Publications by authors named "Yuguang Zhang"

90 Publications

C + L band polarization rotator-splitter based on a compact S-bend waveguide mode demultiplexer.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(7):10949-10957

A novel high-fabrication-tolerance mode demultiplexer (MD) based on an S-bend waveguide is designed, which is used to split TE mode and TE mode, and convert the TE mode to TE mode. Based on the MD, a polarization-rotator-splitter (PRS) is demonstrated. The transmission losses of the fabricated PRS are lower than 0.5 dB and 0.6 dB for TE mode and TM mode, respectively, in the wavelength span of 1520-1630 nm. And the corresponding polarization extinction ratios are larger than 19.5 dB and 17.6 dB, respectively. This MD has the most compact size comparing with other experimentally demonstrated MDs used in PRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.412992DOI Listing
March 2021

Programmable immune activating electrospun fibers for skin regeneration.

Bioact Mater 2021 Oct 11;6(10):3218-3230. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Shanghai Key Laboratory for Prevention and Treatment of Bone and Joint Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 197 Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025, PR China.

Immune cells play a crucial regulatory role in inflammatory phase and proliferative phase during skin healing. How to programmatically activate sequential immune responses is the key for scarless skin regeneration. In this study, an "Inner-Outer" IL-10-loaded electrospun fiber with cascade release behavior was constructed. During the inflammatory phase, the electrospun fiber released a lower concentration of IL-10 within the wound, inhibiting excessive recruitment of inflammatory cells and polarizing macrophages into anti-inflammatory phenotype "M2c" to suppress excessive inflammation response. During the proliferative phase, a higher concentration of IL-10 released by the fiber and the anti-fibrotic cytokines secreted by polarized "M2c" directly acted on dermal fibroblasts to simultaneously inhibit extracellular matrix overdeposition and promote fibroblast migration. The "Inner-Outer" IL-10-loaded electrospun fiber programmatically activated the sequential immune responses during wound healing and led to scarless skin regeneration, which is a promising immunomodulatory biomaterial with great potential for promoting complete tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.02.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7966852PMC
October 2021

Corrigendum to 'Conditioned medium-electrospun fiber biomaterials for skin regeneration' [Bioact. Mater. 6 (2021) 361-374].

Bioact Mater 2021 Sep 15;6(9):2752-2753. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 639 Zhi Zao Ju Road, Shanghai, 200011, PR China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.08.022.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.02.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7897906PMC
September 2021

Edaphic variables are better indicators of soil microbial functional structure than plant-related ones in subtropical broad-leaved forests.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 6;773:145630. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Key Laboratory of Biological Conservation of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China. Electronic address:

Soil microorganisms play important roles in the ecosystem functioning of subtropical broad-leaved forests (SBFs). However, the patterns and environmental indicators of soil microbial functional structure remain unclear in SBFs. In the present work, we used a functional microarray (GeoChip 4.0) to examine the soil microbial functional structure of three types of SBFs, including a deciduous broad-leaved forest (DBF), a mixed evergreen-deciduous broad-leaved forest (MBF), and an evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBF). We found that microbial functional structure was significantly different among SBFs (P < 0.05). Compared to the DBF and the EBF, the MBF had higher functional α-diversity (P = 0.001, F = 12.55) but lower β-diversity (P < 0.001, F = 61.09), and showed more complex functional gene networks. Besides, the MBF had higher relative abundances of functional genes for carbon (C) decomposition, C fixation, nitrogen (N) cycling, sulfur (S) cycling, and phosphorus (P) cycling (P < 0.05), indicating stronger microbial functional capabilities of nutrient cycling processes. Edaphic variables (i.e., soil pH and soil nutrient content) were revealed as better indicators of soil microbial functional structure than plant-related ones (i.e., vegetation type and plant diversity) in SBFs. For example, functional gene structure of the DBF was significantly related to soil total S (P = 0.041), that of the MBF was significantly related to soil organic C (P = 0.027) and plant available P (P = 0.034), and that of the EBF was significantly related to soil pH (P = 0.006) and total potassium (K) (P = 0.038). Overall, through the analysis of microbial functional gene profiles, this study yields unique insights into the environmental indicators of patterns and mechanisms of soil microbial functional structure in SBFs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145630DOI Listing
June 2021

Implementing a comprehensive approach to study the causes of human-bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus) conflicts in the Sanjiangyuan region, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 2;772:145012. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China. Electronic address:

Personal injury and property loss caused by wildlife often deteriorates the relationship between humans and animals, prompting retaliatory killings that threaten species survival. Conflicts between humans and Tibetan brown bears (Ursus arctos pruinosus) (Human-Bear Conflicts, HBC) in the Sanjiangyuan region have recently dramatically increased, seriously affecting community enthusiasm for brown bears and the conservation of other species. In order to understand the driving mechanisms of HBC, we proposed six potential drivers leading to increased occurrences of HBC. We conducted field research in Zhiduo County of the Sanjiangyuan region from 2017 to 2019 to test hypotheses through semi-constructed interviews, marmot (Marmota himalayana) density surveys and brown bear diet analysis based on metagenomic sequencing. Analysis of herder perceptions revealed that the driving factors of HBC were related to changes in their settlement practice and living habits, changes in foraging behavior of brown bears and recovery of the brown bear population. Since the establishment of winter homes, brown bears have gradually learned to utilize the food in unattended homes. Although 91.4% (n = 285) of the respondents no longer store food in unattended homes, brown bears were reported to still frequently approach winter homes for food due to improper disposal of dead livestock and household garbage. The frequency and abundance of marmots were found to be high in brown bear diet, indicating that marmots were the bears' primary food. However, marmot density had no significant effect on brown bears utilizing human food (P = 0.329), and HBC appears to not be caused by natural food shortages. Distance to rocky outcrops (P = 0.022) and winter homes (P = 0.040) were the key factors linked to brown bears pursuing human food. The number of brown bears has increased over the past decade, and HBC is likely linked to its population recovery. Our findings will provide scientific basis for formulating effective mitigation measures and protection countermeasures for brown bears.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145012DOI Listing
June 2021

A Pilot Study: Changes of Intestinal Microbiota of Patients With Non-small Cell Lung Cancer in Response to Osimertinib Therapy.

Front Microbiol 2020 10;11:583525. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Osimertinib contributes to the higher efficacy and few intestinal side effects in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with T790M mutation. Previous studies has reported that intestinal microbiota play important roles in drug efficacy and toxicity. However, we have known less about the changes of intestinal microbiota in response to osimertinib therapy. In this pilot study, we used longitudinal sampling with 6 weeks sampling collection intervals for about 1 year to model intestinal microbial changes based on the 16S rRNA genes sequencing in fecal samples from NSCLC patients in response to osimertinib therapy. The results showed that there was no significantly different on the intestinal microbial composition at the phylum, family, and genus level among NSCLC patients with different treatment cycles ( > 0.05). There were no significant differences in alpha diversity characterized by the richness, Shannon diversity, and phylogenetic diversity based on the Welch's -test among NSCLC patients in response to osimertinib therapy ( > 0.05). However, the dissimilarity test and principal coordination analysis showed a few differences among NSCLC patients. The intestinal microbial markers were changed in post-therapy (, , and ) compared to that in pre-therapy (). Furthermore, the phylogenetic molecular ecological networks (MENs) were influenced by osimertinib therapy based on the module number, link number, and module taxa composition of the first six groups. Overall, it indicated that osimertinib therapy changed the intestinal microbiota to some extent, though not completely. In all, this pilot study provides an understanding of changes of intestinal microbiota from NSCLC patients in response to osimertinib therapy. No complete changes in intestinal microbiota seem to be closely linked with the few intestinal side effects and higher efficacy in response to osimertinib therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.583525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683577PMC
November 2020

Conditioned medium-electrospun fiber biomaterials for skin regeneration.

Bioact Mater 2021 Feb 2;6(2):361-374. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 639 Zhi Zao Ju Road, Shanghai, 200011, PR China.

Conditioned medium (CM) contains variety of factors secreted by cells, which directly regulate cellular processes, showing tremendous potential in regenerative medicine. Here, for the first time, we proposed a novel regenerative therapy mediated by biodegradable micro-nano electrospun fibers loaded with highly active conditioned medium of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC-CM). ADSC-CM was successfully loaded into the nanofibers with biological protection and controllable sustained-release properties by emulsion electrospinning and protein freeze-drying technologies. , ADSC-CM released by the fibers accelerated the migration rate of fibroblasts; inhibited the over proliferation of fibroblasts by inducing apoptosis and damaging cell membrane; in addition, ADSC-CM inhibited the transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and suppressed excessive production of extracellular matrix (ECM). , the application of CM-biomaterials significantly accelerated wound closure and improved regeneration outcome, showing superior pro-regenerative performance. This study pioneered the application of CM-biomaterials in regenerative medicine, and confirmed the practicability and significant biological effects of this innovative biomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2020.08.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481508PMC
February 2021

A Novel Way for Upper Eyelid Rejuvenation by Combination of Local Fat-Fascia-Muscle Flap Repositioning for Middle-Aged Asian Women.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2020 08 10;73(8):1565-1572. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Upper eyelid aging is common among middle-aged Asians. Apart from skin aging, there has been an increasing recognition for the role of sunken eyelid playing in upper eyelid aging. Various methods have been developed to deal with the upper eyelid volume deflation. However, autologous fat tissue could not achieve stable and satisfying rejuvenation results, especially for middle-aged patients who have established extremely low adipose tissue survival rates. Therefore, efficient rejuvenation methods with consistent long-term improvement are needed, especially for middle-aged patients.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of 248 middle-aged patients who underwent the upper eyelid tightening and local fat-fascia-muscle flap reposition for upper eyelid rejuvenation in our department between 2015 and 2017. A precise sunken upper eyelid calculation method was used to evaluate the patients' upper eyelid sunken volume prior to the operation for the guidance of sunken correction. The same method was also used to calculate the post-operation upper eyelid sunken volume to evaluate the operation efficiency.

Results: The average age of the patients who underwent the surgery was 49.5±7 years-old. The fat-fascia-muscle flap was repositioned according to each patient's pre-operation sunken upper eyelid evaluation result, and precise and satisfying immediate sunken correction was observed after the surgery. Long-term consistent improvement was achieved. Compared to the pre-operation evaluation, the upper eyelid sunken correction ratio was nearly 90% in one year's follow-up, and no major complication occurred.

Conclusions: The fat-fascia-muscle flap reposition combined with sunken upper eyelid calculation has been proved efficient and consistent for middle-aged Asians upper eyelid rejuvenation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2019.09.004DOI Listing
August 2020

A Biomimetic 3D-Self-Forming Approach for Microvascular Scaffolds.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 May 1;7(9):1903553. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Shanghai Key Laboratory for Prevention and Treatment of Bone and Joint Diseases Shanghai Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics Ruijin Hospital Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine 197 Ruijin 2nd Road Shanghai 200025 P. R. China.

The development of science and technology often drew lessons from natural phenomena. Herein, inspired by drying-driven curling of apple peels, hydrogel-based micro-scaled hollow tubules (MHTs) are proposed for biomimicking microvessels, which promote microcirculation and improve the survival of random skin flaps. MHTs with various pipeline structures are fabricated using hydrogel in corresponding shapes, such as Y-branches, anastomosis rings, and triangle loops. Adjustable diameters can be achieved by altering the concentration and cross-linking time of the hydrogel. Based on this rationale, biomimetic microvessels with diameters of 50-500 µm are cultivated in vitro by coculture of MHTs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In vivo studies show their excellent performance to promote microcirculation and improve the survival of random skin flaps. In conclusion, the present work proposes and validifies a biomimetic 3D self-forming method for the fabrication of biomimetic vessels and microvascular scaffolds with high biocompatibility and stability based on hydrogel materials, such as gelatin and hyaluronic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201903553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201264PMC
May 2020

Niche width of above- and below-ground organisms varied in predicting biodiversity profiling along a latitudinal gradient.

Mol Ecol 2020 05 8;29(10):1890-1902. Epub 2020 May 8.

CAS Key Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Biodiversity is the foundation of all ecosystems across the planet, and having a better understanding of its global distribution mechanism could be important for biodiversity conservation under global change. A niche width model, combined with metabolic theory, has successfully predicted the increase of α-diversity and decrease of β-diversity in the below-ground microbial community along an altitudinal mountain gradient. In this study, we evaluated this niche width model of above-ground plants (mainly trees and shrubs) and below-ground bulk soil microbial communities (i.e., bacteria and archaea) along a latitudinal gradient of forests in China. The niche widths of both plants and microbes increased with increasing temperature and precipitation, and with proximity to circumneutral pH. However, the α- and β-diversities (observed richness and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, respectively) could not be accurately predicted by a single niche width model alone, either temperature, precipitation or pH. Considering the interactions among different niche width models, all three niche width models were combined to predict biodiversity at the community level using structural equation modelling. The results showed that the niche width model of circumneutral pH was most important in predicting diversity profiling (i.e., α- and β-diversity) for both plants and microbes, while niche width of precipitation and temperature showed both direct and indirect importance for microbe and plant biodiversity, respectively. Because the current niche width model neglects several scenarios related to taxon and environmental attributes, it still needs to be treated with caution in predicting biodiversity trends.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15441DOI Listing
May 2020

Ganoderma lucidum cultivation affect microbial community structure of soil, wood segments and tree roots.

Sci Rep 2020 02 26;10(1):3435. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Forestry experiment center in north China, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.

The popular medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. [Ling Zhi] has been widely used for the general promotion of health and longevity in Asian countries. Continuous cultivation may affect soil microbe and soil properties. However, the effect of G. lucidum cultivation on related wood segments, soil and tree roots microbial communities and soil properties is remain unknown. In our study, the microbial communities of soils, wood segments, and tree roots before and after G. lucidum cultivation were investigated by Illumina Miseq sequencing of both ITS and 16S rDNA, and taxonomic composition of eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms were observed. Indices of microbial richness, diversity and evenness significantly differed between before and after G. lucidum cultivation. Each of the investigated sampling type harbored a distinctive microbial community and differed remarkably before and after G. lucidum cultivation. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota (fungi), Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria (bacteria) showed significant differences after Ling Zhi cultivation. The soil property values also changed after cultivation. The redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that both the fungal and bacterial community structure significantly correlated with soil humus, pH, nitrogen, carbon and trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu) contents. The results indicated that G. lucidum cultivation may have significant differed the associated microbial community structures and soil properties. The study will provide useful information for G. lucidum cultivation and under-forest economic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60362-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044327PMC
February 2020

Identifying the risk regions of house break-ins caused by Tibetan brown bears () in the Sanjiangyuan region, China.

Ecol Evol 2019 Dec 8;9(24):13979-13990. Epub 2019 Dec 8.

Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection Chinese Academy of Forestry Beijing China.

Damage to homesteads by brown bears () has become commonplace in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Science-based solutions for preventing damages can contribute to the establishment of mechanisms that promote human-bear coexistence. We examined the spatial distribution patterns of house break-ins by Tibetan brown bears () in Zhiduo County of the Sanjiangyuan region in China. Occurrence points of bear damage were collected from field surveys completed from 2017 to 2019. The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model was then used to assess house break-in risk. Circuit theory modeling was used to simulate risk diffusion paths based on the risk map generated from our MaxEnt model. The results showed that (a) the total risk area of house break-ins caused by brown bears was 11,577.91 km, accounting for 29.85% of Zhiduo County, with most of the risk areas were distributed in Sanjiangyuan National Park, accounting for 58.31% of the total risk area; (b) regions of alpine meadow located in Sanjiangyuan National Park with a high human population density were associated with higher risk; (c) risk diffusion paths extended southeast to northwest, connecting the inside of Sanjiangyuan National Park to its outside border; and (d) eastern Suojia, southern Zhahe, eastern Duocai, and southern Jiajiboluo had more risk diffusion paths than other areas examined, indicating higher risk for brown bear break-ins in these areas. Risk diffusion paths will need strong conservation management to facilitate migration and gene flow of brown bears and to alleviate bear damage, and implementation of compensation schemes may be necessary in risk areas to offset financial burdens. Our analytical methods can be applied to conflict reduction efforts and wildlife conservation planning across the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953560PMC
December 2019

Identifying climate refugia and its potential impact on Tibetan brown bear () in Sanjiangyuan National Park, China.

Ecol Evol 2019 Dec 14;9(23):13278-13293. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection Chinese Academy of Forestry Beijing China.

Climate change has direct impacts on wildlife and future biodiversity protection efforts. Vulnerability assessment and habitat connectivity analyses are necessary for drafting effective conservation strategies for threatened species such as the Tibetan brown bear (). We used the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model to assess the current (1950-2000) and future (2041-2060) habitat suitability by combining bioclimatic and environmental variables, and identified potential climate refugia for Tibetan brown bears in Sanjiangyuan National Park, China. Next, we selected Circuit model to simulate potential migration paths based on current and future climatically suitable habitat. Results indicate a total area of potential suitable habitat under the current climate scenario of approximately 31,649.46 km, of which 28,778.29 km would be unsuitable by the 2050s. Potentially suitable habitat under the future climate scenario was projected to cover an area of 23,738.6 km. Climate refugia occupied 2,871.17 km, primarily in the midwestern and northeastern regions of Yangtze River Zone, as well as the northern region of Yellow River Zone. The altitude of climate refugia ranged from 4,307 to 5,524 m, with 52.93% lying at altitudes between 4,300 and 4,600 m. Refugia were mainly distributed on bare rock, alpine steppe, and alpine meadow. Corridors linking areas of potentially suitable brown bear habitat and a substantial portion of paths with low-resistance value were distributed in climate refugia. We recommend various actions to ameliorate the impact of climate change on brown bears, such as protecting climatically suitable habitat, establishing habitat corridors, restructuring conservation areas, and strengthening monitoring efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912912PMC
December 2019

Corrigendum: Forest Soil Fungal Community Elevational Distribution Pattern and Their Ecological Assembly Processes.

Front Microbiol 2019;10:2802. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, and the Key Laboratory of Biological Conservation of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.02226.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6906271PMC
December 2019

Anatomy and Flight Performance of the Early Enantiornithine Bird Protopteryx fengningensis: Information from New Specimens of the Early Cretaceous Huajiying Formation of China.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2020 04 11;303(4):716-731. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Beijing Museum of Natural History, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

The Early Cretaceous (∼131 Million Years Ago) Protopteryx fengningensis is one of the oldest and most primitive enantiornithine birds; however, knowledge of its anatomy has largely been limited to the succinct description of two specimens (holotype and paratype). This study describes two new specimens of P. fengningensis preserving most of the skeleton and plumage, and it therefore adds significantly to understanding the morphology of this important species and the character evolution of enantiornithine birds. The well-preserved plumage of these specimens also affords a quantitative assessment of the flight performance of P. fengningensis. Our aerodynamic considerations indicate that this early enantiornithine was capable of intermittent flight (bounding or flap-gliding), thus marking the earliest occurrence of such energy-saving aerial strategy. Anat Rec, 303:716-731, 2020. © 2019 American Association for Anatomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24322DOI Listing
April 2020

Simultaneous Correction of Complex Secondary Deformities of Cleft Lip Using Autogenous Costal Cartilage Combined With Rib Grafts.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Mar/Apr;31(2):497-500

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine.

Objective: Complex secondary deformities of cleft lip include nasal and labial deformities, alveolar cleft, oronasal fistula, and so on. In this report, the authors present a method to simultaneously repair the above complex deformities with autogenous costal cartilage and rib grafts.

Methods: The surgical procedure of simultaneous correction includes RESULTS:: Satisfactory outcomes were achieved in all 22 patients. Fifteen patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months and exhibited good nasal shape, repaired alveolar cleft, improved labial shape, and closed oronasal fistula. Three patients presented with red nasal tips. One patient had local infection, which was cured by antibiotics.

Conclusion: This methodAs this method has led to positive outcomes, it has the potential to be widely used in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000005933DOI Listing
July 2020

Forest Soil Fungal Community Elevational Distribution Pattern and Their Ecological Assembly Processes.

Front Microbiol 2019 4;10:2226. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, and the Key Laboratory of Biological Conservation of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing, China.

Soil fungi play vital roles in natural ecosystems, however, their community distribution patterns along different environmental gradients and ecological assembly processes remain unclear. In this study, Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to investigate the soil fungal community structures of five different forest types along an elevational gradient, and a framework based on a null model was adopted to quantify the relative contribution of deterministic and stochastic ecological assembly processes. The results showed that the majority of soil fungal OTUs were derived from Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Ascomycota. Soil fungal community structure differed significantly among the five sites ( < 0.01), and the fungal α-diversity decreased as elevation increased ( < 0.01). The null model showed that the relative contribution of stochastic processes (37.78-73.33%) was higher than that of deterministic processes (26.67-62.22%) within the same forest type, while that of deterministic processes (35.00-93.00%) was higher than stochastic processes (7.00-65.00%) between forest types. These results suggest that forest soil fungal diversity decreased significantly with increasing elevation, and that deterministic processes may be key factors influencing soil fungal community assemblies among forest types. The results of this study provide new insight into soil fungal distribution patterns and community assembly processes in natural forest ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6787267PMC
October 2019

Interdomain ecological networks between plants and microbes.

Mol Ecol Resour 2019 Nov 24;19(6):1565-1577. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

CAS Key Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

While macroscopic interkingdom relationships have been intensively investigated in various ecosystems, the above-belowground ecology in natural ecosystems has been poorly understood, especially for the plant-microbe associations at a regional scale. In this study, we proposed a workflow to construct interdomain ecological networks (IDEN) between multiple plants and various microbes (bacteria and archaea in this study). Across 30 latitudinal forests in China, the regional IDEN showed particular topological features, including high connectance, nested structure, asymmetric specialization and modularity. Also, plant species exhibited strong preference to specific microbial groups, and the observed network was significantly different from randomly rewired networks. Network module analysis indicated that a majority of microbes associated with plants within modules rather than across modules, suggesting specialized associations between plants and microorganisms. Consistent plant-microbe associations were captured via IDENs constructed within individual forest locations, which reinforced the validity of IDEN analysis. In addition, the plant-forest link distribution showed the geographical distribution of plants had higher endemicity than that of microorganisms. With cautious experimental design and data processing, this study shows interdomain species associations between plants and microbes in natural forest ecosystems and provides new insights into our understanding of meta-communities across different domain species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13081DOI Listing
November 2019

The effects of biodegradation on the characteristics and disinfection by-products formation of soluble microbial products chemical fractions.

Environ Pollut 2019 Oct 23;253:1047-1055. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, PR China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

Soluble microbial products (SMPs) discharged into rivers from sewage treatment plants may increase the health risk for downstream drinking water by acting as a precursor of DBPs. Biotransformation or biodegradation could alter the characteristics of SMPs and affect the subsequent formation of DBPs. This study observed the relative contribution of chemical fractions in SMPs and explored the biodegradation of each fraction and their effect on disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation in surface water. The hydrophilic acid (HPIA) and hydrophobic acid (HPOA) constituted the major portion of the SMPs, which were dominated by fulvic acid and humic acids. The transphilic acid (TPIA) and hydrophobic bases (HPOB) were relatively minor but it contained a relative substantial portion of protein-like materials in SMPs. TPIA and HPOB produced insignificant amounts of DBP corresponding to 13% and 14% in the original samples, but they were collectively responsible for 50% of the DBPs yield. Much larger amounts of hydrophobic fractions were utilized than hydrophilic fractions after biodegradation. The increase in SUVA values indicating aromatic structures, except for HPOA fraction, was observed after biodegradation. The protein-like materials in both the HPOA and HPIA fractions and polycarboxylate-type humic acid in the HPIA fraction decreased but the enrichment of HPOA (MW > 100 kDa) and TPIA (MW < 1 kDa) was observed after biodegradation. The production of = C-H in HPIA fraction and the appearance of double peak at 1100 cm in TPIA and HPOB fractions occurred after biodegradation. In overall level, microorganisms effectively utilized DBP precursors from HPIA, HPOA and HPOB fractions but increased the DBPs precursors from the TPIA fraction. TPIA and HPOB fractions had higher DBP yield with chlorine but the DBPs yield of HPIA and HPOA changed little after biodegradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.07.112DOI Listing
October 2019

Enophthalmos: Exploration of Quantitative Treatment With Retro-Orbital Fat Globules Injection.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Jan/Feb;31(1):54-57

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Craniomaxillofacial and plastic surgeons are often confronted with patients who present with enophthalmos caused mainly by trauma. In many patients, one-stage reconstruction repairs only the bony orbit, leaving intact the disfiguring enophthalmos. Thus, some filler is needed to restore the normal volume of the orbit. The authors describe a technique to correct such deformation safely and effectively. Data were collected from 30 enophthalmic patients (average age 36.67 ± 11.66 years) who underwent retro-ocular injections of fat globules between August 2014 and July 2018. CT helped identify a safe injection site, and specific CT measurements quantified the volume of fat globules required. There was a significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative values for lateral orbital protrusion (P < .01), superior orbital protrusion (P < .01), and orbital volume (P < .01). Most patients were satisfied with the outcome. There were no significant complications. Injecting fat globules into the retro-orbital area is an effective technique for correcting enophthalmos deformity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000005847DOI Listing
April 2020

Genetic diversity of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia National Park, China using RAD-seq analyses.

Genetica 2019 Aug 24;147(3-4):327-335. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, and the Key Laboratory of Biological Conservation of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing, 100091, China.

The Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is an endangered species endemic to China, where the smallest population resides in Shennongjia National Park, Hubei Province. In this study, the genetic diversity of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys from two areas, Qianjiaping (QJP) and Dalongtan (DLT) in Shennongjia National Park was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) data derived from restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq). A total of 41,260 SNP loci were found in 29 Sichuan snub-nosed monkey individuals. The genome-wide nucleotide diversity (π) of the Shennongjia population was 0.001842. The genetic differentiation (F) between the QJP and DLT subpopulations was 0.034. The heterozygosity of individuals from QJP was 0.3475 ± 0.03696 and 0.3148 ± 0.03501 for individuals from DLT. Although the DLT and QJP subpopulations did not show significant genetic differences, genetic differentiation between the two subpopulations was confirmed using Bayesian cluster analysis, neighbor-joining trees and principal component analysis. These results suggest that the Shennongjia population of Sichuan snub-nosed monkey has relatively low genetic diversity at the genomic level. The little genetic differentiation noted between the DLT and QJP subpopulations likely due to natural and anthropogenic barriers which may exacerbate loss of genetic diversity of this endangered subpopulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10709-019-00073-3DOI Listing
August 2019

Broad-leaved forest types affect soil fungal community structure and soil organic carbon contents.

Microbiologyopen 2019 10 19;8(10):e874. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Key Laboratory of Biological Conservation of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.

Evergreen broad-leaved (EBF) and deciduous broad-leaved (DBF) forests are two important vegetation types in terrestrial ecosystems that play key roles in sustainable biodiversity and global carbon (C) cycling. However, little is known about their associated soil fungal community and the potential metabolic activities involved in biogeochemical processes. In this study, soil samples were collected from EBF and DBF in Shennongjia Mountain, China, and soil fungal community structure and functional gene diversity analyzed based on combined Illumina MiSeq sequencing with GeoChip technologies. The results showed that soil fungal species richness (p = 0.079) and fungal functional gene diversity (p < 0.01) were higher in DBF than EBF. Zygomycota was the most dominant phylum in both broad-leaved forests, and the most dominant genera found in each forest varied (Umbelopsis dominated in DBF, whereas Mortierella dominated in EBF). A total of 4, 439 soil fungi associated functional gene probes involved in C and nitrogen (N) cycling were detected. Interestingly, the relative abundance of functional genes related to labile C degradation (e.g., starch, pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in DBF than EBF, and the functional gene relative abundance involved in C cycling was significantly negatively correlated with soil labile organic C (r = -0.720, p = 0.002). In conclusion, the soil fungal community structure and potential metabolic activity showed marked divergence in different broad-leaved forest types, and the higher relative abundance of functional genes involved in C cycling in DBF may be caused by release of loss of organic C in the soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mbo3.874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6813455PMC
October 2019

Identifying refugia and corridors under climate change conditions for the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey () in Hubei Province, China.

Ecol Evol 2019 Feb 8;9(4):1680-1690. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Chinese Academy of Forestry/Key Laboratory of Biodiversity of National Forestry and Grassland Administration Research Institute of Forest Ecology Environment and Protection Beijing China.

Using a case study of an isolated management unit of Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (), we assess the extent that climate change will impact the species' habitat distribution in the current period and projected into the 2050s. We identify refugia that could maintain the population under climate change and determine dispersal paths for movement of the population to future suitable habitats. Hubei Province, China. We identified climate refugia and potential movements by integrating bioclimatic models with circuit theory and least-cost model for the current period (1960-1990) and the 2050s (2041-2060). We coupled a maximum entropy algorithm to predict suitable habitat for the current and projected future periods. Suitable habitat areas that were identified during both time periods and that also satisfied home range and dispersal distance conditions were delineated as refugia. We mapped potential movements measured as current flow and linked current and future habitats using least-cost corridors. Our results indicate up to 1,119 km of currently suitable habitat within the study range. Based on our projections, a habitat loss of 67.2% due to climate change may occur by the 2050s, resulting in a reduced suitable habitat area of 406 km and very little new habitat. The refugia areas amounted to 286 km and were located in Shennongjia National Park and Badong Natural Reserve. Several connecting corridors between the current and future habitats, which are important for potential movements, were identified. Our assessment of the species predicted a trajectory of habitat loss following anticipated future climate change. We believe conservation efforts should focus on refugia and corridors when planning for future species management. This study will assist conservationists in determining high-priority regions for effective maintenance of the endangered population under climate change and will encourage increased habitat connectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6392490PMC
February 2019

Self-Healing and Injectable Hydrogel for Matching Skin Flap Regeneration.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2019 Feb 16;6(3):1801555. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine 639 Zhi Zao Ju Road Shanghai 200011 P. R. China.

The fabrication of highly biocompatible hydrogels with multiple unique healing abilities for the whole healing process, for example, multifunctional hydrogels with injectable, degradation, antibacterial, antihypoxic, and wound healing-promoting properties that match the dynamic healing process of skin flap regeneration, is currently a research challenge. Here, a multifunctional and dynamic coordinative polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel with mangiferin liposomes (MF-Lip@PEG) is developed for clinical applications through Ag-S coordination of four-arm-PEG-SH and Ag. Compared to MF-PEG, MF-Lip@PEG exhibits self-healing properties, lower swelling percentages, and a longer endurance period. Moreover, the hydrogel exhibits excellent drug dispersibility and release characteristics for slow and persistent drug delivery. In vitro studies show that the hydrogel is biocompatible and nontoxic to cells, and exerts an outstanding neovascularization-promoting effect. The MF-Lip@PEG also exhibits a strong cytoprotective effect against hypoxia-induced apoptosis through regulation of the Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 pathway. In a random skin flap animal model, the MF-Lip@PEG is injectable and convenient to deliver into the skin flap, providing excellent anti-inflammation, anti-infection, and proneovascularization effects and significantly reducing the skin flap necrosis rate. In general, the MF-Lip@PEG possesses outstanding multifunctionality for the dynamic healing process of skin flap regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201801555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364594PMC
February 2019

Adhesive nanoparticles with inflammation regulation for promoting skin flap regeneration.

J Control Release 2019 03 25;297:91-101. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Shanghai Key Laboratory for Prevention and Treatment of Bone and Joint Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, 197 Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai 200025, PR China.. Electronic address:

Local drug delivery systems have become an important field of research as locally administration of medications may overcome most of the drawbacks associated with systemic drugs. Still, to assure continuous drug release and therapeutic drug levels, keeping the delivered drug in target area remains a physiological challenge. The aim of this study was to develop novel multipotent flap-protective adhesive mangiferin (MF)-loaded liposomes (A-MF-Lip), bioinspired in mussel architecture, for the promotion of random skin flap regeneration. The long chain 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-poly(ethyleneglycol)-dopamine (DSPE-PEG-DOPA) was successful combined in liposomes, being dopamine (DOPA) with terminated catechol attached at the end of chain to explore the potential ability in adherence. A-MF-Lip presented a mean particle size of 162 nm, and MF cumulative release reaching 82% up to 72 h. A-MF-Lip adhesive ability was significantly higher compared to non-adhesive mangiferin-loaded liposome (MF-Lip). Moreover, a positive effect of A-MF-Lip on cells proliferation, angiogenesis was observed. And by regulating the PPAR-γ/NF-κB pathway, the A-MF-Lip established a protection effect on hypoxia induced cell apoptosis and inflammation. After locally injection delivery in a Sprague Dawley rat random skin flap model, A-MF-Lip significantly decreased flap necrosis rate and reduced flap inflammation. Therefore, A-MF-Lip is a promising multipotent flap-protective approach for random skin flap regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.01.031DOI Listing
March 2019

Biosorption behavior of the Ochrobactrum MT180101 on ionic copper and chelate copper.

J Environ Manage 2019 Apr 23;235:224-230. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

To study the biosorption behaviors of bacteria on heavy metal chelators, the biosorption kinetics, biosorption thermodynamics and pH influence tests of the Ochrobactrum MT180101 on ionic and chelate copper were investigated. Furthermore, the biosorption mechanisms of the Ochrobactrum MT180101 on ionic copper and chelate copper were explained by means of an excitation emission matrix as well as infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated the following. 1) The biosorption on chelate copper was needed to destroy the complexation group first through metabolic and secretory activities. 2) The biosorption mechanism of the Ochrobactrum MT180101 on copper involved surface biosorption, extracellular chelation and bienzyme-mediated biotransformation. The results suggested that Ochrobactrum had a superior biosorption efficiency to ionic and chelate copper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.01.060DOI Listing
April 2019

Copper-resistant mechanism of Ochrobactrum MT180101 and its application in membrane bioreactor for treating electroplating wastewater.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Jan 25;168:17-26. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006, PR China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

It is necessary to study the mechanism of resistance to heavy metals in microbiological processes. In this study, Ochrobactrum MT180101 was used as the microbial source of an membrane bioreactor to investigate its degradation efficiency for electroplating wastewater and the copper-resistant mechanism. Meanwhile, excitation emission matrix-parallel factor, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and proteome analyses were applied to explain the comprehensive mechanism of the Ochrobactrum MT180101 resisting heavy metal toxicity. The results indicated that the Ochrobactrum MT180101 resisted heavy metal toxicity with the following pathways: i) binding metal cations on cell wall surfaces, ii) generating microbial products such as protein to chelate and stabilize the metal cations, iii) bio-transporting heavy metals from the intramembrane to the outer membrane by means of intracellular transport, and iv) reducing heavy metals through enzyme-mediated biotransformation. The results ensure that Ochrobactrum MT180101 was a copper-resistant bacterium that can be used in the pretreatment or deep treatment of electroplating wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.10.066DOI Listing
January 2019

Design and demonstration of ultra-high-Q silicon microring resonator based on a multi-mode ridge waveguide.

Opt Lett 2018 Apr;43(7):1586-1589

We present the design and experimental demonstration of the ultra-high-Q-factor silicon microring resonator based on a multi-mode ridge waveguide. The multi-mode ridge waveguide is designed to decrease the propagation loss and to improve the Q factor. The ultra-high Q factor of 1.1×10 is experimentally demonstrated, with the free spectrum range of 0.208 nm. The single-mode ridge waveguide is used in the coupling region to reduce the dimension of the microring resonator, and the bend radius is only 20 μm. To precisely control the resonance wavelength, a small heater is implemented on the silicon microring resonator with the tuning efficiency of 7.1  pm/mW. The degenerate four-wave mixing of the silicon microring resonator is investigated, and the conversion efficiency is measured to be -15.5  dB without optimizing the dispersion of the microring resonator and carriers extraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.43.001586DOI Listing
April 2018

The inhibitory effects of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 on the proliferation, angiogenesis, and collagen synthesis of hypertrophic scar derived fibroblasts .

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2018 Mar;21(3):309-317

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 639 Zhizaoju Road, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Therapeutic effect of many selectable methods applied in clinical practice for treating hypertrophic scar (HS) is not still so satisfactory. Meanwhile, a few medicines may lead to several undesirable complications. The traditional Chinese medicine, , has been reported for multiple antitumor effects previously. We have conducted series of animal experiments and confirmed the inhibitory effect of in HS before. The aim of this study was to further verify the conclusions of previous studies and reveal the specific functional mechanisms of .

Materials And Methods: The HS specimens were obtained from the patients aged from 15 to 36 years without systemic diseases and the primary cultured cells were isolated from the scar tissue and expanded . In every experiment, hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs) were divided into three groups and respectively cultured in medium with or without different concentrations (50, 100 μg/ml). Cell viability assay, flow cytometry analysis (FCM), quantitative PCR, cell migration assay, immunofluorescence staining, western blot and ELISA were employed.

Results: The outcomes demonstrated that could suppress cell proliferation, vascularization and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition of HSFs by TGF-β/SMAD and Erk signaling pathways. Significant statistical differences were between control group and -treated groups (<0.05).

Conclusion: This study provides sufficient evidences for as a promising drug in the treatment of human HS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2018.19451.5153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5817175PMC
March 2018