of a case with 7q11.23 duplication.

Methods: Amniocentesis was performed in the second trimester for a mother with a high risk suggested by serological prenatal screening. G-banded chromosomal analysis was performed on cultured amniocytes and peripheral blood samples from both parents. DNA from amniotic fluid sample was isolated for a BACs-on-Beads (BoBs) assay. To define the range of duplication, copy number variation was determined with single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array, Affymetrix CytoScan 750K) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis.

Results: Chromosomal analysis suggested that the fetus and both parents all had a normal karyotype, while a duplication of 7q11.23 was detected by the BoBs assay. SNP array revealed a 1.5 Mb duplication in chromosome 7q11.23, which was confirmed by FISH.

Conclusion: Combined prenatal BoBs, SNP array and FISH has enabled effective diagnose of a case with 7q11.23 syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1003-9406.2017.02.021DOI Listing
April 2017

A prospective clinical trial to compare the performance of dried blood spots prenatal screening for Down's syndrome with conventional non-invasive testing technology.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2017 03 5;242(5):547-553. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

To evaluate, side by side, the efficiency of dried blood spots (DBSs) against serum screening for Down's syndrome, and then, to construct a two-tier strategy by topping up the fetal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) secondary screening over the high-risk women marked by the primary blood testing to build a practical screening tactic to identify fetal Down's syndrome. One thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven low-risk Chinese women, with singleton pregnancy, were enrolled for the study. Alpha-fetoprotein and free beta human chorionic gonadotropin were measured for the serum as well as for the parallel DBS samples. Partial high-risk pregnant women identified by primary blood testing (n = 38) were also subject to the secondary cfDNA screening. Diagnostic amniocentesis was utilized to confirm the screening results. The true positive rate for Down's syndrome detection was 100% for both blood screening methods; however, the false-positive rate was 3.0% for DBS and 4.0% for serum screening, respectively. DBS correlated well with serum screening on Down's syndrome detection. Three out of 38 primary high-risk women displayed chromosomal abnormalities by cfDNA analysis, which were confirmed by amniocentesis. Either the true detection rate or the false-positive rate for Down's syndrome between DBS and the serum test is comparable. In addition, blood primary screening aligned with secondary cfDNA analysis, a "before and after" two-tier screening strategy, can massively decrease the false-positive rate, which, then, dramatically reduces the demand for invasive diagnostic operation. Impact statement Children born with Down's syndrome display a wide range of mental and physical disability. Currently, there is no effective treatment to ease the burden and anxiety of the Down's syndrome family and the surrounding society. This study is to evaluate the efficiency of dried blood spots against serum screening for Down's syndrome and to construct a two-tier strategy by topping up the fetal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) secondary screening over the high-risk women marked by the primary blood testing to build a practical screening tactic to identify fetal Down's syndrome. Results demonstrate that fetal cfDNA can significantly reduce false-positive rate close to none while distinguishing all true positives. Thus, we recommend that fetal cfDNA analysis to be utilized as a secondary screening tool atop of the primary blood protein screening to further minimize the capacity of undesirable invasive diagnostic operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1535370216683837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5367654PMC
March 2017

Leptin promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer via the upregulation of pyruvate kinase M2.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2016 10 21;35(1):166. Epub 2016 Oct 21.

Key Laboratory of Diagnostic Medicine Designated by the Ministry of Education, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Background: Accumulating researches have shown that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to tumor metastasis. Leptin, a key adipokine secreted from adipocytes, shapes the tumor microenvironment, potentiates the migration of breast cancer cells and angiogenesis, and is also involved in EMT. However, the potential mechanism remains unknown. This study aims to explore the effect of leptin on EMT in breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanism.

Methods: With the assessment of EMT-associated marker expression in MCF-7, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-468 cells, the effect of leptin on breast cancer cells was analyzed. Besides, an array of pathway inhibitors as well as RNA interference targeting pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) were used to clarify the underlying mechanism of leptin-mediated EMT in vitro and in vivo.

Results: The results demonstrated that leptin promoted breast cancer cells EMT, visibly activated the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and upregulated PKM2 expression. An antibody against the leptin receptor (anti-ObR) and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway inhibitor LY294002 significantly abolished leptin-induced PKM2 expression and EMT-associated marker expression. SiRNA targeting PKM2 partially abolished leptin-induced migration, invasion, and EMT-associated marker expression. In vivo xenograft experiments indicated that RNA interference against PKM2 suppressed breast cancer growth and metastasis.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that leptin promotes EMT in breast cancer cells via the upregulation of PKM2 expression as well as activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and PKM2 might be one of the key points and potential targets for breast cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-016-0446-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5073421PMC
October 2016

Linking optical properties of dissolved organic matter to multiple processes at the coastal plume zone in the East China Sea.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2016 Oct;18(10):1316-1324

Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of the Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Because of the significance in photosynthesis, nutrient dynamics, trophodynamics and biological activity, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is important to the microbial community in the coastal plume zone. In this study, we investigated the hydrodynamic processes, photodegradation and biodegradation of DOM at the Yangtze River plume in the East China Sea through analyzing water quality and optical properties of DOM. Surface water samples were collected to examine water quality and fluorescence properties of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM). The results indicated that dilution was the key factor in the multiple processes, and the mixing process gradually increased from nearshore to offshore in coastal water. Four components of FDOM representing humic-like substances (C1 & C4) and protein-like substances (C2 & C3) were identified, and all components showed nearly conservative behaviors. Protein-like substances were more mutable compared to humic-like substances. The photodegradation of humic-like substances caused brown algae blooms to some extent. The molecular weight of humic substances gradually decreased along the mixing process. FDOM in the plume zone was both of terrigenous and autochthonous origins, and the characteristic of terrigenous origin was obvious compared to that of autochthonous origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6em00341aDOI Listing
October 2016

Quantitative Proteomic Profiling the Molecular Signatures of Annexin A5 in Lung Squamous Carcinoma Cells.

PLoS One 2016;11(9):e0163622. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Key Laboratory for Proteomics of Liaoning Province, Dalian Medical University, Lvshun South Road No 9, Dalian, 116044, Liaoning, China.

Lung cancer remains the leading cancer killer around the world. It's crucial to identify newer mechanism-based targets to effectively manage lung cancer. Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is a protein kinase C inhibitory protein and calcium dependent phospholipid-binding protein, which may act as an endogenous regulator of various pathophysiological processes. However, its molecular mechanism in lung cancer remains poorly understood. This study was designed to determine the mechanism of ANXA5 in lung cancer with a hope to obtain useful information to provide a new therapeutic target. We used a stable isotope dimethyl labeling based quantitative proteomic method to identify differentially expressed proteins in NSCLC cell lines after ANXA5 transfection. Out of 314 proteins, we identified 26 and 44 proteins that were down- and up-regulated upon ANXA5 modulation, respectively. The IPA analysis revealed that glycolysis and gluconeogenesis were the predominant pathways modulated by ANXA5. Multiple central nodes, namely HSPA5, FN1, PDIA6, ENO1, ALDOA, JUP and KRT6A appeared to occupy regulatory nodes in the protein-protein networks upon ANXA5 modulation. Taken together, ANXA5 appears to have pleotropic effects, as it modulates multiple key signaling pathways, supporting the potential usefulness of ANXA5 as a potential target in lung cancer. This study might provide a new insight into the mechanism of ANXA5 in lung cancer.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0163622PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5042544PMC
September 2016

De Novo Sequencing and Characterization of the Transcriptome of Dwarf Polish Wheat (Triticum polonicum L.).

Int J Genomics 2016 27;2016:5781412. Epub 2016 Jun 27.

Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan 611130, China.

Construction as well as characterization of a polish wheat transcriptome is a crucial step to study useful traits of polish wheat. In this study, a transcriptome, including 76,014 unigenes, was assembled from dwarf polish wheat (DPW) roots, stems, and leaves using the software of Trinity. Among these unigenes, 61,748 (81.23%) unigenes were functionally annotated in public databases and classified into differentially functional types. Aligning this transcriptome against draft wheat genome released by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC), 57,331 (75.42%) unigenes, including 26,122 AB-specific and 2,622 D-specific unigenes, were mapped on A, B, and/or D genomes. Compared with the transcriptome of T. turgidum, 56,343 unigenes were matched with 103,327 unigenes of T. turgidum. Compared with the genomes of rice and barley, 14,404 and 7,007 unigenes were matched with 14,608 genes of barley and 7,708 genes of rice, respectively. On the other hand, 2,148, 1,611, and 2,707 unigenes were expressed specifically in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. Finally, 5,531 SSR sequences were observed from 4,531 unigenes, and 518 primer pairs were designed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5781412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4939322PMC
July 2016

Quantitation of fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma using circulating single molecule amplification and re-sequencing technology (cSMART).

Clin Chim Acta 2016 May 15;456:151-156. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Calculation of the fetal DNA fraction (FF) is important for reliable and accurate noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal genetic abnormalities. The aim of the study was to develop and validate a novel method for FF determination.

Methods: FF was calculated using the chromosome Y (ChrY) sequence read assay and by circulating single molecule amplification and re-sequencing technology of 76 autosomal SNPs.

Results: By Pearson correlation for FF (4.73-22.11%) in 33 male pregnancy samples, the R(2) co-efficient for the 76-SNP versus the ChrY assay was 0.9572 (p<0.001). In addition, the co-efficient of variation (CV) of FF measurement by the 76-SNP assay was low (0.15-0.35). As a control, the FF measurement for four non-pregnant plasma samples was virtually zero. In prospective longitudinal studies of 14 women with normal pregnancies, FF generally increased with gestational age. However, in eight women (71%) there was a significant decrease in FF between the first trimester (11-13 weeks) and the second trimester (15-19 weeks), and this was attributable to significant maternal weight gain.

Conclusions: The novel 76-SNP cSMART assay has the precision to accurately measure FF in all pregnancies at a detection threshold of 5%. Based on FF trends in individual pregnancies, our results suggest that the end of the first trimester may be a more optimal window for performing NIPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2016.03.005DOI Listing
May 2016

Analysis of the Velocity Distribution in Partially-Filled Circular Pipe Employing the Principle of Maximum Entropy.

PLoS One 2016 17;11(3):e0151578. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

The flow velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe was investigated in this paper. The velocity profile is different from full-filled pipe flow, since the flow is driven by gravity, not by pressure. The research findings show that the position of maximum flow is below the water surface, and varies with the water depth. In the region of near tube wall, the fluid velocity is mainly influenced by the friction of the wall and the pipe bottom slope, and the variation of velocity is similar to full-filled pipe. But near the free water surface, the velocity distribution is mainly affected by the contractive tube wall and the secondary flow, and the variation of the velocity is relatively small. Literature retrieval results show relatively less research has been shown on the practical expression to describe the velocity distribution of partially-filled circular pipe. An expression of two-dimensional (2D) velocity distribution in partially-filled circular pipe flow was derived based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME). Different entropies were compared according to fluid knowledge, and non-extensive entropy was chosen. A new cumulative distribution function (CDF) of partially-filled circular pipe velocity in terms of flow depth was hypothesized. Combined with the CDF hypothesis, the 2D velocity distribution was derived, and the position of maximum velocity distribution was analyzed. The experimental results show that the estimated velocity values based on the principle of maximum Tsallis wavelet entropy are in good agreement with measured values.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151578PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4795656PMC
July 2016

Identification of candidate genes JcARF19 and JcIAA9 associated with seed size traits in Jatropha.

Funct Integr Genomics 2014 Dec 17;14(4):757-66. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604, Singapore, Singapore.

Jatropha curcas is a new promising bioenergy crop due to the high oil content in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. Seed size, a major determinant of Jatropha oil yield, is a target trait for Jatropha breeding. Due to the vital roles of phytohormone auxin in controlling seed and fruit development, we screened key genes in auxin pathway including ARF and IAA families and downstream effectors to identify candidate genes controlling seed size in Jatropha. As a result, JcARF19 was mapped in the major quantitative trait locus (QTL) region and significantly associated with seed length. By using expression QTL (eQTL) analysis to link variants with functional candidate genes, we provided evidences that seed traits were affected by the interaction of JcARF19 and JcIAA9. ARF19 and IAA9, involved in auxin signal transduction, were conserved in higher plants. These data including the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the two genes could lead to utilization of the genes by integrating favored alleles into elite varieties through marker-assisted selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-014-0400-5DOI Listing
December 2014