Publications by authors named "Yukui Rui"

44 Publications

Tailoring metal-organic frameworks-based nanozymes for bacterial theranostics.

Biomaterials 2021 Jun 4;275:120951. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, 100190, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China; GBA National Institute for Nanotechnology Innovation, Guangdong, 510700, China. Electronic address:

Nanozymes are next-generation artificial enzymes having distinguished features such as cost-effective, enhanced surface area, and high stability. However, limited selectivity and moderate activity of nanozymes in the biochemical environment hindered their usage and encouraged researchers to seek alternative catalytic materials. Recently, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) characterized by distinct crystalline porous structures with large surface area, tunable pores, and uniformly dispersed active sites emerged, that filled the gap between natural enzymes and nanozymes. Moreover, by selecting suitable metal ions and organic linkers, MOFs can be designed for effective bacterial theranostics. In this review, we briefly presented the design and fabrication of MOFs. Then, we demonstrated the applications of MOFs in bacterial theranostics and their safety considerations. Finally, we proposed the major obstacles and opportunities for further development in research on the interface of nanozymes and MOFs. We expect that MOFs based nanozymes with unique physicochemical and intrinsic enzyme-mimicking properties will gain broad interest in both fundamental research and biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120951DOI Listing
June 2021

COVID-19 and Nanoscience in the Developing World: Rapid Detection and Remediation in Wastewater.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 12;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Given the known presence of SARS-Cov-2 in wastewater, stemming disease spread in global regions where untreated effluent in the environment is common will experience additional pressure. Though development and preliminary trials of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 have been launched in several countries, rapid and effective alternative tools for the timely detection and remediation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater, especially in the developing countries, is of paramount importance. Here, we propose a promising, non-invasive technique for early prediction and targeted detection of SARS-CoV-2 to prevent current and future outbreaks. Thus, a combination of nanotechnology with wastewater-based epidemiology and artificial intelligence could be deployed for community-level wastewater virus detection and remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11040991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069490PMC
April 2021

Graphitic Carbon Nitride (CN) Reduces Cadmium and Arsenic Phytotoxicity and Accumulation in Rice ( L.).

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

The present study investigated the role of graphitic carbon nitride (CN) in alleviating cadmium (Cd)- and arsenic (As)-induced phytotoxicity to rice ( L.). A high-temperature pyrolysis was used to synthesize the CN, which was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Rice seedlings were exposed to CN at 50 and 250 mg/L in half-strength Hoagland's solution amended with or without 10 mg/L Cd or As for 14 days. Both Cd and As alone resulted in 26-38% and 49-56% decreases in rice root and shoot biomass, respectively. Exposure to 250 mg/L CN alone increased the root and shoot fresh biomass by 17.5% and 25.9%, respectively. Upon coexposure, Cd + CN and As + CN alleviated the heavy metal-induced phytotoxicity and increased the fresh weight by 26-38% and 49-56%, respectively. Further, the addition of CN decreased Cd and As accumulation in the roots by 32% and 25%, respectively, whereas the metal contents in the shoots were 30% lower in the presence of CN. Both As and Cd also significantly altered the macronutrient (K, P, Ca, S, and Mg) and micronutrient (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn) contents in rice, but these alterations were not evident in plants coexposed to CN. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis suggests that Cd significantly altered the genomic DNA of rice roots, while no difference was found in shoots. The presence of CN controlled Cd and As uptake in rice by regulating transport-related genes. For example, the relative expression of the Cd transporter in roots was upregulated by approximately threefold with metal exposure, but CN coamendment lowered the expression. Similar results were evident in the expression of the As transporter in roots. Overall, these findings facilitate the understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which carbon-based nanomaterials alleviate contaminant-induced phyto- and genotoxicity and may provide a new strategy for the reduction of heavy metal contamination in agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11040839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064487PMC
March 2021

Nanotechnology and Plant Viruses: An Emerging Disease Management Approach for Resistant Pathogens.

ACS Nano 2021 04 24;15(4):6030-6037. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation and College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, P.R. China.

Phytoviruses are highly destructive plant pathogens, causing significant agricultural losses due to their genomic diversity, rapid, and dynamic evolution, and the general inadequacy of management options. Although an increasing number of studies are being published demonstrating the efficacy of engineered nanomaterials to treat a range of plant pathogens, very little work has been done with phytoviruses. Herein, we describe the emerging field of "Nanophytovirology" as a potential management approach to combat plant viral diseases. Because of their special physiochemical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) can interact with viruses, their vectors, and the host plants in a variety of specific and useful ways. We specifically describe the potential mechanisms underlying NPs-plant-virus interactions and explore the antiviral role of NPs. We discuss the limited literature, as well as the challenges and research gaps that are instrumental to the successful development of a nanotechnology-based, multidisciplinary approach for timely detection, treatment, and prevention of viral diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c10910DOI Listing
April 2021

Bio-interaction of nano and bulk lanthanum and ytterbium oxides in soil system: Biochemical, genetic, and histopathological effects on Eisenia fetida.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 6;415:125574. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

The massive application of rare earth elements (REEs) in electronic industries cause their inevitable release into the environment; however, its effects on soil biota remain largely unaddressed. We investigated the E. fetida detoxification potential of nano and bulk LaO and YbO and their potential impact on biochemical and genetic markers at 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg kg concentration. We found that earthworms bioremediate 3-15% LaO and YbO contaminated soil at low and medium levels, while this potential was limited at higher levels. Nano and bulk LaO and YbO treatment induced neurotoxicity in earthworm by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase by 49-65% and 22-36% at 500 and 1000 mg kg, respectively. Nano LaO proved to be highly detrimental, mainly through oxidative stress and subsequent failure of antioxidant system. Nano LaO and YbO at 100 mg kg significantly down-regulated the expression of annetocin mRNA in the parental and progeny earthworms by 50% and 20%, which is crucial for earthworm reproduction. Similarly, expression level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and metallothionein was significantly upregulated in both generations at medium exposure level. Histological observations showed that nano REEs at 200 mg kg induced drastic changes in the intestinal epithelium and typhlosole of E. fetida. To date, our results enhance the understanding of interaction between REEs and earthworms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125574DOI Listing
August 2021

Different physiological responses of C3 and C4 plants to nanomaterials.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 18;28(20):25542-25551. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Several studies have previously reported that nanomaterial uptake and toxicity in plants are species dependent. However, the differences between photosynthetic pathways, C3 and C4, following nanomaterial exposure are poorly understood. In the current work, wheat and rice, two C3 pathway species are compared to amaranth and maize, which utilize the C4 photosynthetic mechanism. These plants were cultured in soils which were spiked with CuO, Ag, TiO, MWCNT, and FLG nanomaterials. Overall, the C4 plant exhibited higher resilience to NM stress than C3 plants. In particular, significant differences were observed in chlorophyll contents with rice returning a 40.9-54.2% decrease compared to 3.5-15.1% for maize. Fv/Fm levels were significantly reduced by up to 51% in rice whereas no significant reductions were observed in amaranth and maize. Furthermore, NM uptake in the C3 species was greater than that in C4 plants, a trend that was also seen in metal concentration. TEM results showed that CuO NPs altered the chloroplast thylakoid structure in rice leaves and a large number of CuO NPs were observed in the vascular sheath cells. In contrast, there were no significant changes in the chloroplasts in the vascular sheath and no significant CuO NPs were found in maize leaves. This study was the first to systematically characterize the effect of metal and carbon-based nanomaterials in soil on C3 and C4 plants, providing a new perspective for understanding the impact of nanomaterials on plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12507-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) alleviates cadmium-induced phytotoxicity to rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 7;28(17):21276-21284. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

In the present study, graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) was synthesized in a tube furnace and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Different concentrations (0-200 mg/L) of g-CN were prepared in nutrient solution amended with or without 20 mg/L CdCl for the greenhouse study. Rice seedlings were exposed to g-CN and Cd for 20 days. Our results suggest that 200 mg/L g-CN significantly increased the fresh weight and root and shoot length as compared with the control, and notably alleviated Cd-induced toxicity. The addition of 200 mg/L g-CN significantly reduced the root and shoot Cd content by approximately 14% and 23%, respectively. In addition, 200 mg/L g-CN significantly elevated the nitrogen content and decreased C/N ration in rice shoots; most importantly, it alleviated Cd-induced nitrogen reduction. Our findings demonstrated the potential of g-CN in regulating plant growth and minimizing the Cd-induced phytotoxicity, and shed light on providing a new strategy to maintain heavy metal contamination in agriculture using a low-cost and environmental friendly NMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12027-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Application of Nanoparticles Alleviates Heavy Metals Stress and Promotes Plant Growth: An Overview.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Dec 24;11(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Nanotechnology is playing a significant role in addressing a vast range of environmental challenges by providing innovative and effective solutions. Heavy metal (HM) contamination has gained considerable attention in recent years due their rapidly increasing concentrations in agricultural soil. Due to their unique physiochemical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) can be effectively applied for stress alleviation. In this review, we explore the current status of the literature regarding nano-enabled agriculture retrieved from the Web of Science databases and published from January 2010 to November 2020, with most of our sources spanning the past five years. We briefly discuss uptake and transport mechanisms, application methods (soil, hydroponic and foliar), exposure concentrations, and their impact on plant growth and development. The current literature contained sufficient information about NPs behavior in plants in the presence of pollutants, highlighting the alleviation mechanism to overcome the HM stress. Furthermore, we present a broad overview of recent advances regarding HM stress and the possible mechanism of interaction between NPs and HM in the agricultural system. Additionally, this review article will be supportive for the understanding of phytoremediation and micro-remediation of contaminated soils and also highlights the future research needs for the combined application of NPs in the soil for sustainable agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11010026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824443PMC
December 2020

Physiological impacts of zero valent iron, FeO and FeO nanoparticles in rice plants and their potential as Fe fertilizers.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 1;269:116134. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100093, China. Electronic address:

Fe-based nanoparticles (Fe-based NPs) have great potential as a substitute for traditional Fe-fertilizer; however, their environmental risk and impact on plant growth are not fully understood. In this study, we compared the physiological impacts of three different Fe-based NP formulations: zero-valent iron (ZVI), FeO and FeO NPs, on hydroponic rice after root exposure for 2 weeks. Fe-normal (Fe(+)) and Fe-deficiency (Fe(-)) conditions were compared. Results showed that low dose (50 mg L) of ZVI and FeO NPs improved the rice growth under Fe(-) condition, while FeO NPs did not improve plant growth and caused phytotoxicity at high concentration (500 mg L). Under Fe(+) conditions, none of the Fe-based NPs exhibited positive effects on the rice plants with plant growth actually being inhibited at 500 mg L evidenced by reduced root volume and leaf biomass and enhanced oxidative stress in plant. Under Fe(-) condition, low dose (50 mg L) of ZVI NPs and FeO NPs increased the chlorophyll content by 30.7% and 26.9%, respectively. They also alleviated plant stress demonstrated by the reduced oxidative stress and decreased concentrations of stress related phytohormones such as gibberellin and indole-3-acetic acid. Low dose of ZVI and FeO NPs treatments resulted in higher Fe accumulation in plants compared to FeO NPs treatment, by down-regulating the expression of IRT1 and YSL15. This study provides significant insights into the physiological impacts of Fe-based NPs in rice plants and their potential application in agriculture. ZVI and FeO NPs can be used as Fe-fertilizers to improve rice growth under Fe-deficient condition, which exist in many rice-growing regions of the world. However, dose should be carefully chosen as high dose (500 mg L in this study) of the Fe-based NPs can impair rice growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116134DOI Listing
January 2021

Carbon-based nanomaterials suppress tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection and induce resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 2;404(Pt A):124167. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation and College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China. Electronic address:

Although nanomaterials (NMs) may inhibit viral pathogens, the mechanisms governing plant-virus-nanomaterial interactions remain unknown. Nicotiana benthamiana plants were treated with nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO) and silver (Ag), C fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at 100, 200 and 500 mg L for a 21-day foliar exposure before inoculation with GFP-tagged tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Plants treated with CNTs and C (200 mg L) exhibited normal phenotype and viral symptomology was not evident at 5 days post-infection. TiO and Ag failed to suppress viral infection. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that viral coat protein transcript abundance and GFP mRNA expression were reduced 74-81% upon CNTs and C treatment. TEM revealed that the chloroplast ultrastructure in carbon NM-treated plants was unaffected by TMV infection. Fluorescence measurement of CNTs and C (200 mg L) treated plants indicated photosynthesis equivalent to healthy controls. CNTs and C induced upregulation of the defense-related phytohormones abscisic acid and salicylic acid by 33-52%; the transcription of genes responsible for phytohormone biosynthesis was elevated by 94-104% in treated plants. Our findings demonstrate the protective role of carbon-based NMs, with suppression of TMV symptoms via hindered physical movement and viral replication. Given the lack of viral phytopathogen treatment options, this work represents a novel area of nano-enabled agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124167DOI Listing
February 2021

Physiological and biochemical response of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to TiO nanoparticles in phosphorous amended soil: A full life cycle study.

J Environ Manage 2020 Jun 26;263:110365. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China. Electronic address:

Nanoparticles (NPs) application in soil as nano-fertilizers to increase crop yield is getting attention due to their higher efficiency and less environmental risks. This study investigated the interactive effects of variable titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO-NPs) levels (0, 30, 50 and 100 mg kg) superimposed to phosphorus (P) fertilizer application in soil at the rates of 0, 25 and 50 mg kg on wheat crop. Physiological parameters of plants, their antioxidant enzymes activities (SOD, POD), and contents of crude protein, HO, MDA and metals/nutrients (Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu) were measured. Data on physiological traits revealed that application of 50 mg kg of TiO-NPs without P fertilizer significantly enhanced the root and shoot length by 63 and 26%, respectively. Increased contents of nutrients in the shoots, viz., Ca (316%), Cu (296%), Al (171%) and Mg (187%) with 50 mg kg TiO-NPs treatment reflected improvement in crop growth and grain quality. Furthermore, P contents in plant tissues were raised up to 56% with 50 mg kg of TiO-NPs even in the absence of P fertilizer. In the soil, concentration of phytoavailable P was significantly increased up to 63.3% in the presence of 50 mg kg TiO-NPs as compared to control. Contents of crude protein in grain were also enhanced by 22.8% (at P) and 17.4% (at P) with 50 mg kg TiO-NPs application. Along with P application, TiO-NPs triggered the activities of SOD (2.06-33.97%) and POD (up to 13.19%), and HO production (50.6-138.8%). However, MDA contents were not elevated significantly at any level of TiO-NPs, and remained at par with control. It was noteworthy that highest level of TiO-NPs, viz., 100 mg kg exhibited plant and nutrients response lower than that with 50 mg kg. Further, TiO-NPs triggered the bioavailability of micronutrient heavy metals (Zn, Cu and Fe) and Al, which could have toxicity at higher concentrations. These results suggested that TiO-NPs might have some affinities with phosphate compounds and metal ions in the soil to bring them in soluble form, which enhanced their bioavailability. Although it improved the crop yield and quality, but toxic or negative impact of TiO-NPs was also apparent at higher dose. Therefore, investigations on the potential interactions of NPs with other nutrients and toxic metals are needed to enhance our understanding for the safer application of nano-fertilizer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110365DOI Listing
June 2020

Bioaccumulation of ytterbium oxide nanoparticles insinuate oxidative stress, inflammatory, and pathological lesions in ICR mice.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Sep 10;27(26):32944-32953. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

With the rapid development in nanoscience and nanotechnology, rare earth oxide nanomaterials (REO-NMs) have been increasingly used due to their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Despite the increasing applications of REO NPs, scarce information is available on their detrimental effects. In the current study, we investigate the toxic effect of ytterbium oxide nanoparticles (YbO NPs) in mouse model by using various techniques including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis over 30 days of exposure. Furthermore, we elucidated lung lavage fluid of mice for biochemical and cytological analysis, and lung tissues for histopathology to interpret the NP side effects. We observed a significant concentration of YbO NPs accumulated in the lung, liver, kidney, and heart tissues. Similarly, increased bioaccumulation of Yb content was found in the olfactory bulb compared to other reigns of brain. The cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) revealed a significant elevation in the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Biochemical analysis showed an instilled YbO NPs, showing signs of oxidative damage through up-regulation of 60-87% of MDA while down-regulation of 20-40% of GSH-PX and GSH content. The toxicity pattern was more evident from histopathological observations. These interpretations provide enough evidence of bioaccumulation of YbO NPs in mice tissues. Overall, our findings reveal that acute exposure of YbO NPs through intranasal inhalation may cause toxicity via oxidative stress, which leads to a chronic inflammatory response. Graphical abstract Graphical illustrations of experimental findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09565-8DOI Listing
September 2020

Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials for Antimicrobial Applications.

Chem Res Toxicol 2020 05 30;33(5):1082-1109. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, P.R. China.

The interplay between nanotechnology and pathogens offers a new quest to fight against human infections. Inspiring from their unique thermal, magnetic, optical, or redox potentials, numerous nanomaterials have been employed for bacterial theranostics. The past decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of various nanoantimicrobials, which demands more focus on their safety assessment. The present review critically discusses the toxicity of nanoantimicrobials and the role of key features, including composition, size, surface charge, loading capability, hydrophobicity/philicity, precise release, and functionalization, that can contribute to modulating the effects on microbes. Moreover, how differences in microbe's structure, biofilm formation, persistence cells, and intracellular pathogens bestow resistance or sensitivity toward nanoantimicrobials is broadly investigated. In extension, the most important types of nanoantimicrobial with clinical prospective and their safety assessment are summarized, and finally, based on available evidence, an insight of the principles in designing safer nanoantimicrobials for overcoming pathogens and future challenges in the field is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00519DOI Listing
May 2020

Goethite-modified biochar ameliorates the growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants by suppressing Cd and As-induced oxidative stress in Cd and As co-contaminated paddy soil.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 5;717:137086. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

College of Land Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing. China. Electronic address:

Co-contamination of soils with cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) in rice growing areas is a serious threat to environment and human health. Increase in soil Cd and As levels curtail the growth and development of rice plants by causing oxidative stress and reduction in photosynthetic activity. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate and evaluate different strategies for minimizing the Cd and As uptake in rice plant. We modified biochar (BC) with goethite and assessed the effects of goethite-modified biochar (GB) application on mitigating Cd and As stress in rice plant. Although BC supply to rice plants enhanced their performance in contaminated soil but application of different GB levels i.e.1.5% GB to the soil resulted in prominent improvements in physiological and biochemical attributes of rice plants grown in Cd and As co-contaminated paddy soil. It was observed that soil amendment with GB increased the plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange attribute of rice plant and suppressed the oxidative stress in rice leaves and roots by increased antioxidant enzymes activities. Supplementing the soil with 1.5% GB incremented the iron plaque (Fe-plaque) formation and enhanced the Cd and As sequestration by Fe-plaque. Application of GB (1.5%) significantly improved the Fe content of Fe-plaque by 68.7%. Maximum Cd (1.57 mg kg) and As (0.85 mg kg) sequestration by Fe-plaque was observed with 1.5% GB treatment. Compared to the control, 1.5% GB treatment application prominently reduced the Cd content in the rice roots and shoots by 42.9%, and 56.7%, respectively and As content in the rice roots and shoots declined by 32.2%, 46.6%, respectively, compared to the control. These findings demonstrate that amending the soil with 1.5% GB can be a potential remediation strategy for checking Cd and As accumulation, reducing oxidative stress and increasing the growth of rice plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137086DOI Listing
May 2020

Effects of spraying nano-materials on the absorption of metal(loid)s in cucumber.

IET Nanobiotechnol 2019 Sep;13(7):712-719

College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China.

This report investigates the spraying of nano-silica and fullerene on cucumber leaves to expose their ability to reduce the toxicity and uptake of metal(loid)s. Cucumber seedlings were randomly divided into six treatment groups: 10 mg/L nano-SiO, 20 mg/L nano-SiO, 10 mg/L Fullerene, 20 mg/L Fullerene, 5 mg/L Fullerene + 5 mg/L nano-SiO, and 10 mg/L Fullerene + 10 mg/L nano-SiO. Nano-silica-treated plants exhibited evidence of the potential mitigation of metal(loid)s poisoning. Specifically, results showed that 20 mg/L of nano-silica promoted Cd uptake by plants; comparatively, 10 mg/L of nano-silica did not significantly increase the silicon content in plants. Both low-concentration combined treatment and low-concentration fullerene groups inhibited metal(loid)s uptake by plants. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was then used to observe the surface morphology of cucumber leaves. Significant differences were observed on disease resistance in plants across the different nano-material conditions. Collectively, these findings suggest that both nano-silica materials and fullerene have the potential to control metal(loid)s toxicity in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2019.0060DOI Listing
September 2019

Exposure to nickel oxide nanoparticles insinuates physiological, ultrastructural and oxidative damage: A life cycle study on Eisenia fetida.

Environ Pollut 2019 Nov 15;254(Pt B):113032. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

Although, health and environmental hazards of Ni are ironclad; however, that of Nickle oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) are still obscure. Therefore, impact of NiO-NPs exposure (0, 5, 50, 200, 500 and 1000 mg kg soil) on the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) survival (at 28th day), reproduction (at 56th day), histopathology, ultrastructures, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative DNA damage was appraised in full life cycle study. Lower concentrations of NiO-NPs (5, 50 and 200) did not influence the survival, reproduction and growth rate of adult worms significantly. However, reproduction reduced by 40-50% with 500 and 1000 mg kg exposure, which also induced oxidative stress leading to DNA damage in earthworms. Ultrastructural observation and histology of earthworms exposed to higher NiO-NPs concentrations revealed abnormalities in epithelium layer, microvilli and mitochondria with underlying pathologies of epidermis and muscles, as well as adverse effects on the gut barrier. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study unveiling the adverse effects of NiO-NPs on a soil invertebrate (Eisenia fetida). Our findings clue towards looking extensively into the risks of NiO-NPs on soil organisms bearing agricultural and environmental significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113032DOI Listing
November 2019

Effects of cerium oxide on rice seedlings as affected by co-exposure of cadmium and salt.

Environ Pollut 2019 Sep 11;252(Pt B):1087-1096. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China. Electronic address:

Effects of CeO NPs (200 mg.L) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) alone or co-exposure with cadmium (Cd) and salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) were investigated in hydroponic systems for two weeks. Physiological results show that rice biomass was significantly inhibited when NaCl or CdCl added alone or in co-exposure treatment. CeO NPs significantly relieve the chlorophyll damage under CdCl environmental stress. The presence of CeO NPs alleviated both stressors induced damages to rice as indicated by the reduced proline level. Additionally, CeO NPs triggered the antioxidant defense systems to counteract the oxidative stress caused by NaCl and CdCl. The level of 8-OHdG, one of the most important indicators for genotoxicity, in rice suggest that the presence of CeO NPs reduced the DNA damage in NaCl treated rice. Elemental analysis indicated that co-exposure to NaCl and CdCl slightly decreased the Cd content as compared to the one in the CdCl alone treatment, and this co-exposure also significantly reduced the Na content when comparing with the NaCl alone treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that CeO NPs could alleviate the CdCl and NaCl stresses, but could not completely change the phenotype of both contaminants treated rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.06.007DOI Listing
September 2019

Cryptic footprints of rare earth elements on natural resources and living organisms.

Environ Int 2019 06 28;127:785-800. Epub 2019 Apr 28.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

Background: Rare earth elements (REEs) are gaining attention due to rapid rise of modern industries and technological developments in their usage and residual fingerprinting. Cryptic entry of REEs in the natural resources and environment is significant; therefore, life on earth is prone to their nasty effects. Scientific sectors have expressed concerns over the entry of REEs into food chains, which ultimately influences their intake and metabolism in the living organisms.

Objectives: Extensive scientific collections and intensive look in to the latest explorations agglomerated in this document aim to depict the distribution of REEs in soil, sediments, surface waters and groundwater possibly around the globe. Furthermore, it draws attention towards potential risks of intensive industrialization and modern agriculture to the exposure of REEs, and their effects on living organisms. It also draws links of REEs usage and their footprints in natural resources with the major food chains involving plants, animals and humans.

Methods: Scientific literature preferably spanning over the last five years was obtained online from the MEDLINE and other sources publishing the latest studies on REEs distribution, properties, usage, cycling and intrusion in the environment and food-chains. Distribution of REEs in agricultural soils, sediments, surface and ground water was drawn on the global map, together with transport pathways of REEs and their cycling in the natural resources.

Results: Fourteen REEs (Ce, Dy, Er, Eu, Gd, Ho, La, Lu, Nd, Pr, Sm, Tb, Th and Yb) were plighted in this study. Wide range of their concentrations has been detected in agricultural soils (<15.9-249.1 μg g) and in groundwater (<3.1-146.2 μg L) at various sites worldwide. They have strong tendency to accumulate in the human body, and thus associated with kidney stones. The REEs could also perturb the animal physiology, especially affecting the reproductive development in both terrestrial and aquatic animals. In plants, REEs might affect the germination, root and shoot development and flowering at concentration ranging from 0.4 to 150 mg kg.

Conclusions: This review article precisely narrates the current status, sources, and potential effects of REEs on plants, animals, humans health. There are also a few examples where REEs have been used to benefit human health. However, still there is scarce information about threshold levels of REEs in the soil, aquatic, and terrestrial resources as well as living entities. Therefore, an aggressive effort is required for global action to generate more data on REEs. This implies we prescribe an urgent need for inter-disciplinary studies about REEs in order to identify their toxic effects on both ecosystems and organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.03.022DOI Listing
June 2019

Effect of metal oxide nanoparticles on amino acids in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum) in a life cycle study.

J Environ Manage 2019 Jul 20;241:319-327. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA, 01003, United States.

Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are now used as additives in pesticides and fungicides and as novel fertilizers in agriculture so there is an urgent need to explore their effects on crop yield and quality in a full life cycle study. In the present study, three widely used NPs (TiO, FeO and CuO NPs applied at doses of 50 and 500 mg/kg) were selected to investigate their long-term impact on wheat growth. TiO NPs did not affect the growth and development of wheat, but FeO NPs promoted wheat precocity and CuO NPs inhibited the growth and development of the wheat grains. The Cu content in grains treated with CuO NP increased by 18.84%-30.45% compared with the control. However, the contents of Fe and Zn were both significantly lower in the CuO NP treatments. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to analyze the effect of different NPs on the composition of amino acids in wheat grains. Exposure to TiO NPs at dose of 500 mg/kg increased the overall amino acid nutrition in the edible portion of wheat. FeO NPs at both doses increased the contents of cysteine (Cys) and tyrosine (Tyr). The addition of CuO NPs reduced the level of some essential amino acids in wheat grains, isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), threonine (Thr) and histidine (His). Overall, evaluation of the potential impacts of metal-based NPs on the nutritional quality of wheat grains could provide important information for their safe use when incorporated into agrichemicals in sustainable agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.04.041DOI Listing
July 2019

Engineered nanomaterials inhibit Podosphaera pannosa infection on rose leaves by regulating phytohormones.

Environ Res 2019 03 6;170:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, United States.

In the present study, we investigated the antifungal effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) against Podosphaera pannosa (P. pannosa), a fungal pathogen that causes powdery mildew on plants in the rose family. Four commercial ENMs, including multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) and titanium dioxide (TiO) NPs, were used to prepare 50 or 200 mg/L NP suspensions in deionized water. Rose leaves in water-agar plates were sprayed by different ENM suspensions mixed with P. pannosa conidia. After a 19-day standard infection test, the growth of P. pannosa on rose leaves was evaluated. All four ENMs inhibited infection by P. pannosa at the concentration 200 mg/L, whereas only CuO NPs decreased fungal growth at 50 mg/L. The phytohormone content of the leaves was measured across all treatments to investigate potential ENMs antifungal mechanisms. The results suggest that ENMs increased plant resistance to fungal infection by altering the content of endogenous hormones, particularly zeatin riboside (ZR). Our study demonstrates that ENMs exhibited distinctly antifungal effects against P. pannosa on roses, and could be utilized as a novel plant protection strategy after a comprehensive assessment of potential environmental risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.12.008DOI Listing
March 2019

Natural and synthetic estrogens in leafy vegetable and their risk associated to human health.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 30;25(36):36712-36723. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100094, People's Republic of China.

Since the inception of global industrialization, the growth of steroid estrogens becomes a matter of emerging serious concern for the rapid population. Steroidal estrogens are potent endocrine-upsetting chemicals that are excreted naturally by vertebrates (e.g., humans and fish) and can enter natural waters through the discharge of treated and raw sewage. Steroidal estrogens in plants may enter the food web and become a serious threat to human health. We evaluated the uptake and accumulation of ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17β-estradiol (17β-E2) in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa) grown under controlled environmental condition over 21 days growth period. An effective analytical method based on ultrasonic liquid extraction (ULE) for solid samples and solid phase extraction (SPE) for liquid samples with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been developed to determine the steroid estrogens in lettuce plants. The extent of uptake and accumulation was observed in a dose-dependent manner and roots were major organs for estrogen deposition. Unlike the 17β-E2, EE2 was less accumulated and translocated from root to leaves. For 17β-E2, the distribution in lettuce was primarily to roots after the second week (13%), whereas in leaves it was (10%) over the entire study period. The distribution of EE2 at 2000 μg L in roots and leaves was very low (3.07% and 0.54%) during the first week and then was highest (12% in roots and 8% in leaves) in last week. Bioaccumulation factor values of 17β-E2 and EE2 in roots were 0.33 and 0.29 at 50 μg L concentration as maximum values were found at 50 μg L rather than 500 and 2000 in all observed plant tissues. Similar trend was noticed in roots than leaves for bioconcentration factor as the highest bioconcentration values were observed at 50 μg L concentration instead of 500 and 2000 μg L spiked concentration. These findings mainly indicate the potential for uptake and bioaccumulation of estrogens in lettuce plants. Overall, the estrogen contents in lettuce were compared to the FAO/WHO recommended toxic level and were found to be higher than the toxic level which is of serious concern to the public health. This analytical procedure may aid in future studies on risks associated with uptake of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in lettuce plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3588-4DOI Listing
December 2018

Comparative effects of nano and bulk-FeO on the growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 14;165:547-554. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants were cultivated in hydroponic media with nano and bulk- iron oxide (FeO) (50, 500 and 2000 mg/L) over a period of 21 days. At the low concentration (50 mg/L), nano-FeO resulted in reduction of biomass and enzyme activities compared to the control. However, at the higher concentration of nano-FeO dosage (2000 mg/L), there was a significant increase in biomass, antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). In contrary, the high concentration of bulk-FeO caused phytotoxicity in terms of biomass and enzymes activity. The phytotoxicity was dependent on the particles property (mainly sizes and aggregation) for nano-FO and concentration dependent for bulk-FeO. The particle size is an important factor that can influence the bioavailability of nanomaterials, which need to be included when evaluating the exposure of nanomaterials and their deleterious effects in the environment. These promising results can help to develop the possible application of FeO NPs which may improve nutrient management to overcome food security.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.09.053DOI Listing
December 2018

Indole Derivative-Capped Gold Nanoparticles as an Effective Bactericide in Vivo.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Sep 22;10(35):29398-29406. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Beijing Engineering Research Center for BioNanotechnology and CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience , National Center for NanoScience and Technology , No. 11 Zhongguancun Beiyitiao , Beijing 100190 , P. R. China.

We synthesize indole derivative-capped gold nanoparticles (Au_IDs) via a straightforward route to fight multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. When gold nanoparticles are modified with two indole derivatives, tryptophan and 5-aminoindole, they exhibit excellent antibacterial activities against both laboratory antibiotic-sensitive and MDR bacteria. Au_IDs possess remarkable bactericidal activities against MDR bacteria killing 99.9% of MDR Escherichia coli and polymyxin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae after 0.5 h of incubation, which are superior to clinical antibiotics including polymyxin B and cefotaxime. By evaluating the potential of Au_IDs in wound cure, Au_IDs show outstanding capability in MDR bacterial wound infection. Our findings provide new candidates for the development of bactericides and the fabrication of wound dressings for treating MDR infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b11980DOI Listing
September 2018

Alteration of Crop Yield and Quality of Wheat upon Exposure to Silver Nanoparticles in a Life Cycle Study.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Mar 28;66(11):2589-2597. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture , University of Massachusetts , Amherst , Massachusetts 01003 , United States.

As a result of the rapid development of nanotechnology, metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) are inadvertently released into the environment and may pose a potential threat to the ecosystem. However, information for food quality and safety in NP-treated crops is limited. In the present study, wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in different concentrations of Ag-NP-amended soil (20, 200, and 2000 mg kg) for 4 months. At harvest, physiological parameters, Ag and micronutrient (Fe, Cu, and Zn) contents, and amino acid and total protein contents were measured. Results showed that, with increasing the exposure doses, Ag NPs exhibited severe phytotoxicity, including lower biomass, shorter plant height, and lower grain weight. Ag accumulation in roots was significantly higher than that in shoots and grains. Decreases in the content of micronutrients (Fe, Cu, and Zn) in Ag-NP-treated grains suggested low crop quality. The results of amino acid and protein contents in Ag-NP-treated wheat grains indicated that Ag NPs indeed altered the nutrient contents in the edible portion. In the amino acid profile, the presence of Ag NPs significantly decreased the contents of arginine and histidine by 13.0 and 11.8%, respectively. In summary, the effects of metal-based NPs on the edible portion of crops should be taken into account in the evaluation of nanotoxicity to terrestrial plants. Moreover, investigation of the potential impacts of NP-caused nutrient alterations on human health could further our understandings on NP-induced phytotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04904DOI Listing
March 2018

Carbon nanomaterials alter plant physiology and soil bacterial community composition in a rice-soil-bacterial ecosystem.

Environ Pollut 2018 Jan 22;232:123-136. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003, United States.

The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity effects of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), namely fullerene (C), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), on a mini-ecosystem of rice grown in a loamy potted soil. We measured plant physiological and biochemical parameters and examined bacterial community composition in the CNMs-treated plant-soil system. After 30 days of exposure, all the three CNMs negatively affected the shoot height and root length of rice, significantly decreased root cortical cells diameter and resulted in shrinkage and deformation of cells, regardless of exposure doses (50 or 500 mg/kg). Additionally, at the high exposure dose of CNM, the concentrations of four phytohormones, including auxin, indoleacetic acid, brassinosteroid and gibberellin acid 4 in rice roots significantly increased as compared to the control. At the high exposure dose of MWCNTs and C, activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in roots increased significantly. High-throughput sequencing showed that three typical CNMs had little effect on shifting the predominant soil bacterial species, but the presence of CNMs significantly altered the composition of the bacterial community. Our results indicate that different CNMs indeed resulted in environmental toxicity to rice and soil bacterial community in the rhizosphere and suggest that CNMs themselves and their incorporated products should be reasonably used to control their release/discharge into the environment to prevent their toxic effects on living organisms and the potential risks to food safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.09.024DOI Listing
January 2018

Potential Applications and Antifungal Activities of Engineered Nanomaterials against Gray Mold Disease Agent on Rose Petals.

Front Plant Sci 2017 2;8:1332. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural UniversityBeijing, China.

Nanoparticles (NPs) have great potential for use in the fields of biomedicine, building materials, and environmental protection because of their antibacterial properties. However, there are few reports regarding the antifungal activities of NPs on plants. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal roles of NPs against , which is a notorious worldwide fungal pathogen. Three common carbon nanomaterials, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, fullerene, and reduced graphene oxide, and three commercial metal oxidant NPs, copper oxide (CuO) NPs, ferric oxide (FeO) NPs, and titanium oxides (TiO) NPs, were independently added to water-agar plates at 50 and 200-mg/L concentrations. Detached rose petals were inoculated with spores of and co-cultured with each of the six nanomaterials. The sizes of the lesions on infected rose petals were measured at 72 h after inoculation, and the growth of fungi on the rose petals was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The six NPs inhibited the growth of , but different concentrations had different effects: 50 mg/L of fullerene and CuO NPs showed the strongest antifungal properties among the treatments, while 200 mg/L of CuO and FeO showed no significant antifungal activities. Thus, NPs may have antifungal activities that prevent infections in plants, and they could be used as antifungal agents during the growth and post-harvesting of roses and other flowers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5539092PMC
August 2017

Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings cultivated under super-elevated and normal CO2 conditions.

PLoS One 2017 30;12(5):e0178088. Epub 2017 May 30.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Concerns over the potential risks of nanomaterials to ecosystem have been raised, as it is highly possible that nanomaterials could be released to the environment and result in adverse effects on living organisms. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main greenhouse gases. The level of CO2 keeps increasing and subsequently causes a series of environmental problems, especially for agricultural crops. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TiO2 NPs on wheat seedlings cultivated under super-elevated CO2 conditions (5000 mg/L CO2) and under normal CO2 conditions (400 mg/L CO2). Compared to the normal CO2 condition, wheat grown under the elevated CO2 condition showed increases of root biomass and large numbers of lateral roots. Under both CO2 cultivation conditions, the abscisic acid (ABA) content in wheat seedlings increased with increasing concentrations of TiO2 NPs. The indolepropioponic acid (IPA) and jasmonic acid (JA) content notably decreased in plants grown under super-elevated CO2 conditions, while the JA content increased with increasing concentrations of TiO2 NPs. Ti accumulation showed a dose-response manner in both wheat shoots and roots as TiO2 NPs concentrations increased. Additionally, the presence of elevated CO2 significantly promoted Ti accumulation and translocation in wheat treated with certain concentrations of TiO2 NPs. This study will be of benefit to the understanding of the joint effects and physiological mechanism of high-CO2 and nanoparticle to terrestrial plants.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178088PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5448767PMC
September 2017

Phytotoxicity of CeO nanoparticles on radish plant (Raphanus sativus).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 May 11;24(15):13775-13781. Epub 2017 Apr 11.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100093, People's Republic of China.

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO NPs) have been considered as one type of emerging contaminants that pose great potential risks to the environment and human health. The effect of CeO NPs on plant-edible parts and health evaluation remains is necessary and urgently to be developed. In this study, we cultivated radish in Sigma CeO NP (<25 nm)-amended soils across a series of concentration treatments, i.e., 0 mg/kg as the control and 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg CeO NPs. The results showed that CeO NPs accelerated the fresh biomass accumulation of radish plant; especially in the treatment of 50 mg/kg CeO NPs, root expansion was increased by 2.2 times as much as the control. In addition, the relative chlorophyll content enhanced by 12.5, 12.9, and 12.2% was compared to control on 40 cultivation days. CeO NPs were mainly absorbed by the root and improved the activity of antioxidant enzyme system to scavenge the damage of free radicals in radish root and leaf. In addition, this study also indicated that the nanoparticles might enter the food chain through the soil into the edible part of the plant, which will be a potential threat to human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8880-1DOI Listing
May 2017

Phytotoxicity, uptake and transformation of nano-CeO in sand cultured romaine lettuce.

Environ Pollut 2017 Jan 11;220(Pt B):1400-1408. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

Toxicity and uptake of nano-CeO (nCeO) in edible vegetables are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we grew romaine lettuce in sand amended with nCeO. At high concentrations (1000 and 2000 mg/kg), nCeO diminished the chlorophyll content by 16.5% and 25.8%, respectively, and significantly inhibited the biomass production. nCeO (≥100 mg/kg) altered antioxidant enzymatic activities and malondialdehyde levels in the plants. nCeO (≥500 mg/kg) triggered a remarkable increase of nitrate-N level in the shoots, which can be converted to toxic nitrite in humans thereby posed risk to human health. Concentration dependent accumulation of Ce in the plant tissues was observed. X ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) results indicate that Ce presented as nCeO and CePO in the roots while as nCeO and Ce carboxylates in the shoots. Chelation of Ce by citric acid or precipitation of Ce by PO reduced the translocation and toxicity of nCeO, indicating that release of Ce played a critical role in the toxicity nCeO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.10.094DOI Listing
January 2017

Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Potential Iron Fertilizer for Peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

Front Plant Sci 2016 9;7:815. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University Beijing, China.

Nanomaterials are used in practically every aspect of modern life, including agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) as a fertilizer to replace traditional Fe fertilizers, which have various shortcomings. The effects of the Fe2O3 NPs and a chelated-Fe fertilizer (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Fe; EDTA-Fe) fertilizer on the growth and development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a crop that is very sensitive to Fe deficiency, were studied in a pot experiment. The results showed that Fe2O3 NPs increased root length, plant height, biomass, and SPAD values of peanut plants. The Fe2O3 NPs promoted the growth of peanut by regulating phytohormone contents and antioxidant enzyme activity. The Fe contents in peanut plants with Fe2O3 NPs and EDTA-Fe treatments were higher than the control group. We used energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to quantitatively analyze Fe in the soil. Peanut is usually cultivated in sandy soil, which is readily leached of fertilizers. However, the Fe2O3 NPs adsorbed onto sandy soil and improved the availability of Fe to the plants. Together, these results show that Fe2O3 NPs can replace traditional Fe fertilizers in the cultivation of peanut plants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research on the Fe2O3 NPs as the iron fertilizer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4899443PMC
July 2016