Publications by authors named "Yuko Kawahara"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Early detection of cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease with a novel eye tracking test.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 3;427:117529. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan. Electronic address:

Due to an increasing number of dementia patients, the development of a rapid and sensitive method for cognitive assessment is awaited. Here, we examined the usefulness of a novel and short (3 min) eye tracking device to evaluate the cognitive function of normal control (NC, n = 52), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 52), and Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 70) subjects. Eye tracking total score declined significantly in MCI (**p < 0.01 vs NC) and AD (**p < 0.01 vs NC, p < 0.01 vs MCI), and correlated well with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score (r = 0.57, *p < 0.05). Furthermore, the eye tracking test, especially memory and deductive reasoning tasks, effectively discriminated NC, MCI and AD. The present novel eye tracking test clearly discriminated cognitive functions among NC, MCI, and AD subjects, thereby providing an advantage for the early detection of MCI and AD in screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117529DOI Listing
June 2021

4-Hydroxyl-2-Nonenal Localized Expression Pattern in Retrieved Clots is Associated with Large Artery Atherosclerosis in Stroke Patients.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Mar 4;30(3):105583. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

Objectives: The relationship between stroke etiology and clot pathology remains controversial.

Materials And Methods: We performed histological analysis of clots retrieved from 52 acute ischemic stroke patients using hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry (CD42b and oxidative/hypoxic stress markers). The correlations between clot composition and the stroke etiological group (i.e., cardioembolic, cryptogenic, or large artery atherosclerosis) were assessed.

Results: Of the 52 clots analyzed, there were no significant differences in histopathologic composition (e.g., white blood cells, red blood cells, fibrin, and platelets) between the 3 etiological groups (P = .92). By contrast, all large artery atherosclerosis clots showed a localized pattern with the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxyl-2-nonenal (P < .01). From all 52 clots, 4-hydroxyl-2-nonenal expression patterns were localized in 28.8% of clots, diffuse in 57.7% of clots, and no signal in 13.5% of clots.

Conclusions: A localized pattern of 4-hydroxyl-2-nonenal staining may be a novel and effective marker for large artery atherosclerosis (sensitivity 100%, specificity 82%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105583DOI Listing
March 2021

The Oldest Japanese Case of Combined Central and Peripheral Demyelination, which Developed Nine Years After the First Instance of Optic Neuritis.

Intern Med 2021 Jan 12;60(2):305-308. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Japan.

Combined central and peripheral demyelination (CCPD) causes demyelination in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Anti-neurofascin 155 antibody plays an important pathogenic role in CCPD, but evidence concerning an association between this antibody and CCPD remains inconclusive. Although there have been no reports of precedent optic neuritis developing into CCPD, we herein report a Japanese man in whom optic neuritis recurred four times over nine years and who developed CCPD without positive anti-neurofascin 155 antibody. This case suggests the possibility of developing CCPD after optic nerve neuritis and the existence of an unknown antibody that induces CCPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.5536-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872801PMC
January 2021

Improvement of a decreased anti-oxidative activity by edaravone in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Aug 15;415:116906. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: The free radical scavenger edaravone is a proven neuroprotective drug for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our objective was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of edaravone for oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity in ALS patients.

Methods: Twenty-two ALS patients with a disease duration of 2 years, treated by edaravone, and 25 control participants were evaluated according to their clinical scores, including ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R), and serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of oxidative stress dROM and anti-oxidative activity OXY.

Results: Serum and CSF markers of anti-oxidative activity OXY were significantly decreased in ALS patients at pre-treatment compared with controls (p < .01), which was improved in the course of edaravone treatment. Both serum and CSF OXY were significantly correlated with ALS clinical scores including ALSFRS-R (*p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001). Furthermore, serum OXY at pre-treatment was significantly correlated with a change in the ALSFRS-R score in the sixth cycle of edaravone treatment (*p < .05).

Conclusions: The present study suggests significant correlations between anti-oxidative activity and ALS clinical severity, and the therapeutic efficacy of edaravone for decreased anti-oxidative activity in ALS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116906DOI Listing
August 2020

GPIHBP1 autoantibody syndrome during interferon β1a treatment.

J Clin Lipidol 2019 Jan - Feb;13(1):62-69. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Departments of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Autoantibodies against glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) cause chylomicronemia by blocking the ability of GPIHBP1 to bind lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and transport the enzyme to its site of action in the capillary lumen.

Objective: A patient with multiple sclerosis developed chylomicronemia during interferon (IFN) β1a therapy. The chylomicronemia resolved when the IFN β1a therapy was discontinued. Here, we sought to determine whether the drug-induced chylomicronemia was caused by GPIHBP1 autoantibodies.

Methods: We tested plasma samples collected during and after IFN β1a therapy for GPIHBP1 autoantibodies (by western blotting and with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays). We also tested whether the patient's plasma blocked the binding of LPL to GPIHBP1 on GPIHBP1-expressing cells.

Results: During IFN β1a therapy, the plasma contained GPIHBP1 autoantibodies, and those autoantibodies blocked GPIHBP1's ability to bind LPL. Thus, the chylomicronemia was because of the GPIHBP1 autoantibody syndrome. Consistent with that diagnosis, the plasma levels of GPIHBP1 and LPL were very low. After IFN β1a therapy was stopped, the plasma triglyceride levels returned to normal, and GPIHBP1 autoantibodies were undetectable.

Conclusion: The appearance of GPIHBP1 autoantibodies during IFN β1a therapy caused chylomicronemia. The GPIHBP1 autoantibodies disappeared when the IFN β1a therapy was stopped, and the plasma triglyceride levels fell within the normal range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2018.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379125PMC
May 2020

Asymmetrical and Isolated Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy Accompanied by a New Subset of Anti-ganglioside Antibodies in a Patient with Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma.

Intern Med 2019 Jan 24;58(2):283-286. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Japan.

Malignant lymphoma sometimes involves peripheral nerves due to paraneoplastic syndrome associated with anti-ganglioside antibodies. We report a very rare case of malignant lymphoma accompanied by an asymmetrical and isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy associated with a new subset of anti-ganglioside antibodies. Magnetic resonance imaging and F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose position emission tomography showed no abnormalities of the hypoglossal nerve nucleus; however, the patient' s serum was positive for anti-sulfated glucuronyl paragloboside IgM antibodies as well as anti-GM1 IgM and anti-GQ1b IgM antibodies. The present case might suggest a paraneoplastic asymmetrical and isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy associated with a new subset of anti-ganglioside antibodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.1269-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6378144PMC
January 2019

Marked hypertriglyceridemia induced by interferon-β1a therapy in a clinically isolated syndrome patient.

J Neurol Sci 2017 Feb 27;373:144-146. Epub 2016 Dec 27.

Department of Neurology, Rheumatology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2016.12.052DOI Listing
February 2017

Effect of micro mist sauna bathing on thermoregulatory and circulatory functions and thermal sensation in humans.

Int J Biometeorol 2016 May 18;60(5):699-709. Epub 2015 Sep 18.

School of Nursing, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, Hoshigaoka-Motomachi 17-3, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-0802, Japan.

To examine the effects of micro mist sauna bathing, produced by water crushing method, we exposed ten male subjects to five cases of micro mist sauna, namely (1) room temperature (RT) 38 °C with 100 % (actually 91 %) relative humidity (RH), (2) RT 41.5 °C with 80 % (actually 81 %) RH, (3) RT 41.5 °C with 100 % (actually 96 %) RH, (4) RT 45.0 °C with 64 % (actually 61 %) RH, and (5) RT 45.0 °C with 100 % (actually 86 %) RH, and measured tympanic temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate (HR), and cheek moisture content, as well as ratings of thermal and sweating sensation tympanic temperatures at RT 45 °C were significantly higher at 86 % RH than those at 61 % RH; however, those at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH were higher than those with 86 % RH during recovery. There were no significant differences at RT 41.5 °C between with 81 % RH and with 96 % RH. Mean skin temperature was the highest at RT 45 °C 86 % RH case, followed by at RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH, RT 45 °C 61 % RH, RT 41.5 °C 81 % RH, and finally at RT 38 °C 91 % RH. HR change showed the same order as for mean skin temperature. A significant difference in cheek moisture content was observed between RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH 10 min after the micro mist bathing. There were no significant differences between ratings of thermal sensation at RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH. Between RT 45 °C with 86 % RH and RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH, there was a tendency for interaction (0.05 < p < 0.1). Other cases showed significant higher ratings of thermal sensation at higher room temperature or higher relative humidity. The ratings of sweating sensation 10 min after the mist sauna bathing were significantly higher at higher RT and RH except between RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH and RT 45 °C 86 % RH which exhibited no significant difference. We concluded that the micro mist sauna produced by water crushing method induced more moderate and effective thermal effect during micro mist sauna bathing than the conventional mist sauna bathing. In addition, micro mist sauna is as effective for heating the human subjects as bathtub bathing as well as more moderate thermal and sweating sensations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-015-1064-0DOI Listing
May 2016

Aggressive Garcin's syndrome by acquired cystic disease of kidney-related renal cell carcinoma in a long-term hemodialytic patient.

J Neurol Sci 2015 Aug 5;355(1-2):216-8. Epub 2015 Jun 5.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2015.06.006DOI Listing
August 2015

High Incidence of Dementia Conversion than Stroke Recurrence in Poststroke Patients of Late Elder Society.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2015 Jul 22;24(7):1621-8. Epub 2015 Apr 22.

Department of Neurology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: This study investigated the incidence of current poststroke dementia (PSD), the annual conversion ratio into PSD, and the risk factors for conversion.

Methods: In a 4.8-year follow-up period, 112 poststroke patients (ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage) were retrospectively investigated in cognitive examinations. They were categorized into 3 subgroups: converters into PSD, nonconverters who maintained their normal cognitive functions, and reverters who recovered to the normal mentality range. The clinical and demographic characteristics of these 3 subgroups were analyzed.

Results: Among all 112 poststroke patients (61.6% male, 73.6 ± 10.4 years old), 16.1% had PSD. During the follow-up period, a part of the normal baseline mentality group (83.9% of 112 original patients) newly developed PSD (subdivided into converters) with an annual conversion rate of 7.6%. The reversion rate from the baseline PSD group was 11.3%. There were significant differences in age (P < .05), baseline mini-mental state examination scores (P < .05), body mass index (P < .05), and periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensity grades (P < .05 and P = .01, respectively) between converters and nonconverters. The annual rate of stroke recurrence was only 2.2% in all stroke subtypes.

Conclusions: In comparison with stroke recurrence (2.2%), 7.6% of the annual PSD conversion rate was very high. Therefore, prevention of direct conversion into PSD without stroke recurrence may be another important aspect of poststroke clinics, especially in late elder society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2015.03.037DOI Listing
July 2015

A patient develops transient unique cerebral and cerebellar lesions after unruptured aneurysm coiling.

BMC Neurol 2015 Mar 31;15:49. Epub 2015 Mar 31.

Departments of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.

Background: We describe a case of a very unusual complication following a coiling procedure in which the patient developed transient unique cerebral and cerebellar lesions. Lesions were examined not only by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but also by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS).

Case Presentation: A 33-year-old woman presented an incidental 3.7 × 3.3-mm unruptured cerebral aneurysm (CAn) in her basilar artery, which was successfully coiled with balloon assistance. A follow-up brain MRI at 1 and 2 months showed a gradual increase in several white matter hyperintense lesions in the left cerebellar, bilateral occipitotemporal and left parietoccipital lobe during fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). These were the only lesions associated with perfused CAn. However, the patient did not show any additional symptoms such as visual disturbance throughout the entire course. (11)C-methionine-PET (MET-PET) showed an obvious increase in methionine uptake in the lesion corresponding to enhanced areas with gadolinium-enhanced MRI. MRS showed a decrease in the N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/cr) ratio and a slight elevation of the choline/creatine (cho/cr) ratio and a lactate peak in the lesion. A follow-up MRI at 6 and 12 months showed a gradual decrease in the initial hyperintense lesions in FLAIR without any treatment.

Conclusion: We present a case of an unusual complication after a coiling procedure. Although it is difficult to identify this etiology without a pathological examination, it is importance to increase awareness of such a potential complication arising from coiling procedures, because interventional procedures have become the first choice of treatment for cerebrovascular diseases in many countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-015-0303-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4387739PMC
March 2015

Computerized touch-panel screening tests for detecting mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

Intern Med 2015 15;54(8):895-902. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Japan.

Objective: The increasing population of elderly people in Japan has accelerated the demand for a simple screening test to detect cognitive and affective declines in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the early stage of dementia. Methods We compared the cognitive and affective functions, activities of daily living (ADLs) and the results of four computerized touch-panel screening tests in 41 MCI subjects, 124 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 75 age- and gender-matched normal controls.

Results: All computerized touch-panel games were successfully used to discriminate the AD patients from the normal controls (** p<0.01). Although there were no differences in the findings of the conventional cognitive assessments, the results of the flipping cards game were significantly different (** p<0.01) between the normal controls (19.3 ± 9.5 sec) and MCI subjects (30.9 ± 18.4 sec). Three conventional affective assessments, the ADL score, Abe's behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (ABS) (** p<0.01) and the apathy scale (AS) (* p<0.05), could be used to discriminate the MCI subjects (ABS, 0.9 ± 1.5; AS, 12.8 ± 5.9) from the normal controls (ABS, 0.1 ± 0.4; AS, 8.9 ± 5.3).

Conclusion: In the present study, all four touch-panel screening tests could be employed to discriminate AD patients from normal controls, whereas only the flipping cards game was effective for distinguishing MCI subjects from normal controls. Therefore, this novel touch-panel screening test may be a more sensitive tool for detecting MCI subjects among elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.54.3931DOI Listing
July 2015

Simultaneous assessment of cognitive and affective functions in multiple system atrophy and cortical cerebellar atrophy in relation to computerized touch-panel screening tests.

J Neurol Sci 2015 Apr 17;351(1-2):24-30. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

Cognitive impairment and affective dysfunction of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA) have not been simultaneously examined comparing standard test batteries and a sensitive tool to detect subtle cognitive decline in patients. In the present study, we simultaneously examined cognitive and affective ability in MSA with predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C, n=25), MSA with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P, n=8), and CCA (n=14) patients using computerized touch panel screening tests. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Hasegawa dementia scale-revised (HDS-R), frontal assessment battery (FAB), and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores were significantly lower in MSA-C patients than in age-and gender-matched normal controls. One MSA-C patient showed a decrease in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the frontal lobe. MSA-P patients showed no such cognitive decline. Only FAB and MoCA scores were significantly lower in the CCA patients. MSA and CCA patients also showed a mild to moderate depressive state. Touch-panel screening tests demonstrated a significant decline of beating devils game in all three disease groups including MSA-P patients, and a significant extension of the flipping cards game only in MSA-C patients. The present study demonstrated different cognitive and affective functions among MSA-C, MSA-P, and CCA patients, and a sensitive screening method for cognitive assessment using touch-panel tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2015.02.010DOI Listing
April 2015

Cognitive and affective assessments of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients utilizing computerized touch panel-type screening tests.

Intern Med 2014 15;53(20):2281-90. Epub 2014 Oct 15.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama University, Japan.

Objective: Cognitive and affective dysfunctions are important aspects for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO).

Methods: We herein examined the cognitive and affective ability in MS (n=35) and NMO (n=10) patients using computerized touch panel-type screening tests.

Results: While MS patients and normal controls (NC1, n=40) did not significantly differ in their scores from the Hasegawa dementia scale-revised (HDS-R) or the frontal assessment battery, MS patients did score significantly lower on the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). In contrast, NMO patients did not differ from the normal control group 2 (NC2, n=15) in any of the three cognitive assessments. We also examined the affective ability and found that MS patients scored significantly higher on the apathy scale (AS) compared with the NC1 group, while NMO patients scored significantly higher on the geriatric depression scale (GDS) compared with the NC2 group. Although the GDS and AS scores did not correlate with any of the cognitive assessments among MS patients, the AS scores did correlate with the MMSE and HDS-R among NMO patients. Compared with normal controls, the times to complete the flipping cards and arranging pictures games were significantly longer for MS patients but not for NMO patients.

Conclusion: These results indicate differences between some features of cognitive and affective dysfunctions between MS and NMO patients. Computerized touch panel-type screening tests may be a more useful and sensitive tool for the cognitive assessment of MS patients than NMO patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.53.2571DOI Listing
June 2015

Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions.

Int J Biometeorol 2014 Aug 25;58(6):1109-17. Epub 2013 Jul 25.

Department of Physiology, Aichi Medical University, Yazako-Karimata 1-1, Nagakute, 480-1195, Japan,

To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ∼30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-013-0704-5DOI Listing
August 2014

A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans--a pilot study.

Int J Biometeorol 2014 Jul 12;58(5):999-1005. Epub 2013 Jun 12.

Department of Physiology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, 480-1195, Japan,

To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB-head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB-head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF-HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-013-0685-4DOI Listing
July 2014

Different contribution of CYP2C19 in the in vitro metabolism of three proton pump inhibitors.

Biol Pharm Bull 2003 Mar;26(3):386-90

Department of Hospital Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Kobe University, Chuo-ku, Japan.

A series of clinical studies on the cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) genotype and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of three proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), omeprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole, have been conducted to establish the individualized pharmacotherapy based on the CYP2C19 genotyping, and in the present study, the CYP2C19 genotype-dependency was more pronounced for omeprazole than the other two. Herein, to validate further the difference among 3 PPIs in CYP2C19 genotype-dependency on the phenotype, a comparative in vitro study was conducted using the human liver microsomes and newly developed anti-human CYP antibodies. The residual concentrations of omeprazole and lansoprazole in 5 lots of human liver microsomes were dependent on the CYP2C19 activities, however, for rabeprazole, there was no correlation. The hydroxylation of omeprazole was more inhibited by anti-CYP2C19 antibody than lansoprazole, whereas anti-CYP3A4 antibody showed similar inhibition. In conclusion, the relative contribution of CYP2C19 on total metabolism of 3 PPIs elucidated herein coincided with the CYP2C19 genotype-dependent pharmacokinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.26.386DOI Listing
March 2003

Optimal dose of omeprazole for CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers in anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy: pharmacokinetic considerations.

Biol Pharm Bull 2002 Jul;25(7):923-7

Department of Hospital Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Kobe University, Japan.

In anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy using omeprazole and antimicrobials, the efficacy can be related to the CYP2C19 genotype groups; the eradication rates were 83% in extensive metabolizers and 100% in poor metabolizers. The present study was undertaken to help predict the optimal dosage of omeprazole for extensive metabolizers in this therapy. Seven healthy Japanese subjects, classified based on the CYP2C19 genotype into extensive metabolizers (n=4) and poor metabolizers (n=3), participated in this study. Each subject received a single oral dose of omeprazole 20, 40, and 80 mg, with at least a 1-week washout period between each dose. Plasma concentrations of omeprazole and its two metabolites were monitored for 12 h after each dose of medication. After each dose was administered, the pharmacokinetic profiles of omeprazole and its two metabolites were significantly different between extensive metabolizers and poor metabolizers. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of omeprazole in extensive metabolizers was disproportionally increased 3.2- or 19.2-fold with dose escalation from 20 to 40 or 80 mg omeprazole, respectively. In contrast, the AUC of omeprazole was proportionally increased with the higher dose in poor metabolizers. The AUC of omeprazole after 20 mg administration to poor metabolizers was almost equal to the AUC in extensive metabolizers after 80 mg administration. In anti-H. pylori therapy, the recommended dose of omeprazole for extensive metabolizers is suggested to be a maximum of 80 mg x 2/d based on pharmacokinetic considerations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.25.923DOI Listing
July 2002