Publications by authors named "Yuki B Werner"

10 Publications

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Laparoscopic lymph node sampling: a new concept for patients with high-risk early esophagogastric junction cancer resected endoscopically.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Interdisciplinary Endoscopy, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Aims: Endoscopic resection is considered as curative treatment for early upper GI cancers under certain histologic (low-risk) criteria. In tumors not completely fulfilling these criteria but resected R0 endoscopically, esophagectomy is still advised due to an increased risk of lymph node (LN) metastases. However, the benefit-risk ratio especially in elderly patients at higher risk for radical surgery can be debated. We now present the outcome of our case series of laparoscopic lymph node sampling (LLS) in patients with T1 esophagogastric junction tumors, which had been completely resected by endoscopy but did not fulfill the low-risk criteria (G1/2, m, L0, V0).

Methods: Retrospective review of all T1 cancer cases undergoing LLS with at least one high-risk parameter after endoscopic resection during an 8-year period. Repeated endoscopy with biopsy and abdominothoracic CT had been performed before. Cases were divided into 2 periods, before (n=8) and after (n=12) introduction of an extended LLS protocol (additional resection of the left gastric artery). In case of positive LN, patients underwent conventional oncologic surgery; if negative, follow-up was performed. Main outcome was the number of harvested LN by means of LLS and the percentage of positive LNs found.

Results: 20 patients with cardia (n=1) and distal esophageal/Barrett's cancer (n=19) were included. The LN rate using the extended LLS technique increased by 12 % (period 1: median 12 (range 5-19; 95% CI, 3.4-15.4) vs period 2: median 17.5 (range 12-40; 95% CI, 12.8-22.2; p=0.013). There were 2 adverse events, 1 inadvertent chest tube removal, and 1 postoperative pneumonia. In 15% of cases patients had positive lymph nodes and in 2 cases there was local recurrence at the endoscopic resection site, all necessitating surgery.

Conclusion: An extended technique of laparoscopic lymph node sampling appears to provide adequate LN numbers and is a safe approach with short hospital stay only. Only long-term follow-up of larger patient numbers will allow conclusions about miss rate as well as oncologic adequacy of this concept.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2021.02.014DOI Listing
February 2021

Endoscopic or Surgical Myotomy in Achalasia. Reply.

N Engl J Med 2020 04;382(14):1377-1378

University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2000065DOI Listing
April 2020

Endoscopic or Surgical Myotomy in Patients with Idiopathic Achalasia.

N Engl J Med 2019 12;381(23):2219-2229

From the Departments of Interdisciplinary Endoscopy (Y.B.W., T.N., T.R.), Epidemiology and Statistics (J.F.K.), and General, Visceral, and Thoracic Surgery (O.M., J.I.), University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, and the Department of Surgery, Israelitic Hospital (A.E.), Hamburg, the Department of Surgery, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg (B.H.A.R., C.-T.G.), and the Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Augsburg, Augsburg (H.M.) - all in Germany; the Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, and the Department of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm (B.H.); the Department of Hepatogastroenterology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine (J.M.), and the 3rd Department of Surgery, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol (A.P.) - all in Prague, Czech Republic; the Departments of Gastroenterology (A.R.) and Digestive Surgery (U.F.), Istituto Clinico Humanitas Rozzano, and the Department of Digestive Surgery, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele (R.R.) - both in Milan; Amsterdam University Medical Centers location AMC, Amsterdam Gastroenterology and Metabolism (A.J.B., P.F.) and Surgery (M.P.S.), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam; the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospitals Leuven, and Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (R.B., G.B.); the Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (M.C.V.); and the Division of Gastroenterology, Montreal University Hospital and Research Center, Montreal (D.R.).

Background: Pneumatic dilation and laparoscopic Heller's myotomy (LHM) are established treatments for idiopathic achalasia. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a less invasive therapy with promising early study results.

Methods: In a multicenter, randomized trial, we compared POEM with LHM plus Dor's fundoplication in patients with symptomatic achalasia. The primary end point was clinical success, defined as an Eckardt symptom score of 3 or less (range, 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating more severe symptoms of achalasia) without the use of additional treatments, at the 2-year follow-up; a noninferiority margin of -12.5 percentage points was used in the primary analysis. Secondary end points included adverse events, esophageal function, Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index score (range, 0 to 144, with higher scores indicating better function), and gastroesophageal reflux.

Results: A total of 221 patients were randomly assigned to undergo either POEM (112 patients) or LHM plus Dor's fundoplication (109 patients). Clinical success at the 2-year follow-up was observed in 83.0% of patients in the POEM group and 81.7% of patients in the LHM group (difference, 1.4 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -8.7 to 11.4; P = 0.007 for noninferiority). Serious adverse events occurred in 2.7% of patients in the POEM group and 7.3% of patients in the LHM group. Improvement in esophageal function from baseline to 24 months, as assessed by measurement of the integrated relaxation pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter, did not differ significantly between the treatment groups (difference, -0.75 mm Hg; 95% CI, -2.26 to 0.76), nor did improvement in the score on the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (difference, 0.14 points; 95% CI, -4.01 to 4.28). At 3 months, 57% of patients in the POEM group and 20% of patients in the LHM group had reflux esophagitis, as assessed by endoscopy; at 24 months, the corresponding percentages were 44% and 29%.

Conclusions: In this randomized trial, POEM was noninferior to LHM plus Dor's fundoplication in controlling symptoms of achalasia at 2 years. Gastroesophageal reflux was more common among patients who underwent POEM than among those who underwent LHM. (Funded by the European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01601678.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1905380DOI Listing
December 2019

Anesthesia for Patients Undergoing Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy Procedures: A Review of the Literature.

Anesth Analg 2020 05;130(5):1331-1340

Department of Anesthesiology, Center of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine.

Idiopathic achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus with important implications on anesthesia and periprocedural management. As new and more complex treatment options develop, anesthesiologists are increasingly involved with these patients. The cardinal symptoms of achalasia are as follows: dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain, and weight loss. Achalasia is also associated with an increased risk of aspiration. Patients are frequently treated by endoscopic botulinum toxin injections, pneumatic dilation of the lower esophageal sphincter, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). The POEM procedure is based on the concept of "natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery." Because the integrity of the esophageal wall is deliberately interrupted during POEM, the mediastinum and the peritoneal cavity may be exposed. Thus, the insufflated carbon dioxide frequently causes hypercapnia, tension capnoperitoneum, capnomediastinum, or pneumothoraces. An interdisciplinary team, skilled in diagnostics and emergency measures such as therapeutic hyperventilation, percutaneous abdominal needle decompression, or pleural drainage, is essential for the successful periprocedural management of POEM. POEM is one endoscopic procedure that requires general anesthesia. But neither anesthesia-specific care algorithms nor evidence-based recommendations are currently available for these patients. Because institutional experience varies broadly across the globe, this review examines anesthesia recommendations and perioperative management of POEM procedures based on 7 retrospective case series, 1 prospective study, and our personal experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004420DOI Listing
May 2020

Endoscopy versus radiology in post-procedural monitoring after peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM).

Surg Endosc 2018 09 15;32(9):3956-3963. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Department of Interdisciplinary Endoscopy, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The newly developed technique of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been shown to be effective in several short- and mid-term studies. Limited information is available about the adequacy of immediate post-POEM monitoring tests.

Methods: POEM was performed under general anesthesia in 228 patients (59.6% male, mean age 45.6 ± 15.5 years). Post-procedural checks comprised clinical and laboratory examination, and, during post-procedure days 1-5, endoscopy and-in the first 114 cases-radiologic examination using water-soluble contrast (1st group); the remaining patients underwent post-procedure controls without radiology (2nd group). Main outcome was value of endoscopic compared to radiologic control for recognition of early adverse events.

Results: In the first group, routine fluoroscopic contrast swallow suggested minor leakages at the mucosal entry site in two cases which was confirmed endoscopically in only one. Endoscopy revealed two minor entry site leakages and, in six additional cases, dislocated clips without leakage (overall 5.3%). All eight patients underwent reclipping and healed without clinical sequelae. In the 2nd group, endoscopy showed 5 clip dislocations (all reclipped) and one ischemic cardiac perforation in a patient with clinical deterioration on post-POEM day 1 who had to undergo surgery after confirmation of leakage by CT.

Conclusions: Radiologic monitoring (contrast swallow) after POEM is not useful and can be omitted. Even routine endoscopic monitoring for detection and closure of minor defects of the mucosal entry site yields limited information with regards to final outcome; major complications are very rare and probably associated with clinical deterioration. Clinical Trials Gov Registration number of the main study: NCT01405417.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-018-6137-9DOI Listing
September 2018

Anesthetic considerations for patients with esophageal achalasia undergoing peroral endoscopic myotomy: a retrospective case series review.

Can J Anaesth 2017 May 23;64(5):480-488. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, Center of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20251, Hamburg, Germany.

Purpose: Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a novel technique for treating esophageal achalasia. During POEM, carbon dioxide (CO) is insufflated to aid surgical dissection, but it may inadvertently track into surrounding tissues, causing systemic CO uptake and tension capnoperitoneum. This in turn may affect cardiorespiratory function. This study quantified these cardiorespiratory effects and treatment by hyperventilation and percutaneous abdominal needle decompression (PND).

Methods: One hundred and seventy-three consecutive patients who underwent POEM were included in this four-year retrospective study. Procedure-related changes in peak inspiratory pressure (p), end-tidal CO levels (etCO), minute ventilation (MV), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were analyzed. We also quantified the impact of PND on these cardiorespiratory parameters.

Results: During the endoscopic procedure, cardiorespiratory parameters increased from baseline: p 15.1 (4.5) vs 19.8 (4.7) cm HO; etCO 4.5 (0.4) vs 5.5 (0.9) kPa [34.0 (2.9) vs 41.6 (6.9) mmHg]; MAP 73.9 (9.7) vs 99.3 (15.2) mmHg; HR 67.6 (12.4) vs 85.3 (16.4) min (P < 0.001 for each). Hyperventilation [MV 5.9 (1.2) vs 9.0 (1.8) L·min, P < 0.001] was applied to counteract iatrogenic hypercapnia. Individuals with tension capnoperitoneum treated with PND (n = 55) had higher peak p values [22.8 (5.7) vs 18.4 (3.3) cm HO, P < 0.001] than patients who did not require PND. After PND, p [22.8 (5.7) vs 19.9 (4.3) cm HO, P = 0.045] and MAP [98.2 (16.3) vs 88.6 (11.8) mmHg, P = 0.013] decreased. Adverse events included pneumothorax (n = 1), transient myocardial ischemia (n = 1), and subcutaneous emphysema (n = 49). The latter precluded immediate extubation in eight cases. Postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay was longer in individuals with subcutaneous emphysema than in those without [74.9 min (34.5) vs 61.5 (26.8 min), P = 0.007].

Conclusion: Carbon dioxide insufflation during POEM produces systemic CO uptake and increased intra-abdominal pressure. Changes in cardiorespiratory parameters include increased p, etCO, MAP, and HR. Hyperventilation and PND help mitigate some of these changes. Subcutaneous emphysema is common and may delay extubation and prolong PACU stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12630-017-0820-5DOI Listing
May 2017

Early adverse events of per-oral endoscopic myotomy.

Gastrointest Endosc 2017 Apr 5;85(4):708-718.e2. Epub 2016 Sep 5.

Department of Interdisciplinary Endoscopy, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background And Aims: The recently developed technique of per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been shown to be effective for the therapy of esophageal motility disorders. Limited information is available about POEM adverse events (AEs).

Methods: POEM was performed on 241 patients (58% male; mean age, 47.4 ± 16.4 years) under general anesthesia over 61 months. The main outcome was the rate of intra- and post-procedural AEs. Post-procedural checks comprised clinical and laboratory examinations and endoscopy, with further follow-ups performed at 3, 6, and 12 months.

Results: Of the 241 procedures, 238 were successfully completed (mean procedure time, 100.2 ± 39.5 min). Reasons for abortion were excessive submucosal fibrosis preventing submucosal tunneling. Three patients had severe procedural-related AEs (SAE rate, 1.2%); 1 case of pneumothorax required intra-procedural drainage, and 2 patients had delayed SAEs (1 ischemic gastric cardia perforation and 1 hemothorax, both leading to surgery). The overall rate of minor AEs was 31.1%, mainly prolonged intra-procedural bleeding (>15 min hemostasis) and defects of the mucosa overlying the tunnel; none led to clinically relevant signs or symptoms. Patients experiencing any AE had a significantly prolonged hospital stay (P = .037) and a trend toward prolonged procedure time (P = .094). Neck/upper thoracic emphysema and free abdominal air were noted in 31.5% and 35.7%, respectively (95.3% drained), but without relevant sequelae.

Conclusions: POEM has a low rate of SAEs; minor AEs are more frequent but lack a consistent definition. Therefore, based on our experience and literature analysis, we suggest a classification of AEs for POEM. (Clinical trials registration number: NCT01405417.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2016.08.033DOI Listing
April 2017

POEM and Submucosal Tunneling.

Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 2016 Jun;14(2):163-77

Department of Interdisciplinary Endoscopy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Opinion Statement: Submucosal endoscopy has introduced new and important aspects into gastrointestinal endoscopic therapeutics by opening the way to interventions even outside of the GI tract. At present, innovative techniques for submucosal endoscopy in different esophageal diseases include peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for idiopathic achalasia and related motility disorders, submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER) for submucosal tumors arising from the muscularis propria, and endoscopic submucosal tunneling dissection (ESTD) for superficial esophageal neoplastic lesions. POEM for achalasia-still a rare disease-is currently evaluated in comparison to endoscopic and surgical standard therapies, while this procedure enabling a long thoracic myotomy might constitute an advantage over the laparoscopic approach in treatments of spastic esophageal diseases. Removal of smaller submucosal esophageal tumors may appear tempting, but the clinical indications are limited by the facts that the vast majority of such smaller tumors are asymptomatic and benign.For all these innovative and technically demanding techniques, learning curves have to be taken into account, not only with regard to technical competence but also to clinical assessment, ranging from proper indication and patient selection to the management of (potential) complications and logistics/back-up. Although preliminary results from high-skilled endoscopic centers have been very encouraging, long-term data as well as prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to validate the efficacy and safety of the modalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11938-016-0086-yDOI Listing
June 2016

Clinical response to peroral endoscopic myotomy in patients with idiopathic achalasia at a minimum follow-up of 2 years.

Gut 2016 06 30;65(6):899-906. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

Department of Interdisciplinary Endoscopy, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The recently developed technique for peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been shown to be effective in several short-term studies. Longer term outcome data are largely non-existent.

Objective: To systematically report clinical outcome with a minimum post-POEM follow-up of 2 years.

Design: All patients treated consecutively by POEM for achalasia at three centres were retrospectively analysed, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. The main outcome was the rate of POEM failures (Eckardt score >3) related to follow-up time.

Results: Of 85 patients treated, five (5.9%) cases were excluded due to protocol violation or loss to follow-up; the remaining 80 patients (mean age 44.9 years, 54% men) were followed clinically for 29 months (range 24-41). Initial clinical response was observed in 77 cases (96.3%). Clinical recurrences (later failures) were seen in a further 14 cases (17.7%), accounting for a total failure rate of 21.5%. In a multivariate analysis, age and endoscopic reflux signs were independent predictors of treatment success. Of the 17 failures, eight were among the first 10 cases treated in the participating centres. Reflux-associated sequelae included one case of a severe reflux-associated stricture requiring dilatation, and two patients with minor transient Eckardt score elevations curable by proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. Endoscopic signs of reflux oesophagitis, mostly Los Angeles grade A/B, were seen in 37.5% (37/72) at the 2-year control.

Conclusions: In this multicentre retrospective analysis, a high initial success rate of POEM is followed by a mid-term recurrence rate of 18%. Reflux oesophagitis, albeit mild, is frequent and should probably be treated by regular low-dose PPI therapy.

Trial Registration Number: NCT 01405417 (UKE study).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2014-308649DOI Listing
June 2016

Peroral endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of achalasia: an international prospective multicenter study.

Gastroenterology 2013 Aug 9;145(2):309-11.e1-3. Epub 2013 May 9.

Department of Interdisciplinary Endoscopy, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Pilot studies have indicated that peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) might be a safe and effective treatment for achalasia. We performed a prospective, international, multicenter study to determine the outcomes of 70 patients who underwent POEM at 5 centers in Europe and North America. Three months after POEM, 97% of patients were in symptom remission (95% confidence interval, 89%-99%); symptom scores were reduced from 7 to 1 (P < .001) and lower esophageal sphincter pressures were reduced from 28 to 9 mm Hg (P < .001). The percentage of patients in symptom remission at 6 and 12 months was 89% and 82%, respectively. POEM was found to be an effective treatment for achalasia after a mean follow-up period of 10 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2013.04.057DOI Listing
August 2013