Publications by authors named "Yujue Wang"

161 Publications

Multifunctional CuS- and DOX-loaded AuNR@mSiO platform for combined melanoma therapy with inspired antitumor immunity.

Biomater Sci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Dermatology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430022, China.

Combined antitumor therapies based on nanomedicines have shown efficacy in various tumor models in recent years, overcoming the disadvantages of inefficiency and undesired toxicity of traditional therapies. Herein, we present a copper sulfide- and doxorubicin-loaded gold nanorods@mesoporous SiO2 multifunctional nanocomposite (AuNR@mSiO2@DOX-CuxS-PEG) to integrate chemotherapy, the photothermal properties of AuNRs, and the photodynamic properties of CuxS into a single nanoplatform based on hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic attraction. Upon near-infrared light irradiation, the AuNR@mSiO2@DOX-CuxS-PEG nanocomposites exhibit a synergistic therapeutic effect and inhibit the in situ tumor growth and lung metastasis in a melanoma model. This occurs because of the high photothermal conversion efficiency, boosted intracellular reactive oxygen species production, and excellent doxorubicin (DOX) release, as well as an induced tumor-specific immune response. The inspired antitumor immunity was confirmed by elevated infiltration of activated T cells in tumor tissues and improved maturation and activation of dendritic cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. This study highlights the superior antitumor therapeutic effect elicited by a multifunctional nanoplatform for skin with in situ melanoma and lung metastasis inhibition, indicating its satisfactory clinical application prospects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00373aDOI Listing
April 2021

Extracellular vesicle-derived microRNA-18b ameliorates preeclampsia by enhancing trophoblast proliferation and migration via Notch2/TIM3/mTORC1 axis.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Preeclampsia (PE), a common disorder of pregnancy, is characterized by insufficient trophoblast migration and inadequate vascular remodelling, such that promotion of trophoblast proliferation might ameliorate PE. In the current study, we sought to study the underlying mechanism of extracellular vesicle (EV)-derived microRNA-18 (miR-18b) in PE. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) isolated from placental tissues were verified through osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation assays. Bioinformatics analyses and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay were adopted to confirm the targeting relationship between miR-18b and Notch2. The functional roles of EV-derived miR-18b and Notch2 in trophoblasts were determined using loss- and gain-of-function experiments, and trophoblast proliferation and migration were assayed using CCK-8 and Transwell tests. In vivo experiments were conducted to determine the effect of EV-derived miR-18b, Notch2 and TIM3/mTORC1 in a rat model of PE, with monitoring of blood pressure and urine proteinuria. TUNEL staining was conducted to observe the cell apoptosis of placental tissues of PE rats. We found down-regulated miR-18b expression, and elevated Notch2, TIM3 and mTORC1 levels in the placental tissues of PE patients compared with normal placenta. miR-18b was delivered to trophoblasts and targeted Notch2 and negatively its expression, whereas Notch2 positively mediated the expression of TIM3/mTORC1. EV-derived miR-18b or Notch2 down-regulation enhanced trophoblast proliferation and migration in vitro and decreased blood pressure and 24 hours urinary protein in PE rats by deactivating the TIM3/mTORC1 axis in vivo. In summary, EV-derived miR-18b promoted trophoblast proliferation and migration via down-regulation of Notch2-dependent TIM3/mTORC1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16234DOI Listing
April 2021

Trifunctional Electrolyte Additive Hexadecyltrioctylammonium Iodide for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Extended Cycle Life.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 31;13(14):16545-16557. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology (INELT), Sichuan University, Chengdu 610207, China.

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery with a very high theoretical energy density (∼2500 Wh kg) is a very promising alternative to the commercial lithium-ion battery as the next-generation energy storage device. However, the Li-S battery suffers from shuttle effect and Li dendrites growth due to the solubility of polysulfides in the electrolyte system and the inhomogeneous deposition of Li, resulting in short cycling life span, which is the major obstacle in its practical application. Herein, we report an additive, hexadecyltrioctylammonium iodide (HTOA-I), in the conventional electrolyte system, which shows trifunctional effect on extending Li-S battery cycle life. It can not only help us to form a protective solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) on the surface of Li anode so as to reduce the contact of polysulfides with Li but also hinder the shuttling of polysulfides to the Li anode due to the strong combination of large-sized HTOA with polysulfide anions (S), which retard the migration of S and cause homogeneous Li deposition owing to the large size and stronger trend of HTOA to be absorbed on Li anode as well. A new method of phosphorescence analysis for direct observation of polysulfides shuttling has been put forward for the first time, which can be further developed in future studies. The cell with the HTOA-I-added electrolyte system shows high cycling stability, retaining 83.4% of the initial capacity after 200 cycles at 1 A g and achieving 689 mAh g even after 1000 cycles. This cost-effective and facile approach will not increase the complexity of the battery manufacturing process. Compared to other electrolyte additives, the additive in our work, HTOA-I, has better positive effects on extending cycle life. This trifunctional electrolyte additive will inspire the design of other new additives and further promote the development of Li-S batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02580DOI Listing
April 2021

Development and Validation of Novel Nomograms for Predicting Specific Distant Metastatic Sites and Overall Survival of Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:1533033821997828

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Purpose: The goal of this study is to construct nomograms to effectively predict the distant metastatic sites and overall survival (OS) of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients.

Methods: STS case data between 2010 and 2015 for retrospective study were gathered from public databases. According to the chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis determined independent predictive factors of specific metastatic sites, the nomograms based on these factors were consturced. Subsequently, combined metastatic information a nomogram to predict 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS of STS patients was developed. The performance of models was validated by the area under the curve (AUC), calibration plots, and decision curve analyses (DCA).

Results: A total of 7001 STS patients were included in this retrospective study, including 4901 cases in the training group and the remaining 2,100 patients in the validation group. Three nomograms were established to predict lung, liver and bone metastasis, and satisfactory results have been obtained by internal and external validation. The AUCs for predicting lung, liver, and bone metastases in the training cohort were 0.796, 0.799, and 0.766, respectively, and in the validation cohort were 0.807, 0.787, and 0.775, respectively, which means that the nomograms have good discrimination. The calibration curves showed that the models have high precision, and the DCA manifested that the nomograms have great clinical application prospects. Through univariate and multivariate COX regression analyses, 8 independent prognosis factors of age, grade, histological type, tumor size, surgery, chemotherapy, radiatiotherapy and lung metastasis were determined. A nomogram was then constructed to predict the 1-, 2-, and 3-years OS, which has a good performance in both internal and external validations.

Conclusion: The nomograms for predicting specific metastatic sites and OS have good discrimination, accuracy and clinical applicability. The models could accurately predict the metastatic risk and survival information, and help clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533033821997828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7958169PMC
March 2021

Quantifying seasonal variations in microphytobenthos biomass on estuarine tidal flats using Sentinel-1/2 data.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 24;777:146051. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, 200062, Shanghai, China.

Quantifying temporal and spatial changes in microphytobenthos (MPB) biomass is critical for understanding its ecological function in estuarine food web networks and carbon flows. However, tidal fluctuations and the complex composition of coastal sediment limit remote sensing applications for estimating MPB biomass seasonal variations in estuarine tidal flats. We integrated radar Sentinel-1 (S1) and optical Sentinel-2 (S2) remote sensing data to quantify the temporal and spatial variability in MPB biomass in the Changjiang estuary, China. Pixels of water bodies on the tidal flats were removed by dynamic threshold segmentation of the water index with the combined S1 and S2 data, and salt marsh pixels were masked with the first red-edge band in the S2 data. We used the continuum-removed spectral absorption depth feature to construct a regression model for estimating MPB biomass with a regression coefficient of 0.81. The results showed that spectral absorption continuum removal methods using broadband multispectral data for MPB estimation are a promising alternative to hyperspectral narrowband ratio operation. Compared with the widely used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the scaled absorption depth feature was more stable for MPB estimation under a changeable sediment background. The produced seasonal map showed that the high biomass levels of the MPB in the study area are not limited to one season and one site, with an annual mean biomass of 14.39 mg chlorophyll a (Chl-a)·m and 71% confirmed accuracy. The highest biomass levels occurred in summer in the supratidal zone (19.51 mg Chl-a·m) and in spring in the intertidal zone (17.10 mg Chl-a·m) in the Changjiang estuary. The relative shore height, derived from the tidal range here, is an important variable that shapes the MPB spatial distribution. This study demonstrates the potential of integrating high-spatial-resolution (10 m) S1 and S2 data for future large-scale estimation of intertidal MPB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146051DOI Listing
February 2021

Evaluation of the concentration and contribution of superoxide radical for micropollutant abatement during ozonation.

Water Res 2021 Apr 13;194:116927. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China. Electronic address:

Due to the fast reaction of superoxide radical (O) with ozone (O), it has been suggested that O is present at very low concentrations during ozonation. Therefore, while O has been considered a critical chain carrier for promoting O decomposition to hydroxyl radicals (•OH), the direct reactions of O with micropollutants have been assumed to be insignificant during ozonation. In this study, we monitored the exposures of O, •OH, and O by following the depletion of O, p-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA, as •OH probe), and tetrachloromethane (CCl, as O probe) during ozonation of various water matrices (surface water, groundwater, and secondary wastewater effluent). For a given water matrix, the ratio between •OH and O exposures (R), O and O exposures (R), as well as O and •OH exposures (R) remained almost constant over the entire reaction time. This suggests that during ozonation, the ratios between the transient concentrations of •OH and O, O and O, and O and •OH were also constant and equaled to the R, R, and R, respectively. Based on the O, •OH, and O exposures observed during ozonation, a chemical kinetic model was proposed to simulate the abatement of ten ozone-resistant micropollutants in the three water matrices by ozonation. The results indicate that due to the higher concentrations of O than •OH (R = ~5-8), the reactions with O played a non-negligible or even dominant role in the abatement of some micropollutants that have similar or higher O reactivity than •OH reactivity (e.g., tetrachloroethylene, chloroform, and PFOA). Compared with the previous model that neglected the contribution of O to micropollutant abatement, the proposed model more accurately simulated the abatement efficiencies of the test micropollutants during ozonation. These results indicate that the proposed model can provide a useful tool for the generalized prediction of micropollutant abatement by ozonation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116927DOI Listing
April 2021

Predictive value of 4-Hydroxyglutamate and miR-149-5p on eclampsia.

Exp Mol Pathol 2021 04 11;119:104618. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu 610072, P.R. China. Electronic address:

This research aimed at exploring the predictive value of 4-Hydroxyglutamate and miR-149-5p on eclampsia. Preeclampsia patients admitted to our hospital (n = 204), with 112 mild patients and 92 severe patients. Thereinto, pregnant women who underwent physical examination were regarded as a normal group (NG) (n = 100). Serum 4-Hydroxyglutamate levels and miR-149-5p in each group were detected. The serum 4-Hydroxyglutamate level in pregnant women in the NG was markedly lower than that in preeclampsia, while the miR-149-5p level was higher (p = 0.001). The serum 4-Hydroxyglutamate level in severe preeclampsia was higher than that in mild preeclampsia, while the miR-149-5p level was lower (p = 0.001). Partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) of preeclampsia patients were lower than those of the NG, while Fibrinogen (Fib) was higher (p = 0.001). With the aggravation of the condition of patients, PT, APTT decreased and Fib index increased. In preeclampsia patients, serum 4-Hydroxyglutamate was negatively correlated with PT and APTT, positively correlated with Fib content (p < 0.001); serum miR-149-5p was dramatically positively correlated with PT and APTT, negatively correlated with Fib content (p < 0.001). 4-Hydroxyglutamate and miR-149-5p were relevant to the occurrence time of preeclampsia; 4-Hydroxyglutamate, miR-149-5p and their combination could be used for preeclampsia diagnosis. According to the situation of newborn, they were divided into good and poor groups. The 4-Hydroxyglutamate level in the good group was lower than that in the poor group, while the miR-149-5p level was higher. The adverse prognosis of preeclampsia patients was predicted by 4-Hydroxyglutamate and miR-149-5p. 4-Hydroxyglutamate is highly expressed in preeclampsia, while miR-149-5p is low. Single and combined detection of 4-Hydroxyglutamate, miR-149-5p can be used for preeclampsia diagnosis and prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2021.104618DOI Listing
April 2021

Quantitative Evaluation of the Effect of Temperature on Magnetic Barkhausen Noise.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 29;21(3). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Wolfson Centre for Magnetics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK.

The effect of temperature on magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) can be divided into two types: the direct effect of temperature itself and the indirect effect of thermally induced stress. The theoretical model is proposed in this paper to describe the effects of temperature on the MBN signal. For the case considering the direct effect of temperature only, the analytical model allows the prediction of the effect of temperature on MBN profile, and, based on the model, a simple linear calibration curve is presented to evaluate the effect of temperature on MBN amplitude quantitatively. While for the case where the indirect effect of thermal stress is taken into account in addition to the direct effect, the proposed theoretical model allows the deduction of parabolic function for quantitative evaluation of the combined effect on MBN. Both effects of temperature on MBN, i.e., the direct only and the combined one, have been studied experimentally on 0.5 mm thickness non-oriented (NO) electrical steel and the adhesive structure of NO steel and ceramic glass, respectively. The reciprocal of the measured MBN peak amplitude (1/) in the first case shows a linear function of temperature, which agrees with the proposed linear calibration curve. While in the experiments considering the combined effects, 1/ shows parabolic dependence on temperature, which is further simplified as a piecewise function for the practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21030898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866266PMC
January 2021

Establishment and Validation of Novel Clinical Prognosis Nomograms for Luminal A Breast Cancer Patients with Bone Metastasis.

Biomed Res Int 2020 8;2020:1972064. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China.

Purpose: Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) of luminal A breast cancer (BC) patients with bone metastasis remain poor and vary dramatically from person to person. Our goal was to build two universally applicable nomograms to accurately predict OS and CSS for luminal A patients with bone metastasis.

Methods: The data were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for luminal A BC patients with bone metastasis between 2010 and 2015. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were to assess and identify independent risk factors of OS and CSS. Integrating all significant predictors, nomograms and risk group stratification model was developed. The performance of the nomogram was validated with concordance index (C-index), calibration plots, and decision curve analyses (DCA) for discriminative ability, calibration, and clinical utility, respectively.

Results: 3171 luminal A BC patients with bone metastasis were included. Through univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses, 12 variables were identified as both independent OS- and CSS-related factors, including age, race, primary site, histology grade, tumor size, surgery, brain metastasis, liver metastasis, lung metastasis, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and insurance. Our nomograms for 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival were based on those significant prognostic factors to develop. The C-indexes of OS- and CSS-nomograms in the training cohort were 0.701 and 0.704, respectively. Similar results were obtained in the validation cohort. The calibration curves and DCA presented satisfactory calibration and clinical utility.

Conclusion: Two nomograms have good discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility, can accurately and effectively predict the prognosis of patients, and may benefit for clinical decision-making. In high-risk patients, more aggressive therapy and closer surveillance should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1972064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787749PMC
December 2020

Safety of biologics for psoriasis patients during the COVID-19 pandemic: the experience from Wuhan, China.

Eur J Dermatol 2020 Dec;30(6):738-740

Department of Dermatology, Affiliated Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, Hubei Engineering Research Center for Skin Repair and Theranostics, Wuhan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2020.3908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880659PMC
December 2020

Impact of Ringer's Solution Challenge Stress to Immunostimulatory Experiment, Insights From Japanese Flounder.

Front Physiol 2020 4;11:612036. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Ringer's or phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution buffer usually was used as dilution butter in intraperitoneal injection. Stress could activate immune response, inflammatory response and glycogen metabolic process. The impact of solution buffer as a stressor to immune system was ignored in immunostimulatory experiment. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that the innate immune response and glycogen metabolic process were altered when it were challenged with Ringer's in Japanese flounder (). RNA-seq was performed after challenge with Ringer's at 8 h and 48 h. The data revealed that the expression profiles of blood, gill, and kidney were significantly changed. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and energy metabolic and immune-related genes were up-regulated or down-regulated obviously. GO and KEGG analyses showed that DEGs were mainly enriched in innate immune terms and pathways. Weighted gene co-expression networks analysis (WGCNA) also indicated the highest association module with stress. A total of 16 genes were detected in the gray module, which were immune-related and metabolic-related genes. These results provided fundamental information on intraperitoneal injection with solution buffer. It offered useful clues to further explore the functional mechanism of stress and immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.612036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746848PMC
December 2020

Effects of coagulation-sedimentation-filtration pretreatment on micropollutant abatement by the electro-peroxone process.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 7;266:129230. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Electronic address:

The electro-peroxone (EP) process has been considered an attractive alternative to conventional ozonation for micropollutant abatement in water treatment. However, how to integrate the EP process into the water treatment trains in water utilities has yet to be investigated. This study compared micropollutant abatement during the EP treatment of potable source water with and without pretreatment of biological oxidation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration. Results show that this pretreatment train removed 39% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 28% of the UV absorbance of the raw water, leading to higher ozone (O) stability in the treated water. By electrochemically generating hydrogen peroxide to accelerate O decomposition to hydroxyl radicals (•OH), the EP process considerably shortened the time required for ozone depletion and micropollutant abatement during the treatment of both the raw and pretreated water to ∼1 min, compared to ∼3 and 7.5 min during conventional ozonation of the raw and treated water, respectively. For the same specific ozone dose of 1 mg O mg DOC (corresponding to 4.3 and 2.8 mg O L for the raw and treated water, respectively), the abatement efficiencies of micropollutants with moderate and low ozone reactivity were increased by ∼10-15%, while the energy consumption for micropollutant abatement was decreased by ∼24-56% during the EP treatment of the treated water than the raw water. These results indicate that partial removal of DOC and ammonia from the raw water by the pretreatment train has a beneficial effect on enhancing micropollutant abatement and reducing energy consumption of the EP process. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to integrate the EP process after the pretreatment train in water utilities for micropollutant abatement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129230DOI Listing
March 2021

Crocin induces autophagic cell death and inhibits cell invasion of cervical cancer SiHa cells through activation of PI3K/AKT.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Sep;8(18):1180

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Background: Cervical cancer is a prevalent tumor mainly induced by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Autophagy was inactivated with HPV to promote cancer progression. Here we explored the effects of crocin on cervical cancer cells, mainly on autophagy and apoptosis.

Methods: SiHa cells were treated with crocin, and proliferation, metastases, apoptosis and autophagy were measured using a CCK-8 assay, transwell migration assay, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Protein levels were measured using western blotting. The antitumor effects of crocin were validated in female BALB/c nude mice injected with SiHa cells.

Results: The result showed that 2, 4, 8 and 16 mM of crocin significantly reduced the viability of SiHa cells within 24 h. Subsequently, 0, 1, 2 and 4 mM crocin concentrations were used in later experiments. Treatment with crocin reduced invasive cells, while increasing autophagic and apoptotic cells dose-dependently. The enhanced apoptosis and autophagy were partly validated by an increase in cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9/caspase9, LC3B II/I, Beclin1 and ATG7. AMPK and mTOR were inactivated with crocin treatment, while PI3K was activated. These results indicated that crocin might promote autophagy and apoptosis by inactivating AMPK and mTOR signaling. Tumor progression was inhibited in mice treated with 50 mg/kg/d of crocin, which was demonstrated by smaller tumor volumes, less VEGF expression, more intense caspase-3 staining and increased LC3B II/I in the tumor tissues.

Conclusions: Crocin inhibited the progression of cervical cancer and , possibly through inactivation of AMPK and mTOR, inhibition of proliferation and invasion, and promotion of autophagy and apoptosis. These results support the potential therapeutic value of crocin in treating cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-5882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576020PMC
September 2020

Extracellular vesicles-encapsulated microRNA-10a-5p shed from cancer-associated fibroblast facilitates cervical squamous cell carcinoma cell angiogenesis and tumorigenicity via Hedgehog signaling pathway.

Cancer Gene Ther 2020 Nov 24. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, 610072, China.

Cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) secretes extracellular vesicle (EV)-encapsulated microRNAs (miRNAs) which have been underlined great promise for therapeutic target for diseases and cancers. Our study aimed to explore the role of EV-encapsulated miR-10a-5p from CAFs in angiogenesis in cervical cancer. Expression of miR-10a-5p in clinical samples of cervical cancer and cancer cells was detected by in situ hybridization and RT-qPCR. Results demonstrated that miR-10a-5p expression was upregulated in both cancer tissues and cells. CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) from cervical cancer patient tissues were characterized under transmission electron microscopy, followed by EV isolation from CAFs. The EVs labeled with PKH67 were cultured with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) cell line (SiHa) and HUVECs. Data indicated that CAF-EVs were internalized by cancer cells and promoted cell proliferation and tube formation. CAF-EVs then were transfected with miR-10a-5p inhibitor and then injected into nude mice. While injection of CAF-EVs promoted tumor growth and increased VEGFR and CD31 expression level, miR-10a-5p inhibitor-treated CAF-EVs resulted in decreased tumor volume and amount of vessel around tumor. Of note, dual-luciferase reporter gene assay and bioinformatic analysis indicated TBX5 as a target gene of miR-10a-5p. Moreover, EV-derived miR-10a-5p promoted angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro through activation of Hedgehog signaling via downregulation of TBX5. Taken altogether, miR-10a-5p in CAF-EVs promoted CSCC cell angiogenesis and tumorigenicity via activation of Hh signaling by inhibition of TBX5, providing insight into novel treatment based on miR-10a-5p against CSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41417-020-00238-9DOI Listing
November 2020

Metabolic Flux Analysis-Linking Isotope Labeling and Metabolic Fluxes.

Metabolites 2020 Nov 6;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Medicine, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.

Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is an increasingly important tool to study metabolism quantitatively. Unlike the concentrations of metabolites, the fluxes, which are the rates at which intracellular metabolites interconvert, are not directly measurable. MFA uses stable isotope labeled tracers to reveal information related to the fluxes. The conceptual idea of MFA is that in tracer experiments the isotope labeling patterns of intracellular metabolites are determined by the fluxes, therefore by measuring the labeling patterns we can infer the fluxes in the network. In this review, we will discuss the basic concept of MFA using a simplified upper glycolysis network as an example. We will show how the fluxes are reflected in the isotope labeling patterns. The central idea we wish to deliver is that under metabolic and isotopic steady-state the labeling pattern of a metabolite is the flux-weighted average of the substrates' labeling patterns. As a result, MFA can tell the relative contributions of converging metabolic pathways only when these pathways make substrates in different labeling patterns for the shared product. This is the fundamental principle guiding the design of isotope labeling experiment for MFA including tracer selection. In addition, we will also discuss the basic biochemical assumptions of MFA, and we will show the flux-solving procedure and result evaluation. Finally, we will highlight the link between isotopically stationary and nonstationary flux analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo10110447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694648PMC
November 2020

Serum vitamin D level is related to disease progression in primary biliary cholangitis.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2020 Nov 6;55(11):1333-1340. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Background And Aim: A nonskeletal role of vitamin D in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) patients is not yet clear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the serum vitamin D level in patients with PBC and to explore whether serum vitamin D level is related to disease progression.

Methods: The serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured in 185 PBC patients and 141 healthy controls. The association with vitamin D levels and disease progression, particularly natural course, was assessed.

Results: Serum vitamin D levels were measured in 185 patients with PBC. The mean level of vitamin D in advanced stage patients was lower than that in early stage patients (9.15 ± 5.33 ng/ml vs. 13.68 ± 6.33 ng/ml,  = .000). In the follow-up patients, the vitamin D level in the taken calcitriol patients showed an upward trend, while the un-taken calcitriol patients was opposite. Besides, vitamin D levels were correlated with the changes of bilirubin, albumin (ALB) and APRI (<.05). PBC patients with vitamin D deficiency had higher bilirubin levels and lower ALB levels (<.05). Moreover, there were differences in serum vitamin D levels between taken calcitriol patients and un-taken calcitriol patients ( = .027).

Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in PBC patients. The decrease of vitamin D levels may indicate disease progression in PBC. PBC patients need to be regularly measured for serum vitamin D level and take appropriate vitamin D supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2020.1829030DOI Listing
November 2020

Utilizing tandem mass spectrometry for metabolic flux analysis.

Lab Invest 2021 Apr 29;101(4):423-429. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Medicine, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) aims at revealing the metabolic reaction rates in a complex biochemical network. To do so, MFA uses the input of stable isotope labeling patterns of the intracellular metabolites. Elementary metabolic unit (EMU) is the computational framework to simulate the metabolite labeling patterns in a network, which was originally designed for simulating mass isotopomer distributions (MIDs) at the MS1 level. Recently, the EMU framework is expanded to simulate tandem mass spectrometry data. Tandem mass spectrometry has emerged as a new experimental approach to provide information on the positional isotope labeling of metabolites and therefore greatly improves the precision of MFA. In this review, we will discuss the new EMU framework that can accommodate the tandem mass isotopomer distributions (TMIDs) data. We will also analyze the improvement on the MFA precision by using TMID. Our analysis shows that combining the MIDs of the parent and daughter ions and the TMID for the MFA is more powerful than using TMID alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-00488-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987671PMC
April 2021

Role of C carbon fixation in Ulva prolifera, the macroalga responsible for the world's largest green tides.

Commun Biol 2020 Sep 7;3(1):494. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, Institute of Eco-Chongming, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062, China.

Most marine algae preferentially assimilate CO via the Calvin-Benson Cycle (C) and catalyze HCO dehydration via carbonic anhydrase (CA) as a CO-compensatory mechanism, but certain species utilize the Hatch-Slack Cycle (C) to enhance photosynthesis. The occurrence and importance of the C pathway remains uncertain, however. Here, we demonstrate that carbon fixation in Ulva prolifera, a species responsible for massive green tides, involves a combination of C and C pathways and a CA-supported HCO mechanism. Analysis of CA and key C and C enzymes, and subsequent analysis of δC photosynthetic products showed that the species assimilates CO predominately via the C pathway, uses HCO via the CA mechanism at low CO levels, and takes advantage of high irradiance using the C pathway. This active and multi-faceted carbon acquisition strategy is advantageous for the formation of massive blooms, as thick floating mats are subject to intense surface irradiance and CO limitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01225-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477558PMC
September 2020

Impact of Mixture Effects between Emerging Organic Contaminants on Cytotoxicity: A Systems Biological Understanding of Synergism between Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate and Triphenyl Phosphate.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 09 18;54(17):10722-10734. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798.

Humans are exposed to many xenobiotics simultaneously, but little is known about the toxic effects based on chemical-chemical interactions. This study aims at evaluating the binary interactions between 13 common environmental organic compounds (resulting in 78 pairs) by observing their cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells. Among all of the tested pairs, the combination of flame-retardant triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP) exhibited one of the most significant synergistic effects. We further characterized the transcriptome and metabolome after combined exposure to TPP and TDCPP and individual exposure. The results suggested that the coexposure caused many more changes in gene expressions and cellular activities. The transcriptome data showed that the coexposure triggered significant pathway changes including "cholesterol biosynthesis" and "ATF6-Alpha activated chaperone genes", together with distinct gene ontology (GO) terms such as the "negative regulation of the ERK1 and ERK2 cascade". Additionally, coexposure enhanced the biological activity of liver X receptors and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The metabolome data showed that coexposure significantly elevated oxidative stress and affected the purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Overall, this study showed that interactions, which may enhance or suppress the biological processes, are common among environmental chemicals, although their environmental relevance should be studied in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c02188DOI Listing
September 2020

Growth differentiation factor 9 (gdf9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (bmp15) are potential intraovarian regulators of steroidogenesis in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2020 10 11;297:113547. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Education, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, 266003 Qingdao, Shandong, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, 266237 Qingdao, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Members of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily are vital regulators during the development of fish ovary. However, its intraovarian functions in teleost are still unclear. As members of the TGF-β superfamily, gdf9 and bmp15 are necessary for follicle formation and granulosa cell proliferation. Here in Japanese flounder, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis showed that gdf9 and bmp15 were mainly expressed in oogonia and oocytes, whereas weakly expressed in non-ovarian tissues. Overexpression of single gdf9 and the co-overexpression with bmp15 could up-regulate the expression of most steroidogenic genes, while the overexpression of single bmp15 could down-regulate the expression of most steroidogenic genes. These findings demonstrate that single gdf9 and the combination with bmp15 may act as "activator", while single bmp15 may act as "inhibitor" in the process of steroidogenesis in flounder. This was also verified in negative feedback regulation of gdf9 and bmp15 during hormone treatment. High concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) could down-regulate gdf9 and up-regulate bmp15, which were beneficial for the homeostasis of hCG hormone. Besides, knockdown of either gdf9 or bmp15 could significantly down-regulate most steroidogenic genes. This indicated that heterodimer of GDF9:BMP15 might be the most bioactive ligand in gonad development of flounder. Taken together, our study provided a novel recognition that gdf9 and bmp15 could regulate steroidogenesis in teleost through mechanism different from that in mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2020.113547DOI Listing
October 2020

Removal of micropollutants by an electrochemically driven UV/chlorine process for decentralized water treatment.

Water Res 2020 Sep 1;183:116115. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Electronic address:

The ultraviolet/chlorine (UV/Cl) process is an emerging advanced oxidation technology for micropollutant abatement in water and wastewater treatment. However, the application of the conventional UV/Cl process in decentralized systems is limited by the transport and management of liquid chlorine. To overcome this limitation, this study evaluated an electrochemically driven UV/Cl (E-UV/Cl) process for micropollutant abatement under conditions simulating decentralized water treatment. The E-UV/Cl process combines UV irradiation with in situ electrochemical Cl production from anodic oxidation of chloride (Cl) in source waters. The results show that with typical Cl concentrations present in water sources for decentralized systems (30-300 mg/L Cl), sufficient amounts of chlorine could be quickly electrochemically produced at the anode to enable E-UV/Cl process for water treatment. Due to its multiple mechanisms for micropollutant abatement (direct photolysis, direct electrolysis, Cl-mediated oxidation, as well as hydroxyl radical and reactive chlorine species oxidation), the E-UV/Cl process effectively eliminated all micropollutants (trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, metoprolol, and carbamazepine) spiked in a surface water in 5 min. In contrast, at least one micropollutant with ∼20-80% residual concentrations could still be detected in the water treated by 10 min of UV irradiation, chlorination, electrolysis, and the conventional UV/Cl process under similar experimental conditions. The electrical energy per order (E) for micropollutant abatement ranged from 0.15 to 1.8 kWh/m for the E-UV/Cl process, which is generally comparable to that for the conventional UV/Cl process (0.14-2.7 kWh/m). These results suggest that by in-situ generating Cl from anodic oxidation of Cl, the E-UV/Cl process can overcome the barrier of the conventional UV/Cl process and thus provide a promising technology for micropollutant abatement in decentralized water treatment systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116115DOI Listing
September 2020

Characteristics of pharmaceutically active compounds in surface water in Beijing, China: Occurrence, spatial distribution and biennial variation from 2013 to 2017.

Environ Pollut 2020 Sep 8;264:114753. Epub 2020 May 8.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Beijing Key Laboratory of Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China; Research Institute for Environmental Innovation (Suzhou), Tsinghua, Suzhou, 215163, China.

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are widely found in the environment due to vast human consumption. Lots of work has been devoted to investigating the occurrence and seasonal variations globally. To fully understand characteristics and cross-year variation of PhACs in Beijing, 35 PhACs were analyzed in 46 sites across Beijing from both urban and suburban areas. Concentrations of target PhACs were ranged from levels of ng L to μg L. Metoprolol (524 ng L), caffeine (390 ng L) and acetaminophen (156 ng L) were the three most abundant non-antibiotics with the highest median concentration, and nalidixic acid (135 ng L), erythromycin (64 ng L) and sulfamethoxazole (77 ng L) were the most abundant antibiotics. Urban and suburban areas are distinguished by PhAC composition in cluster analysis due to different wastewater collection rate. The ratio of easily removable compound group and hardly removable group was then proposed to reflect the wastewater collection rate. The compositional comparison of PhACs in WWTPs' effluents and their receiving rivers further illustrates the impact of WWTPs in urban area. Higher proportion of antibiotics (>30%) in suburban area reflected the impact of presence of livestock farms, which should be concerned. Further statistical analyses show an improving trend of wastewater collection rate, and excluding metoprolol, an anti-hypertension medicine, the total concentration of 13 target PhACs was reduced by 72% during 2013-2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114753DOI Listing
September 2020

Assessment of PM-bound nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOCs) during winter at urban sites in China and Korea.

Environ Pollut 2020 Oct 28;265(Pt B):114870. Epub 2020 May 28.

School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, 61005, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In this study, ambient fine particles (PM) were collected in two urban cities in China and Korea (Beijing and Gwangju, respectively) simultaneously in January 2018. Analysis of the nonpolar and semipolar organic matter (OM) using atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) revealed that compounds containing only C, H, and O (CHO) and those containing C, H, O, and N (CHON) accounted for more than 90% of the total intensity of the OM peaks. Higher proportions of CHON compounds were observed during days with abnormally high PM concentrations at both sites than on regular or non-event days. The proportion of CHON species at the Beijing site was not correlated with secondary ionic species (i.e., NO, SO, and NH) or gaseous components (i.e., O, NO, and SO). In contrast, the proportion of CHON species at the Gwangju site was positively correlated with the concentrations of particulate nitrate and ammonium ions, assuming that ambient ammonium nitrate plays a role in the atmospheric formation of nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOCs) at the Gwangju site and that Gwangju is more strongly influenced by secondary aerosols than Beijing is. In particular, a significant proportion of the compounds observed at the Beijing site contained only C, H and N (CHN), while negligible amounts of CHN were detected at the Gwangju site. The CHN species in Beijing were identified as quinoline compounds and the corresponding -CH homologous series using complementary GC × GC-TOF MS analysis. These results suggest that NOCs and their -CH homologous series from primary emissions may be significant contributors to nonpolar and semipolar OM during winter in Beijing, while NOCs with high oxidation states, likely formed via ambient-phase nitrate-mediated reactions, may be the dominant OM constituents in Gwangju.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114870DOI Listing
October 2020

Associations of household dampness with asthma, allergies, and airway diseases among preschoolers in two cross-sectional studies in Chongqing, China: Repeated surveys in 2010 and 2019.

Environ Int 2020 07 1;140:105752. Epub 2020 May 1.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Green Buildings and Built Environments (Ministry of Education), Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; National Centre for International Research of Low-carbon and Green Buildings (Ministry of Science and Technology), Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.

Many studies have investigated the associations between household damp indicators, and allergies and respiratory diseases in childhood. However, the findings are rather inconsistent. In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study of preschoolers aged three-six years in three urban districts of Chongqing, China. In 2019, we repeated this cross-sectional study with preschoolers of the same ages and districts. Here, we selected data for 2935 and 2717 preschoolers who did not change residences since birth in the 2010 and 2019 studies, respectively. We investigated associations of household damp indicators with asthma, allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis in childhood in the two studies. The proportions of residences with household damp indicators and the prevalence of the studied diseases (except for allergic rhinitis) were significantly lower in 2019 than in 2010. In the two-level (district-child) logistic regression analyses, household damp exposures that showed by different indicators were significantly associated with the increased odds of lifetime-ever asthma (range of adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.69-3.50 in 2019; 1.13-1.90 in 2010), allergic rhinitis (1.14-2.39; 0.67-1.61), pneumonia (1.09-1.64; 1.21-1.59), eczema (0.96-1.83; 0.99-1.56), wheeze (1.64-2.79; 1.18-1.91), rhinitis (1.43-2.71; 1.08-1.58), and current (in the past 12 months before the survey) eczema (0.46-2.08; 0.99-1.48), wheeze (0.97-2.86; 1.26-2.07) and rhinitis (1.34-2.25; 1.09-1.56) in most cases. The increased odds ratios (ORs) of most diseases had exposure-response relationships with the cumulative number (n) of household damp indicators in the current and early residences. Our results indicated household damp exposure could be a risk factor for childhood allergic and respiratory diseases, although the magnitudes of these effects could be different in different studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105752DOI Listing
July 2020

Environmental impact and recovery of the Bohai Sea following the 2011 oil spill.

Environ Pollut 2020 Aug 10;263(Pt B):114343. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

The Institute for Advanced Study of Coastal Ecology, School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai, 264025, PR China.

The 2011 spill at platforms B and C of the Penglai 19-3 oil field in the Bohai Sea has been the worst oil spill accident in China. To assess long-term effects, a comprehensive monitoring program of chemical and biological variables (within a 2.2 km radius of the spill site) was conducted five years after the spill. Comparison of nutrient, Chl-a and oil concentrations in seawater, TOC, PAHs, heavy metals concentrations within the sediments, and the abundance and biomass of macrobenthic organisms to values obtained before and after the oil spill in previous studies indicate habitat recovery has occurred within the Bohai Sea following the episodic oil release. Observed elevated oil concentration in the water column and higher concentrations of two heavy metals, five PAHs, TOC, TOC/TN and lower values of δC, together with a reduction in macrobenthic biomass in near-field samples, suggest the influence of contaminants from chronic releases of oil and operational waste discharges within the vicinity of the oil platforms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114343DOI Listing
August 2020

Research progress on sirtuins family members and cell senescence.

Eur J Med Chem 2020 May 5;193:112207. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Pharmacy, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Personalized Drug Therapy Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610072, China. Electronic address:

Human aging is a phenomenon of gradual decline and loss of cell, tissue, organ and other functions under the action of external environment and internal factors. It is mainly related to genomic instability, telomere wear, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein balance disorder, antioxidant damage, microRNA expression disorder and so on. Sirtuins protein is a kind of deacetylase which can regulate cell metabolism and participate in a variety of cell physiological functions. It has been found that sirtuins family can prolong the lifespan of yeast. Sirtuins can inhibit human aging through many signaling pathways, including apoptosis signaling pathway, mTOR signaling pathway, sirtuins signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and so on. Based on this, this paper reviews the action principle of anti-aging star members of sirtuins family Sirt1, Sirt3 and Sirt6 on anti-aging related signaling pathways and typical compounds, in order to provide ideas for the screening of anti-aging compounds of sirtuins family members.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112207DOI Listing
May 2020

The functional differentiation of four smad4 paralogs in TGF-β signaling pathway of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

Cell Signal 2020 07 14;71:109601. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Education, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, 266003 Qingdao, Shandong, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, 266237 Qingdao, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

As a classical signaling pathway, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) has been studied in various animals for more than decade years. However, the members of TGF-β were markedly expanded in teleost specific third and fourth rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD). Here, four smad4s named Posmad4a, Posmad4b, Posmad4c and Posmad4d were identified in Japanese flounder. Our study showed that four flounder smad4s had distinct properties in terms of their protein structure, expression pattern, protein interaction and subcellular localization. PoSMAD4a/b were mainly located in the cytoplasm, and could co-localize in the nucleus with PoSMAD3a after TGF-β activator stimulation. PoSMAD4c was mainly located in nucleus, whereas PoSMAD4d distributed in the whole cell. Both PoSMAD4c and PoSMAD4d could co-localize in the nucleus with PoSMAD3b after TGF-β activator stimulation. Furthermore, Posmad4c responded most strongly to TGF-β signal stimulation. Dual-luciferase reporter assay also showed that Posmad4c could specifically up-regulate the TGF-β signal luciferase reporter gene, Posmad4b could enhance Wnt signal luciferase reporter gene, while both Posmad4b and Posmad4d could markedly up-regulate Notch signal reporter gene. All results indicated that Posmad4a/b/c/d had significantly functional differences among TGF-β, Notch and Wnt signaling pathways. Our study provided important understanding to the biology of smad4s and its pathway crosstalk in teleost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2020.109601DOI Listing
July 2020

Kinetics and mechanism of thiamethoxam abatement by ozonation and ozone-based advanced oxidation processes.

J Hazard Mater 2020 05 23;390:122180. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

In this study, the abatement of neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, by single ozonation, ozone/ultraviolet (O/UV) and electro-peroxone (EP) process was evaluated. The second-order rate constants for the reaction of thiamethoxam with O and hydroxyl radical (OH) at pH 7 were determined to be 15.4 M s and 3.9 × 10 M s, respectively. The degradation pathways of thiamethoxam were proposed based on quantum chemical calculations and transformation products were identified using chromatographic and mass-spectrometric techniques. The acute and chronic toxicity of thiamethoxam and its major TPs to various aquatic organisms were assessed. With typical ozone doses applied in water treatment (≤5 mg/L), thiamethoxam was abated by only ∼16-32 % in two real water matrices (groundwater and surface water) during single ozonation, but by ∼100 % and >70 % during the O/UV and EP treatment, respectively. The energy demand to abate 90 % thiamethoxam in the two water matrices was generally comparable for single ozonation and the EP process (∼0.14 ± 0.03 kW h/m), but higher for the O/UV process (0.21-0.22 kW h/m). These results suggest that single ozonation is unable to sufficiently abate thiamethoxam under typical conditions of water treatment. Therefore, ozone-based advanced oxidation processes are needed to enhance thiamethoxam abatement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122180DOI Listing
May 2020

Glycerol not lactate is the major net carbon source for gluconeogenesis in mice during both short and prolonged fasting.

Mol Metab 2020 01 9;31:36-44. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Medicine, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA; Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Fasting results in major metabolic changes including a switch from glycogenolysis to gluconeogenesis to maintain glucose homeostasis. However, the relationship between the length of fasting and the relative contribution of gluconeogenic substrates remains unclear. We investigated the relative contribution of glycogen, lactate, and glycerol in glucose production of male C57BL/6 J-albino mice after 6, 12, and 18 h of fasting.

Methods: We used non-perturbative infusions of C lactate, C glycerol, and C glucose combined with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and metabolic flux analysis to study the contribution of substrates in gluconeogenesis (GNG).

Results: During infusion studies, both lactate and glycerol significantly label about 60% and 30-50% glucose carbon, respectively, but glucose labels much more lactate (∼90%) than glycerol carbon (∼10%). Our analyses indicate that lactate, but not glycerol is largely recycled during all fasting periods such that lactate is the largest direct contributor to GNG via the Cori cycle but a minor source of new glucose carbon (overall contribution). In contrast, glycerol is not only a significant direct contributor to GNG but also the largest overall contributor to GNG regardless of fasting length. Prolonged fasting decreases both the whole body turnover rate of glucose and lactate but increases that of glycerol, indicating that the usage of glycerol in GNG become more significant with longer fasting.

Conclusion: Collectively, these findings suggest that glycerol is the dominant overall contributor of net glucose carbon in GNG during both short and prolonged fasting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2019.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6881678PMC
January 2020

Role of the air-water interface in removing perfluoroalkyl acids from drinking water by activated carbon treatment.

J Hazard Mater 2020 03 26;386:121981. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Electronic address:

Contamination of drinking water by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a worldwide problem. In this study, we for the first time revealed the role of the air-water interface in enhancing the removal of long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic (PFCAs; CFCOOH, n ≥ 7) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic (PFSAs; CFSOH, n ≥ 6) acids, collectively termed as perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), through combined aeration and adsorption on two kinds of activated carbon (AC). Aeration was shown to enhance the removal of long-chain PFAAs through adsorption at the air-water interface and subsequent adsorption of PFAA-enriched air bubbles to the AC. The removal of selected long-chain PFAAs was increased by 50-115 % with the assistance of aeration, depending on the perfluoroalkyl chain length. Aeration is more effective in enhancing long-chain PFAA removal as air-water interface adsorption increases with PFAA chain length due to higher surface activity. After removing adsorbed air bubbles by centrifugation, up to 80 % of the long-chain PFAAs were able to desorb from the sorbent, confirming the contribution of the air-water interface to the adsorption of PFAAs on AC. Aeration during AC treatment of water could enhance the removal of long-chain PFAAs, and improve the performance of AC during water treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121981DOI Listing
March 2020