Publications by authors named "Yulin Fang"

60 Publications

Investigation of the value of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and coronary artery lesions in prognosis of percutaneous coronary intervention patients.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):6646-6653. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Geriatrics, The Sixth Hospital of Wuhan, Affiliated Hospital of Jianghan University Wuhan 430000, Hubei, China.

Objective: To investigate the value of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV) and coronary artery lesions in assessing prognosis of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients.

Methods: A total of 300 PCI patients admitted to our hospital were selected as study subjects, and were divided into Group A (0-13 m/s, n=180) and Group B (> 13 m/s, n=120) in accordance with different carotid-femoral pulse wave velocities (CFPWVs). Coronary artery lesions, incidence rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at different stages, and differences in the indexes of cardiac function were compared between the two groups.

Results: Compared to Group A, Group B had more severe coronary artery lesions and higher incidence rates of postoperative complications and MACE during hospital stay and 2-year follow-up ( < 0.05). At 1 month after surgery, the left ventricular stroke volume, left ventricular end-diastolic volume and left ventricular ejection fraction in Group A were higher than those of Group B. CFPWV was significantly correlated with Gensini score (GS) and incidence rate of MACE ( < 0.05), and the differences in the area under curve (AUC) of CFPWV for predicting the incidence rate of MACE were significant ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: CFPEV, exhibits value in assessing the prognosis of PCI patients, and can effectively predict the postoperative incidence of MACE, which is conducive to the establishment of subsequent regimens. Therefore, CFPEV is worthy of clinical promotion and implementation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290781PMC
June 2021

Enhancement of anthocyanin and chromatic profiles in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) by foliar nitrogen fertilizer during veraison.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

College of Enology, College of Food Science and Engineering, College of Natural Resources and Environment, Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-Viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Background: The influence of foliar nitrogen fertilizer during veraison (FNFV) on anthocyanin accumulation and chromatic characteristics of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes over two seasons was investigated.

Results: Urea and phenylalanine fertilizers (TU and TP, respectively) and a control were sprayed three times at veraison. In 2018, TU displayed a significant enhancement in total individual anthocyanin content and a* and C * profiles. In 2019, FNAV significantly improved the content of total non-acylated, acylated anthocyanin and total individual anthocyanin, and the profiles of L*, a* and C *, except a* in TU. The whole process from phenylalanine variation to anthocyanin accumulation in grape skins was analyzed. On the whole, after the first FNFV to harvest, the increase in phenylalanine metabolism, abscisic acid content, effects of PAL (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase), UFGT (UDP glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase) and transcript concentrations of VvPAL and VvUFGT involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were also strong evidence explaining the increased anthocyanin and chromatic profiles in 2019.

Conclusion: Overall, FNFV for nitrogen-deficient grapevines could significantly improve grape color, especially in the 2019 veraison with a proper climate. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11368DOI Listing
June 2021

Metabolomic profile combined with transcriptomic analysis reveals the value of UV-C in improving the utilization of waste grape berries.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 4;363:130288. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Enology, Viti-Viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-Viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

Table grape is a popular fruit worldwide. The quality of the appearance of table grapes directly affects their commercial value. Table grape bunches are usually carefully managed during production. At different developmental stages, a large number of grape berries are pruned as waste for commercial appearance, which leads to wasted resources. Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) can regulate the accumulation of secondary metabolites in fruits. In this study, metabolomic profile was combined with transcriptomic analysis technology to explore the value of UV-C in improving the utilization of waste grapes. The berries of the 'Jumeigui' grape were subjected to UV-C radiation treatment in the green-berry stage, veraison stage, and maturation stage. The results showed that UV-C could brown grape berries and decrease their sugar content at different developmental stages. Compared with other samples, those treated with UV-C in the veraison stage had the most upregulated metabolites, while samples in the green-berry stage had the most down-regulated metabolites. UV-C promoted the accumulation of stilbenes and some flavonoids in the berries at each developmental stage (especially at the green-berry and veraison stages). Compared with other stages, UV-C treatment during the veraison stage led to the highest number of upregulated genes related to transcription factors, protein modification, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin acid (GA), receptor kinases, and Ascorbic acid/Glutathione (Ascorb/Gluath). UV-C might promote the accumulation of phenolic components by upregulating the expression of their biosynthesis related genes. UV-C may be an effective in vitro approach for improving the application value of waste grape berries by enhancing the accumulation of the nutritious phenolic components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130288DOI Listing
June 2021

Kawasaki like illness due to COVID-19: a review of the literature.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 05 31;15(5):630-638. Epub 2021 May 31.

Divisions of Infectious Diseases and Hematology/Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

Introduction: Viral infections have been described as triggers for Kawasaki Disease (KD), a medium vessel vasculitis that affects young children. Akin to the H1N1 pandemic in 2009, there is a similar rise in the incidence of KD in children affected with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) has been reported to induce an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response resulting in multi-organ involvement, particularly initiated with pulmonary parenchymal damage. This review article will discuss KD-like manifestations in COVID-19 patients in the pediatric cohort.

Methodology: Search terms "Kawasaki" "COVID-19" "SARS-COV-2" "PIM-TS" and "MIS-C" were used to look for relevant articles in PubMed and Google Scholar published in the last 5 years.

Results: There is some evidence to suggest that SARS-CoV-2 stimulates dysfunctional and hyperactive immune reactions mimicking KD in young patients.

Conclusions: Therapeutic options, both investigational and repurposed, include intravenous immunoglobulins, steroids and anticoagulation. More studies are required to evaluate the effectiveness of these treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.14185DOI Listing
May 2021

Evolution of volatile profile and aroma potential of table grape Hutai-8 during berry ripening.

Food Res Int 2021 05 22;143:110330. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China; Heyang Experimental and Demonstrational Stations for Grape, Northwest A&F University, Heyang, Shaanxi 715300, China. Electronic address:

Hutai-8 (Vitis vinifera × Vitis labrusca) is a table grape widely cultivated in China. In order to determine the changes in volatile profile and aroma potential during berry ripening, a total of 84 free and 73 bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Aldehydes and esters were found to be the main volatile compounds in Hutai-8. They accumulated up to 70 days after flowering (DAF) and then decreased. Bound esters and alcohols were prominent. The concentration of bound esters in Hutai-8 at DAF80 was 714.90 µg/L. β-Damascenone, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, and ethyl octanoate significantly contributed to the volatile profile of Hutai-8. The odor activity value (OAV) of hexanal was the highest at DAF80, reaching 351.51. β-Damascenone mainly appeared midway through the maturation process, reaching a concentration of 12.79 µg/L. The majority of free components reached a maximum in DAF70, while the bound components continuously accumulated throughout the mature period. These results suggest that in addition to being a table grape, Hutai-8 has potential for brewing and other processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110330DOI Listing
May 2021

Plant-derived melatonin from food: a gift of nature.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 1;12(7):2829-2849. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Enology, College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

In recent years, people have become increasingly interested in bioactive ingredients from plants, especially antioxidant molecules such as melatonin, which are beneficial to human health. The purpose of this article is to provide new information on plant-derived foods with a high content of melatonin. We comprehensively summarize the content of melatonin in plant-derived foods and discuss the factors that influence melatonin levels to provide new ideas on enhancement. Additionally, we describe the biosynthetic pathway of melatonin and identify its major functions. Medicinal herbs are often rich in melatonin while many vegetables and fruits exhibit somewhat lower levels with wide variations among species. The genetic traits of plants, the phenological stage of the cultivar, the photoperiod, the level of stress to which the plants are exposed at the time of harvest, exposure to agrochemicals and determination methods are the main factors affecting the melatonin content. To date, standardization of uniform sampling times and the use of suitable pretreatments as well as determination methods have not been achieved. The results of the studies reviewed highlight the potentially important role of plant melatonin in influencing the progression of human diseases. Based on the health promotional aspects of melatonin, consuming foods containing higher concentrations of tryptophan and melatonin is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo03213aDOI Listing
April 2021

Real wine or not? Protecting wine with traceability and authenticity for consumers: chemical and technical basis, technique applications, challenge, and perspectives.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 7:1-27. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

College of Enology, College of Food Science and Engineering, Viti-Viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-Viniculture Station, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, China.

Wine is a high-value alcoholic beverage welcomed by consumers because of its flavor and nutritional value. The key information on wine bottle label is the basis of consumers' choice, which also becomes a target for manufacturers to adulterate, including geographical origin, grape variety and vintage. With the improvement of wine adulteration technology, modern technological means are needed to solve the above mentioned problems. The chemical basis of wine determines the type of technique used. Detection technology can be subdivided into four groups: mass spectrometry techniques, spectroscopic techniques, chromatography techniques, and other techniques. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data was performed by means of chemometrics methods. This paper outlines a series of procedures for wine classification and identification, and classified the analytical techniques and data processing methods used in recent years with listing their principles, advantages and disadvantages to help wine researchers choose appropriate methods to meet the challenge and ensure wine traceability and authenticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1906624DOI Listing
April 2021

Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Basis of Short- and Long-Term Post-Harvest UV-C Application in Regulating Grape Berry Quality Development.

Foods 2021 Mar 16;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

In this study, ultraviolet-C (UV-C) was utilized to improve the quality of post-harvest grape berries, and the transcriptomic and metabolomic basis of this improvement was elucidated. Berries of the red grape variety 'Zicui' and the white variety 'Xiangfei' were chosen to evaluate the effect of short- and long-term UV-C irradiation. Post-harvest UV-C application promoted malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline accumulation, and reduced the soluble solid content in berries. Both the variety and duration of irradiation could modulate the transcriptomic and metabolomic responses of berries to UV-C. Compared with the control, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified under UV-C treatment were enriched in pathways related to metabolite accumulation, hormone biosynthesis and signal transduction, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. Flavonoid biosynthesis and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites were the shared pathways enriched with differential metabolites. After long-term UV-C irradiation, cis-resveratrol accumulated in the berries of the two varieties, while the differential chalcone, dihydroflavone, flavonoid, flavanol, and tannin components primarily accumulated in 'Xiangfei', and some flavonols and anthocyanins primarily accumulated in 'Zicui'. Based on an exhaustive survey, we made a summary for the effect of UV-C in regulating the quality development of post-harvest grape berries. The results of this study may help to elucidate the mechanism by which UV-C functions and support its efficient application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10030625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001394PMC
March 2021

Postharvest Dehydration Temperature Modulates the Transcriptomic Programme and Flavonoid Profile of Grape Berries.

Foods 2021 Mar 23;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

College of Enology, Viti-Viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-Viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Raisins are a popular and nutritious snack that is produced through the dehydration of postharvest grape berries under high temperature (HT). However, the response of the endogenous metabolism of white grape varieties to postharvest dehydration under different temperature have not been fully elucidated to date. In this study, the white grape cultivar 'Xiangfei' was chosen to investigate the effect of dehydration at 50 °C, 40 °C, and 30 °C on the transcriptomic programme and metabolite profiles of grape berries. Postharvest dehydration promoted the accumulation of soluble sugar components and organic acids in berries. The content of gallic acid and its derivatives increased during the dehydration process and the temperature of 40 °C was the optimal for flavonoids and proanthocyanidins accumulation. High-temperature dehydration stress might promote the accumulation of gallic acid by increasing the expression levels of their biosynthesis related genes and regulating the production of NADP and NADPH. Compared with that at 30 °C, dehydration at 40 °C accelerated the transcription programme of 7654 genes and induced the continuous upregulation of genes related to the heat stress response and redox homeostasis in each stage. The results of this study indicate that an appropriate dehydration temperature should be selected and applied when producing polyphenols-rich raisins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10030687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005005PMC
March 2021

Transcriptomic and Metabolic Analyses Provide New Insights into the Effects of Exogenous Sucrose on Monoterpene Synthesis in "Muscat Hamburg" Grapes.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 31;69(14):4164-4176. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, P. R. China.

Monoterpenes provide strong floral and fruit aromas to grapes and wines. In the present study, the effects of exogenous sucrose on the monoterpenes metabolites were studied at the metabolomic and transcriptomic levels in "Muscat Hamburg" grape berries. 6% sucrose aqueous solution was used as treatment, applied at the berry color change stage and 8 days after the first application. Transcriptomics analysis was carried out on berries collected at three phenological stages (berries with intermediate Brix values, E-L 36; berries not quite ripe, E-L 37; and berries harvest-ripe, E-L 38). Our results showed that the sucrose application induced the accumulation of monoterpenes at harvest, especially geraniol and geranic acid. The summary of the number of differentially expressed genes between the control and treatment was 3465, 977, and 2843 at E-L 36, E-L 37, and E-L 38, respectively. Weighted gene correlation network analysis was constructed based on the RNA-seq data, and the MElightyellow module was probably correlated with monoterpene metabolism, comprising 131 unigenes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain expression analysis of five key differentially expressed genes in terpenoid pathways validated the RNA-seq-derived expression profiles ( = 0.8143). Our findings provided new insights into the regulation of monoterpene biosynthesis in grape berries under exogenous sucrose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c00420DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of foliar application of fulvic acid antitranspirant on sugar accumulation, phenolic profiles and aroma qualities of Cabernet Sauvignon and Riesling grapes and wines.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 18;351:129308. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

College of Enology, Viti-Viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-Viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the effects of foliar application of fulvic acid antitranspirant (FA-AT) on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Riesling grapes and wines in a warm viticulture region of China. FA-AT controlled the contents of total soluble solids, fructose and glucose in mature grapes and alcohol in wines. FA-AT improved total phenols and flavonoids in Riesling grapes, and total tannin and individual flavanols in CS grapes and wine, while reducing total individual phenolic acids and flavonols in CS wine. Increased volatiles in CS grapes (hexyl acetate, linalool) and wine (isoamyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, 2-phenylethanol) detected by SPME-GC-MS can contribute to the fruity and floral aroma. FA-AT reduced the accumulation of anthocyanins in CS grapes and wine without an eventual reduction in the tonality of wine by sensory analysis, and improved the taste and balance of Riesling wine. Overall, FA-AT can improve the quality of grapes and wines produced in warm viticulture regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129308DOI Listing
July 2021

Potential opportunities of thinned clusters in viticulture: a mini review.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Aug 5;101(11):4435-4443. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

College of Enology, Viti-viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Crop thinning is a common practice performed in the vineyard consisting of whole clusters or individual fruits being removed after flowering is attained. Current studies have reported that unripe grape products as verjuice and sour grape sauce contain high content of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, sugars, organic acids, nitrogenous compounds and sterols. This mini-review overviewed the bioactive components obtained from thinned unripe grapes such as phenolic compounds, sugars, organic acids, minerals, nitrogen compounds and sterols, and their use as antibrowning and whitening agents, natural catalysts, food preservative and food additive. In addition, their beneficial effects for human health also were reviewed, as well as the practices to maximize the extraction of antioxidant compounds. Therefore, revalorizing the waste from this management practice in viticulture can increase the vineyard sustainability and farmers' economic profits. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11170DOI Listing
August 2021

Foliar Phenylalanine Application Promoted Antioxidant Activities in Cabernet Sauvignon by Regulating Phenolic Biosynthesis.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Dec 15;68(52):15390-15402. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

College of Enology, College of Food Science and Engineering, Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-Viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

The effects of foliar phenylalanine application during veraison (FPV) on phenolic biosynthesis and correlation between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon grown in field and greenhouse were investigated. Solutions with 69 and 138 mg N/vine phenylalanine (Pe1 and Pe2, respectively) and an aqueous solution without nitrogen (CK) were sprayed three times during veraison. FPV significantly improved antioxidant activities in grapes using the two culture methods. The most contributory phenolic compositions to antioxidant activities were anthocyanins and stilbenes following FPV compared with CK. Phenylalanine metabolism, abscisic acid content, and expression levels of , , , , and in the phenolic synthesis pathway were increased from the first FPV to harvest. Although Pe2 significantly increased total phenolic contents than Pe1, antioxidant parameters were not markedly affected by the phenylalanine dose. Our finding revealed that FPV was a useful fertilization method to enhance antioxidant activities in grapes in nitrogen-deficient vineyards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c05565DOI Listing
December 2020

Dynamic changes in monoterpene accumulation and biosynthesis during grape ripening in three Vitis vinifera L. cultivars.

Food Res Int 2020 11 22;137:109736. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

Monoterpenes are important aroma components in grapes and wines. We analyzed the free and bound monoterpene profiles and the transcript levels of terpenoid biosynthesis genes in Vitis Vinifera cvs. Muscat Hamburg, Riesling, and Sauvignon Blanc grapes at five ripening stages. Principal component analyses revealed that the three cultivars had different free monoterpene profiles at harvest and the early stage of ripening. In all cultivars, the total bound monoterpene contents were higher than the free monoterpene contents during grape ripening. The changes in monoterpene profiles in different grape varieties were correlated with the transcript levels of some VviTPS and VviGT genes. In Riesling, the VviGT14 and VviUGT88A1L1 transcript levels were related to geraniol glucoside accumulation. In Muscat Hamburg, the VviPNLGl1, VviPNLGl2, and VviPNLGl4 transcript levels were related to linalool accumulation. Understanding the dynamic changes in monoterpene accumulation and biosynthesis will allow winemakers to devise strategies to improve grape and wine aromas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109736DOI Listing
November 2020

Foliar nitrogen application from veraison to preharvest improved flavonoids, fatty acids and aliphatic volatiles composition in grapes and wines.

Food Res Int 2020 11 20;137:109566. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

College of Enology, College of Food Science and Engineering, Viti-Viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-Viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the effects of foliar nitrogen application from veraison to preharvest (FNVH) on flavonoids, fatty acids and aliphatic volatiles in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines. Solutions with 69 and 138 mg N/plant phenylalanine (P1 and P2, respectively), 69 and 138 mg N/plant urea (U1 and U2, respectively), as well as an aqueous solution without nitrogen (CK), were sprayed three times from veraison to preharvest. U1, P1 had the highest anthocyanins and acylated anthocyanins contents in grapes, respectively. U1 and P2 showed great potential to promote the accumulation of flavonols and flavanols in grapes and wines. U2 increased the contents of almost all free aliphatic volatiles in grapes, while it didn't affect the undesirable smell, and increased the concentrations of fruity esters in wines instead. The study showed FNVH was a useful fertilization way for improving contents of flavonoids and fruity aroma in grapes and wines in deficit-nitrogen vineyards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109566DOI Listing
November 2020

Oenological potential and health benefits of Chinese non-Vitis vinifera species: An opportunity to the revalorization and to breed new varieties.

Food Res Int 2020 11 15;137:109443. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

College of Enology, Viti-viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

The wine industry is focused on the producing wine mostly from European grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.). China has experienced a significant growth of the vineyard surface, based on the cultivation of these grapevine varieties. Currently, China has become one of the countries with the largest surface of planted vineyards in the world. In the last years, there has been a trend to oenologically and viticulturally revalorize certain autochthonous grapevine species. China holds a great diversity of Vitis species, which are being the focus of study. This could be an important alternative for the diversification of wine production, providing new products with a strong identity. Additionally, the varietal homogenization has increased the vineyard genetic vulnerability in relation to the emergence of grapevine diseases and their resistance to chemical fungicides. In this way, non-Vitis vinifera species are characterized by having a high resistance to a wide range of biotic and abiotic factors, which can bring an opportunity to breed new varieties. However, there is little available information about the oenological potential of these species, which makes it a current interesting topic. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the oenological potential of non-Vitis vinifera species found in China, discussing their potential effects on human health and thus, to propose some Chinese wild grapes for their use in breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109443DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of leaf removal on the accumulation of anthocyanins and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jun 4;101(8):3214-3224. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, P.R. China.

Background: Anthocyanins, a major flavonoid class, determine the color and quality of wine. Recent research revealed that basal leaf removal can increase the content of these compounds. This study determined the effects of basal leaf removal on the anthocyanin profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

Results: The effects of basal leaf removal on anthocyanin composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were investigated over two growing seasons. Leaf removal at 5% veraison (VB6) and at 100% veraison (VC6) was compared with a control. Reducing sugar and total anthocyanin contents in the leaf removal group were significantly higher than in the control group at harvest for both vintages. Leaf removal increased the content of individual anthocyanins and significantly improved the malvidin-3-O-glucoside (Mv-3-glc), peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3-glc), and malvidin-3-O-(6-acetyl)-glucoside (Mv-3-acglc) content of the VB6 group. At harvest, VB6 treatment increased the transcript abundance of structural and regulator genes in the anthocyanin pathway, especially VvF3'5'H, VvLDOX, and VvDFR.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that leaf removal at 5% veraison may be useful for improving the anthocyanin content in grapes. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10951DOI Listing
June 2021

Using foliar nitrogen application during veraison to improve the flavor components of grape and wine.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Mar 25;101(4):1288-1300. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

College of Enology, Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-Viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, shaanxi, 712100, China.

Nitrogen is involved in the winemaking process from grapevine growth to wine fermentation, and its precise utilization in vineyards can regulate grape and wine quality. Foliar nitrogen application during veraison (FNAV) could prevent nitrogen deficiency in grape and must in nitrogen-deficient vineyards. Moreover, FNAV also could improve certain flavor components of grape and wine, but little attention has been paid to FNAV. Therefore, this paper mainly reviews the difficulties encountered in current applications of nitrogen in vineyards and wineries, and the advantages of FNAV over the addition of nitrogen in soil and wineries. And it discusses that FNAV can increase yeast-assimilable nitrogen and phenolics, and scarcely affect volatile components of grape (must and wine), and points out the existing problems including the core issue and then puts forward future research directions. This information may indicate future directions for research, and provide a reference for viticulturists and winemakers on the precise application of nitrogen on grapevine and must to further improve grape and wine quality in nitrogen-deficient vineyards. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10782DOI Listing
March 2021

Is overnight fresh juice drinkable? The shelf life prediction of non-industrial fresh watermelon juice based on the nutritional quality, microbial safety quality, and sensory quality.

Food Nutr Res 2020 9;64. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

College of Food Science and Engineering, College of Enology, Viti-viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to obtain the time range of non-industrial fresh watermelon juice (FWJ), which is widely used in the catering industry under different storage conditions, with safe-drinkable quality, and the drinking time range of fresh juice with good nutritional quality and sensory quality.

Method: The quality of non-industrial FWJ was audited by assessing the shelf life of non-industrial FWJ through microbial safety, nutritional, and sensory quality investigating during 24 h of storage at 4, 25, and 37°C.

Results: According to the microbial safety quality, the safe drinking time of FWJ was within 12, 4, and 4 h when stored at 4, 25, and 37°C, respectively. Based on the nutritional and sensory quality, FWJ was drinking with good quality within 2 h, and with just acceptable quality for no more than 4 h when stored at 4 or 25°C. Electronic nose and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) could effectively distinguish and identify the changes in volatile components in FWJ under different storage conditions.

Conclusion: It is a feasible method to predict the shelf life of non-industrial FWJ by this method, and hence to guarantee non-industrial FWJ being drinking with safety and health, and it might be used in many other fresh juice shelf life predictions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v64.4327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307432PMC
June 2020

Phenolic compound ellagic acid inhibits mitochondrial respiration and tumor growth in lung cancer.

Food Funct 2020 Jul 1;11(7):6332-6339. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

Ellagic acid (EA), a natural polyphenol compound that exists in a variety of fruits and vegetables, has been reported to inhibit tumor growth by reducing cell growth, inducing apoptosis, and damaging mitochondria. Recent reports demonstrate that mitochondria regulate cancer cell death through energy metabolism and that different types of cell death coexist in vivo. We showed that EA inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation, markedly decreased ATP levels, decreased the potential of the inner mitochondrial membrane and decreased oxygen consumption in vitro. In addition, EA activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduced HIF-1α in lung cancer cells. Moreover, the treatment of tumor-bearing mice with EA dramatically inhibited tumor growth, increased p-AMPK and suppressed HIF-1α levels. These findings suggest that EA could be a promising chemotherapeutic agent that targets mitochondrial metabolism in lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo01177kDOI Listing
July 2020

New perspectives on the biosynthesis, transportation, astringency perception and detection methods of grape proanthocyanidins.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Jun 17:1-27. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

College of Enology, College of Food Science and Engineering, Viti-viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are important secondary metabolites crucial for the quality of grape berry and wine. Despite important advances in our understanding of the structural and regulatory genes involved in the PAs biosynthesis pathway, our knowledge about the details of biosynthetic and regulatory networks, especially the mechanism of polymerization and transportation remains limited. We provided an overview of the latest discoveries related to the mechanisms of grape PAs structure, astringency properties, detection methods, biosynthesis and transportation. We also summarized the environmental influencing factors of PAs synthesis in grape. Future trends were discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1777527DOI Listing
June 2020

Using the Chou's 5-steps rule, transient overexpression technique, subcellular location, and bioinformatic analysis to verify the function of Vitis vinifera O-methyltranferase 3 (VvOMT3) protein.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Jun 18;151:621-629. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

College of Enology, Heyang Viti-viniculture Station, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) is an important odor compound that revives unripe grapes or poor-quality wine. The biosynthesis of IBMP in grape berries is under the catalysis of Vitis vinifera O-methyltranferase 3 (VvOMT3). The homologous verification in this paper was carried out with the transient overexpression technique. The results showed that both the expression levels of the VvOMT3 gene and the IBMP concentration in 'Red globe' grapes increased significantly, which suggested that VvOMT3 could function in the biosynthesis of IBMP. Based on β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining results, blue color was only observed in grape pulp, not in grape skin, which indicated that VvOMT3 was expressed in grape pulp. The outcomes of the subcellular location examination performed on the protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana showed that the VvOMT3 protein was located on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. In summary, the VvOMT3 enzyme may function at the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane of pulp cells during grape development. These results will provide a background for future research on the catalytic mechanisms of VvOMT3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.04.015DOI Listing
June 2020

Biomass estimation and physicochemical characterization of winter vine prunings in the Chinese and global grape and wine industries.

Waste Manag 2020 Mar 21;104:119-129. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

College of Enology, College of Food Science and Engineering, Viti-viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

The residual biomass of winter vine prunings (WVPs) in the Chinese and global grape and wine industries was investigated and estimated, and the physicochemical characteristics of Chinese WVPs were analyzed. The eight regions investigated within China showed a total annual regional WVP yield of 201-842 kt FW, with R1 and R6 region showing the highest and the lowest region yields, respectively. The R4 and R2 regions showed the highest and the lowest yield per tree. Table grapes showed considerably higher WVP yields than wine grapes, whereas the pergola systems showed considerably higher WVP yields than the hedge systems. In addition, older vines showed higher WVP yields than younger vines. Overall, the average WVP yield in China was 2.35 kg/tree FW with a range of 1.33-3.21 kg/tree FW. Globally, the estimated WVP yield has decreased gradually from 2000 to 2017 to 42.31 million ton FW; in contrast, estimated WVP yield in China has increased substantially over the same period to 6.04 million ton FW. Winter vine pruning was the leading source of solid grape waste in the grape and wine industry, both absolutely and proportionally, and was characterized by such properties as a high dry matter content, mild acidity, high levels of organic matter and nutrients, and low fat. It is clear that WVP represents a resource of immense value for generating additional wealth in China and in the global grape and wine industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2020.01.018DOI Listing
March 2020

Transcriptomics integrated with metabolomics reveals the effect of regulated deficit irrigation on anthocyanin biosynthesis in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries.

Food Chem 2020 Jun 13;314:126170. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

College of Enology, College of Food Science and Engineering, Viti-viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is a new type of water-saving irrigation technology developed in recent years which was well suited to arid and semi-arid grape plant areas. The anthocyanin synthesis of grapes under RDI was revealed through omics in this study. RDI slightly decreased the hundred-grain weight and increased the soluble solid content, juice pH, reducing sugar content, and total anthocyanin content. Meanwhile, the total acid content decreased before ripening. Transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses revealed that large numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and significantly changed metabolites (SCMs) were filtered in the RDI groups. RDI1 with 30% ETc upregulated 7 related gene expression levels in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and also increased some metabolites contents. Eventually, the contents of most monomeric anthocyanins in the RDI groups were increased, and the proportion of Mv increased in the ripe grapes of the RDI groups. In all, RDI is a useful water-saving irrigation method which could also increase anthocyanin content in grapes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126170DOI Listing
June 2020

Significance and Transformation of 3-Alkyl-2-Methoxypyrazines Through Grapes to Wine: Olfactory Properties, Metabolism, Biochemical Regulation, and the HP-MP Cycle.

Molecules 2019 Dec 16;24(24). Epub 2019 Dec 16.

College of Enology, Heyang Viti-Viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

3-Alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) contribute to the herbaceous flavor characteristics of wine and are generally considered associated with poor-quality wine. To control the MPs in grapes and wine, an accurate understanding of MP metabolism is needed. This review covers factors affecting people in the perception of MPs. Also, the history of -methyltransferases is revisited, and the present review discusses the MP biosynthesis, degradation, and biochemical regulation. We propose the existence of a cycle between MPs and 3-alkyl-2-hydropyrazines (HPs), which proceeds via -(de)methylation steps. This cycle governs the MP contents of wines, which make the cycle the key participant in MP regulation by genes, environmental stimuli, and microbes. In conclusion, a comprehensive metabolic pathway on which the HP-MP cycle is centered is proposed after gaining insight into their metabolism and regulation. Some directions for future studies on MPs are also proposed in this paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6943733PMC
December 2019

Letting wine polyphenols functional: Estimation of wine polyphenols bioaccessibility under different drinking amount and drinking patterns.

Food Res Int 2020 01 31;127:108704. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

College of Enology, College of Food Science and Engineering, Viti-viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

Effects of drinking amount and patterns of wine on the digestive characteristics and bioaccessibility of wine polyphenols under in vitro gastrointestinal digestion were investigated. Wine polyphenols released well during mouth and stomach digestion, and the release rates in the "serum-available" fraction, "colon-available" fraction, and after the colon were much lower. Red wine showed a higher biological activity than white wine, but white wine had a better bioaccessibility than red wine, especially under binge drinking. The bioaccessibility of most polyphenols decreased as the drinking amount increased, indicating that drinking larger volumes of wine did not increase the bioaccessibility of polyphenols. Additionally, the relevant biological activities did not increase as the drinking amount increased. Drinking after a meal showed significantly better results than drinking before a meal in most of the tests. Hence, in order to let wine polyphenols play its functional for human health, there still need a moderate consumption amount of wine and drinking after meal is better.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108704DOI Listing
January 2020

Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on the content of soluble sugars, organic acids and endogenous hormones in Cabernet Sauvignon in the Ningxia region of China.

Food Chem 2020 May 12;312:126020. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

College of Enology, College of Food Science and Engineering, Viti-viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

The aim of this work, which was conducted in 2017 and 2018, was to gain insight into the effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments on the content of soluble sugars, organic acids and endogenous hormones in Cabernet Sauvignon. The RDI treatments slightly decreased the hundred-grain weight and total acid content before vintage but significantly increased the soluble solids content, juice pH and reducing sugar content. The glucose and fructose contents were increased by the RDI treatments, and the ratio of G:F was reduced. Most genes associated with sugar unloading were upregulated by RDI, especially in the RDI1 group. The tartaric acid, malic acid and citric acid contents were decreased by RDI. Under the RDI treatments, the ABA content increased from E-L 33 to 38, and the IAA, GA, JA-Me and BR contents decreased from E-L 33 to 34. The results of this study ultimately benefit the promotion of RDI measures, and our data might be useful for the improvement of wine grape quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.126020DOI Listing
May 2020

Harvesting at the Right Time: Maturity and Its Effects on the Aromatic Characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon Wine.

Molecules 2019 Jul 30;24(15). Epub 2019 Jul 30.

College of Enology, Northwest A & F University, Viti-viniculture Engineering Technology Center of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Heyang Viti-viniculture Station, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

The aim of this paper was to investigate how maturity affects the aroma characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. A series of four cv. Cabernet Sauvignon wines were produced from grapes of different harvest dates. The berries of sequential harvest treatments showed an increase in total soluble solids and anthocyanin and a decrease in titratable acidity. Berry shriveling was observed as berry weight decreased. In the wines, anthocyanin, dry extract, alcoholic strength, and pH were enhanced with the sequential harvest, whereas polyphenol and tannin were decreased. The concentrations of volatile compounds in sequential harvests were found to be at higher levels. Isopentanol, phenylethyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate, benzaldehyde, citronellol, and linalool significantly increased when harvest was delayed by one or two weeks. Through a principal component analysis, the volatile compounds and phenols characterizing each harvest date were clearly differentiated. These results suggest that sequential harvest may be an optional strategy for winemakers to produce high-quality wine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6696524PMC
July 2019

Correction: Comparison of the nutritional properties and biological activities of kiwifruit (Actinidia) and their different forms of products: towards making kiwifruit more nutritious and functional.

Food Funct 2019 08 29;10(8):5239. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

College of Enology, College of Food Science and Engineering, Heyang Viti-viniculture Station, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

Correction for 'Comparison of the nutritional properties and biological activities of kiwifruit (Actinidia) and their different forms of products: towards making kiwifruit more nutritious and functional' by Tingting Ma et al., Food Funct., 2019, 10, 1317-1329.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9fo90038aDOI Listing
August 2019

Insights into VdCmr1-mediated protection against high temperature stress and UV irradiation in Verticillium dahliae.

Environ Microbiol 2019 08 17;21(8):2977-2996. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Forest Pest Control, College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

The fungus Verticillium dahliae causes vascular wilt disease on more than 200 plant species worldwide. This fungus can survive for years in soil as melanized microsclerotia. We found that VdCmr1, a transcription factor, is required for the melanin production and increased survival following UV irradiation in V. dahliae but not for microsclerotia production or virulence. Here, we provided evidence how VdCmr1 protects against high temperature (HT) and UV irradiation in V. dahliae. The results indicate that VdCmr1 mediates entry to the diapause period in V. dahliae in response to HT and contributes to the expression of proteins to minimize protein misfolding and denaturation. VdCmr1 deletion results in the misregulation of DNA repair machinery, suggestive of reduced DNA repair capacity following UV irradiation and in correlation with the low survival rate of UV-treated VdCmr1 mutants. We discovered a putative VdCmr1-dependent gene cluster associated with secondary metabolism and stress responses. We also functionally characterized two VdCmr1-responsive genes participating in HT and UV response. These results shed further light on the roles of VdCmr1 in protection from HT or UV irradiation, and the additional insights into the mechanisms of this protection may be useful to exploit for more effective disease control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14695DOI Listing
August 2019
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