Publications by authors named "Yuji Ueno"

104 Publications

Antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes from racehorses in Japan.

Vet Dermatol 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Nihon University College of Bioresource Sciences, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Luliconazole (LCZ) is an imidazole antifungal medication that exhibits excellent activity against dermatophytes. As a topical cream and lotion (approved for human use), LCZ has demonstrated a broad spectrum of activity against human dermatophytoses.

Objectives: This is the first study to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of clinical isolates from horse dermatophytoses to LCZ.

Animals: No animals were used in this study.

Methods And Materials: In the present study, the in vitro susceptibilities of clinical isolates of dermatophytes to LCZ, clotrimazole (CTZ), miconazole (MCZ) and terbinafine (TRF) were investigated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A2 test.

Results: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for all 16 clinical isolates of Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum equinum/canis and M. gypseum for LCZ were <0.03 mg/L. The MICs of all isolates were <0.03-0.5 mg/L for CTZ, 0.03-16 mg/L for MCZ and <0.03-1 mg/L for TRF.

Conclusions: LCZ demonstrated a broad spectrum of activity against clinical isolates from horse dermatophytoses. We consider that LCZ will become the primary antifungal agent for treating horse dermatophytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12993DOI Listing
June 2021

Cardiac and Echocardiographic Markers in Cryptogenic Stroke with Incidental Patent Foramen Ovale.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Aug 6;30(8):105892. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: Some cardiac abnormalities could be a substrate for potential embolic source in cryptogenic stroke (CS). We evaluated whether cardiac and echocardiographic markers were associated with CS in patients with incidental patent foramen ovale (PFO) as defined using the Risk of Paradoxical Embolism (RoPE) score.

Materials And Methods: Among 677 patients enrolled in a multicenter observational CS registry, 300 patients (44%) had PFOs detected by transesophageal echocardiography. They were classified into probable PFO-related stroke (RoPE score>6, n = 32) and stroke with incidental PFO (RoPE score≤6, n = 268) groups, and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, cardiac and echocardiographic markers (i.e. brain natriuretic peptide, left atrial [LA] diameter, ejection fraction, early transmitral flow velocity/early diastolic tissue Doppler imaging velocity [E/e'], LA appendage flow velocity, spontaneous echo contrast, atrial septal aneurysm, substantial PFO, and aortic arch plaques), stroke recurrence, and excellent outcome (modified Rankin scale score <2) at discharge were compared. Risk factors for low RoPE scores were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results: Higher brain natriuretic peptide levels (p = 0.032), LA enlargement (p < 0.001), higher E/e' (p = 0.001), lower LA appendage flow velocity (p < 0.001), non-substantial PFO (p = 0.021), and aortic arch plaques (p = 0.002) were associated with the low RoPE score group. Patients with high RoPE scores had excellent outcomes (58% versus 78%, p = 0.035). LA enlargement (age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio, 1.15; 95 % confidence interval, 1.00-1.32; p = 0.039) was an independent predictor of low RoPE scores.

Conclusions: Abnormal cardiac substrate could be associated with CS occurrence in a subset of patients with PFO. Patients with CS who had incidental PFO may be at risk of cardioembolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105892DOI Listing
August 2021

Gemella haemolysans inhibits the growth of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11742. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Oral Microbiology, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Gobara Hirooka, Shiojiri, Nagano, 399-0781, Japan.

The oral microbiome plays an important role in the human microbial community and in maintaining the health of an individual. Imbalances in the oral microbiome may contribute to oral and systemic diseases. The progression of periodontal disease is closely related to the growth of bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, in the oral cavity. However, the pathogen growth mechanism specific to periodontal disease remains unknown. This study aimed to identify bacteria associated with periodontal health by focusing on hemolytic bacteria. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from ten periodontitis patients and five healthy subjects to detect and identify the presence of hemolytic bacteria. The saliva of healthy subjects contained a higher proportion of G. haemolysans than saliva samples from patients with periodontitis. Growth inhibition assays indicated that the protein components contained in the culture supernatant of G. haemolysans directly suppressed the growth of P. gingivalis. This study shows that the presence of G. haemolysans in saliva is associated with periodontal health and that it inhibits the growth of P. gingivalis in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91267-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175725PMC
June 2021

The Clonal Population of Trichophyton equinum from Dermatophytoses of Japanese Racehorses.

Mycopathologia 2021 Jun 26;186(3):435-439. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Nihon University College of Bioresource Sciences, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 252-0880, Japan.

Trichophyton equinum is a zoophilic dermatophyte that is frequently isolated from horse dermatophytosis and rare infections in humans. In the present study, molecular and physiological testing were performed on T. equinum isolates from dermatophytoses of Japanese racehorses to assess genotype and phenotype patterns of these strains. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis showed that internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences amplified from all Japanese isolates were 99.5% identical to T. equinum reference strains. ITS sequences amplified among the isolates were 100% (BT2) showed that isolates were 100% identical and harbored a "T" single nucleotide polymorphism at position 18. The sequences of β-tubulin (BT2) showed that isolates were 100% identical to T. equinum reference strains. The MAT1-2 allele was detected by PCR in all seven isolates, whereas none of the isolates contained the MAT1-1 allele. All isolates grew only on Trichophyton Agar 5 and did not grow on Trichophyton Agar 1 and 4, indicating nicotinic acid requirement. These results suggest that Japanese T. equinum isolates are derived from a clonal population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-021-00561-1DOI Listing
June 2021

First isolation of from a horse with dermatophytosis in Japan.

Med Mycol Case Rep 2021 Jun 29;32:81-83. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Veterinary Dermatology, Nihon University College of Bioresource, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 252-0880, Japan.

is a zoophilic dermatophyte that has been rarely isolated from horses and humans in Africa and Europe. This is the first reported isolation of from a horse with dermatophytosis in Japan. The isolate from a skin lesion formed a cream-colored and waxy colony that was slightly elevated in the center. Sequencing of the internal transcribe spacer region of the isolate revealed that it was 100% identical to that of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mmcr.2021.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113804PMC
June 2021

Possible Neuroprotective Effects of l-Carnitine on White-Matter Microstructural Damage and Cognitive Decline in Hemodialysis Patients.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 14;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

Although l-carnitine alleviated white-matter lesions in an experimental study, the treatment effects of l-carnitine on white-matter microstructural damage and cognitive decline in hemodialysis patients are unknown. Using novel diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) techniques, white-matter microstructural changes together with cognitive decline in hemodialysis patients and the effects of l-carnitine on such disorders were investigated. Fourteen hemodialysis patients underwent dMRI and laboratory and neuropsychological tests, which were compared across seven patients each in two groups according to duration of l-carnitine treatment: (1) no or short-term l-carnitine treatment (NSTLC), and (2) long-term l-carnitine treatment (LTLC). Ten age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Compared to controls, microstructural disorders of white matter were widely detected on dMRI of patients. An autopsy study of one patient in the NSTLC group showed rarefaction of myelinated fibers in white matter. With LTLC, microstructural damage on dMRI was alleviated along with lower levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and substantial increases in carnitine levels. The LTLC group showed better achievement on trail making test A, which was correlated with amelioration of disorders in some white-matter tracts. Novel dMRI tractography detected abnormalities of white-matter tracts after hemodialysis. Long-term treatment with l-carnitine might alleviate white-matter microstructural damage and cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070822PMC
April 2021

Different aspects of early and late development of atrial fibrillation during hospitalization in cryptogenic stroke.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 29;11(1):7127. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

The detection of underlying atrial fibrillation (AF) has become increasingly possible by insertable cardiac monitoring (ICM). During hospitalization for cryptogenic stroke, factors related to the early and late development of AF have not been studied. CHALLENGE ESUS/CS is a multicenter registry of cryptogenic stroke patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography. Twelve-lead electrocardiogram, continuous cardiac monitoring, and 24-h Holter electrocardiogram were all used for the detection of AF. Early and late detection of AF was determined with an allocation ratio of 1:1 among patients with AF. A total of 677 patients (68.7 ± 12.8 years; 455 men) were enrolled, and 64 patients developed AF during hospitalization. Four days after admission was identified as the approximate median day to classify early and late phases to detect AF: ≤ 4 days, 37 patients; > 4 days, 27 patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) (OR 5.91; 95% CI 2.19-15.97; p < 0.001) was associated with AF ≤ 4 days, whereas a large infarction > 3 cm in diameter (OR 3.28; 95% CI 1.35-7.97; p = 0.009) was associated with AF > 4 days. SEC and large infarctions were important predictors of in-hospital AF detection, particularly in the early and late stages, respectively; thus, they could serve as indications for recommending ICM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86620-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007744PMC
March 2021

Radiation-Induced Myopathy Developing in a Hodgkin Lymphoma Patient: An Autopsy Case with Systemic Muscle Sampling.

Case Rep Oncol 2021 Jan-Apr;14(1):338-342. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Hematology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Radiation-induced myopathy (RIM) is a rare complication occurring years after radiotherapy. RIM basically occurs within the irradiation field, but some cases have been reported to be accommodated by myopathy outside the irradiation field, and the actual extent of RIM is obscure. The presented case also showed decreased MMT scores and abnormal needle electromyography results in the muscles outside the irradiated field, and the patient was initially thought to have RIM both within and outside the irradiated field. However, while systemic postmortem muscle sampling revealed prominent myopathy in line with RIM in the irradiated muscles, only mild myogenic changes that could be explained by other causes such as age-related sarcopenia, radiculopathy, and disuse atrophy were observed in the non-irradiated muscles. The number of biopsy sites in live patients is limited due to the invasive nature of the procedure, but we were privileged to systemically evaluate the extent of myopathy through multiple muscle sampling including muscles both inside and outside of the irradiation field because this was an autopsy case. Through the presented case, we conclude that RIM is a phenomenon most probably limited to the muscles within the irradiated field, and myopathy outside the irradiation is due to other causes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983573PMC
March 2021

Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells Are Involved in Acute Ischemic Stroke by Regulating Neuroinflammation.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Apr 18;10(7):e018803. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Neurology Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine Tokyo Japan.

Background Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have been associated with inflammation in several autoimmune diseases. However, their relation to ischemic stroke remains unclear. This study attempted to elucidate the role of MAIT cells in acute ischemic stroke in mice. Methods and Results We used MR1 knockout C57BL/6 (MR1) mice and wild-type littermates (MR1). After performing a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), we evaluated the association with inflammation and prognosis in the acute cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, we analyzed the tMCAO C57BL/6 mice administered with the suppressive MR1 ligand and the vehicle control. We also evaluated the infiltration of MAIT cells into the ischemic brain by flow cytometry. Results showed a reduction of infarct volume and an improvement of neurological impairment in MR1 mice (n=8). There was a reduction in the number of infiltrating microglia/macrophages (n=3-5) and in their activation (n=5) in the peri-infarct area of MR1 mice. The cytokine levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-17 at 24 hours after tMCAO (n=3-5), and for interleukin-17 at 72 hours after tMCAO (n=5), were lower in the MR1 mice. The administration of the suppressive MR1 ligand reduced the infarct volume and improved functional impairment (n=5). Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated there was a reduction of MAIT cells infiltrating into the ischemic brain at 24 hours after tMCAO (n=17). Conclusions Our results showed that MAIT cells play an important role in neuroinflammation after focal cerebral ischemia and the use of MAIT cell regulation has a potential role as a novel neuroprotectant for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174378PMC
April 2021

Analysis for Stroke Etiology in Duplicated/Accessory MCA-Related Cerebral Infarction: Two Case Report and Brief Literature Review.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jan 30;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Hospital, 3-1-3 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8431, Japan.

Duplication and accessory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) constitute a rare congenital variation. MCA anomalies are found at a lesser frequency than the vascular anomalies of the other major intracranial arteries. Duplicated/accessory MCA was usually noted incidentally with subarachnoid hemorrhage, due to resulted aneurysmal formation. However, duplicated/accessory MCA-related cerebral infarction is rarer. We report two cases of cerebral infarction due to dissection at the entry of the duplicate/accessory MCA. Both cases were similar in dissected site and clinical course, without headache or injury. In 20 previously reported cases and our two cases of duplicated/accessory MCA-related infarction, mean age (55.8 ± 21.2 years) was slightly younger for cerebral infarction, and stroke etiology was mainly embolism. The main etiologies of stroke were embolism and dissection. Considering embolism etiology, proximal site of arterial diameter changing lesion was a common site for embolism, as duplicated/accessory MCA was usually smaller than normal M1 segment. In cerebral dissection cases, the dissected site was similar to our cases. Numerous mechanisms of dissection were considered, but they mainly included dysfunction of the media and endothelium or shearing stress at the entry of duplication. As the detailed mechanisms of cerebral dissection remain unknown, clinicians should include a differential diagnosis for MCA dissection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11020205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912107PMC
January 2021

Extensive leukoencephalopathy associated with idiopathic capillary leak syndrome: report of a case with neuropathology.

Neurol Sci 2021 May 7;42(5):2095-2098. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Neurology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, 650-0047, 2-1-1 Minatojima-Minamimachi, Chuou-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.

Introduction: Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (ISCLS) is a rare cryptogenic disorder characterized by recurrent hemoconcentration, hypoalbuminemia, edema, and hypotension due to extravascular fluid leakage. This is the first report that details uncommon extensive leukoencephalopathy caused by ISCLS upon a neuropathological investigation.

Case Report: A 68-year-old female had recurrent episodes of hemoconcentration, hypoalbuminemia, and generalized edema and was diagnosed with ISCLS. After 9 years, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) incidentally revealed extensive leukoencephalopathy without neurological deficits. Thorough examinations ruled out other disorders, and the cerebral involvement due to ISCLS was finally diagnosed. Three years later, she developed an acute-onset coma and status epilepticus together with hypotension and hemoconcentration, which were compatible with ISCLS recurrence. Electroencephalogram and MRI were correlated with a seizure arising from the left hemisphere. Extensive leukoencephalopathy did not show notable changes for 3 years. Although treatment for ISCLS recurrence temporally improved hemoconcentration and consciousness, consciousness worsened again by marked edema of the left hemisphere, and she died of cerebral herniation. A brain autopsy revealed straggly perivascular plasma leakage around the small vessels of the deep white matter, which supported that the leukoencephalopathy was caused by ISCLS. Widespread myelin pallor and decreased axonal density with sparse astrogliosis and microgliosis were observed in the cerebral white matter and corresponded with a chronic change in the MRI.

Conclusion: Current radiological and pathological observations revealed that frequent perivascular leakages could cause chronic leukoencephalopathy, were linked with the development of systemic capillary leakage in ISCLS, and provided insights into the mysterious pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-05000-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Cerebral artery dissection secondary to antiphospholipid syndrome: A report of two cases and a literature review.

Lupus 2021 Jan 4;30(1):118-124. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by thromboembolic events, including ischemic stroke or complications in pregnancy, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Cervical artery dissection (CAD) is not an uncommon cause of stroke in young adults. The concomitant presence of APS and CAD is extremely rare.

Methods: Two cases with APS who developed acute ischemic strokes related to CAD are reported. A comprehensive systematic literature search using the PubMed database was also conducted.

Results: In Case 1, a 36-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and had been repeatedly positive for lupus anticoagulant tests developed an ischemic stroke caused by a vertebral artery dissection (VAD). After admission, she had a recurrent ischemic stroke, followed by considerable changes in steno-occlusive lesions of the vertebrobasilar artery system. In Case 2, a 36-year-old man developed multiple brain infarcts due to bilateral VAD with aneurysmal formations and associated with pulmonary embolism. The anticardiolipin antibody titer was repeatedly elevated after stroke. The literature review identified 8 patients with CAD associated with APS, involving the internal carotid artery in 6 patients and the middle cerebral artery and vertebral artery in 1 patient each. The patients were predominantly young and female, infrequently had atherosclerotic vascular risk factors, and were positive for various antiphospholipid antibodies.

Conclusions: The current report described two rare cases of ischemic stroke caused by CAD secondary to APS, along with a review of the literature; the patients displayed characteristic clinical manifestations, implying specific mechanisms for cerebral artery disorders secondary to APS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961203320960821DOI Listing
January 2021

Pleiotropic Effects of Exosomes as a Therapy for Stroke Recovery.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 20;21(18). Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

Stroke is the leading cause of disability, and stroke survivors suffer from long-term sequelae even after receiving recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy and endovascular intracranial thrombectomy. Increasing evidence suggests that exosomes, nano-sized extracellular membrane vesicles, enhance neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and axonal outgrowth, all the while suppressing inflammatory reactions, thereby enhancing functional recovery after stroke. A systematic literature review to study the association of stroke recovery with exosome therapy was carried out, analyzing species, stroke model, source of exosomes, behavioral analyses, and outcome data, as well as molecular mechanisms. Thirteen studies were included in the present systematic review. In the majority of studies, exosomes derived from mesenchymal stromal cells or stem cells were administered intravenously within 24 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, showing a significant improvement of neurological severity and motor functions. Specific microRNAs and molecules were identified by mechanistic investigations, and their amplification was shown to further enhance therapeutic effects, including neurogenesis, angiogenesis, axonal outgrowth, and synaptogenesis. Overall, this review addresses the current advances in exosome therapy for stroke recovery in preclinical studies, which can hopefully be preparatory steps for the future development of clinical trials involving stroke survivors to improve functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7555640PMC
September 2020

Atrial Septal Aneurysm may Cause In-Hospital Recurrence of Cryptogenic Stroke.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 May 17;28(5):514-523. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital.

Aims: Awareness of potentially embologenic diseases is critical to determining the prognosis of cryptogenic stroke. The clinical significance of atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) in cryptogenic stroke has not been fully studied. Therefore, we explored clinical characteristics and in-hospital recurrence in patients with ASA in cryptogenic stroke.

Methods: A multicenter observational registry of cryptogenic stroke patients was conducted. We obtained baseline characteristics, radiological and laboratory findings, and echocardiographic findings, especially of embolic sources on transesophageal echocardiography. The CHALLENGE ESUS/CS (Mechanisms of Embolic Stroke Clarified by Transesophageal Echocardiography for embolic stroke of undetermined source/cryptogenic stroke) registry was recorded at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ (UMIN000032957). Patients' clinical characteristics were compared according to the presence of ASA, and factors associated with in-hospital stroke recurrence were assessed.

Results: The study included 671 patients (age, 68.7±12.7 years; 450 males; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 2). ASA was detected in 92 patients (14%), displaying higher age (72.4±11.0 vs. 68.1 ±12.9 years, p=0.004), reduced frequency of diabetes mellitus (16% vs. 27%, p=0.030), higher frequency of right-to-left shunt (66% vs. 45%, p<0.001), and in-hospital stroke recurrence (8% vs. 3%, p=0.034). ASA was relatively associated with in-hospital recurrence (odds ratio 2.497, 95% confidence interval 0.959-6.500, p= 0.061).

Conclusions: The CHALLENGE ESUS/CS registry indicated that ASA was not rare in cryptogenic stroke, and ASA's clinical characteristics included higher age, reduced frequency of diabetes mellitus, and increased frequency of concomitant right-to-left shunt. ASA may be related to in-hospital stroke recurrence in cryptogenic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.56440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193779PMC
May 2021

CD8 T-cell encephalitis mimicking PRES in AIDS: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2020 May 12;20(1):179. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421, Japan.

Background: Diverse mechanisms including infections, autoimmune inflammatory reactions, neoplasms, and degeneration are involved in the central nervous system in cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. In such cases, it is difficult to determine the precise pathogenesis by radiological examination and laboratory testing.

Case Presentation: We report a 37-year-old Japanese woman who had untreated hypertension and gender identity disorder and had been taking testosterone injections since she was 19 years old. She developed a headache and visual field deficits together with elevated blood pressure. According to radiological findings, she was initially suspected as having posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the right parieto-occipital lobe with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody was positive and the CD4 T-lymphocyte count was 140 cells/μl. Therefore, antiretroviral therapy was started. Antiretroviral therapy suppressed the activity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome but worsened her visual symptoms and expanding radiological lesions. Brain biopsy led to the diagnosis of CD8 encephalitis, and she also fulfilled the diagnosis of paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Corticosteroid therapy alleviated her symptoms.

Conclusions: This is a rare case of CD8 encephalitis, with an exacerbation owing to paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after antiretroviral therapy, which radiologically mimicked posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Corticosteroid therapy was effective; thus, it is important to provide a pathological diagnosis in such cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-01756-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216593PMC
May 2020

Characteristics of Clinical Symptoms, Cerebral Images and Stroke Etiology in Vertebro-Basilar Artery Fenestration-Related Infarction.

Brain Sci 2020 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 3-1-3 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

Cerebral artery fenestration is a rare variant of the vascular architecture, but its existence is well documented. The common site of fenestration is the vertebra-basilar artery and it may be found incidentally with subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, fenestration-related cerebral infarction is rare. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, stroke etiology, and image findings of fenestration-related cerebral infarction of the vertebrobasilar artery. We reviewed our hospital records and previously published reports to find cases of fenestration-related cerebral infarction. We excluded those with unknown clinical features or radiological findings. We retrieved 4 cases of fenestration-related infarction from our hospital, in which vascular change, headache, vertigo/dizziness, and dissection in stroke etiology were detected. In eight previously reported cases of fenestration-related infarction, similar vascular changes were noted, but they were mainly diagnosed as embolic stroke of undetermined source. However, based on the criteria for dissection in this study, dissection as the stroke etiology was suspected in the previously reported cases. Many hypotheses have been proposed for the development of dissection, thrombus, and aneurysms in fenestration. Although an embryological and morphological study is needed, clinicians must consider basilar artery fenestration-related infarction as a differential diagnosis and intensive non-invasive image study is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10040243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226259PMC
April 2020

The effects of A1/A2 astrocytes on oligodendrocyte linage cells against white matter injury under prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion.

Glia 2020 09 28;68(9):1910-1924. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

As oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are vulnerable to ischemia, their differentiation to oligodendrocytes (OLG) is impaired in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Astrocyte-OLG interaction is important for white matter homeostasis. Recently, reactive astrocytes were separated into two types, A1 (cytotoxic) and A2 (neurotrophic). However, their role in prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion remains unclear. We analyzed the effects of interaction between A1-A2 astrocytes and OPC-OLG under hypoperfusion, focusing on mitochondrial migration. As an in vivo model, chronic hypoperfusion model mice were created by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) using microcoils. As a matching in vitro study, rat primary cells were cocultured with a nonlethal concentration of CoCl . At 28 days after hypoperfusion, the number of OPC and astrocytes increased, whereas that of OLG decreased. Increased astrocytes were mainly A1-like astrocytes; however, the number of A2-like type decreased. In cell culture, OPC differentiation was interrupted under mimic chronic ischemia, but improved after astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) was added. However, injured-ACM was unable to improve OPC maturation. Incubation with CoCl changed astrocytes from A2-like to A1-like, and mitochondrial migration was also reduced. A Trkβ agonist was able to maintain astrocytes from A1-like to A2-like even under hyperperfused conditions, and aided in OPC maturation and memory impairment via mitochondrial migration and drug effects in cell culture study and BCAS model. The reduction of A1-like astrocytes protects against white matter injury. Trkβ agonists may play an important role in the impairment under chronic ischemic conditions. Mitochondrial migration may be a broad therapeutic strategy for cerebrovascular diseases. MAIN POINTS: Prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion leads to impaired oligodendrocyte (OLG) maturation and increased numbers of A1 astrocytes. Mitochondria migration maintained A2 astrocyte morphology, mature OLG, and myelinated white matter in vivo/vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23814DOI Listing
September 2020

Cerebral Microbleeds and Chronic Kidney Disease in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Apr 3;29(4):104650. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are associated with the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage in stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated the association between CMBs and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF.

Methods: We retrospectively examined consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF who underwent brain gradient-echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The number and distribution (lobar, deep or infratentorial, and mixed) of CMBs were assessed. Kidney function was assessed according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which was calculated using a modified version of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation.

Results: Of the 357 included patients, 105 (29.4%) had CMBs. CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m) was found in 131 (36.7%) patients. Patients with CKD showed a higher prevalence of any form of CMB (41.2% versus 22.6%, P < .001), deep or infratentorial CMBs (19.9% versus 9.3%, P < .01), and mixed CMBs (14.5% versus 5.3%, P < .01) than those without CKD. After adjusting for age and other confounding factors, CKD was found to be independently associated with the presence of any form of CMB (odds ratio 1.89, P = .02) and mixed CMBs (odds ratio 3.10, P < .01). Moreover, moderate to severe CKD (eGFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m) was independently associated with the presence of multiple CMBs (odds ratio 2.31, P = .04).

Conclusions: CMBs and CKD are common in acute ischemic stroke patients with AF, and CKD may be a risk factor for CMBs. Further longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether maintaining kidney function can prevent the development of CMBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104650DOI Listing
April 2020

Underlying embolic and pathologic differentiation by cerebral microbleeds in cryptogenic stroke.

J Neurol 2020 May 3;267(5):1482-1490. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Cryptogenic stroke encompasses diverse emboligenic mechanisms and pathogeneses. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) occur differently among stroke subtypes. The association of CMBs with cryptogenic stroke is essentially unknown.

Methods: CHALLENGE ESUS/CS (Mechanisms of Embolic Stroke Clarified by Transesophageal Echocardiography for ESUS/CS) is a multicenter registry with comprehensive data including gradient-echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of cryptogenic stroke patients who underwent transesophageal echocardiography. Patients' clinical characteristics were compared according to the presence and location of CMBs.

Results: A total of 661 patients (68.7 ± 12.7 years; 445 males) were enrolled, and 209 (32%) had CMBs. Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.04, p = 0.020), male sex (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.18-2.91, p = 0.007), hypertension (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.03-2.86, p = 0.039), chronic kidney disease (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.11-2.43, p = 0.013), deep and subcortical white matter hyperintensity (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.16-2.85, p = 0.009), and periventricular hyperintensity (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.37-3.46, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the presence of CMBs. Aortic complicated lesions (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.12-2.84, p = 0.015) were associated with deep and diffuse CMBs, whereas prior anticoagulant therapy (OR 7.88, 95% CI, 1.83-33.9, p = 0.006) was related to lobar CMBs.

Conclusions: CMBs were common, and age, male sex, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and cerebral white matter diseases were related to CMBs in cryptogenic stroke. Aortic complicated lesions were associated with deep and diffuse CMBs, while prior anticoagulant therapy was related to lobar CMBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-09732-4DOI Listing
May 2020

Eicosapentaenoic-to-Arachidonic Acid Ratio Predicts Mortality and Recurrent Vascular Events in Ischemic Stroke Patients.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2020 Sep 23;27(9):969-977. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine.

Aims: The ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to arachidonic acid (AA) is related to major adverse events and death in cardiovascular diseases. The association between long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke and EPA/AA ratio has not been clarified.

Methods: Acute ischemic stroke patients who had undergone blood examinations for polyunsaturated fatty acids were enrolled. Major cardiovascular events, including recurrence of ischemic stroke, occurrence of cardiovascular and peripheral artery diseases and hemorrhagic stroke, and death, were analyzed, retrospectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to explore factors, including clinical characteristics, laboratory data including EPA/AA ratio, and treatments associated with major cardiovascular events and death.

Results: A total of 269 patients (mean age, 70±13 years; 179 men) were enrolled. During follow-up (mean, 2.3 ±1.0 years), 64 patients exhibited major cardiovascular events and death (annualized rate, 10.5% per person-year). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that EPA/AA ratio (hazard ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.07- 0.99; p=0.048) and statin therapy (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.73; p=0.002) correlated inversely with major cardiovascular events and death. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, cumulative event-free rates were significantly lower among patients with EPA/AA ratio <0.33 and patients without statin therapy (p=0.006).

Conclusions: Low EPA/AA ratio at baseline and treatment without statins could predict mortality, recurrent ischemic stroke, cardiovascular and peripheral artery diseases, and hemorrhagic stroke among patients with acute ischemic stroke. The combination of baseline EPA/AA ratio and statin therapy could be critical in predicting the long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.52373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7508728PMC
September 2020

Metabolic endotoxemia promotes neuroinflammation after focal cerebral ischemia.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2020 12 7;40(12):2505-2520. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and a potent inflammatory stimulus for the innate immune response via toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 activation. Type 2 diabetes is associated with changes in gut microbiota and impaired intestinal barrier functions, leading to translocation of microbiota-derived LPS into the circulatory system, a condition referred to as metabolic endotoxemia. We investigated the effects of metabolic endotoxemia after experimental stroke with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a murine model of type 2 diabetes () and phenotypically normal littermates (). Compared to mice, mice exhibited an altered gut microbial composition, increased intestinal permeability, and higher plasma LPS levels. In addition, mice presented increased infarct volumes and higher expression levels of LPS, TLR4, and inflammatory cytokines in the ischemic brain, as well as more severe neurological impairments and reduced survival rates after MCAO. Oral administration of a non-absorbable antibiotic modulated the gut microbiota and improved metabolic endotoxemia and stroke outcomes in mice; these effects were associated with reduction of LPS levels and neuroinflammation in the ischemic brain. These data suggest that targeting metabolic endotoxemia may be a novel potential therapeutic strategy to improve stroke outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X19899577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820690PMC
December 2020

Analysis of Clinical Symptoms and Brain MRI of Heat Stroke: 2 Case Reports and a Literature Review.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Feb 26;29(2):104511. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu-city, Chiba, Japan.

Introduction: Heat stroke is defined as high body temperature causing multiple organ failure, psychological change, seizure, and consciousness disturbance, which lead to its high mortality rate. However, the involvement of brain injury is rare, and heat-stroke has only been reported in a few case reports or case series. The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the clinical symptoms and radiological features of heat stroke.

Methods: We reviewed our hospital records and previously published reports to find cases of heat stroke. We excluded those with unknown clinical features or radiological findings.

Results: We retrieved 2 cases of heat stroke from our hospital, which presented as extensive lesions on brain imaging that led to disseminated intravascular coagulation and death within a few days. In 21 previously reported cases of heat stroke, similar brain lesions were noted. These were classified as infarction/posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)-like lesions. The patients who developed PRES-like lesions and survived often developed cerebellar sequelae.

Conclusion: The mechanism of heat stroke is presumed to be multifactorial. Ischemic-like lesions result from hypovolemia and unusual coagulation, whereas PRES-like lesions are caused by direct heat and vasogenic edema due to hypercytokinemia. We need to consider the above mentioned conditions when evaluating heat stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2019.104511DOI Listing
February 2020

Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Stroke Burden.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Nov 7;20(22). Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

Stroke is a major leading cause of death and disability worldwide. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have potent anti-inflammatory effects, reduce platelet aggregation, and regress atherosclerotic plaques. Since the discovery that the Greenland Eskimo population, whose diet is high in marine n-3 PUFAs, have a lower incidence of coronary heart disease than Western populations, numerous epidemiological studies to explore the associations of dietary intakes of fish and n-3 PUFAs with cardiovascular diseases, and large-scale clinical trials to identify the benefits of treatment with n-3 PUFAs have been conducted. In most of these studies the incidence and mortality of stroke were also evaluated mainly as secondary endpoints. Thus, a systematic literature review regarding the association of dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs with stroke in the epidemiological studies and the treatment effects of n-3 PUFAs in the clinical trials was conducted. Moreover, recent experimental studies were also reviewed to explore the molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of n-3 PUFAs after stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6888676PMC
November 2019

Protective Role of Levetiracetam Against Cognitive Impairment And Brain White Matter Damage in Mouse prolonged Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

Neuroscience 2019 08 11;414:255-264. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

White matter lesions due to cerebral hypoperfusion may be an important pathophysiology in vascular dementia and stroke, although the inherent mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. The present study, using a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, examined the white matter protective effects of levetiracetam, an anticonvulsant, via the signaling cascade from the activation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Mice underwent bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS), and were separated into the levetiracetam group (injected once only after BCAS [LEV1] or injected on three consecutive days [LEV3]), the vehicle group, or the anti-epileptic drugs with different action mechanisms phenytoin group (PHT3; injected on three consecutive days with the same condition as in LEV3). Cerebral blood flow analysis, Y-maze spontaneous alternation test, novel object recognition test, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses, and protein kinase A assay were performed after BCAS. In the LEV3 group, SV2A expression was markedly increased, which preserved learning and memory after BCAS. Moreover, as the protein kinase A level was significantly increased, pCREB expression was also increased. The activation of microglia and astrocytes was markedly suppressed, although the number of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and GST-pi-positive-oligodendrocytes was markedly higher in the cerebral white matter. Moreover, oxidative stress was significantly reduced. We found that 3-day treatment with levetiracetam maintained SV2A protein expression via interaction with astrocytes, which influenced the OPC lineage through activation of CREB to protect white matter from ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.07.015DOI Listing
August 2019

CLIPPERS and its mimics: evaluation of new criteria for the diagnosis of CLIPPERS.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2019 09 9;90(9):1027-1038. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of the recently proposed diagnostic criteria for chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS).

Methods: We enrolled 42 patients with hindbrain punctate and/or linear enhancements (<3 mm in diameter) and tested the CLIPPERS criteria.

Results: After a median follow-up of 50 months (IQR 25-82), 13 out of 42 patients were CLIPPERS-mimics: systemic and central nervous system lymphomas (n=7), primary central nervous system angiitis (n=4) and autoimmune gliopathies (n=2). The sensitivity and specificity of the CLIPPERS criteria were 93% and 69%, respectively. Nodular enhancement ( ≥ 3 mm in diameter), considered as a red flag in CLIPPERS criteria, was present in 4 out of 13 CLIPPERS-mimics but also in 2 out of 29 patients with CLIPPERS, explaining the lack of sensitivity. Four out of 13 CLIPPERS-mimics who initially met the CLIPPERS criteria displayed red flags at the second attack with a median time of 5.5 months (min 3, max 18), explaining the lack of specificity. One of these four patients had antimyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies, and the three remaining patients relapsed despite a daily dose of prednisone/prednisolone ≥ 30 mg and a biopsy targeting atypical enhancing lesions revealed a lymphoma.

Conclusions: Our study highlights that (1) nodular enhancement should be considered more as an unusual finding than a red flag excluding the diagnosis of CLIPPERS; (2) red flags may occur up to 18 months after disease onset; (3) as opposed to CLIPPERS-mimics, no relapse occurs when the daily dose of prednisone/prednisolone is ≥ 30 mg; and (4) brain biopsy should target an atypical enhancing lesion when non-invasive investigations remain inconclusive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2018-318957DOI Listing
September 2019

Specific mechanisms of subarachnoid hemorrhage accompanied by ischemic stroke in essential thrombocythemia: two case reports and a literature review.

J Neurol 2019 Aug 2;266(8):1869-1878. Epub 2019 May 2.

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421, Japan.

Background: JAK2 V617F mutation increases the risk of thrombosis, and both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes can occur in essential thrombocythemia (ET). The mechanisms underlying ischemic stroke in ET are diverse, and hemorrhagic stroke has rarely been reported in ET.

Methods: Among 627 stroke patients, those identified as having ET were investigated retrospectively. A comprehensive systemic literature search of the PubMed database was also conducted.

Results: Two cases were extracted with the diagnosis of ET who developed SAH and then ischemic stroke. In Case 1, a 47-year-old woman developed SAH in the left high convexity. Eleven hours later, acute cerebellar infarction suddenly developed due to right vertebral artery dissection. In Case 2, a 70-year-old woman developed SAH in the right high convexity. Magnetic resonance angiography showed multifocal stenotic changes in intracranial arteries. Three days later, she developed acute brain infarcts in the right middle cerebral artery territory. Eight weeks later, multifocal stenotic lesions improved. The literature review revealed 5 patients with hemorrhagic stroke and 40 patients with ischemic stroke associated with ET. Age at onset varied, female gender predominated, and the frequency of JAK2 V617F mutation was high. Atherosclerotic vascular risk factors were more common in ischemic stroke, but not in hemorrhagic stroke.

Conclusions: The current study describes rare cases of SAH accompanied by ischemic stroke secondary to ET along with a review of the current literature, implying specific mechanisms for cerebral artery disorders associated with JAK2 V617F mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09347-4DOI Listing
August 2019

Large aortic arch plaques correlate with CHADS and CHADS-VASc scores in cryptogenic stroke.

Atherosclerosis 2019 05 20;284:181-186. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

Background And Aims: Current trends have suggested covert atrial fibrillation as a mechanism of cryptogenic stroke. However, etiological heterogeneity regarding the underlying embolic sources remains a critical issue in cryptogenic stroke.

Methods: CHALLENGE ESUS/CS (Mechanisms of Embolic Stroke Clarified by Transesophageal Echocardiography for Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source/Cryptogenic Stroke) is a multicenter observational registry of cryptogenic stroke patients admitted to participating hospitals, who underwent transesophageal echocardiography between April 2014 and December 2016. We obtained baseline characteristics, radiological and laboratory data, and echocardiographic findings, especially for embolic sources demonstrated on transesophageal echocardiography, and conducted comparisons according to CHADS and CHADS-VASc scores (0-1 vs. ≥2, respectively). This study was registered at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/(UMIN000032957).

Results: The study comprised 677 patients (age, 68.7 ± 12.8 years; 455 males; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 2) with cryptogenic stroke. On multiple logistic regression analysis, large aortic arch plaque ≥4 mm (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-3.36; p < 0.001), with ulcerative or mobile components (OR, 2.37; 95%CI, 1.38-4.06; p = 0.002), was associated with CHADS score ≥2. Large aortic arch plaque ≥4 mm (OR, 3.88; 95%CI, 2.07-7.27; p < 0.001) and ulcerative or mobile components (OR, 3.25; 95%CI, 1.44-7.34; p = 0.005) were linked to CHADS-VASc score ≥2.

Conclusions: The CHALLENGE ESUS/CS registry is a large TEE registry, and clarifies potential embolic etiologies of cryptogenic stroke using TEE. Large aortic arch plaques were associated with high CHADS and CHADS-VASc scores, and represented important embolic sources in cryptogenic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2019.03.009DOI Listing
May 2019

The Effects of Astrocyte and Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cell Interaction on White Matter Injury under Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

Neuroscience 2019 May 10;406:167-175. Epub 2019 Mar 10.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Oligodendrocytes (OLGs) differentiate from oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells (OPCs) for myelination in white matter. This differentiation is maintained by cell-cell interactions through trophic factors such as brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor (BDNF). However, differentiation is impaired when white matter injury occurs in a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model. Thus, we examined the effects of the interaction between astrocyte and oligodendrocyte lineage cells on myelination regarding the mechanism of impairment. A microcoil was applied to the bilateral common carotid arteries in male C57BL/6 mice as an in vivo cerebral chronic hypoperfusion model (BCAS model). A nonlethal concentration of CoCl2 was added to the primary cell culture from the postnatal rat cortex and incubated in vitro. White matter injury progressed in the BCAS model as myelin decreased. The numbers of OPCs and astrocytes increased after the operation, whereas that of OLGs decreased at day 28. BDNF continuously decreased until day 28. Differentiation was disrupted under the stressed conditions in the cell culture, but improved after administration of astrocyte-conditioned medium containing BDNF. Astrocytes with BDNF underwent differentiation, but differentiation was impaired under the stressed conditions due to the reduction of BDNF. We examined S100B regarding the mechanism of impairment. S100B is mainly expressed by mature astrocytes, and has neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects inside and outside of cells. GFAP-positive astrocytes increased in the corpus callosum in the BCAS model, whereas the number of mature astrocytes continued to decrease, resulting in reduced BDNF. The reduction in mature astrocytes due to the discharge of S100B in ischemic conditions caused the reduction in BDNF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.03.004DOI Listing
May 2019

Clinical heterogeneity of frontotemporal dementia and Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 caused by MAPT N279K mutation in relation to tau positron emission tomography features.

Mov Disord 2019 04 17;34(4):568-574. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: While mechanistic links between tau abnormalities and neurodegeneration have been proven in frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 caused by MAPT mutations, variability of the tau pathogenesis and its relation to clinical progressions in the same MAPT mutation carriers are yet to be clarified.

Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze clinical profiles, tau accumulations, and their correlations in 3 kindreds with frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 attributed to the MAPT N279K mutation.

Methods: Four patients with N279K mutant frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17/MAPT underwent [ C]PBB3-PET to estimate regional tau loads.

Results: Haplotype assays revealed that these kindreds originated from a single founder. Despite homogeneity of the disease-causing MAPT allele, clinical progression was more rapid in 2 kindreds than in the other. The kindred with slow progression showed mild tau depositions, mostly confined to the midbrain and medial temporal areas. In contrast, kindreds with rapid progression showed profoundly increased [ C]PBB3 binding in widespread regions from an early disease stage.

Conclusions: [ C]PBB3-PET can capture four-repeat tau pathologies characteristic of N279K mutant frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17/MAPT. Our findings indicate that, in addition to the mutated MAPT allele, genetic and/or epigenetic modifiers of tau pathologies lead to heterogeneous clinicopathological features. © 2019 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.27623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6593784PMC
April 2019

Pontine hemorrhage accompanied by neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

J Neuroimmunol 2019 05 1;330:19-22. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Japan.

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune disorder caused by antibody to aquaporin-4 (AQP4). NMOSD can infrequently present as a complication of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Moreover, few cases of NMOSD patients with brain hemorrhage have been reported. We report a rare case of PRES together with NMOSD recurrence, subsequent to pontine hemorrhage after intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) therapy. A 51-year-old Japanese woman, with a history of hypertension and dyslipidemia, and recurrent episodes of left visual acuity disorder related to AQP4-positive NMOSD, developed blindness in the left eye. Brain MRI showed a hyperintense lesion in pons. She was initially diagnosed with recurrence of NMOSD and 1000 mg of IVMP was administered for 3 days. After the 3rd course of IVMP, she developed left-sided sensory disturbance, and blood pressure was increased to 202/127 mmHg. Brain computed tomography (CT) showed pontine hemorrhage, and she was referred to our hospital again. We diagnosed PRES associated with NMOSD recurrence, along with development of pontine hemorrhage induced by the increase in blood pressure resulting from IVMP. The patient was treated with nicardipine to strictly control blood pressure, and tranexamic acid and glycerol for pontine hemorrhage and PRES. We also extended IVMP for 5 consecutive days in total, followed by plasmapheresis. After therapy, blindness in the left eye improved to light perception. Collectively, anti-AQP4 antibody could induce PRES together with recurrent NMOSD, and pontine hemorrhage could thus be induced by blood pressure increases resulting from IVMP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2019.01.020DOI Listing
May 2019
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