Publications by authors named "Yuko Yamamoto"

126 Publications

Chronic kidney disease and subclinical abnormalities of left heart mechanics in the community.

Eur Heart J Open 2021 Nov 16;1(3):oeab037. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

Aims: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, although the pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully studied. This study aimed to determine whether CKD could adversely affect subclinical left heart function in a sample of the general population without cardiac disease.

Methods And Results: We examined 1158 participants who voluntarily underwent extensive cardiovascular examination including laboratory test and two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography to assess left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) and left atrial (LA) reservoir, conduit, and pump strain. According to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), participants were classified into four groups; Stage 1 ( = 112; eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m), Stage 2 ( = 818; 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m), Stage 3a ( = 191; 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m), and Stage 3b-5 ( = 37; eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m). Progressive declines of LVGLS, LA reservoir, and conduit strain were observed according to the severity of CKD ( < 0.001), while LA pump strain did not differ between the groups. In multivariable analyses, eGFR was associated with LVGLS (standardized = -0.068, = 0.019) as well as LA reservoir (standardized = 0.117, < 0.001) and conduit strain (standardized = 0.130, < 0.001), independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, pertinent biomarkers, and LV geometry and diastolic function. The independent association between eGFR and LA strain persisted even after adjustment for LVGLS.

Conclusion: Worsening renal function was independently associated with impaired LV/LA strain in an unselected community-based cohort. The assessment of LV and LA strain may allow better risk stratification in CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjopen/oeab037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9263886PMC
November 2021

Enhancement of Arabidopsis growth by non-24 hour day-night cycles.

Plant Direct 2022 Mar 27;6(3):e391. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

New Field Pioneering Division Toyota Boshoku Corporation Kariya Japan.

Plant yield can be increased by matching the internal circadian rhythms with the external light and dark cycle (circadian resonance). The circadian resonance reported in the past was analyzed under light-dark cycles with 20-, 24-, or 28-hr periods; however, the mechanism for circadian resonance is still debatable due to the experimental time schedules in previous studies being few in number and widely separated. By analyzing the yield of grown under eight different external light and dark periods, we found that the yield increased when the external cycle was 22 and 26 hr instead of 24 hr. Time course RNA-seq analysis determined that seedling circadian clock genes had a free-running period of 22 ± 1 hr. Furthermore, a group of genes with 25- to 26-hr period rhythms were also observed in the seedlings with a 22- ± 1-hr period as their circadian clock. We propose that resonance that occurred by matching the expression time of a group of genes with the 25- to 26-hr cycle and providing an external day-night cycle of 25 to 26 hr was one factor that caused the yield increase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pld3.391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8958050PMC
March 2022

Cognitive Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Cerebral Ischemia Influences Salivary Metabolomics.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 15;10(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, Yokosuka 238-8580, Japan.

Vascular dementia, caused by cerebrovascular disease, is associated with cognitive impairment and reduced hippocampal metabolite levels. Specifically, cognitive impairment can be induced by decreased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. The development of low or non-invasive biomarkers to characterize these diseases is an urgent task. Disturbance of metabolic pathways has been frequently observed in cognitive impairment, and salivary molecules also showed the potentials to reflect cognitive impairment. Therefore, we evaluated salivary metabolic profiles associated with altered hippocampal BDNF expression levels in a cerebral ischemia mouse model using metabolomic analyses. The effect of tacrine (a cholinesterase inhibitor) administration was also examined. The arteries of ICR mice were occluded with aneurysm clips to generate the cerebral ischemia model. Learning and memory performance was assessed using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Hippocampal and blood BDNF levels were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Glutamate decarboxylase 1 () mRNA expression, is associated with cognitive impairment, was quantified by a real-time polymerase chain reaction. The EPM test revealed impaired spatial working memory in the cerebral ischemia mouse model; tacrine administration ameliorated this memory impairment. Cerebral ischemia suppressed expression by decreasing hippocampal BDNF expression. In total, seven salivary metabolites, such as trimethylamine -oxide and putrescine, were changed by cognitive impairment and tacrine administration. Our data suggest that salivary metabolite patterns were associated with cognitive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071145PMC
April 2021

Effect of High Fat and Fructo-Oligosaccharide Consumption on Immunoglobulin A in Saliva and Salivary Glands in Rats.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 10;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Division of Environmental Pathology, Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, 82 Inaoka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 2388580, Japan.

Consumption of indigestible dietary fiber increases immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in saliva. The purpose of this study is to clarify the synergistic effect of the intake of a high amount of fats and indigestible dietary fiber on IgA levels in saliva and submandibular glands (SMG). Seven-week-old Wistar rats were fed a low-fat (60 g/kg) fiberless diet, low-fat fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS, 30 g/kg) diet, high-fat (220 g/kg) fiberless diet, or high-fat FOS diet for 70 days. The IgA flow rate of saliva (IgA FR-saliva) was higher in the low-fat FOS group than in the other groups ( < 0.05). Furthermore, the concentration of tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of sympathetic nerve activation) in the SMG was higher in the low-fat FOS group ( < 0.05) and positively correlated with the IgA FR-saliva (rs = 0.68. < 0.0001. = 32) in comparison to that in the other groups. These findings suggest that during low-fat FOS intake, salivary IgA levels may increase through sympathetic nerve activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070188PMC
April 2021

Impact of Working Environment on Job Satisfaction: Findings from a Survey of Japanese Dental Hygienists.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 19;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Japanese Dental Hygienists' Association, Tokyo 169-0071, Japan.

In Japan, there is currently a shortage of dental hygienists. The number of dental hygienists as a workforce at dental clinical practice is not sufficient. Several factors affect career retention and job satisfaction of hygienists and these factors are considered to correlate with each other to construct networks. The aim of this study was to present a structural model of job satisfaction of Japanese dental hygienists and to determine the characteristics of unmotivated hygienists. The Japan Dental Hygienists' Association has conducted a survey on their working environments every five years since 1981. Questionnaires were sent to all members of the association (16,113) and 8932 answers were returned. The data of 3807 active dental hygienists who worked at clinics were analyzed. Items associated with job satisfaction were derived from two latent variables, namely, the intrinsic psychosocial factors for the value of the work and extrinsic employment advantage. Based on the structural equation modeling, the association of value was higher than that of advantage. Most of the hygienists wished to continue working as dental hygienists. More than 60% felt their work required a high level of expertise. The value of the profession is deeply rooted in job satisfaction, motivation, and job retention of Japanese dental hygienists. Working environments where dental hygienists make great use of their specialized skills can lead to high career retention which prevent them from taking career breaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003819PMC
March 2021

Daily Tasks and Willingness to Work of Dental Hygienists in Nursing Facilities Using Japanese Dental Hygienists' Survey 2019.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 18;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Japan Dental Hygienists' Association, Tokyo 169-0071, Japan.

Oral health care by dental hygienists contributes to the maintenance of nutritional and general health for older people in nursing facilities. This study aimed to investigate daily tasks and willingness to work among dental hygienists working in nursing facilities in Japan. In 2019, using a self-administered questionnaire, a postal cross-sectional survey was conducted among members of the Japanese Dental Hygienists' Association. Questionnaires were distributed to all 16,722 Association members (responses, = 8932; return rate, 53.4%). We analysed data from 368 dental hygienists currently working in nursing facilities. Item response theory and correspondence analyses were performed. In total, >90% of dental hygienists undertook oral examinations and provided oral hygiene instructions to residents and facility staff. In contrast, the implementation rate of tasks related to interprofessional collaboration was relatively low (approximately 50%), and 72.6% of dental hygienists indicated that they wanted to continue working in nursing facilities. Their willingness to work was closely associated with work involving interprofessional collaboration. Our study findings showed that dental hygienists' work content in nursing facilities was diverse, but that there was variation in implemented tasks. Willingness to continue working in nursing facilities was associated with interprofessional collaboration among dental hygienists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003160PMC
March 2021

Characteristic appearance of the oropharynx in patients with postnasal drip (PND)-induced cough.

Clin Respir J 2021 May 18;15(5):568-573. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Division of Medical Oncology and Molecular Respirology, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Tottori, Japan.

Introduction: Post-nasal drip (PND)-induced cough is a common cause of chronic cough. However, there is little known about the characteristic physical findings of this condition.

Objectives: We investigated views of the pharyngeal wall in patients with PND-induced cough using a handy endoscopic images.

Methods: The subjects were 135 consecutive patients referred to our hospital with a sensation of something "dripping down the throat" as one of their symptoms. Physical findings for the oropharynx were examined using Wi-Fi endoscope camera. The difference in probability of symptoms in patients with acute cough and those with subacute/chronic cough was assessed using a Bayesian Fisher exact test on a 2 × 2 table.

Results: Among the patients, 105 (78%) complained of cough, 78 (58%) of acute cough, 20 (15%) of subacute cough, and 7 (5%) of chronic cough; and 71 (53%) had coexisting asthma. Using Bayesian inference, a sore or scratchy throat and fever were more common in patients with acute cough than in those with subacute/chronic cough. In endoscopic images of the oropharynx, a reddish curtain sign on the posterior pharyngeal wall behind the palatopharyngeal arch was found in 121 patients (90%).

Conclusion: Patients with acute PND-induced cough have a component of acute upper respiratory infection, because of high probability of a sore or scratchy throat and fever as symptom. A reddish curtain sign may be a useful finding for identifying PND-induced cough in these cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/crj.13351DOI Listing
May 2021

Improvement of the Working Environment and Daily Work-Related Tasks of Dental Hygienists Working in Private Dental Offices from the Japan Dental Hygienists' Association Survey 2019.

Dent J (Basel) 2021 Feb 19;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Japan Dental Hygienists' Association, Tokyo 169-0071, Japan.

A dental hygienist performs various daily work-related tasks. The aim of this study was to elucidate the daily work-related tasks of Japanese dental hygienists and construct groups to understand the relationships between daily work-related tasks, the attractiveness of dental hygienist work, and the improvement of the working environment. The Japan Dental Hygienists' Association has conducted a postal survey on the employment status of dental hygienists in Japan every five years since 1981. The data on the implementation of 74 daily work-related tasks in dental offices were analyzed from the survey carried out in 2019. The questionnaires were distributed to 16,722 dental hygienists and 8932 were returned (collection rate: 53.4%). The 3796 dental hygienists working at dental clinics were clearly classified into nine groups. Full-time workers requested a reduced workload. Part-time workers requested better treatment rather than reducing the workload. Salary and human relationships were common problems with the working environment. Full-time workers felt that job security was an attractive feature of the dental hygienist role. The data presented in this study may help with the improvement of working conditions for dental hygienists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj9020022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923276PMC
February 2021

Factors Affecting the Reinstatement of the Japanese Dental Hygienist: A Japanese Dental Hygienist Survey Conducted in 2019.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 19;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Japan Dental Hygienists' Association, Tokyo 169-0071, Japan.

There is a shortage of dental hygienists for dental clinics in Japan. An ideal solution would be for dormant dental hygienists to re-enter the workforce. In this study, we identified the obstacles preventing these dental hygienists from re-entering the workforce. The Japan Dental Hygienists' Association surveyed all 16,113 members about their working conditions. Among the 101 items in the questionnaire, 11 items specifically targeted the reasons why dental hygienists leave their jobs. Among 8780 responses (54.5%), 1063 were from members who had resigned from jobs as dental hygienists. Three hundred and fifty-five (34.4%) answered "Yes" to the question "I would like to return to work if conditions are satisfactory." The most frequent cause for leaving a job was" Childbirth and child-rearing" (16.9%). "Working status/working hours" (15.7%) was the main obstacle to re-entry. Furthermore, dental hygienists with intentions to re-enter decided to leave their jobs most frequently because of "Childbirth and child-rearing" and "Working status/working hours." Improvement of the social support system for dental hygienists is required to ensure a sufficient supply of dental health services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922012PMC
February 2021

Improvement of Workplace Environment That Affects Motivation of Japanese Dental Hygienists.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 1;18(3). Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Japan Dental Hygienists' Association, Tokyo 169-0072, Japan.

Dental hygienists are in high demand due to insufficient workforce and a lack of an effective reinstatement support system. We investigated the reasons for willingness to work by analyzing the survey results of the employment status of Japanese dental hygienists conducted by Japan Dental Hygienists' Association. In total, we mailed 16,113 questionnaires to all members of the association (response rate 53.4%). We carried out statistical analysis to determine the specific items to improve the hygienists' working environment. Fourteen factors of working conditions that they wish to improve were determined. Structural equation modeling showed that a path, "Reduction of work volume", "Reduction of working hours" and "Increased number of holidays" were higher than other items. A decision analysis demonstrated that most of the respondents answered "Yes" to "Improvement in working conditions including higher salary" out of those who answered, "Strongly disagree" for "Do you feel that dental hygienist work is rewarding?". Improving workplace environment is integral to keeping high levels of work motivation and a low turnover rate. Most of the hygienists wish for a salary raise among all the conditions. The transition from conventional work styles to non-conventional flexible working patterns is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7908268PMC
February 2021

Impact of insulin resistance on subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in normal weight and overweight/obese japanese subjects in a general community.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 01 21;20(1):22. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Insulin resistance carries increased risk of heart failure, although the pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. LV global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography has emerged as an important tool to detect early LV systolic abnormalities. This study aimed to investigate the association between insulin resistance and subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in a sample of the general population without overt cardiac disease.

Methods: We investigated 539 participants who voluntarily underwent extensive cardiovascular health check including laboratory test and speckle-tracking echocardiography. Glycemic profiles were categorized into 3 groups according to homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR): absence of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR < 1.5), presence of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR ≥ 1.5) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to evaluate the association between abnormal glucose metabolism and impaired LVGLS (> - 16.65%).

Results: Forty-five (8.3%) participants had DM and 66 (12.2%) had abnormal HOMA-IR. LV mass index and E/e' ratio did not differ between participants with and without abnormal HOMA-IR, whereas abnormal HOMA-IR group had significantly decreased LVGLS (- 17.6 ± 2.6% vs. - 19.7 ± 3.1%, p < 0.05). The prevalence of impaired LVGLS was higher in abnormal HOMA-IR group compared with normal HOMA-IR group (42.4% vs. 14.0%) and similar to that of DM (48.9%). In multivariable analyses, glycemic abnormalities were significantly associated with impaired LVGLS, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and pertinent laboratory and echocardiographic parameters [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.38, p = 0.007 for abnormal HOMA-IR; adjusted OR 3.02, p = 0.003 for DM]. The independent association persisted even after adjustment for waist circumference as a marker of abdominal adiposity. Sub-group analyses stratified by body mass index showed significant association between abnormal HOMA-IR and impaired LVGLS in normal weight individuals (adjusted OR 4.59, p = 0.001), but not in overweight/obese individuals (adjusted OR 1.62, p = 0.300).

Conclusions: In the general population without overt cardiac disease, insulin resistance carries independent risk for subclinical LV dysfunction, especially in normal weight individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-020-01201-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818760PMC
January 2021

Job Attractiveness and Job Satisfaction of Dental Hygienists: From Japanese Dental Hygienists' Survey 2019.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 17;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Japanese Dental Hygienists' Association, Tokyo 169-0071, Japan.

Job attractiveness and job satisfaction are important factors in the continuity of employment among healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to assess job satisfaction and job attractiveness among dental hygienists in Japan. The Japan Dental Hygienists Association conducted a survey of the employment status of Japanese dental hygienists in 2019. Questionnaires were distributed to all 16,722 members, and 8932 were returned (Collection rate: 53.4%). Data from 7869 currently working dental hygienists were analysed in this study. We analysed seven items of job attractiveness, 14 items of job satisfaction, and 13 items of request for improving the working environment. Item response theory and structural equation modelling (SEM) were utilized for the analysis. For attractiveness of dental hygienists' work, respondents placed greater emphasis on the fact that dental hygienists needed national qualifications rather than on income stability. SEM showed that job satisfaction consisted of two factors, 'Value for work' and 'Working environment', as did job attractiveness, with 'Contribution' and 'Assured income'. Value for work affects the contribution to people, and, employment environment affects assured income. Improving job satisfaction and work environments could help to improve the employment rate of dental hygienists, which could positively influence patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830899PMC
January 2021

Between plasmonics and surface-enhanced resonant Raman spectroscopy: toward single-molecule strong coupling at a hotspot.

Nanoscale 2021 Jan;13(3):1566-1580

Health and Medical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Takamatsu, Kagawa 761-0395, Japan.

The purpose of this minireview is to build a bridge between two research fields: surface-enhanced resonant Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) under near-single-molecule conditions and the branch of plasmonics treating strong coupling between plasmons and molecular excitons. SERRS enables single-molecule spectroscopy owing to its significant enhancement at SERRS hotspots (HSs), localized at gaps or junctions between plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates. SERRS is SERS (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy) under a resonant Raman excitation condition. The origin of the Raman enhancement in SERRS is electromagnetic coupling between plasmons and molecular excitons at HSs. It has been reported that the coupling energy at HSs reaches the strong coupling region, meaning that they are potential platforms for applications of single molecular excitons modified by strong coupling. In this review, we discuss recent progress related to electronic strong coupling in near-single-molecule SERRS: collective (e.g., vibrational) strong coupling is out of the scope of this minireview. First, we explain the relationship between the electromagnetic enhancement factor and coupling energy. Second, we introduce three theoretical methods for obtaining evidence of strong coupling at HSs. Third, we discuss a method for reproducing enhanced and modified molecular Raman and fluorescence spectra at HSs using the coupling energy. Finally, we propose the use of two experimental methods of absorption spectroscopy at HSs for modifying molecular electronic dynamics by strong coupling and comment on future applications of SERRS HSs to photophysics and photochemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr07344jDOI Listing
January 2021

Development of Innovative Contra-angle Handpiece Device with Piston Movement for Root Canal Preparation.

J Endod 2021 Apr 10;47(4):641-647. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Department of Endodontology, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, Yokohama, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the optimal amplitude and weight of the newly developed contra-angle handpiece. The handpiece uses piston movement without using an endodontic motor and enables a safe, quick, and reliable canal preparation.

Methods: A prototype handpiece was designed. Instrumentation was performed on root canal resin blocks by 20 operators in 3 groups: the prototype handpiece with an H file (a stainless steel #25 manual H file, the piston group), a manually standardized technique with a K file (stainless steel #15-25 K files, the manual group), and a nickel-titanium (NiTi) reciprocating file with an endodontic motor (Reciproc Blue R25 [VDW, Munich, Germany], the NiTi group). Transportation of the canal center line and the time required for preparation were measured and statistically analyzed.

Results: The optimal condition was an amplitude of 1.35 mm and a weight of 61.0 g. Transportation of the canal center was observed in all groups. A statistically significant difference was found at 2.0-3.0 mm from the apical foramen between the piston or NiTi group and the manual group, but no significant difference was found between the piston and NiTi groups. The least transportation was found in the NiTi and piston groups. The handpiece with a #25 H file demonstrated a good centering ability, similar to the NiTi file, which enabled speedy preparation. The time required for preparation between the piston or NiTi group and the manual group was statistically different. No significant difference was observed between the piston and NiTi groups (P < .05).

Conclusions: We concluded that the newly designed handpiece achieved efficient canal preparation and negotiation. The handpiece could avoid endodontic accidents, including ledge formation, instrument separation, and perforation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2020.12.018DOI Listing
April 2021

Dental Hygienists' Practice in Perioperative Oral Care Management According to the Japanese Dental Hygienists Survey 2019.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 26;18(1). Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Japanese Dental Hygienists' Association, Tokyo 169-0071, Japan.

Perioperative oral care management is effective in the prevention of postoperative complications, and dental hygienists play an important role. The aim of this study was to elucidate the practice and substantial role of dental hygienists in perioperative oral care management. The Japan Dental Hygienists Association conducted a survey of the employment status of Japanese dental hygienists in 2019. Questionnaires were distributed to all 16,722 members, and 8932 were returned (collection rate: 53.4%). A total of 3560 dental hygienists were working at dental clinics and 1450 (38.2%) were performing perioperative oral care management. More than 90% of them implemented conventional oral care practice. Less than half of the dental hygienists implemented treatment concerning oral functions. Only 9.9% of dental hygienists recognized shortened hospital stay as an effect of perioperative oral care management. Dental hygienists who implemented both nutritional instruction and training of swallowing function or mouth rinsing instructions recognized the shortened hospital stay effect. Overall implementation of perioperative oral care management led to shortened hospital stay. Implementation of perioperative oral care management required knowledge and skills related to systemic health conditions. A stepwise educational program is necessary for perioperative oral care management to become commonplace for dental hygienists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795937PMC
December 2020

Effect of Periodontal Disease on Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 9;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Division of Periodontology, Department of Oral Interdisciplinary Medicine, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, 82 Inaoka, Yokosuka 2388580, Kanagawa, Japan.

Both periodontal disease and diabetes are common chronic inflammatory diseases. One of the major problems with type 2 diabetes is that unregulated blood glucose levels damage the vascular endothelium and cause complications. A bidirectional relationship between periodontal disease and diabetic complications has been reported previously. However, whether periodontal disease affects the presence of diabetic complications has not been clarified. Therefore, we examined the effect of the periodontal disease status on diabetic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Periodontal doctors examined the periodontal disease status of 104 type 2 diabetic patients who visited a private diabetes medical clinic once a month between 2016 and 2018. The subject's diabetic status was obtained from their medical records. Bayesian network analysis showed that bleeding on probing directly influenced the presence of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients. In addition, bleeding on probing was higher in the diabetic retinopathy group ( = 36) than in the group without diabetic retinopathy ( = 68, = 0.006, Welch's -test). Bleeding on probing represents gingival inflammation, which might affect the presence of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients who regularly visit diabetic clinics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600038PMC
October 2020

Subclinical Hypothyroidism as an Independent Determinant of Left Atrial Dysfunction in the General Population.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 03;106(4):e1859-e1867

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Although subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common clinical entity and carries independent risk for incident heart failure (HF), its possible association with subclinical cardiac dysfunction is unclear. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) and left atrial (LA) phasic strain can unmask subclinical left heart abnormalities and are excellent predictors for HF. This study aimed to investigate the association between the presence of SCH and subclinical left heart dysfunction in a sample of the general population without overt cardiac disease.

Methods: We examined 1078 participants who voluntarily underwent extensive cardiovascular health check-ups, including laboratory tests and 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography to assess LVGLS and LA reservoir, conduit, and pump strain. SCH was defined as an elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level with normal concentration of free thyroxine.

Results: Mean age was 62 ± 12 years, and 56% were men. Seventy-eight (7.2%) participants exhibited SCH. Individuals with SCH had significantly reduced LA reservoir (37.1 ± 6.6% vs 39.1 ± 6.6%; P = 0.011) and conduit strain (17.3 ± 6.3% vs 19.3 ± 6.6%; P = 0.012) compared with those with euthyroidism, whereas there was no significant difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, LA volume index, LVGLS, and LA pump strain between the 2 groups. In multivariable analyses, SCH remained associated with impaired LA reservoir strain, independent of age, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and pertinent laboratory and echocardiographic parameters. including LVGLS (standardized β -0.054; P = 0.032).

Conclusions: In an unselected community-based cohort, individuals with SCH had significantly impaired LA phasic function. This association may be involved in the higher incidence of HF in subjects with SCH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa730DOI Listing
March 2021

Hypertriglyceridemia-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rat submandibular glands.

J Oral Biosci 2020 12 12;62(4):327-335. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Division of Environmental Pathology, Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, 82 Inaoka-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, 238-8580, Japan.

Objectives: Salivary glands produce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which increases plasma BDNF content. Salivary BDNF influences the hippocampus and enhances anxiety-like behaviors. Dyslipidemia affects the brain, promoting depression and anxiety-like behaviors. This study was performed to investigate whether hypertriglyceridemia influences salivary BDNF expression.

Methods: Hypertriglyceridemia was induced in rats by high-fat diet intake for 10 weeks. BDNF protein levels in the saliva and submandibular glands were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bdnf mRNA levels in the submandibular gland were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results: A hypertriglyceridemia rat model was established. Body weight did not differ between the control and hypertriglyceridemia groups. Bdnf mRNA and protein expression was increased in the submandibular gland in the hypertriglyceridemia group compared to the control group. BDNF expression was also significantly increased in the saliva of the hypertriglyceridemia group.

Conclusions: This is first study to show that hypertriglyceridemia induces BDNF expression in the rat submandibular gland and suggests that salivary BDNF is associated with lipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.job.2020.08.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Existence of SARS-CoV-2 Entry Molecules in the Oral Cavity.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 20;21(17). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Division of Environmental Pathology, Department of Oral Science, Kanagawa Dental University, 82 Inaoka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 238-0003, Japan.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and furin, which promote entry of the virus into the host cell, have been identified as determinants of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Dorsal tongue and gingiva, saliva, and tongue coating samples were examined to determine the presence of these molecules in the oral cavity. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that ACE2 was expressed in the stratified squamous epithelium of the dorsal tongue and gingiva. TMPRSS2 was strongly expressed in stratified squamous epithelium in the keratinized surface layer and detected in the saliva and tongue coating samples via Western blot. Furin was localized mainly in the lower layer of stratified squamous epithelium and detected in the saliva but not tongue coating. ACE2, TMPRSS2, and furin mRNA expression was observed in taste bud-derived cultured cells, which was similar to the immunofluorescence observations. These data showed that essential molecules for SARS-CoV-2 infection were abundant in the oral cavity. However, the database analysis showed that saliva also contains many protease inhibitors. Therefore, although the oral cavity may be the entry route for SARS-CoV-2, other factors including protease inhibitors in the saliva that inhibit viral entry should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503451PMC
August 2020

The use of wearable devices in chronic disease management to enhance adherence and improve telehealth outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Telemed Telecare 2022 Jun 20;28(5):342-359. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Centre for Online Health, Centre for Health Services Research, The University of Queensland, Australia.

Introduction: Wearable device (WD) interventions are rapidly growing in chronic disease management; nevertheless, the effectiveness of these technologies to monitor telehealth outcomes has not been adequately discussed. This study aims to evaluate the effects of WDs in adherence and other health outcomes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and cardiac disease (CD).

Methods: CINAHL, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and EMBASE were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs from 1937 to February 2020. Studies comparing interventions with the use of WD were assessed for quality in RCTs and a meta-analysis was performed.

Results: Eleven studies were included in this review. All of the interventions involved WD use with educational support such as goal setting, virtual social support, e-health program, real-time feedback, written information, maintain diary, and text messaging. The meta-analysis showed no difference in adherence ( = .38). The DM group showed effects of more than a 2% reduction in weight when WDs were implemented for three months (risk ratio = 2.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38 to 3.50;  = .0009), as well as blood glucose (mean difference (MD) = -32.39; 95% CI = -48.07 to -16.72;  < .0001), haemoglobin A (MD = -0.69; 95% CI = -1.28 to -0.10;  = .02), and physical exercise time in the CD group (MD = 9.53; 95% CI = 0.59 to 18.47;  = .04).

Discussion: WD with educational support may be particularly useful for people with DM and CD to enhance support beyond usual care. The results of this review showed insufficient evidence to support the use of WD for COPD to enhance telehealth outcomes for disease management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357633X20937573DOI Listing
June 2022

Prioritization of the Skills to Be Mastered for the Daily Jobs of Japanese Dental Hygienists.

Int J Dent 2020 22;2020:4297646. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Japanese Dental Hygienists' Association, Tokyo, Japan.

Dental hygienists require proficiency in a wide variety of job skills. Dental hygienists should master their job skills step by step, and the prioritization of these steps is important. In this study, we investigated the frequency at which Japanese dental hygienists performed daily jobs and attempted to classify the jobs according to the proficiency levels. The aim of this study was to surmise the order in which skills should be mastered in terms of priority and to investigate the relationship between daily jobs and the motivation for completing jobs. The Japan Dental Hygienists' Association conducts a survey on the employment status of dental hygienists in Japan every five years. The questionnaire is distributed to all members of the Japan Dental Hygienists' Association. In this study, the responses of 3,807 dental hygienists who worked at dental clinics were analyzed. We analyzed 77 kinds of daily jobs and the items regarding the motivation to work. For the analysis, item response theory (IRT), structural equation modeling (SEM), and logistic regression analysis were applied. According to the item response curve, the jobs were classified into 11 clusters. The jobs classified into Cluster 1 were the jobs that most of the average-proficiency Japanese dental hygienists performed. Scaling and root planing were the representative jobs in Cluster 1. Performing the jobs classified into Cluster 5 clearly discriminated whether the dental hygienists were performing multiple jobs. Jobs concerning care for elderly or disabled patients were classified into Cluster 5. Jobs concerning gerodontology, implants, management of staff, and consultations were significantly associated with the motivation to perform jobs. Polishing and adjustment of orthodontic apparatuses was negatively associated with the motivation to perform jobs. Understanding the features of each daily job of dental hygienists is important for planning dental hygienists' lifelong educational programs and evaluating their skill levels and proficiency levels. The results presented in this study may help to reveal the characteristics of dental hygienists' daily jobs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4297646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327552PMC
June 2020

Inhibitory effect of omega-3 fatty acids on alveolar bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation.

J Oral Sci 2020 ;62(3):298-302

Division of Periodontology, Department of Oral Interdisciplinary Medicine, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University.

In this study, a Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.)-infected mouse periodontitis model was used to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid intake on differentiation and maturation of cultured osteoclast. Four-week-old C57BL/6JJcl mice were divided into four groups according to the diets they were fed from the beginning of the experiment (i.e., food containing omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids) and whether they were orally administered P.g. Thirty-three days after beginning the experiment, bone marrow cells were sampled from the femoral bone of mice from each group and differentiated into osteoclasts; the effects of the ingestion of different fatty acids were subsequently investigated. There was no statistical interaction between the different fatty acids and P.g. infection on the number of osteoclasts (P = 0.6). However, the fatty acid type affected the number of osteoclasts in mice (P = 0.0013), with the omega-3 groups demonstrating lower osteoclast numbers than the omega-6 groups. Furthermore, the addition of resolvin E1 (RvE1), which is an omega-3 fatty acid-derived lipid mediator, suppressed the differentiation of mouse cultured osteoclasts (P < 0.0001). Therefore, the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids may suppress osteoclast differentiation while inhibiting bone resorption and tissue destruction due to periodontitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.19-0267DOI Listing
June 2020

Faster Short-Chain Fatty Acid Absorption from the Cecum Following Polydextrose Ingestion Increases the Salivary Immunoglobulin A Flow Rate in Rats.

Nutrients 2020 Jun 11;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Division of Environmental Pathology, Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, 82 Inaoka, Yokosuka 2388580, Kanagawa, Japan.

Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a vital role in preventing upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). In our previous study, we showed that the intake of carbohydrates increases the intestinal levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which in turn increase salivary IgA levels. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated in rats the effect of polydextrose (PDX) ingestion on salivary IgA level and SCFA concentration in cecal digesta and the portal vein. Five-week-old rats were fed with a fiber-free diet (control) or with 40 g/kg of PDX for 28 days. Compared to the control, ingestion of PDX led to a higher salivary IgA flow rate ( = 0.0013) and a higher concentration of SCFAs in the portal vein ( = 0.004). These two data were positively correlated (r = 0.88, = 0.0002, n = 12). In contrast, the concentration of SCFAs in cecal digesta and cecal digesta viscosity were significantly lower following PDX ingestion, compared to the control ( = 0.008 and 0.05, respectively). These findings suggest that the ingestion of PDX increases the absorption rate of SCFAs in the intestine through PDX-induced fermentation, which is accompanied by an increase in SCFA levels in the blood, and ultimately leads to increased salivary IgA levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12061745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7353249PMC
June 2020

Anti-crossing property of strong coupling system of silver nanoparticle dimers coated with thin dye molecular films analyzed by electromagnetism.

J Chem Phys 2020 Feb;152(5):054710

Advanced Device Laboratory, RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

Evidence of strong coupling between plasmons and molecular excitons for plasmonic nanoparticle (NP) dimers exhibiting ultra-sensitive surface enhanced resonant Raman scattering is the observation of anti-crossing in the coupled resonance. However, experimentally tuning the plasmon resonance of such dimers for the observation is difficult. In this work, we calculate the anti-crossing property of dimers coated with thin dye films according to the classical electromagnetism. This property is quantitatively evaluated according to the coupled oscillator model composed of a plasmon and a molecular exciton representing the molecular multi-level system. A comparison of the film thickness dependences of dimer spectral changes with those of silver ellipsoidal NPs indicates that the dipole plasmons localized in the dimer gap are coupled with molecular excitons of the film much stronger than the dipole plasmons of ellipsoidal NPs. Furthermore, the anti-crossing behavior of coupled resonances is investigated while tuning plasmon resonance by changing the morphology and refractive index of the surrounding medium. The spectral changes observed for ellipsoidal NPs clearly exhibit anti-crossing property; however, the anti-crossing behavior of dimers is more complex due to the strong coupling of dipoles and higher-order plasmons with multiple molecular excitons. We find that the anti-crossing for dimers is clearly confirmed by the refractive index dependence of coupled resonance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5133875DOI Listing
February 2020

Comparison of CD34 expression in fibrous reactive hyperplasia and healthy oral mucosa.

J Oral Biosci 2020 03 30;62(1):88-92. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Division of Environmental Pathology, Department of Oral Science, Japan. Electronic address:

Objectives: Fibrous reactive hyperplasia (FRH) is a common fibrous lesion in the oral cavity. The disease characteristics of FRH, including the expression patterns of CD34, which is a well-known fibroblast marker, have not been investigated in detail. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the characteristics of FRH compared to those of the healthy mucosa, based on CD34 expression profiles.

Methods: CD34 expression was analyzed at the protein and mRNA levels using immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization (ISH).

Results: CD34 was not expressed in the lamina propria of the oral mucosa, but was commonly observed in submucosal fibroblasts. CD34-positive fibroblasts were commonly observed in FRH. A total of 17 out of 19 cases (89.5%) were CD34-positive. Furthermore, we identified a significant difference in the ratio of CD34-positive cells between the healthy and FRH tissues. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that CD34 mRNA was expressed in all cases of FRH, and CD34 mRNA expression in FRH samples was found to be localized to spindle-shaped fibroblasts, as determined by ISH. A positive correlation was also found between the CD34 mRNA levels and the proportion of the CD34-positive cells.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the increase in collagen synthesis in CD34-positive fibroblasts in the submucosa leads to the development of FRH. To our knowledge, this is the first report confirming the mRNA expression patterns of CD34 in FRH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.job.2020.01.005DOI Listing
March 2020

Evaluation of the Safety of Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy Compared with Surgical Tracheostomy in the Intensive Care Unit.

Crit Care Res Pract 2019 23;2019:2054846. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.

Background: Tracheostomy is a necessary procedure for patients who require long-term mechanical ventilation support. There are two methods for tracheostomy in current use: surgical tracheostomy (ST) and percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT). In the current study, we retrospectively compared the safety of both procedures performed in our intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods: In this study, we enrolled subjects who underwent tracheostomy in our ICU between January 2012 and March 2016. We excluded subjects who were <20 years old and underwent tracheostomy in the operating room. As a primary outcome, we evaluated the rate of complications between ST and PDT groups. The length of ICU stay, time to tracheostomy from intubation, and the rate of mechanical ventilation and mortality at 28 postoperative days were also examined as secondary outcomes.

Results: Compared with the ST group, the rate of all complications was lower in the PDT group (13.4% vs. 38.8%, =0.007). Although the rate of intraoperative complications did not differ between the two groups (3.8% vs. 8.1%, =0.62), relative to the ST procedure, the PDT procedure was associated with fewer postoperative complications (34.6% vs. 9.6%, =0.003). Among postoperative complications, accidental removal of the tracheostomy tube and an air leak from the tracheostomy fistula were less frequent in the PDT group than the ST group. Between the two groups, there were no significant differences in their secondary outcomes.

Conclusion: This retrospective study indicates that relative to ST, PDT is a safer procedure to be performed in the ICU. Fewer postoperative complications following PDT might be attributed to the small skin incision made during this procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2054846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6906791PMC
November 2019

Effect of social isolation stress on saliva BDNF in rat.

J Oral Sci 2019 Nov 21;61(4):516-520. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University.

Salivary glands produce various compounds, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which serve as biomarkers of stress-related disorders. Social isolation-induced stress models a form of chronic mild stress that induces neurodegenerative changes in the brain and behavioral alterations. This study employed a rat model to determine whether social isolation stress affects BDNF levels in saliva. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to social isolation stress (1 animal/cage) or control (3-4 animals/cage) groups and reared for 8 weeks. The concentration of BDNF was quantified in specific brain regions, blood, and saliva using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The levels of expression of Bdnf and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) mRNA were quantified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Behavioral alterations were analyzed using the open-field and elevated plus maze assays. The BDNF concentration was lower in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, blood, and saliva of the stress group than in those of the controls. Trkb expression in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was decreased by social isolation stress. Moreover, the social isolation stress group showed behavioral deficits in both tests. In conclusion, these findings indicate that social isolation stress may reduce the expression of BDNF protein in blood and saliva, thus providing a potentially valuable biomarker for diagnosis of stress-related disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.18-0409DOI Listing
November 2019

Muraminomicins, novel ester derivatives: in vitro and in vivo antistaphylococcal activity.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2019 12 27;72(12):956-969. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Vaccine Research Laboratories, Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.

Novel muraminomicin derivatives with antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were synthesized by esterification of the hydroxy group on the diazepanone ring of muraminomicin Z. Compound 1b (DS14450354) possessed a diheptoxybenzyl-β-Alanyl-β-Alanyl group and exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against MRSA comparable to those against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). The MICs that inhibited 50 and 90% of the strains were 1 and 2 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 1a (DS60182922) possessed an aminoethylbenzoyldodecylglycyl moiety and showed bactericidal activity against MSSA Smith. The bactericidal activity of 1a against MRSA 10925 was comparatively lower, whilst 1b exhibited dose-dependent bactericidal activity against MRSA 10925. The mutation frequency of 1b was lower than that of 1a. An amino acid substitution (F226I) was observed in MraY mutants isolated from culture plates containing 1a or 1b. Subcutaneous 1a and 1b administration showed good therapeutic efficacy in murine systemic infection models with MSSA Smith and MRSA 10925, comparable to that of vancomycin, suggesting that the novel muraminomicin derivatives may be effective therapeutic agents against MRSA that warrant further investigation. A scheme for the formulation of the key ester intermediate, requiring no HPLC preparation, was also established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41429-019-0235-3DOI Listing
December 2019

Present and Future of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

ACS Nano 2020 01 8;14(1):28-117. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences , Nanyang Technological University , 21 Nanyang Link , Singapore 637371 , Singapore.

The discovery of the enhancement of Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on nanostructured metal surfaces is a landmark in the history of spectroscopic and analytical techniques. Significant experimental and theoretical effort has been directed toward understanding the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect and demonstrating its potential in various types of ultrasensitive sensing applications in a wide variety of fields. In the 45 years since its discovery, SERS has blossomed into a rich area of research and technology, but additional efforts are still needed before it can be routinely used analytically and in commercial products. In this Review, prominent authors from around the world joined together to summarize the state of the art in understanding and using SERS and to predict what can be expected in the near future in terms of research, applications, and technological development. This Review is dedicated to SERS pioneer and our coauthor, the late Prof. Richard Van Duyne, whom we lost during the preparation of this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.9b04224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990571PMC
January 2020
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