Publications by authors named "Yuhan Liu"

99 Publications

Exploring atmospheric free-radical chemistry in China: the self-cleansing capacity and the formation of secondary air pollution.

Natl Sci Rev 2019 May 19;6(3):579-594. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Since 1971, it has been known that the atmospheric free radicals play a pivotal role in maintaining the oxidizing power of the troposphere. The existence of the oxidizing power is an important feature of the troposphere to remove primary air pollutants emitted from human beings as well as those from the biosphere. Nevertheless, serious secondary air-pollution incidents can take place due to fast oxidation of the primary pollutants. Elucidating the atmospheric free-radical chemistry is a demanding task in the field of atmospheric chemistry worldwide, which includes two kinds of work: first, the setup of reliable radical detection systems; second, integrated field studies that enable closure studies on the sources and sinks of targeted radicals such as OH and NO. In this review, we try to review the Chinese efforts to explore the atmospheric free-radical chemistry in such chemical complex environments and the possible link of this fast gas-phase oxidation with the fast formation of secondary air pollution in the city-cluster areas in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwy073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291643PMC
May 2019

Impact of Thyme Microcapsules on Histamine Production by in Xinjiang Smoked Horsemeat Sausage.

Foods 2021 Oct 18;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Laboratory of Meat Processing and Quality Control, College of Food Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832000, China.

Here, we explored the influences of thyme microcapsules on the growth, gene expression, and histamine accumulation by isolated from smoked horsemeat sausage. RT-qPCR was employed to evaluate the gene expression level of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) cascade-associated genes. We used HPLC to monitor histamine concentration both in pure culture as well as in the processing of smoked horsemeat sausage. Results showed that histamine accumulation was suppressed by thyme microcapsule inhibitory effect on the histamine-producing bacteria and the reduction in the transcription of hdcA and hdcP genes. Besides, compared with thyme essential oil (EO), thyme microcapsules exhibited higher antibacterial activity and had a higher score for overall acceptance. Therefore, the addition of thyme microcapsules in Xinjiang smoked horsemeat sausage inhibits histamine accumulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10102491DOI Listing
October 2021

Potential impact of oral flora dispersal on patients wearing face masks when undergoing ophthalmologic procedures.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2021 5;6(1):e000804. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the amount of oral flora dispersion towards the ocular surface in relation to various face mask scenarios.

Methods And Analysis: Thirty participants were recruited for this prospective cross-sectional study. Each participant was seated and instructed to hold a blood agar plate perpendicular to the bridge of their nose and facing downward. Participants then partook in three unique face mask scenarios: no face mask, surgical face mask and surgical face mask with tape securing the superior edge. During each scenario, participants were instructed to forcefully exhale for 5 s three times. The primary outcome measure was the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) grown on each face mask scenario-specific plate.

Results: Thirty participants were recruited for the study, and a total of 90 chocolate agar plates were successfully incubated. The proportion of detecting any CFU was 6.67% (95% CI: 0.818% to 22.1%) for no mask scenario, 0% (95% CI: 0% to 11.6%) for mask scenario and 3.33% (95% CI: 0.0844% to 17.2%) for mask-taped scenario. The mean differences in proportion of detecting any CFU were 3.33% (95% CI: 0% to 10%, p=0.309) for no mask versus mask taped, 3.35% (95% CI: 0% to 10%, p=0.307) for mask taped versus mask and 6.68% (95% CI: 0% to 16.7%, p=0.142) for no mask versus mask.

Conclusion: This study showed no difference in bacterial dispersion towards the ocular surface when comparing no face mask, a surgical face mask without tape or a surgical face mask with tape.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493904PMC
October 2021

Parent Activation in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Objective:  Patient activation is the knowledge, skills, and confidence to manage one's health; parent activation is a comparable concept related to a parent's ability to manage a child's health. Activation in adults is a modifiable risk factor and associated with clinical outcomes and health care utilization. We examined activation in parents of hospitalized newborns observing temporal trends and associations with sociodemographic characteristics, neonate characteristics, and outcomes.

Study Design:  Participants included adult parents of neonates admitted to a level-IV neonatal intensive care unit in an academic medical center. Activation was measured with the 10-item Parent version of the Patient Activation Measure (P-PAM) at admission, discharge, and 30 days after discharge. Associations with sociodemographic variables, health literacy, clinical variables, and health care utilization were evaluated.

Results:  A total of 96 adults of 64 neonates were enrolled. The overall mean P-PAM score on admission was 81.8 (standard deviation [SD] = 18), 88.8 (SD = 13) at discharge, and 86.8 (SD = 16) at 30-day follow-up. Using linear mixed regression model, P-PAM score was significantly associated with timing of measurement. Higher P-PAM scores were associated with higher health literacy ( = 0.002) and higher in mothers compared to fathers ( = 0.040). There were no significant associations of admission P-PAM scores with sociodemographic characteristics. Parents of neonates who had a surgical diagnosis had a statistically significant ( = 0.003) lower score than those who did not. There were no associations between discharge P-PAM scores and neonates' lengths of stay or other indicators of illness severity.

Conclusion:  Parental activation in the NICU setting was higher than reported in the adult and limited pediatric literature; scores increased from admission to discharge and 30-day postdischarge. Activation was higher in mothers and parents with higher health literacy. Additional larger scale studies are needed to determine whether parental activation is associated with long-term health care outcomes as seen in adults.

Key Points: · Little is known about activation in parents of neonates.. · Activation plays a role in health outcomes in adults.. · Larger studies are needed to explore parent activation..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1736294DOI Listing
October 2021

Inhibition of human prostate smooth muscle contraction by the inhibitors of protein kinase C, GF109203X, and Go6983.

Prostate 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Urology, University Hospital Munich, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Introduction: Prostate smooth muscle contraction is promoted by receptor-induced activation of intracellular signaling pathways. The presumed involvement in etiology and medical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) imparts a high clinical relevance to prostate smooth muscle contraction, which is contrasted by incomplete understanding at the molecular level. Involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) has been commonly assumed, but available studies were limited to nonhuman prostate smooth muscle or cell cultures. Here, we examined the effects of the PKC inhibitors Go6983 and GF109203x on contractions of human prostate tissues.

Methods: Prostate tissues were obtained from radical prostatectomy. Contractions were induced by electric field stimulation (EFS), α -adrenergic agonists (noradrenaline, phenylephrine, methoxamine), thromboxane A analog U46619, endothelin-1, or calcium chloride in an organ bath.

Results: GF109203X (500 nM) and Go6983 (300  nM) reduced EFS-, noradrenaline-, phenylephrine-, methoxamine-, and U46619-induced contractions of human prostate tissues, with maximum inhibitions approaching up to 55%. Using concentrations of 3 µM, GF109203X and Go6983 inhibited EFS- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, with similar effect sizes as 500 and 300 nM, respectively. Endothelin-1-induced contractions were not inhibited by GF109203X, and to neglectable extent by Go6983. After depolarization in calcium-free solution, calcium chloride-induced concentration-dependent contractions, which were inhibited by GF109203X and Go6983.

Conclusions: GF109203X and Go6983 inhibit neurogenic, α -adrenergic, and thromboxane A -induced smooth muscle contractions in the human prostate, suggesting a role of PKC for human prostate smooth muscle contraction. The inhibition may by be imparted by inhibition of calcium sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.24248DOI Listing
October 2021

Organocatalytic Higher-Order [8+2] Cycloaddition for the Assembly of Atropoenantiomeric 3-Arylindolizines.

Org Lett 2021 Oct 30;23(20):8109-8113. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorous Chemistry & Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. China.

We present an unprecedented atroposelective [8+2] cycloaddition reaction between pyridinium/isoquinolinium ylides and ynals. It is worth noting that this protocol represents a new example of the organocatalyzed atropoenantioselective higher-order cycloaddition reaction, providing various axial chiral 3-arylindolizines in good yields and high enantioselectivities. In addition, the obtained axially chiral 3-aryldolizines also provide many opportunities for structural transformations and potential drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c03220DOI Listing
October 2021

Age does not influence the PPV of Vision Screening to detect ARF.

Ophthalmology 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Vanderbilt Eye Institute.

Among 3114 children seen at Vanderbilt Eye Institute from 11/1/2017-3/1/2020, the positive predictive value of vision screening to detect Amblyopia Risk Factors was similar for children <3 and for those aged 3-5 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.08.026DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-term effects of obesity on COVID-19 patients discharged from hospital.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Introduction: Obesity has been reported as a risk factor for COVID-19 prognosis. However, the long-term effects of obesity on patients discharged from the hospital are unclear, and the present study aims to address this issue.

Methods: A cohort study was conducted using data from patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were discharged from Wuhan Union Hospital between February 20, 2020, and March 20, 2020. The 118 patients with COVID-19 were divided into the non-obesity group and the obesity group according to their body mass index (BMI). All the patients were invited to fill out a series of scales to assess cardiopulmonary function. Data on population baseline characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, chest computed tomography (CT), and lung function were collected and analyzed.

Results: The clinical manifestations and pathological changes on CT images of obese patients were more serious after discharge than those of non-obese patients. In addition, we found significant abnormalities in metabolic indicators such as blood lipids, uric acid, and liver function in obese patients. Most importantly, the antibody titer of COVID-19 obese patients was inversely correlated with BMI.

Conclusion: In the long term, obesity affects clinical manifestations, immune function and endocrine metabolism in patients discharged after recovering from COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iid3.522DOI Listing
September 2021

Antibacterial effects and physical properties of a glass ionomer cement containing BioUnion filler with acidity-induced ability to release zinc ion.

Dent Mater J 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Biomaterials Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry.

BioUnion filler is a bioactive glass particle that releases Zn in an acidic environment. In this study, the ion release, antibacterial, and physical properties of a glass ionomer cement (GIC) incorporating BioUnion filler (CA) were assessed in vitro. The concentration of Zn released from CA into acetic acid was higher than that released into water and its minimum inhibitory concentrations against six oral bacterial species. Moreover, the concentration of Zn-release was maintained during all the seven times it was exposed to acetic acid. Compared to a conventional cement and resin composite, CA significantly inhibited the growth of oral bacteria and hindered their adhesion on the material surface. Thus, our study outcomes show that the release of Zn from CA in the acidic environment does not affect its compressive strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2021-052DOI Listing
July 2021

Concentration-dependent alpha-Adrenoceptor Antagonism and Inhibition of Neurogenic Smooth Muscle Contraction by Mirabegron in the Human Prostate.

Front Pharmacol 2021 24;12:666047. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Urology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Mirabegron is available for treatment of storage symptoms in overactive bladder, which may be improved by β-adrenoceptor-induced bladder smooth muscle relaxation. In addition to storage symptoms, lower urinary tract symptoms in men include obstructive symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia, caused by increased prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate enlargement. In contrast to the bladder and storage symptoms, effects of mirabegron on prostate smooth muscle contraction and obstructive symptoms are poorly understood. Evidence from non-human smooth muscle suggested antagonism of α-adrenoceptors as an important off-target effect of mirabegron. As α-adrenergic contraction is crucial in pathophysiology and medical treatment of obstructive symptoms, we here examined effects of mirabegron on contractions of human prostate tissues and on proliferation of prostate stromal cells. Contractions were induced in an organ bath. Effects of mirabegron on proliferation, viability, and cAMP levels in cultured stromal cells were examined by EdU assays, CCK-8 assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mirabegron in concentrations of 5 and 10 μM, but not 1 µM inhibited electric field stimulation-induced contractions of human prostate tissues. Mirabegron in concentrations of 5 and 10 µM shifted concentration response curves for noradrenaline-, methoxamine- and phenylephrine-induced contractions to the right, including recovery of contractions at high concentrations of α-adrenergic agonists, increased EC values, but unchanged E values. Rightshifts of noradrenaline concentration response curves and inhibition of EFS-induced contractions were resistant to L-748,337, l-NAME, and BPIPP. 1 µM mirabegron was without effect on α-adrenergic contractions. Endothelin-1- and U46619-induced contractions were not affected or only inhibited to neglectable extent. Effects of mirabegron (0.5-10 µM) on proliferation and viability of stromal cells were neglectable or small, reaching maximum decreases of 8% in proliferation assays and 17% in viability assays. Mirabegron did not induce detectable increases of cAMP levels in cultured stromal cells. Mirabegron inhibits neurogenic and α-adrenergic human prostate smooth muscle contractions. This inhibition may be based on antagonism of α-adrenoceptors by mirabegron, and does not include activation of β-adrenoceptors and requires concentrations ranging 50-100fold higher than plasma concentrations reported from normal dosing. Non-adrenergic contractions and proliferation of prostate stromal cells are not inhibited by mirabegron.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.666047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264149PMC
June 2021

[Function, structure and catalytic mechanism of sucrose phosphate synthase: a review].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Jun;37(6):1858-1868

Engineering Research Center of Glycoconjugates, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin, China.

Sucrose is a natural product occurs widely in nature. In living organisms such as plants, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) is the key rate-limiting enzyme for sucrose synthesis. SPS catalyzes the synthesis of sucrose-6-phosphate, which is further hydrolyzed by sucrose phosphatase to form sucrose. Researches on SPS in recent decades have been focused on the determination of enzymatic activity of SPS, the identification of the inhibitors and activators of SPS, the covalent modification of SPS, the carbohydrate distribution in plants regulated by SPS, the mechanism for promoting plant growth by SPS, the sweetness of fruit controlled by SPS, and many others. A systematic review of these aspects as well as the crystal structure and catalytic mechanism of SPS are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200743DOI Listing
June 2021

TRAP1 Shows Clinical Significance in the Early Diagnosis of Small Cell Lung Cancer.

J Inflamm Res 2021 14;14:2507-2514. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To explore the clinical significance of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein (TRAP1), mitotic arrest deficient 2 (mad2) and anti-nuclear mitotic spindle apparatus antibody (MSA) in the diagnosis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC).

Patients And Methods: Serum concentrations of TRAP1 and MSA were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), including SCLC group (Num.=86), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) group (Num.=105), pulmonary nodules (PN) group (Num.=94), and 60 healthy subjects as control group (Num.=60). Whereas fluorescence quantitative PCR (qt-PCR) method was used to detect the expression of mad2.

Results: The expression of TRAP1 was low in SCLC and NSCLC compared with the other two groups, and was the lowest in SCLC, which was negatively correlated with the occurrence of the disease (P<0.05); the sensitivity and specificity of TRAP1 for SCLC were 75.29%, 93.33%, and the area under SCLC curve was 0.903; compared with the other three groups, the level of MSA was the highest in the SCLC, and the results were significantly different (P<0.05), while the area under the SCLC curve was 0.856, and the sensitivity and specificity were 62.78% and 95.24%, respectively. Mad2 is overexpressed in SCLC, but not in PN. The area under the SCLC curve is 0.835, and the sensitivity and specificity are 56.98% and 92.38%; TRAP1 levels are negatively correlated with SCLC tumor stage, the level of TRAP1 was significantly lower in stage III-IV than in stage I-II (P<0.05); combined analysis of TRAP1 and MAD2 and MSA showed that the sensitivity and specificity for SCLS were 95.35% and 99.05%, respectively.

Conclusion: TRAP1 is of great value in the early diagnosis of SCLC as well as differential diagnosis with NSCLC. TRAP1 combined with MAD2 and MSA improved the sensitivity and specificity and provided a new idea for the clinical diagnosis of SCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S313440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214028PMC
June 2021

Assessing the impact of acute respiratory illnesses on the risk of subsequent respiratory illness.

J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Health Policy, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Whether acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs), often associated with virus detection, are associated with lower risk for subsequent ARI remains unclear. We assessed the association between symptomatic ARI and subsequent ARI in young children.

Methods: In a prospective cohort of Peruvian children <3 years, we examined the impact of index ARI on subsequent ARI risk. Index ARI were matched with ≤3 asymptomatic observations and followed over 28 days. We compared risk of subsequent ARI between groups using conditional logistic regression adjusting for several covariates, accounting for repeat observations from individual children.

Results: Among 983 index ARI, 339 (34%) had an ARI event during follow-up, compared with 876/2826 (31%) matched asymptomatic observations. We found no significant association of index ARI and subsequent ARI risk during follow-up overall (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 0.98, 1.23) or when limited to index ARI with respiratory viruses detected (aOR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86, 1.24). Similarly, when the outcome was limited to ARI in which viruses were detected, no significant association was seen (aOR 1.05, 95% CI 0.87, 1.27).

Discussion: ARIs were not associated with short-term protection against subsequent ARI in these children. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to understand drivers of recurrent ARI in young children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiab313DOI Listing
June 2021

Association of Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index With Orbital Fungal Disease Outcomes.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, U.S.A. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Vanderbilt Eye Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A. Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A. Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A. Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Purpose: To determine whether the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (age-CCI) in sino-orbital fungal disease patients correlates with disease-specific mortality.

Methods: Hospital billing systems at 2 academic institutions were queried for patients with ICD-9, ICD-10, and CPT codes used in fungal disease who also had orbital disease and significant visual loss. Thirty-two patients at Institution A and 18 patients at Institution B met the inclusion criteria of microbiologic or pathologic confirmation of fungal infection and completion of inpatient ophthalmology evaluation. Patients without radiographic abnormality in the sinus or orbit were excluded. Demographic, diagnostic, treatment, and outcome variables were recorded. Our primary outcome was death due to fungal disease.

Results: Of the 50 medical records examined, 44 patients met the criteria for fungal-related death outcome on multivariate analysis. The regression coefficient for age-CCI and fungal-related mortality was 0.242 (95% CI, 0.012-0.779) with a p value of 0.038.

Conclusions: Age-CCI is significantly associated with fungal-related mortality. This relationship remains significant when controlling for 5 covariates of fungal organism phylum, presence or absence of CNS disease, exenteration, local treatment use, and presence or absence of an immunosuppressive diagnosis. Age-CCI shows promise as a clinical and research tool in the evaluation of invasive fungal disease involving the orbit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IOP.0000000000001987DOI Listing
June 2021

Actin binding to galectin-13/placental protein-13 occurs independently of the galectin canonical ligand-binding site.

Glycobiology 2021 Sep;31(9):1219-1229

Engineering Research Center of Glycoconjugates Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemistry and Biology of Changbai Mountain Natural Drugs, School of Life Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China.

The gene for galectin-13 (Gal-13, placental protein 13) is only present in primates, and its low expression level in maternal serum may promote preeclampsia. In the present study, we used pull-down experiments and biolayer interferometry to assess the interaction between Gal-13 and actin. These studies uncovered that human Gal-13 (hGal-13) and Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis (sGal-13) strongly bind to α- and β-/γ-actin, with Ca2+ and adenosine triphosphate, significantly enhancing the interactions. This in turn suggests that h/sGal-13 may inhibit myosin-induced contraction when vascular smooth muscle cells undergo polarization. Here, we solved the crystal structure of sGal-13 bound to lactose and found that it exists as a monomer in contrast to hGal-13 which is a dimer. The distribution of sGal-13 in HeLa cells is similar to that of hGal-13, indicating that monomeric Gal-13 is the primary form in cells. Even though sGal-13 binds to actin, hGal-13 ligand-binding site mutants do not influence hGal-13/actin binding, whereas the monomeric mutant C136S/C138S binds to actin more strongly than the wild-type hGal-13. Overall, our study demonstrates that monomeric Gal-13 binds to actin, an interaction that is independent of the galectin canonical ligand-binding site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwab047DOI Listing
September 2021

HbLFG1, a Rubber Tree () Lifeguard Protein, Can Facilitate Powdery Mildew Infection by Suppressing Plant Immunity.

Phytopathology 2021 Oct 12:PHYTO08200362R. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

College of Plant Protection, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China.

Powdery mildew causes substantial losses in crop and economic plant yields worldwide. Although powdery mildew infection of rubber trees (), caused by the biotrophic fungus , severely threatens natural rubber production, little is known about the mechanism by which . adapts to . to invade the host plant. In barley and , lifeguard (LFG) proteins, which have topological similarity to BAX INHIBITOR-1, are involved in host plant susceptibility to powdery mildew infection. In this study, we characterized an . LFG protein (HbLFG1) with a focus on its function in regulating defense against powdery mildew. gene expression was found to be upregulated during . infection. HbLFG1 showed conserved functions in cell death inhibition and membrane localization. Expression of HbLFG1 in leaves and . Col-0 was demonstrated to significantly suppress callose deposition induced by conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns chitin and flg22. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of HbLFG1 in . mesophyll protoplasts significantly suppressed the chitin-induced burst of reactive oxygen species. Although . Col-0 and . displayed an incompatible interaction, Col-0 transformants overexpressing HbLFG1 were shown to be susceptible to . . Collectively, the findings of this study provide evidence that HbLFG1 acts as a negative regulator of plant immunity that facilitates . infection in . .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-08-20-0362-RDOI Listing
October 2021

Picotamide inhibits a wide spectrum of agonist-induced smooth muscle contractions in porcine renal interlobar and coronary arteries.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 05;9(3):e00771

Department of Urology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Picotamide is a thromboxane A (TXA ) receptor antagonist and TXA synthase inhibitor. In clinical studies, it has been considered as a platelet aggregation inhibitor and improved renal function. In vitro studies suggested inhibition of smooth muscle contraction by picotamide, which is poorly understood. Here, we examined effects of picotamide on contractions of renal interlobar and coronary porcine arteries, induced by different vasoconstrictors. Contractions were induced in an organ bath by agonists or electric field stimulation (EFS). Picotamide inhibited EFS-induced contractions of interlobar arteries around 50% using concentrations of 100 and 300 µM. In interlobar arteries, concentration response curves for contractions induced by three different α -adrenoceptor agonists were shifted to the right by picotamide (2-10-fold increases in EC ). In coronary arteries, α -adrenergic contractions were inhibited without right shift (approx. 50%). Contractions induced by two different cholinergic agonists in coronary arteries were inhibited by picotamide (≥50%) withouth right shift. Inhibition of serotonin-induced contractions by picotamide showed features of a right shift, whereas contractions induced by the TXA analog U46619, angiotensin-II, and endothelin-1 were inhibited by picotamide in interlobar and coronary arteries without right shifts and to different degree. Picotamide inhibits a wide spectrum of vasoconstrictor-induced contractions in porcine interlobar and coronary arteries. Inhibition of vasocontraction may contribute to beneficial effects of picotamide in the cardiovascular system and kidney.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085950PMC
May 2021

Correlation Between Ophthalmology Market Saturation and Medicare Utilization Rates.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 25;229:137-144. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To characterize usage of ophthalmologic services by Medicare Fee-For-Service (FFS) beneficiaries relative to geography-specific market saturation, demographics, and contextual factors DESIGN: Cross-sectional study METHODS: Data sets from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, US Census Bureau, US Department of Agriculture, and Housing and Urban Development, were used to calculate county- and state-level ophthalmologic service usage, market saturation, and demographic characteristics. Negative binomial regression models were used to evaluate the association between results and demographic or population-specific variables.

Results: Ophthalmologic service usage ranged from 58.2% to 15.2%, whereas saturation ranged from 21,763 to 91.4 FFS beneficiaries per registered ophthalmologist. Usage was significantly associated with demographic characteristics in each geography: lower proportion of African American (P = .009), Hispanic (P < .001), and other race beneficiaries (P < .001), relative to white beneficiaries; a higher proportion of female (P < .001) relative to male; a higher proportion of adults having completed an associate degree or some college (P = .001), or holding a bachelor's degree or higher (P < .001), relative to a high school diploma; a lower proportion of adults in each geography experiencing poverty (P = .009), geographies with lower Multidimensional Deprivation Index (P < .001); a higher urban-influence code (P < .001). There was no significant correlation between the usage of ophthalmologic services and the geographic market saturation of ophthalmologists (Spearman rho, -0.030, P = .227).

Conclusions And Relevance: Ophthalmologic service usage is significantly influenced by population demographics; however, increased provider density alone appears insufficient to promote the usage of eye care services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2021.04.011DOI Listing
April 2021

A Novel D-A-D Photosensitizer for Efficient NIR Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy.

Chembiochem 2021 Jun 7;22(12):2161-2167. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Molecular Science and Engineering, Institute of Frontier and Interdisciplinary Science, Shandong University, 266237, Qingdao, Shandong, P. R. China.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has attracted great interest in cancer theranostics owing to its minimal invasiveness and low side effect. In PDT, photosensitizers are indispensable components that generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Tremendous efforts have been devoted to optimizing the photosensitizer with enhanced ROS efficiency. However, to improve the precision and controllability for PDT, developing NIR imaging-guided photosensitizers are still urgent and challenging. Here, we have designed a novel photosensitizer 2Cz-BTZ which integrated with intense NIR emission and photoinduced singlet oxygen O generation capabilities. Moreover, after loading the photosensitizers 2Cz-BTZ into biocompatible amphiphilic polymers F127, the formed [email protected] nanoparticles (NPs) exhibited good photoinduced therapy as well as long-term in vivo imaging capabilities. Under these merits, the [email protected] NPs showed NIR imaging-guided PDT, which paves a promising way for spatiotemporally precise tumor theranostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.202100107DOI Listing
June 2021

Novel Carbon Dots Derived from and Their Anti-Gastric Ulcer Effect.

Molecules 2021 Mar 10;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Center of Scientific Experiment, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China.

(GRR) is one of the commonly used traditional Chinese medicines in clinical practice, which has been applied to treat digestive system diseases for hundreds of years. GRR is preferred for anti-gastric ulcer, however, the main active compounds are still unknown. In this study, GRR was used as precursor to synthesize carbon dots (CDs) by a environment-friendly one-step pyrolysis process. GRR-CDs were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution TEM, fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, cellular toxicity of GRR-CDs was studied by using CCK-8 in RAW264.7 cells, and the anti-gastric ulcer activity was evaluated and confirmed using mice model of acute alcoholic gastric ulcer. The experiment confirmed that GRR-CDs were the spherical structure with a large number of active groups on the surface and their particle size ranged from 2 to 10 nm. GRR-CDs had no toxicity to RAW264.7 cells at concentration of 19.5 to 5000 μg/mL and could reduce the oxidative damage of gastric mucosa and tissues caused by alcohol, as demonstrated by restoring expression of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide in serum and tissue of mice. The results indicated the explicit anti-ulcer activity of GRR-CDs, which provided a new insights for the research on effective material basis of GRR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000522PMC
March 2021

Evaluation of ion release and the recharge ability of glass-ionomer cement containing BioUnion filler using an in vitro saliva-drop setting assembly.

Dent Mater 2021 05 11;37(5):882-893. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Advanced Functional Materials Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; Department of Biomaterials Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

Objective: A glass-ionomer cement (GIC) containing BioUnion filler has been reported to release Zn under acidic conditions and to inhibit oral bacteria on its surface. However, previous results are based on in vitro experiments under static conditions. This study aimed to assemble an in vitro saliva-drop setting to simulate in vivo conditions of the oral cavity and to investigate the ion releasing and recharging properties of the GIC containing BioUnion filler.

Methods: The effective concentrations of Zn and F against Streptococcus mutans and saliva-derived multi-species biofilms were determined. Artificial saliva was dropped on the GIC containing BioUnion filler using the in vitro saliva-drop setting assembly and was periodically replaced with acetic acid. Ion release/recharge properties were investigated by measuring the release concentrations of Zn and F.

Results: The concentration of Zn released from the BioUnion filler-containing GIC during seven days with repeated exposure to acid could be maintained at the level to inhibit S. mutans and saliva-derived multi-species biofilm formation. Moreover, the BioUnion filler-containing GIC could be recharged with Zn and F by the application of a tooth gel containing Zn and F. The release concentration of Zn after recharging was significantly higher than the effective concentration of Zn to hinder S. mutans and saliva-derived multi-species biofilm formation on material surfaces.

Significance: The GIC containing BioUnion filler was shown to have the potential to inhibit biofilm formation in the oral cavity. In addition, recharging Zn and F would further enhance the effect of the GIC containing BioUnion filler.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2021.02.022DOI Listing
May 2021

Diagnostic and Prognostic Role of miR-192 in Different Cancers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Biomed Res Int 2021 4;2021:8851035. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Laboratory of Tumor Immunology, LIFE Center, LMU Klinikum, University Munich, Germany.

Introduction: It has been shown that miR-192 is abnormally expressed in a variety of cancer types and participates in different kinds of signaling pathways. The role of miR-192 in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer has not been verified. This article is aimed at exploring the diagnostic and prognostic value of miR-192 through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: A systematic search was performed through PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases up to June 16, 2020. A total of 16 studies were enrolled in the meta-analyses, of which 11 articles were used for diagnostic meta-analysis and 5 articles were used for prognostic meta-analysis. The values of sensitivity and specificity using miR-192 expression as a diagnostic tool were pooled in the diagnostic meta-analysis. The hazard ratios (HRs) of overall survival (OS) with 95 confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted from the studies, and pooled HRs were evaluated in the prognostic meta-analysis. Eleven studies including 667 cancer patients and 514 controls met the eligibility criteria for the diagnostic meta-analysis. Five studies including 166 patients with high miR-192 expression and 236 patients with low miR-192 expression met the eligibility criteria for the prognostic meta-analysis.

Results: The overall diagnostic accuracy was as follows: sensitivity 0.79 (95%CI = 0.75-0.82), specificity 0.74 (95%CI = 0.64-0.82), positive likelihood ratio 3.03 (95%CI = 2.11-4.34), negative likelihood ratio 0.29 (95%CI = 0.23-0.37), diagnostic odds ratio 10.50 (95%CI = 5.89-18.73), and area under the curve ratio (AUC) 0.82 (95%CI = 0.78-0.85). The overall prognostic analysis showed that high expression of miR-192 in patients was associated with positive survival (HR = 0.62, 95%CI : 0.41-0.93, = 0.020).

Conclusion: Our results revealed that miR-192 was a potential biomarker with good sensitivity and specificity in cancers. Moreover, highly expressed miR-192 predicted a good prognosis for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8851035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878092PMC
May 2021

Porphyrin-based metal coordination polymers with self-assembly pathway-dependent properties for photodynamic and photothermal therapy.

Biomater Sci 2021 Apr 10;9(7):2533-2541. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Institute of Molecular Science and Engineering, Institute of Frontier and Interdisciplinary Science. Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong 266237, China.

Porphyrin-based metal coordination polymers (MCPs) have attracted significant attention due to their great promise for applications in phototherapy, including photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT). However, the detailed self-assembly process of porphyrin-based MCPs is still poorly understood. This work provides a detailed study of the self-assembly process of MCPs constructed from Mn and TCPP (TCPP: 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4'-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin) in aqueous solution. Unlike the traditional nucleation and growth mechanism, we discover that there is a metastable metal-organic intermediate which is kinetically favored in the self-assembly process. And the metastable metal-organic intermediate nanotape structures could convert into thermodynamically favored nanosheets through disassembling into monomers followed by a reassembling process. Moreover, the two structurally different assemblies exhibit distinct photophysical performances. The intermediate Mn-TCPP aggregates show good light-induced singlet oxygen O generation for PDT while the thermodynamically favored stable Mn-TCPP aggregates exhibit an excellent photothermal conversion ability as photothermal agents (PTAs). This study could facilitate the control of the self-assembly pathway to fabricate complex MCPs with desirable applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm02112aDOI Listing
April 2021

Multiple feature-based portal vein classification for liver segment extraction.

Med Phys 2021 May 22;48(5):2354-2373. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, School of Optics and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

Purpose: The liver segments divided by Couinaud classification method are used to understand the functional anatomy of liver, which is significant in hepatic resection surgery. In Couinaud classification method, each third-order branch of the portal vein (PV) defines the supplied territory of a corresponding liver segment. However, the accuracies of the reconstruction and classification of PV are affected by the complicated structure of the vein. The purpose of this paper is to develop a separation and classification method that can accurately extract the liver segments.

Methods: In this paper, a multiple feature-based method is proposed to obtain liver segments. Because the portal and hepatic veins usually connect in the vessel segmentation result, the PV is first completely separated based on the different strategies for minimal node cut using fused features of topology and appearance. Meanwhile, all bifurcation nodes of PV are detected. The bifurcation nodes are initial ordered through their linkages to classify the branches. Then, the feature of the vascular topology is used to refine the orders of bifurcation nodes. The bifurcation nodes with the refined orders classify the branches between them, and the third-order branches of PV are obtained. The liver segments are eventually obtained through the third-order branches.

Results: The separation and classification in the proposed method are evaluated on the CT and MR datasets. The average values of Dice, Jaccard, Recall, and Precision obtained by the proposed method are 93.00%, 87.90%, 93.47%, and 93.19%, respectively. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods, the separation results obtained by the proposed method are more accurate. The branches of PV are classified based on the separation result. According to the third-order branches, eight liver segments correspond to the different functional areas are precisely extracted.

Conclusions: The proposed method achieves a high accuracy for the liver segment extraction. And the extracted liver segments are significant for the preplanning of resection surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.14745DOI Listing
May 2021

EMT-associated microRNAs and their roles in cancer stemness and drug resistance.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2021 03 27;41(3):199-217. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430022, P. R. China.

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in a wide array of malignant behaviors of cancers, including proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Most notably, previou studies have indicated that both cancer stem-like properties and drug resistance were associated with EMT. Furthermore, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in the regulation of EMT phenotype, as a result, some miRNAs impact cancer stemness and drug resistance. Therefore, understanding the relationship between EMT-associated miRNAs and cancer stemness/drug resistance is beneficial to both basic research and clinical treatment. In this review, we preliminarily looked into the various roles that the EMT-associated miRNAs play in the stem-like nature of malignant cells. Then, we reviewed the interaction between EMT-associated miRNAs and the drug-resistant complex signaling pathways of multiple cancers including lung cancer, gastric cancer, gynecologic cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, and nasopharyngeal cancer. We finally discussed the relationship between EMT, cancer stemness, and drug resistance, as well as looked forward to the potential applications of miRNA therapy for malignant tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968884PMC
March 2021

ZFP57 dictates allelic expression switch of target imprinted genes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 02;118(5)

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China;

ZFP57 is a master regulator of genomic imprinting. It has both maternal and zygotic functions that are partially redundant in maintaining DNA methylation at some imprinting control regions (ICRs). In this study, we found that DNA methylation was lost at most known ICRs in mutant embryos. Furthermore, loss of ZFP57 caused loss of parent-of-origin-dependent monoallelic expression of the target imprinted genes. The allelic expression switch occurred in the ZFP57 target imprinted genes upon loss of differential DNA methylation at the ICRs in mutant embryos. Specifically, upon loss of ZFP57, the alleles of the imprinted genes located on the same chromosome with the originally methylated ICR switched their expression to mimic their counterparts on the other chromosome with unmethylated ICR. Consistent with our previous study, ZFP57 could regulate the NOTCH signaling pathway in mouse embryos by impacting allelic expression of a few regulators in the NOTCH pathway. In addition, the imprinted gene that has been implicated in the NOTCH pathway was significantly down-regulated in mutant embryos. Our allelic expression switch models apply to the examined target imprinted genes controlled by either maternally or paternally methylated ICRs. Our results support the view that ZFP57 controls imprinted expression of its target imprinted genes primarily through maintaining differential DNA methylation at the ICRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2005377118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865185PMC
February 2021

Purinergic smooth muscle contractions in the human prostate: estimation of relevance and characterization of different agonists.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 06 11;394(6):1113-1131. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Urology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Non-adrenergic prostate smooth muscle contractions may account for the limited effectiveness of α-adrenoceptor antagonists, which are the first-line option for medical treatment of voiding symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In non-human prostates, purinergic agonists induce contractions reaching similar magnitudes as α-adrenergic contractions. However, evidence for the human prostate is highly limited, and pointed to much weaker purinergic contractions. Here, we examined contractions of different purinergic agonists in human prostate tissues. Tissues were obtained from radical prostatectomy. Contractions were studied in an organ bath, and expression of purinergic receptors was studied by RT-PCR. Electric field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions amounted to 104% of KCl-induced contractions (95% CI: 84-124%). From all tested agonists, only ATP induced concentration-dependent contractions, reaching an average maximum of 18% (12-24%) of KCl. Maximum tensions following application of other agonists averaged to 7.1% of KCl for α,β-methylene-ATP (1.8-12.4%), 3.9% for β,γ-methylene-ATP (2.0-5.4%), 3.1% for 2-methylthio-ATP (- 0.1-6.3%), and 5.1% for ATPγS (1.0-9.2%). Responses were not affected by the P2X antagonist NF023 or the P2Y antagonist PPADS. mRNA expression of P2X1-4 correlated with expression of a marker for catecholaminergic nerves, although neither ATP, NF023, nor PPADS changed EFS-induced contractions. Correlation between expression of receptors and the smooth muscle marker calponin was not observed. Our findings point to a low relevance of purinergic contractions in the human prostate, compared to other contractile stimuli in the human prostate and compared to purinergic contractions in non-human prostates. Purinergic contractions in the human prostate are not sensitive to NF023 or PPADS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-020-02044-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208936PMC
June 2021

A Candidate Secreted Effector Protein of Rubber Tree Powdery Mildew Fungus Contributes to Infection by Regulating Plant ABA Biosynthesis.

Front Microbiol 2020 24;11:591387. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

College of Plant Protection, Hainan University, Haikou, China.

Powdery mildew infects a wide range of crops and economic plants, causing substantial losses. Rubber trees () are the primary source of natural rubber, and powdery mildew infection causes significant losses to natural rubber yields. How the causal agent, , establishes successful infection in rubber trees is largely unknown. Previously, 133 candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs) were identified in powdery mildew fungus. In this study, we characterize a CSEP named EqCSEP01276 for its function in suppressing host plant defense responses. We show that EqCSEP01276 is a secreted protein and is able to disturb the localization of 9--epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 5 (HbNCED5), a key enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis in plant cell chloroplasts of . . We also show that this effector inhibits ABA biosynthesis, and that in . ABA is a positive regulator of the plant immune response against powdery mildew. Our study reveals a strategy by which powdery mildew fungus manipulates plant ABA-mediated defense for a successful infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.591387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721678PMC
November 2020

Boosting potassium-storage performance the functional design of a heterostructured [email protected] composite.

Nanoscale 2020 Dec;12(48):24394-24402

Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, P. R. China.

Potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) are considered a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for next-generation energy storage due to the abundance and competitive cost of potassium resources. However, the excavation and the development of proper electrodes for PIBs are still confronted with great challenges. Herein, a self-assembled bismuth sulfide microsphere wrapped with reduced graphene oxide was fabricated to form a heterostructured [email protected] composite via a visible-light-assisted method and served as the anode for PIBs. The as-prepared [email protected] composite presented a high reversible specific capacity of 538 mA h g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 and superior rate capability of 237 mA h g-1 at a high current density of 2 A g-1 after 300 cycles. In particular, the high capacity could be ascribed to the synergistic effect of the conversion and alloying reactions during the electrochemical processes, which was validated by ex situ X-ray diffraction. The fabrication of a unique heterostructure combining the self-assembled Bi2S3 microspheres and flexible RGO boosted the facile charge transfer, leading to the enhanced cyclic stability and rate performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr06457bDOI Listing
December 2020

Investigation on the urinary excretion kinetics of three atractylenolides from crude and processed Atractylodis rhizoma extracts in rats by UPLC-MS/MS.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 May;33(3):953-960

School of Pharmacy, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dalian, China.

Atractylodis rhizoma is a frequently-used traditional Chinese medicine in clinical practice, which have the effect of eliminating dampness and tonifying spleen. And after being processed with wheat bran, the dryness of A. rhizoma is reduced, and the function of tonifying spleen is enhanced. Atractylenolides are the major bioactive components of A. rhizoma, including atractylenolide I (AI), atractylenolide Ⅱ (AⅡ) and atractylenolide Ⅲ (AⅢ). The present study aimed to develope a new UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of three atractylenolides in rat urine, and applied to the excretory kinetics in Sprague-Dawley rats after oral administration of crude and processed A. rhizoma extracts. Analytes and internal standard were detected without interference in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive electrospray ionization. The excretory kinetics parameters were calculated by a urine drug analysis model of drug and statistics (DAS) 3.2.8 software. The t1/2 and Ke of three atractylenolides had no significant difference between crude and processed A. rhizoma, but the recovery accumulative excretion of them in processed A. rhizoma were apparently higher than the crude ones (p<0.05, p<0.01). The results showed that only a small amount of atractylenolides excreted in urine and processing A. rhizoma with wheat bran by stir frying could promote the urinary excretion of them.
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May 2020
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