Publications by authors named "Yuhong Zhang"

288 Publications

Incorporating redox-sensitive nanogels into bioabsorbable nanofibrous membrane to acquire ROS-balance capacity for skin regeneration.

Bioact Mater 2021 Oct 21;6(10):3461-3472. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

The Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China.

Facing the high incidence of skin diseases, it is urgent to develop functional materials with high bioactivity for wound healing, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the wound healing process mainly adjustment of immune response and neovasculation. In this study, we developed a kind of bioabsorbable materials with ROS-mediation capacity for skin disease therapy. Firstly, redox-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylic acid) (PNA) nanogels were synthesized by radical emulsion polymerization method using a disulfide molecule as crosslinker. The resulting nanogels were then incorporated into the nanofibrous membrane of poly(-lactic acid) (PLLA) airbrushing approach to offer bioabsorbable membrane with redox-sensitive ROS-balance capacity. biological evaluation indicated that the PNA-contained bioabsorbable membrane improved cell adhesion and proliferation compared to the native PLLA membrane. study using mouse wound skin model demonstrated that PNA-doped nanofibrous membranes could promote the wound healing process, where the disulfide bonds in them were able to adjust the ROS level in the wound skin for mediation of redox potential to achieve higher wound healing efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988352PMC
October 2021

The association between body composition and metabolically unhealthy profile of adults with normal weight in Northwest China.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(3):e0248782. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Public Health and Management, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China.

Objective: Related evidences of metabolically unhealthy profile of adults with normal weight are not well characterized in the Chinese population. This is because they cannot be effectively identified by regular measurements (such as body mass index [BMI]). To overcome this gap in literature, this study aimed at investigating the association between body composition and metabolically unhealthy profile in Chinese adults with normal weight.

Methods: A total of 5427 individuals with normal-weight were recruited from 15820 people living in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in Northwest China. Normal-weight was defined as a BMI of 18.5-23.9 kg/m2. Metabolically unhealthy profile was assessed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). Metabolically unhealthy normal-weight (MUHNW) profile was defined in individuals who had normal weight and at least two cardiometabolic risk factors. Generalized linear model was used to investigate the association between body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance and metabolically unhealthy profile in adults with normal-weight.

Results: The percentage of metabolically unhealthy profile was 35.86% in adults with normal weight. Different MUHNW distributions were found between males and females depending on age. The percentage of the MUHNW profile significantly increased in women after the age of 55, contrary to men. The association between body composition and MUHNW was affected by age and sex. The increased adiposity indices (fat mass index [FMI], visceral fat level [VFL], waist circumference [WCF]), and reduced skeletal muscle mass ratio [SMR] showed significant differences between MUHNW and metabolically healthy with normal weight (MHNW) (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The distribution of MUHNW differed between ages and sexes. FMI, VFL, WCF and SMR could be responsible for the MUHNW adults, providing a new insight into the potential metabolic risks for the adults with normal weight in China. This directs us in the management of the MUHNW for their early prevention.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248782PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993598PMC
March 2021

Protein engineering of stable IsPETase for PET plastic degradation by Premuse.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 19;180:667-676. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China. Electronic address:

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used widely by human beings, but is very difficult to degrade. Up to now, the PET degradation effect of PETase from Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 (IsPETase) variants with low stability and activity was not ideal. In this study, a mutation design tool, Premuse, was developed to integrate the sequence alignment and quantitative selection of the preferred mutations based on natural sequence evolution. Ten single point mutants were selected from 1486 homologous sequences using Premuse, and then two mutations (W159H and F229Y) with improved stability were screened from them. The derived double point mutant, W159H/F229Y, exhibited a strikingly enhanced enzymatic performance. Its T and catalytic efficiency values (k/K) respectively increased by 10.4 °C and 2.0-fold using p-NPP as the substrate compared with wild type. The degradation activity for amorphous PET was increased by almost 40-fold in comparison with wild type at 40 °C in 24 h. Additionally, the variant could catalyze biodegradation of PET bottle preform at a mean rate of 23.4 mg/h/mg. This study allowed us to design the mutation more efficiently, and provides a tool for achieving biodegradation of PET pollution under mild natural environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.03.058DOI Listing
March 2021

The function of SUMOylation and its crucial roles in the development of neurological diseases.

FASEB J 2021 Apr;35(4):e21510

Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Medicinal Resources and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, National Engineering Laboratory for Resource Developing of Endangered Chinese Crude Drugs in Northwest of China, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

Neurological diseases are relatively complex diseases of a large system; however, the detailed mechanism of their pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, and effective treatment methods are still lacking for some of the diseases. The SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification is a dynamic and reversible process that is catalyzed by SUMO-specific E1, E2, and E3 ligases and reversed by a family of SENPs (SUMO/Sentrin-specific proteases). SUMOylation covalently conjugates numerous cellular proteins, and affects their cellular localization and biological activity in numerous cellular processes. A wide range of neuronal proteins have been identified as SUMO substrates, and the disruption of SUMOylation results in defects in synaptic plasticity, neuronal excitability, and neuronal stress responses. SUMOylation disorders cause many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. By modulating the ion channel subunit, SUMOylation imbalance is responsible for the development of various channelopathies. The regulation of protein SUMOylation in neurons may provide a new strategy for the development of targeted therapeutic drugs for neurodegenerative diseases and channelopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202002702RDOI Listing
April 2021

miR-20a-5p ameliorates ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of allergic asthma through targeting ATG7-regulated cell death, fibrosis and inflammation.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Mar 6;95:107342. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Respiratory Specialty the Children's Hospital of Suzhou University, Jiangsu 215003, China.

Autophagy plays an essential role in modulating asthma progression. MiR-20a-5p can regulate autophagy, but its effects on allergic asthma are still unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of miR-20a-5p on autophagy-modulated airway remodeling and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that miR-20a-5p expression was markedly down-regulated in lung of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model with allergic asthma and in cells stimulated by OVA. Meanwhile, autophagy, apoptosis, fibrosis and inflammatory response were detected in pulmonary tissues from OVA-treated mice. Importantly, luciferase assays showed that ATG7 was a target of miR-20a-5p. We also found that miR-20a-5p over-expression markedly reduced ATG7, while its inhibition promoted ATG7 in cells. In addition, over-expressing miR-20a-5p in OVA-treated cells significantly decreased ATG7 expression levels, along with markedly reduced autophagy, apoptotic cell death, fibrosis and inflammatory response. These results were similar to the effects of autophagy inhibitor 3-Methyladenine (3-MA), indicating that miR-20a-5p was involved in autophagy-induced apoptosis, fibrosis and inflammation. In vivo experiments further demonstrated that miR-20a-5p over-expression was associated with ATG7 reduction in parallel with the alleviated airway remodeling in OVA-treated mice also through suppressing collagen accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation. Similarly, animal studies further confirmed that miR-20a-5p functioned as an autophagy inhibitor to mitigate allergic asthma development. Therefore, miR-20a-5p may be a promising biomarker and therapeutic target during asthma progression by regulating ATG7-modulated autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107342DOI Listing
March 2021

Antioxidant Enzymatic Activity and Osmotic Adjustment as Components of the Drought Tolerance Mechanism in .

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 25;10(3). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Beijing Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, China.

Drought stress is a major environmental constraint for plant growth. Climate-change-driven increases in ambient temperatures resulted in reduced or unevenly distributed rainfalls, leading to increased soil drought. C. A. Mey is a typical drought-tolerant sedge, but few reports have examined the mechanisms conferring its tolerant traits. In the present study, the drought responses of were assessed by quantifying activity of antioxidant enzymes in its leaf and root tissues and evaluating the relative contribution of organic and inorganic osmolyte in plant osmotic adjustment, linking it with the patterns of the ion acquisition by roots. Two levels of stress-mild (MD) and severe (SD) drought treatments-were used, followed by re-watering. Drought stress caused reduction in a relative water content and chlorophyll content of leaves; this was accompanied by an increase in the hydrogen peroxide (HO) and superoxide (O) contents in leaves and roots. Under MD stress, the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) increased in leaves, whereas, in roots, only CAT and POD activities increased. SD stress led to an increase in the activities of CAT, POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and GPX in both tissues. The levels of proline, soluble sugars, and soluble proteins in the leaves also increased. Under both MD and SD stress conditions, increased K, Na, and Cl uptake by plant roots, which resulted in an increased K, Na, and Cl concentrations in leaves and roots. This reliance on inorganic osmolytes enables a cost-efficient osmotic adjustment in . Overall, this study revealed that was able to survive arid environments due to an efficient operation of its ROS-scavenging systems and osmotic adjustment mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10030436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996351PMC
February 2021

EIF2AK2 selectively regulates the gene transcription in immune response and histones associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Mol Immunol 2021 04 13;132:132-141. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Dermatology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University(Army Medical University), Chongqing, 400038, China. Electronic address:

PKR, also known as EIF2AK2, is an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) and shows a higher expression in probands with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which is likely responsible for the impaired translational and proliferative responses to mitogens in T cells from SLE patients. In this study, we overexpressed EIF2AK2 in HeLa cells to study EIF2AK2-regulated genes using RNA-seq technology, followed by bioinformatic analysis of target genes of EIF2AK2-regulated transcriptional factors (TFs). Overexpression of EIF2AK2 promotes HeLa cell apoptosis. EIF2AK2 selectively represses the transcription of histone protein genes associated with SLE, immune response genes and TF genes, which was validated by RT-qPCR experiments. Analysis of motifs overrepresented in the promoter regions of EIF2AK2-regulated genes revealed eighteen EIF2AK2-regulated TFs involved in establishing the EIF2AK2 network. Eight out of these predicted EIF2AK2-regulated TFs were further verified by RT-qPCR selectively in both HeLa and Jurkat cells, and most such as HEY2, TFEC, BATF2, GATA3 and ATF3 and FOXO6 are known to regulate immune response. Our results suggest that the dsRNA-dependent kinase EIF2AK2 selectively regulates the transcription of immune response and SLE-associated histone protein genes, and such a selectivity is likely to be operated by EIF2AK2-targeted TFs. The EIF2AK2-TFs axis potentially offers new therapeutic targets for counteracting immunological disease in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.01.030DOI Listing
April 2021

First report of peach leaf pitting-associated virus (PLPaV), plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV), and mume virus A (MuVA) from Mei (Prunus mume) in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Plant Protection, 243827, Beijing, Beijing, China;

Mei (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.), widely distributed in East Asian countries for both fruiting- and flowering-purposes, is susceptible to viral infections (Marais et al. 2018). Infection by plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV) or little cherry virus 2 (LChV-2) possibly caused overall yield loss in mei in Japan due to incomplete flower development, low fruit bearing rate, and interveinal chlorosis (Numaguchi et al. 2019). Virus-like disease showing mosaic, interveinal chlorosis, vein clearing, or necrotic spot on leaf was observed in mei trees in Beijing, Wuhan, Wuxi, and Nanjing in spring and early summer from 2017 to 2018. Symptomatic leaves collected from the four regions were pooled as two samples for RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. After ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-depletion, total RNA extracted by TRNzol reagent (TIANGEN, China) was subjected to library construction using NEBNext Ultra RNA Library Prep Kit (NEB, MA, USA) and sequenced on an Illumina Hiseq 4000 (Novogene, China). Sequencing data was filtered, screened, and assembled as described previously (Zhou et al. 2020) to generate contigs, following by BLAST-x/n search in viral genomes in GenBank. We identified >300 contigs (208-10756 nt) homologous to Asian prunus virus 1 and Asian prunus virus 2 (APV1 and 2), mume virus A (MuVA), PBNSPaV, and peach leaf pitting-associated virus (PLPaV), with 71-100% of nucleotide sequence identity values. APV1 and 2 have been reported in mei in China (Wang et al. 2018), here, we focused on the other three viruses. Contigs homologous to these three viruses were further assembled into three scaffolds of 14,224 nt, 1107 nt, and 753 nt for PBNSPaV, MuVA, and PLPaV, respectively. The scaffold of PBNSPaV (MW217574) nearly covered the whole genome of the isolate VIC3 from Australia (LC523039.1) (Kinoti et al. 2020) with 92.30% of sequence identity; the scalffold of MuVA (MW217572) covered 14.50% of the genome of the isolate pm14 from Japan (NC 040568.1) (Marais et al.2018) with 98.47% sequence identity; the scaffold of PLPaV (MW217573) covered 15.26% of the genome of the isolate XJ-6 from peach (KY867750.1) (He et al. 2017) with 85.23% sequence identity. Presence of the three viruses were verified by RT-PCR detection using designed specific primers for PBNSPaV (Forward: 5'-CAACAAAACTCCCACAGCGG-3 [positions 4014-4033, NC_009992.1] / Reverse: 5'-GCCAAAAGAAGTGCTGGTGG-3' [positions 4659-4640, NC_009992.1]), MuVA (Forward: 5'-AAGAGAATTACTTCAATGCCCTC-3' [positions 171-194, NC_040568.1] / Reverse: 5'-GATATCCAAGATACGATTAGCCAG-3' [positions 533-510, NC_040568.1]), and PLPaV (Forward: 5'-GCTATATCTCAACAACTGCAAGAA-3 [positions 5798-5821, KY867750.1] / Reverse: 5'- GAGTGATACATAGTCCACAGAGAT-3'[ positions 6045-6022, KY867750.1]). The amplified 626, 350 and 251 bp fragments of PBNSPaV, MuVA and PLPaV had 91.47%, 98.07% and 81.89% sequence identity to their respective reference sequences. This is the first report of PBNSPaV and MuVA infecting mei in China, and more importantly, the first report of a new host for PLPaV. In addition, 30 collected leaf samples from Nanjing and Wuhan were analyzed by RT-PCR and 15, 6, and 5 samples tested positive to PLPaV, PBNSPaV, and MuVA, respectively. Although it is difficult to link a particular virus with the observed symptoms due to mixed infections, the symptoms were significantly associated with viral infection because almost all symptomatic leaf samples were virus(es)-positive. Further studies would be required to determine the distribution and impact of these viruses on mei trees and other stone fruits species and to understand the possibility that mei trees may play a role in PLPaV epidemiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-20-2521-PDNDOI Listing
February 2021

The diagnostic performance of conventional ultrasound and strain elastography in malignant soft tissue tumors.

Skeletal Radiol 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of conventional ultrasound (US) and strain elastography (SE) in malignant soft tissue tumors.

Method: A total of 83 soft tissue masses were included prospectively. US and SE imaging were performed at the same time. Two observers assessed the B mode, color Doppler, elastic scores (ES), strain ratio (SR), and SE size to B mode size (EI/B) ratio and compared the consistency of the data between the observers. According to the pathological diagnosis of resection, the cases were divided into malignant and nonmalignant groups. The diagnostic value of conventional US and SE in the prediction of malignant soft tissue tumors was assessed.

Results: The pathology results divided cases into 36 malignant lesions and 47 nonmalignant lesions. There was no statistically significant difference in gender, location, maximum diameter, echo, tail sign, cystic component, Doppler scores, or SR between the two groups (p > 0.05). However, significant differences between the two groups were found in age, depth, heterogeneity, edge, ES, and EI/B (p < 0.05). The biggest area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (0.934) was the combination model of age, heterogeneity, edge, ES, and EI/B, and the sensitivity and specificity were 0.861 and 0.957, respectively.

Conclusions: Conventional US and SE are significant for the diagnosis of malignant soft tissue tumors, and SE can be used as a complementary technique to the characterization of STTs using conventional US.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00256-021-03724-9DOI Listing
February 2021

Upconversion luminescence and temperature sensing characteristics of Yb/Tm:KLa(MoO) phosphors.

Dalton Trans 2021 Feb;50(4):1239-1245

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Jilin Jianzhu University, Changchun 130118, China.

Yb3+/Tm3+ codoped KLa(MoO4)2 phosphors are synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Under 980 nm excitation, the upconversion (UC) emission spectra of the phosphors are observed. The temperature sensing characteristic based on the fluorescence intensity ratio is studied. The maximum sensitivity reaches 2.93% K-1 at 453 K. The sensitivity value of non-thermally coupled levels is higher than that of thermally coupled levels. The results indicate that the KLa(MoO4)2:Yb3+/Tm3+ phosphor could be used in temperature sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0dt03979aDOI Listing
February 2021

Lead exposure-induced defense responses result in low lead translocation from the roots to aerial tissues of two contrasting poplar species.

Environ Pollut 2021 Feb 19;271:116346. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Key Laboratory of Silviculture of the State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, 100091, China. Electronic address:

To explore whether lead (Pb)-induced defense responses are responsible for the low root-to-shoot Pb translocation, we exposed saplings of the two contrasting poplar species, Populus × canescens with relatively high root-to-shoot Pb translocation and P. nigra with low Pb translocation, to 0 or 8 mM PbCl. Pb translocation from the roots to aboveground tissues was lower by 57% in P. nigra than that in P. × canescens. Lower Pb concentrations in the roots and aerial tissues, greater root biomass, and lower ROS overproduction in the roots were found in P. nigra than those in P. × canescens treated with Pb. P. nigra roots had higher proportions of cell walls (CWs)-bound Pb and water insoluble Pb compounds, and higher transcript levels of some pivotal genes related to Pb vacuolar sequestration, such as phytochelatin synthetase 1.1 (PCS1.1), ATP-binding cassette transporter C1.1 (ABCC1.1) and ABCC3.1 than P. × canescens roots. Pb exposure induced defense responses including increases in the contents of pectin and hemicellulose, and elevated oxalic acid accumulation, and the transcriptional upregulation of PCS1.1, ABCC1.1 and ABCC3.1 in the roots of P. nigra and P. × canescens. These results suggest that the stronger defense barriers in P. nigra roots are probably associated with the lower Pb translocation from the roots to aerial tissues, and that Pb exposure-induced defense responses can enhance the barriers against Pb translocation in poplar roots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116346DOI Listing
February 2021

Quantitative Proteome Profiling Provides Insight into the Proteins Associated with β-Glucan Accumulation in Hull-less Barley Grains.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jan 28;69(1):568-583. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

State Key Laboratory of Barley and Yak Germplasm Resources and Genetic Improvement, Lhasa, Tibet 850002, China.

The hull-less barley (Qingke) is widely planted as a staple food crop in the Tibetan area, China, and the grains contains high content of β-glucan (BG). The mechanisms of BG synthesis and accumulation in qingke has not been studied at the protein level. This study characterized the proteins associated with BG synthesis and accumulation during qingke seed development. The proteome profiles of qingke seeds taken at 20, 30, and 40 days after flowering were compared using the TMT-based quantitative proteomics. A total of 4283 proteins were identified, with 759 being differentially expressed (DEPs) throughout seed development. Comparisons of protein expression pattern, functions, and pathway enrichment tests highlight cell wall modification, carbon and energy metabolism, polysaccharide metabolism, post-transcriptional modifications, and vesicular transport as critical biological processes related to qingke BG accumulation. Furthermore, induction of starch synthase, starch branching enzyme, pectin acetyl esterases, beta-glucosidases, beta-amylases, 1,4-beta-xylan, xyloglucan, α-amylase inhibitors, and glycosyltransferases underpinned BG synthesis. The results also indicated that the proteins involved in glycolytic, gluconeogenesis, and glyoxylate bypass pathways provided energy and reducing power for BG storage. Parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses confirmed the expression profile of the proteins obtained by TMT-based proteomics. The current results provided an insight into the mechanisms of BG synthesis and accumulation during qingke seed development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c05284DOI Listing
January 2021

The thermal/pH-sensitive drug delivery system encapsulated by PAA based on hollow hybrid nanospheres with two silicon source.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2021 Apr 28;32(6):695-713. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Key Laboratory for the Synthesis and Application of Organic Functional Molecules, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan, China.

The synthesis of drug delivery systems based on hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is still a major challenge. In this work, the hollow hybrid MSNs were successfully prepared by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-directed sol-gel process and one-step hydrothermal treatment process. The hollow hybrid MSNs had hybrid ethane-bridged frameworks with the uniform particle size (250 nm) and mesoporous pore diameter (3.7 nm). The polyacrylic acid (PAA) encapsulated drug delivery system based on hollow hybrid MSNs was prepared by using silanization, surface modification, doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) loading, and PAA coating. Drug encapsulation and release behavior at different temperatures and pH were studied by using DOX as a model guest molecule. The results displayed that the modified hollow ethane-bridged MSNs possessed good biocompatibility and excellent thermal/pH-dual-sensitive drug release property. This novel thermal/pH-sensitive drug delivery system based on hollow ethane-bridged MSNs has the advantages of feasible synthesis, no cytotoxicity, and good drug loading capacity, which may have potential applications in the anticancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2020.1861734DOI Listing
April 2021

Feasibility and validity of using death surveillance data and SmartVA for fact and cause of death in clinical trials in rural China: a substudy of the China salt substitute and stroke study (SSaSS).

J Epidemiol Community Health 2020 Dec 7. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

The George Institute for Global Health, UNSW, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Background: In rural China, mortality surveillance data may be an alternative to primary data collection in clinical trials; SmartVA (verbal autopsy) is also a potential alternative for endpoint adjudication. The feasibility and validity of both need to be assessed.

Methods: We used mortality data from the first 24 months of the China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study (SSaSS) trial and assessed the agreement between (1) mortality surveillance data and face-to-face visits for fact of death; (2) mortality surveillance data and SSaSS adjudication for causes of death; (3) SmartVA and SSaSS adjudication for causes of death; (4) cause-specific mortality fraction of different methods. Face-to-face visits and SSaSS adjudication were taken as reference methods. The agreement was measured by sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) across different 10th Revision of International Statistical Classification of Diseases chapters.

Results: One thousand three hundred and sixty-five deaths were included. Mortality surveillance data had 82% sensitivity for fact of death and 81% sensitivity for causes of death, with substantial variances across different disease types and reasonable quality for circulatory death (91% sensitivity and 94% PPV). The sensitivity of SmartVA for causes of death was 61%, with reasonable quality for deaths of external causes of morbidity (90% sensitivity). The leading causes of death from different sources were the same with some variances in the fractions.

Conclusion: Using mortality surveillance data for fact of death in clinical trials need to account for under-reporting. A face-to-face visit to all participants at the completion of trials may be warranted. Neither mortality surveillance data nor SmartVA provided valid data source for endpoint events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2020-214063DOI Listing
December 2020

LINC00565 promotes the progression of colorectal cancer by upregulating EZH2.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jan 18;21(1):53. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical College, Jiangyin, Jiangsu 214400, P.R. China.

The present study aimed to illustrate the role of LINC00565 in aggravating colorectal cancer (CRC) by targeting enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2). The relative levels of LINC00565 and EZH2 in CRC tissues, based on their Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage and tumor size, were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The diagnostic value of LINC00565 in CRC was assessed by depicting receiver operating characteristic curves. Pearson's correlation test was applied to analyze the expression correlation between LINC00565 and EZH2 in CRC tissues. The transfection efficacy of three LINC00565 small interfering RNAs was examined in CRC HCT116 and SW480 cell lines. After knockdown of LINC00565, the proliferative and migratory abilities of CRC cells were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 and Transwell assays, respectively. The subcellular distribution of LINC00565 was analyzed, and the interaction between LINC00565 and EZH2 was determined by RNA immunoprecipitation. Finally, co-regulation of LINC00565 and EZH2 on CRC cell functions was explored by performing rescue experiments. Results showed that LINC00565 was upregulated in CRC tissues, especially in patients with stage III+IV and in those with large tumor sizes, suggesting its diagnostic value in CRC. EZH2 was also upregulated in CRC tissues, showing a positive correlation with LINC00565. LINC00565 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm and was found to bind with EZH2. Validation was performed by overexpressing EZH2, which abolished the role of silenced LINC00565 in regulating proliferative and migratory abilities in CRC. Therefore, the upregulation of LINC00565 in CRC tissues was found to stimulate the aggravation of CRC by upregulating EZH2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.12314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709565PMC
January 2021

Could the ambient higher temperature decrease the transmissibility of COVID-19 in China?

Environ Res 2021 02 3;193:110576. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

School of Public Health and Management, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 750001, Ningxia, China; The Key Laboratory of Environmental Factors and Chronic Disease Control of Ningxia, Yinchuan, 750001, Ningxia, China. Electronic address:

Background: Existing literatures demonstrated that meteorological factors could be of importance in affecting the spread patterns of the respiratory infectious diseases. However, how ambient temperature may influence the transmissibility of COVID-19 remains unclear.

Objectives: We explore the association between ambient temperature and transmissibility of COVID-19 in different regions across China.

Methods: The surveillance data on COVID-19 and meteorological factors were collected from 28 provincial level regions in China, and estimated the instantaneous reproductive number (R). The generalized additive model was used to assess the relationship between mean temperature and R.

Results: There were 12,745 COVID-19 cases collected in the study areas. We report the associated effect of temperature on R is likely to be negative but not of statistical significance, which holds for most Chinese regions.

Conclusions: We found little statistical evidence for that the higher temperature may reduce the transmissibility of COVID-19. Since intensive control measures against the COVID-19 epidemics were implemented in China, we acknowledge this may impact the underlying effect size estimation, and thus cautiousness should be taken when interpreting our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713592PMC
February 2021

Selectively Oxidative C(sp)-H/C(sp)-H Cross-Coupling of Benzamides with Amides by Nickel Catalysis.

Org Lett 2020 Dec 19;22(23):9308-9312. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

The oxidative cross-coupling between the α-C(sp)-H bond of amide in DMAc and the inert -C(sp)-H bond of benzamides is achieved for the first time by nickel catalysis, with the assistance of 8-aminoquinolyl group in the presence of a silver oxidant. Notably, the selectivity of conversion can be perfectly controlled by modulating the oxidant additives, and the products from the coupling of the C(sp)-H bond adjacent to nitrogen of amides with benzamides are approached through the use of peroxide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c03535DOI Listing
December 2020

The Critical Roles of the SUMO-Specific Protease SENP3 in Human Diseases and Clinical Implications.

Front Physiol 2020 30;11:558220. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Medicinal Resources and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, National Engineering Laboratory for Resource Developing of Endangered Chinese Crude Drugs in Northwest of China, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

Post-translational modification by SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) proteins has been shown to regulate a variety of functions of proteins, including protein stability, chromatin organization, transcription, DNA repair, subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions, and protein homeostasis. SENP (sentrin/SUMO-specific protease) regulates precursor processing and deconjugation of SUMO to control cellular mechanisms. SENP3, which is one of the SENP family members, deconjugates target proteins to alter protein modification. The effect of modification via SUMO and SENP3 is crucial to maintain the balance of SUMOylation and guarantee normal protein function and cellular activities. SENP3 acts as an oxidative stress-responsive molecule under physiological conditions. Under pathological conditions, if the SUMOylation process of proteins is affected by variations in SENP3 levels, it will cause a cellular reaction and ultimately lead to abnormal cellular activities and the occurrence and development of human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, and various cancers. In this review, we summarized the most recent advances concerning the critical roles of SENP3 in normal physiological and pathological conditions as well as the potential clinical implications in various diseases. Targeting SENP3 alone or in combination with current therapies might provide powerful targeted therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.558220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662461PMC
October 2020

Rh-Catalyzed Annulation of Benzoic Acids, Formaldehyde, and Malonates via -Hydroarylation to Indanones.

Org Lett 2020 Nov 14;22(21):8354-8358. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

A three-component reaction from readily available low-cost materials of benzoic acids, formaldehyde, and malonates for the preparation of indanones by rhodium catalysis is reported. The annulation is initiated by an -hydroarylation of benzoic acids, and a Lewis acid is not required. The solvent has a significant influence to the reaction, and 2-substituted or nonsubstituted indanones are obtained by the change of solvent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c02986DOI Listing
November 2020

The important roles of protein SUMOylation in the occurrence and development of leukemia and clinical implications.

J Cell Physiol 2021 May 5;236(5):3466-3480. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Medicinal Resources and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, National Engineering Laboratory for Resource Developing of Endangered Chinese Crude Drugs in Northwest of China, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Leukemia is a severe malignancy of the hematopoietic system, which is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and dedifferentiation of immature hematopoietic precursor cells in the lymphatic system and bone marrow. Leukemia is caused by alterations of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of processes underlying hematologic malignancies, including SUMO modification (SUMOylation). Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins covalently or noncovalently conjugate and modify a large number of target proteins via lysine residues. SUMOylation is a small ubiquitin-like modification that is catalyzed by the SUMO-specific activating enzyme E1, the binding enzyme E2, and the ligating enzyme E3. SUMO is covalently linked to substrate proteins to regulate the cellular localization of target proteins and the interaction of target proteins with other biological macromolecules. SUMOylation has emerged as a critical regulatory mechanism for subcellular localization, protein stability, protein-protein interactions, and biological function and thus regulates normal life activities. If the SUMOylation process of proteins is affected, it will cause a cellular reaction and ultimately lead to various diseases, including leukemia. There is growing evidence showing that a large number of proteins are SUMOylated and that SUMOylated proteins play an important role in the occurrence and development of various types of leukemia. Targeting the SUMOylation of proteins alone or in combination with current treatments might provide powerful targeted therapeutic strategies for the clinical treatment of leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30143DOI Listing
May 2021

Application of large-scale targeted sequencing to distinguish multiple lung primary tumors from intrapulmonary metastases.

Sci Rep 2020 11 2;10(1):18840. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

The Center for Clinical Molecular Medical Detection, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, People's Republic of China.

The effective differentiation between multiple primary lung tumors (MPs) and intrapulmonary metastases (IMs) in patients is imperative to discover the exact disease stage and to select the most appropriate treatment. In this study, the authors was to evaluate the efficacy and validity of large-scale targeted sequencing (LSTS) as a supplement to estimate whether multifocal lung cancers (MLCs) are primary or metastatic. Targeted sequencing of 520 cancer-related oncogenes was performed on 36 distinct tumors from 16 patients with MPs. Pairing analysis was performed to evaluate the somatic mutation pattern of MLCs in each patient. A total of 25 tumor pairs from 16 patients were sequenced, 88% (n = 22) of which were classified as MPs by LSTS, consistent with clinical diagnosis. One tumor pair from a patient with lymph node metastases had highly consistent somatic mutation profiles, thus predicted as a primary-metastatic pair. In addition, some matched mutations were observed in the remaining two paired ground-glass nodules (GGNs) and classified as high-probability IMs by LSTS. Our study revealed that LSTS can potentially facilitate the distinction of MPs from IMs. In addition, our results provide new genomic evidence of the presence of cancer invasion in GGNs, even pure GGNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75935-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606457PMC
November 2020

Populus euphratica annexin1 facilitates cadmium enrichment in transgenic Arabidopsis.

J Hazard Mater 2021 03 28;405:124063. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, College of Biological Sciences and Technology (Box 162), Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

Phytoremediation offers a great potential for affordable remediation of heavy metal (HM)-polluted soil and water. Screening and identifying candidate genes related to HM uptake and transport is prerequisite for improvement of phytoremediation by genetic engineering. Using the cadmium (Cd)-hypersensitive Populus euphratica, an annexin encoding gene facilitating Cd enrichment was identified in this study. With a 12 h exposure to CdCl (50-100 μM), P. euphratica cells down-regulated transcripts of annexin1 (PeANN1). PeANN1 was homologue to Arabidopsis annexin1 (AtANN1) and localized mainly to the plasma membrane (PM) and cytosol. Compared with wild type and Atann1 mutant, PeANN1 overexpression in Arabidopsis resulted in a more pronounced decline in survival rate and root length after a long-term Cd stress (10 d, 50 μM), due to a higher cadmium accumulation in roots. PeANN1-transgenic roots exhibited enhanced influx conductance of Cd under cadmium shock (30 min, 50 μM) and short-term stress (12 h, 50 μM). Noteworthy, the PeANN1-facilitated Cd influx was significantly inhibited by a calcium-permeable channel (CaPC) inhibitor (GdCl) but was promoted by 1 mM HO, indicating that Cd entered root cells via radical-activated CaPCs in the PM. Therefore, PeANN1 can serve as a candidate gene for improvement of phytoremediation by genetic engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124063DOI Listing
March 2021

Typical phthalic acid esters induce apoptosis by regulating the PI3K/Akt/Bcl-2 signaling pathway in rat insulinoma cells.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 19;208:111461. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

School of Public Health and Management, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, Ningxia, China; Key Laboratory of Fertility Preservation and Maintenance of the Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China. Electronic address:

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) are representative phthalic acid esters (PAEs), a class of environmental endocrine disruptors used as plasticizers. PAEs exposure is associated with glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and glucose tolerance; however, the mechanism and various PAE effects on human glucose metabolism remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of DEHP, DBP, and their mixture on rat insulinoma (INS-1) cell apoptosis and the mechanism involved in vitro. The INS-1 cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 + 10% fetal bovine serum for 24 h and pretreated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle, <0.1%), DEHP (30 μM), DBP (30 μM), and their mixture (30 μM DEHP + 30 μM DBP). The methyl-thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide test was used to measure cell viability. Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, and glucose-induced insulin secretion assay were used to detect cell apoptosis rates, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and insulin secretion in INS-1, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase 9, Caspase 8, Caspase 3, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt were detected using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR; their protein expression levels were detected using western blotting. To the best of our knowledge, this study was the first to show that the combined effect of the two PAEs promotes a ROS-mediated PI3K/Akt/Bcl-2 pathway-induced pancreatic β cell apoptosis that is significantly higher than the effects of each PAE. Thus, safety standards and studies do not consider this effect as a significant oversight when blending PAEs. We assert that this must be addressed and corrected for establishing more impactful and safer standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111461DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of roasting process on enzymes inactivation and starch properties of highland barley.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 5;165(Pt A):675-682. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Roasting may be beneficial to extend the shelf life by inactivating the lipases and peroxidases in highland barley, but it may lead to the deterioration of starch quality. In this study, the pre-treatment techniques of pearling and tempering were tried to improve the efficiency of inactivation, and different roasting treatment parameters were compared to obtain the optimum treatment conditions, under which thermally degraded starch may be less. Pearling had been proved to be an effective means in reducing enzyme content, and tempering could improve the sensitivity of enzymes to heat. Synergism of the two pre-treatment methods increased the inactivation of lipase and peroxidase in highland barley to 80% and 100%, respectively, and the optimal pre-treatment and roasting condition was P20M16T16 (20% pearling rate, 16% moisture, and 16 min treatment time) at 180 °C. Under this condition, the starch quality was basically consistent with those of control starch. For roasting treatment starch, the birefringence intensity, swelling power, and solubility slightly decreased and the polarized cross also still existed, while the relative crystallinity slightly increased and the crystal type unchanged. Roasting treatment starch showed higher pasting temperature and lower paste viscosity, and the increasing To, Tp, and the decreasing enthalpy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.09.180DOI Listing
December 2020

Effects of the addition of waxy and normal hull-less barley flours on the farinograph and pasting properties of composite flours and on the nutritional value, textural qualities, and in vitro digestibility of resultant breads.

J Food Sci 2020 Oct 28;85(10):3141-3149. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Hull-less barley (HLB), especially waxy HLB, contains many physiologically active ingredients; however, its poor processing performance and end-product quality are unfavorable. In this study, 80% waxy or normal HLB wholegrain flour (WGF) and 20% wheat flour were used for baking bread. The farinograph and pasting properties of composite powders, and the nutritional value, textural properties, and in vitro hydrolysis of resultant breads were evaluated. The addition of a high proportion of HLB WGFs significantly increased the nutritional value of breads, especially the β-glucan contents of waxy HLB breads. The addition of HLB WGFs and a suitable amount of wheat gluten led to a lower degree of softening of HLB bread flours but improved its farinograph characteristics, such as higher water absorption rate, development time, stability time, and farinograph quality number. Although the sensory profiles of HLB breads were considerably lower than those of wheat bread, they still received a good overall acceptability from a panel of sensory evaluators. HLB breads, particularly the waxy types, exhibited higher hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and lower specific volume, glycemic index and equilibrium concentration in starch hydrolysis. After baking, the starch crystallinity of dough changed from A to V type, and the relative crystallinity decreased. Overall, waxy HLB breads had more nutritional value than normal HLB breads. Higher β-glucan and total dietary fiber content in HLB might have a positive effect on the nutritional value of the resultant breads. However, high β-glucan and total dietary fiber was also accompanied by a negative effect on the sensory quality and processing performance of the end product. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The composite flour with 80 g hull-less barley wholegrain flour, 20 g wheat flour, and 30 g wheat gluten can be substituted in breadmaking. Compared to wheat bread, hull-less barley bread exhibited different but acceptable sensory properties and had more nutritional value, particularly the waxy one. Therefore, a high proportion of hull-less barley could be recommended for bread production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15401DOI Listing
October 2020

Hot-Carrier Injection Antennas with Hemispherical AgO@Ag Architecture for Boosting the Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Sep 3;12(37):41446-41453. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Normal University, Changchun 130103, China.

In the past few years, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have increased from 3.81 to 25.2%, surpassing those of all almost all thin films solar cells. For high-performance PSCs, it is pivotal to finely regulate the charge dynamics and light management between perovskite and charge-transfer materials to balance the trade-off between optical and electrical properties. In this study, a hemispherical core-shell silver oxide (AgO) @ silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were grown onto the surface of the mesoporous titanium dioxide (m-TiO) electron-transport layer (ETL) to improve the photogenerated charge transfer without sacrificing the stability of the devices. The results show that the electrical properties of m-TiO have been enhanced owing to the injection of a hot carrier in Ag NPs into the m-TiO ETL filling the trap states of m-TiO. However, AgO on the Ag NP surfaces can isolate the touch between Ag NPs and perovskite, thereby prohibiting the perovskite decomposition. Compared with the control device, the PCE was increased from 17.87 to 20.33% for the device with HOAPs. In the meantime, the long-term stability of the PSCs is not sacrificed, which is pivotal for fabricating PSCs and optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c11250DOI Listing
September 2020

Dissecting MicroRNA-mRNA Regulatory Networks Underlying Sulfur Assimilation and Cadmium Accumulation in Poplar Leaves.

Plant Cell Physiol 2020 Sep;61(9):1614-1630

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Key Laboratory of Silviculture of the State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China.

The process of cadmium (Cd) accumulation and detoxification under different sulfur levels remains largely unknown in woody plants. To investigate the physiological and transcriptomic regulation mechanisms of poplars in response to different sulfate (S) supply levels and Cd exposure, we exposed Populus deltoides saplings to one of the low, moderate and high S levels together with either 0 or 50 µM Cd. Cd accumulation was decreased in low S-treated poplar leaves, and it tended to be increased in high S-supplied leaves under the Cd exposure condition. Sulfur nutrition was deficient in low S-supplied poplars, and it was improved in high S-treated leaves. Cd exposure resulted in lower sulfur level in the leaves supplied with moderate S, it exacerbated a Cd-induced sulfur decrease in low S-treated leaves and it caused a higher sulfur concentration in high S-supplied leaves. In line with the physiological changes, a number of mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in Cd accumulation and sulfur assimilation were identified and the miRNA-mRNA networks were dissected. In the networks, miR395 and miR399 members were identified as hub miRNAs and their targets were ATP sulfurylase 3 (ATPS3) and phosphate 2 (PHO2), respectively. These results suggest that Cd accumulation and sulfur assimilation are constrained by low and enhanced by high S supply, and Cd toxicity is aggravated by low and relieved by high S in poplar leaves, and that miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks play pivotal roles in sulfur-mediated Cd accumulation and detoxification in Cd-exposed poplars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcaa084DOI Listing
September 2020

Correction: Manganese-based layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as highly efficient ozone decomposition catalysts with tunable valence state.

Nanoscale 2020 Jul 8;12(27):14927. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China.

Correction for 'Manganese-based layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as highly efficient ozone decomposition catalysts with tunable valence state' by Siyu Wang et al., Nanoscale, 2020, 12, 12817-12823, DOI: 10.1039/D0NR02796K.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr90153aDOI Listing
July 2020

Functional dissection of HGGT and HPT in barley vitamin E biosynthesis via CRISPR/Cas9-enabled genome editing.

Ann Bot 2020 10;126(5):929-942

Institute of Genetics and Regenerative Biology, Key Laboratory for Cell and Gene Engineering of Zhejiang Province, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background And Aims: Vitamin E (tocochromanol) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant and an essential nutrient for human health. Among cereal crops, barley (Hordeum vulgare) contains a high level of vitamin E, which includes both tocopherols and tocotrienols. Although the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway has been characterized in dicots, such as Arabidopsis, which only accumulate tocopherols, knowledge regarding vitamin E biosynthesis in monocots is limited because of the lack of functional mutants. This study aimed to obtain gene knockout mutants to elucidate the genetic control of vitamin E composition in barley.

Methods: Targeted knockout mutations of HvHPT and HvHGGT in barley were created with CRISPR/Cas9-enabled genome editing. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to analyse the content of tocochromanol isomers in transgene-free homozygous Hvhpt and Hvhggt mutants.

Key Results: Mutagenesis efficiency among T0 regenerated plantlets was 50-65 % as a result of two simultaneously expressed guide RNAs targeting each gene; most of the mutations were stably inherited by the next generation. The transgene-free homozygous mutants of Hvhpt and Hvhggt exhibited decreased grain size and weight, and the HvHGGT mutation led to a shrunken phenotype and significantly lower total starch content in grains. HPLC analysis revealed that targeted mutation of HvHPT significantly reduced the content of both tocopherols and tocotrienols, whereas mutations in HvHGGT completely blocked tocotrienol biosynthesis in barley grains. Transient overexpression of an HvHPT homologue in tobacco leaves significantly increased the production of γ- and δ-tocopherols, which may partly explain why targeted mutation of HvHPT in barley grains did not eliminate tocopherol production.

Conclusions: Our results functionally validated that HvHGGT is the only committed gene for the production of tocotrienols, whereas HvHPT is partly responsible for tocopherol biosynthesis in barley.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539355PMC
October 2020

Manganese-based layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as highly efficient ozone decomposition catalysts with tunable valence state.

Nanoscale 2020 Jun 15;12(24):12817-12823. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China.

Manganese oxides are well explored effective ozone decomposition catalysts, but the accumulation of oxygen trapped on their surfaces and high valence state restrict their catalyst efficiency. Herein, we report manganese based layered double hydroxide (LDH) catalysts with different average oxidation states (AOS) of Mn. MgMnAl-LDH catalysts show large specific surface area, abundant oxygen vacancies, stable structure and excellent catalytic ozone decomposition performance. The valence state of Mn can be tuned by adjusting the metallic element ratio in the LDH matrix, and a catalyst with AOS of only 2.3 is acquired. The impacts of the valence states of Mn on the catalytic ozone decomposition process were further studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is found that the Mn facilitates the desorption of generated oxygen on the surface of LDHs, while Mn and Mn contribute to the dissociation of adsorbed ozone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr02796kDOI Listing
June 2020