Publications by authors named "Yueqiang Wen"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hypomagnesemia Is a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease- and Noncardiovascular Disease-Related Mortality in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

Blood Purif 2021 Apr 21:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Nephrology, Jiujiang No. 1 People's Hospital, Jiujiang, China.

Purpose: Recent research has shown that hypomagnesemia is associated with increased all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, the relationship between the long-term prognosis of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and the study is not yet clear. This study will analyze the effects of hypomagnesemia on all-cause, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and non-CVD mortality in PD patients.

Method: In a retrospective cohort study, 1,004 samples were selected from 7 PD centers in China. Based on the baseline blood magnesium level at the beginning of stable dialysis, all patients were classified into blood magnesium <0.7 mmol/L group, 0.7-1.2 mmol/L group, and >1.2 mmol/L group (the end event was death). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the difference in cumulative survival rate; the Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze the risk factors of all-cause, CVD, and non-CVD death causes.

Results: Cox multiple regression analysis results (reference comparison of 0.7-1.2 mmol/L group): patients with serum magnesium <0.7 mmol/L have a higher risk ratio of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.580, 95% CI: 1.222-2.042, p = 0.001), and it is also obvious after correction by multiple models (HR = 1.578, 95% CI: 1.196-2.083, p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis of the causes of death was as follows: CVD risk (HR = 1.628, 95% CI: 1.114-2.379, p = 0.012) and non-CVD risk (HR = 1.521, 95% CI: 1.011-2.288, p = 0.044). Further analysis of the causes of infection-related death in non-CVD is also significant (HR = 1.919, 95% CI: 1.131-3.1257, p = 0.016). On the other hand, the serum magnesium>1.2 mmol/L group had lower all-cause mortality after correction (HR = 0.687, 95% CI: 0.480-0.985, p = 0.041), and subgroup analysis of the cause of death had no statistical significance (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Hypomagnesemia (serum magnesium <0.7 mmol/L) during stable dialysis in PD patients is a risk factor for CVD- and non-CVD-related mortality, especially infection-related death causes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514148DOI Listing
April 2021

Down-Regulation of Lnc-CYP7A1-1 Rejuvenates Aged Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Improve Their Efficacy for Heart Repair Through SYNE1.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 19;8:600304. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Guangzhou Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Vascular Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been associated with cell senescence, termed senescence-associated lncRNAs (SAL-RNAs). However, the mechanisms involved for SAL-RNAs in aging are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of SAL-RNAs on aged human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs), and the possible means to counteract such effects to improve the regenerative capacity of aged hBM-MSCs.

Methods: By comparing the lncRNAs expression of hBM-MSCs derived from young and old individuals, lnc-CYP7A1-1 was identified as being significantly increased with age. Using predictive software, the expression of Spectrin Repeat Containing Nuclear Envelope Protein 1 (SYNE1), was found to be decreased with age. Next, through lentiviral constructs, we downregulated the expression of lnc-CYP7A1-1 or SYNE1 in hBM-MSCs separately. Additionally, hBM-MSCs proliferation, survival, migration, and senescence were investigated , lnc-CYP7A1-1 downregulated aged hBM-MSCs were implanted into infarcted mouse hearts after myocardial infarction (MI), and cardiac function was measured. Through lentivirus-mediated downregulation of lnc-CYP7A1-1 in aged hBM-MSCs, we revealed that cell senescence was decreased, whereas cell proliferation, migration, and survival were increased. On the other hand, downregulation of SYNE1, the target gene of lnc-CYP7A1-1, in young hBM-MSCs increased cell senescence, yet decreased cell proliferation, migration, and survival. Downregulation of lnc-CYP7A1-1 in aged hBM-MSCs induced cell rejuvenation, yet this effect was attenuated by repression of SYNE1. , transplantation of lnc-CYP7A1-1 downregulated old hBM-MSCs improved cardiac function after MI.

Conclusion: Down-regulation of lnc-CYP7A1-1 rejuvenated aged hBM-MSCs and improved cardiac function when implanted into the infarcted mouse hearts, possibly through its target gene SYNE1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.600304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710953PMC
November 2020

Hyperlipidemia and mortality associated with diabetes mellitus co-existence in Chinese peritoneal dialysis patients.

Lipids Health Dis 2020 Nov 7;19(1):234. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No.600, Yi Shan Road, Shanghai, China.

Background: To evaluate associations between diabetes mellitus (DM) coexisting with hyperlipidemia and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study with 2939 incident PD patients in China from January 2005 to December 2018. Associations between the DM coexisting with hyperlipidemia and mortality were evaluated using the Cox regression.

Results: Of 2939 patients, with a median age of 50.0 years, 519 (17.7%) died during the median of 35.1 months. DM coexisting with hyperlipidemia, DM, and hyperlipidemia were associated with 1.93 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.56), 1.86 (95% CI 1.49 to 2.32), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.66 to 1.24)-time higher risk of all-cause mortality, compared with without DM and hyperlipidemia, respectively (P for trend < 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed a similar pattern. Among DM patients, hyperlipidemia was as a high risk of mortality as non-hyperlipidemia (hazard ratio 1.02, 95%CI 0.73 to 1.43) during the overall follow-up period, but from 48-month follow-up onwards, hyperlipidemia patients had 3.60 (95%CI 1.62 to 8.01)-fold higher risk of all-cause mortality than those non-hyperlipidemia (P interaction = 1.000).

Conclusions: PD patients with DM coexisting with hyperlipidemia were at the highest risk of all-cause mortality, followed by DM patients and hyperlipidemia patients, and hyperlipidemia may have an adverse effect on long-term survival in DM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01405-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648430PMC
November 2020

CGA ameliorates cognitive decline by regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and neurotransmitter systems in rats with multi-infarct dementia.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Nov 9;20(5):70. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan 611137, P.R. China.

Multi infarct dementia (MID) is a form of dementia that is preventable and treatable. However, at present, the drugs used in MID treatment were developed for Alzheimer's disease. While only a limited range of drugs is available, the incidence of MID is increasing year on year. The present study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of a combination of ginsenosides and astragalosides (CGA) on cognitive decline in rats with MID. A rat model of MID was established using micro-thromboembolism, and the behavioral changes in the rats were evaluated using the Morris water maze and open field tests at 60 days post-CGA intervention. The pathological morphology of the hippocampal CA1 area was observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The contents of ATP, ADP and AMP were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Mitochondrial swelling and changes in the membrane potential in the hippocampus were detected using flow cytometry, and the changes in insulin, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content were detected using ELISA. Additionally, the expression of PI3K and AKT proteins was detected using western blot analysis. In a rat model of MID, CGA shortened the escape latency, increased the frequency of platform crossing, improved the disordered vertebral cell arrangement and reduced the cell number in the hippocampal CA1 area. CGA also reduced the degree of mitochondrial swelling, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and elevated the energy load and ATP content in the brain of rats with MID. Furthermore, CGA increased the insulin content and upregulated the expression of PI3K and AKT in the brain of rats with MID. In addition, in the rat model of MID, CGA also enhanced the movement time and the frequency of standing, and decreased the concentration of glutamate and GABA in the brain tissue. Amelioration of the cognitive decline in rats with MID by CGA was associated with its regulatory effect on the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and neurotransmitter systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.9198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490799PMC
November 2020

High Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio as an Independent Risk Factor for the First Occurrence of Stroke in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2020 07;14(4):282-289

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction: Though neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) level appears to be related with stroke events in general population, its relationship with stroke in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is still uncertain. This study aims to investigate the association between NLR and the first occurrence of stroke in PD patients.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 1507 PD patients were enrolled from four centers in China and stratified into tertiles of NLR levels. The incidence of the first occurrence of stroke was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence curve among different NLR tertiles, competing risk analysis was used to calculate the incidence of the first occurrence of stroke in the presence of competing risk of other events, multivariable COX regression analysis was performed to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for the first occurrence of stroke, as well as forest plot was utilized to describe the relationship between NLR and the first occurrence of stroke in different subgroups.

Results: During follow-up, 84 new-onset stroke events were recorded. Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence curves showed significant differences in the incidence of the first occurrence of stroke among three groups (log-rank test: P < .001). In competing risk analysis, the cumulative incidence curves for tertiles of NLR levels were highly significant for the first occurrence of stroke (P < .001), but they were not statistically different for the occurrence of other events. Compared to the lowest tertile of NLR level, the highest tertile was associated with increased risk of the first occurrence of stroke in the adjusted Cox model (HR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.37 to 4.15; P < .05). As for forest plot, there was no interaction in all subgroups.

Conclusion: High NLR was an independent risk factor for the first occurrence of stroke in PD patients.
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July 2020

High Mean Platelet Volume Associates with In-Hospital Mortality in Severe Pneumonia Patients.

Mediators Inflamm 2020 8;2020:8720535. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Although mean platelet volume (MPV) appears to be associated with poor outcome of pneumonia, the relationship between MPV and in-hospital mortality is unclear in severe pneumonia (SP) patients.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 115 SP patients from June 1st, 2016, to September 29th, 2019, were included and divided into two groups. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to assess the predictive ability for in-hospital mortality. Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence curves were applied to observe the incidence of mortality. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate the hazard ratios (HRs). Besides, a formal test for interaction was investigated to analyze the relationship between MPV and sex.

Results: During the course of hospitalization, 63 cases of mortality were recorded. ROC analysis suggested that MPV had a modest power for predicting in-hospital mortality (AUC = 0.723, 95% CI: 0.628-0.818, < 0.001). Yet the cutoff value of MPV was 10.5 (sensitivity = 73.02%; specificity = 73.08%). Compared to the low-MPV group, the high-MPV group had significantly increased in-hospital mortality (log-rank test = 13.501, < 0.001), while the adjusted Cox model indicated that the high-MPV group was associated with an elevated risk of in-hospital mortality (HR: 2.267, 95% CI: 1.166-4.406, = 0.016). Moreover, analyses of in-hospital mortality suggested a significant interaction between optimal MPV level and sex ( = 0.011). In a multivariate Cox model which included females only, a high MPV level was associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality (HR: 11.387, 95% CI: 1.767-73.380, = 0.011).

Conclusion: High MPV level is an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality in patients with SP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8720535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298326PMC
June 2020

Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Adverse Cardiovascular Outcome in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Younger than 60 Years Old.

Mediators Inflamm 2020 20;2020:4634736. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a new inflammatory marker; the relationship between NLR and adverse cardiovascular (CV) prognosis has been gradually emphasized in the general population. However, their association in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients remains unclear.

Methods: From January 1, 2010, to May 31, 2017, a total of 1652 patients were recruited. NLR was categorized in triplicates: NLR ≤ 2.74, 2.74 < NLR ≤ 3.96, and NLR > 3.96. Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence curve and multivariable COX regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between NLR and the incidence of adverse CV outcome, while a competitive risk model was applied to assess the effects of other outcomes on adverse CV prognosis. Besides, forest plot was investigated to analyze the adverse CV prognosis in different subgroups.

Results: During follow-up, 213 new-onset CV events and 153 CV disease (CVD) deaths were recorded. Multivariable COX regression models showed that the highest tertile of NLR level was associated with increased risk of CV events (HR = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.01-1.93, = 0.046) and CVD mortality (HR = 1.81, 95%CI = 1.22-2.69, = 0.003), while compared to the lowest tertile. Competitive risk models showed that the differences in CV event ( < 0.001) and CVD mortality ( = 0.004) among different NLR groups were still significant while excluding the effects of other outcomes. In subgroups, with each 1 increased in the NLR level, adjusted HR of new-onset CV event was 2.02 (95%CI = 1.26 - 3.23, = 0.003) and CVD mortality was 2.98 (95%CI = 1.58 - 5.62, = 0.001) in the younger group (age < 60 years).

Conclusions: NLR is an independent risk factor for adverse CV prognosis in PD patients younger than 60 years old.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4634736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256716PMC
May 2020

Association between aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio and cardiovascular disease mortality in patients on peritoneal dialysis: a multi-center retrospective study.

BMC Nephrol 2020 06 1;21(1):209. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No.600, Yi Shan Road, Shanghai, China.

Background: Elevated aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among the general population. However, an association between AST/ALT ratio and CVD mortality in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) has received little attention.

Methods: A total of 2224 incident PD patients from multi-centers were enrolled from November 1, 2005, to June 30, 2017, in this retrospective cohort study. The primary endpoint was CVD mortality. Eligible patients were divided into high and normal groups according to the AST/ALT ratio cut-off for CVD mortality with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The associations between the AST/ALT ratio and CVD mortality were evaluated by the Cox regression model.

Results: Of eligible 1579 patients with a mean age of 49.3 ± 14.6 years, 55.4% of patients were male, 18.1% of patients had diabetes, and 64.2% of patients had hypertension. The prevalence of a high AST/ALT ratio was 76.6% in the cohort population. During a follow-up period with 4659.6 patient-years, 316 patients died, of which 193 (61.1%) deaths were caused by CVD episodes. The incidence of CVD mortality in the high group was significantly higher than that in the normal group (13.1% versus 9.2%, P = 0.024). Cumulative CVD mortality rates were significantly different between the two groups by Kaplan-Meier analysis [hazards ratio (HR) = 1.50, 95% confidence index (CI) 1.09-2.07, P = 0.014]. After adjusting for confounding factors, a higher AST/ALT ratio was independently associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality compared with their counterparts (HR = 1.43, 95%CI 1.08-2.41, P = 0.002).

Conclusions: PD patients with high baseline AST/ALT ratio levels may be at a significant risk of CVD mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-01840-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268679PMC
June 2020

The relationship between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and the first occurrence of pneumonia in peritoneal dialysis patients.

Clin Exp Nephrol 2020 Sep 25;24(9):770-778. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, 250th, Chang Gang East Road, Guangzhou, 510260, China.

Background: Although neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is closely associated with pneumonia in the general population, its relationship is unclear in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.

Methods: This is a cohort study consisting of 739 PD patients and dividing into two groups. Kaplan-Meier curves were applied to observe the incidence of the first occurrence of pneumonia, competitive risk analysis was conducted to compare whether there was a significant difference in each NLR group in the presence of other competing events, multivariable COX regression analysis was used to evaluate the hazard ratios (HRs), as well as forest plot was used to analyze the relationship between NLR and the first occurrence of pneumonia in different subgroups.

Results: Of all the patients, 116 cases of first-time pneumonia were recorded. The first-time pneumonia incidence rate was 71.67/1000 patient-years in high NLR group, which was markedly higher than that of 45.81/1000 patient-years in low NLR group. Kaplan-Meier curves indicated significant differences in the incidence of the first occurrence of pneumonia between two groups (log-rank test p = 0.015). The competitive risk model suggested a significant difference in the cumulative incidence of first pneumonia between the two groups (p = 0.032). Compared to low NLR group, adjusted Cox model showed that high NLR group was associated with increased risk of pneumonia incidence (HR, 1.51; 95% CI 1.04-2.21; p = 0.031). Forest plot showed no interaction was found in subgroups.

Conclusions: The risk of pneumonia was significantly increasing in PD patients with high NLR, which may have a certain guiding significance for the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10157-020-01894-9DOI Listing
September 2020

Monocyte/Lymphocyte Ratio and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

Mediators Inflamm 2020 14;2020:9852507. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: The monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), as a new marker of the systemic inflammatory response, is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in the general population and hemodialysis patients. However, the association between the MLR and CVD mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) has received little attention.

Methods: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, 1753 incident PD patients from November 1, 2005, to June 30, 2017, with a baseline MLR were enrolled. The primary endpoint was CVD mortality. The association of MLR with CVD mortality was assessed using a multivariable-adjusted Cox model and the Fine and Gray competing risk model.

Results: Of 1753 patients, the mean age was 51.1 ± 14.9 years, 56.9% of patients were male, and the Charlson comorbidity index was 4.29 ± 1.75. During the follow-up period of 31.2 ± 18.4 months, 368 patients died, of which 200 (54.3%) deaths were caused by CVD events. CVD mortality rates for the lowest, middle, and highest MLR tertiles were 70.6, 78.4, and 88.9 per 1000 patient-years, respectively ( < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that survival rates were significantly different among the three MLR groups (log rank = 22.41, < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that survival rates were significantly different among the three MLR groups (log rank = 22.41, < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that survival rates were significantly different among the three MLR groups (log rank = 22.41, < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that survival rates were significantly different among the three MLR groups (log rank = 22.41, < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding factors, the highest MLR tertile was significantly associated with a hazard ratio (HR) for CVD mortality of 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.51, = 0.016). The Fine and Gray method analysis showed that using all-cause mortality as competing risk, the highest MLR tertile remained an independent predictor of CVD mortality (HR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.10-2.47, = 0.021).

Conclusions: Higher MLR levels at the commencement of PD may be independently associated with increased CVD mortality in PD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9852507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048939PMC
January 2021

Total glucosides of paeony improve complete freund's adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats by inhibiting toll-like receptor 2-mediated tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6/ nuclear factor-kappa B pathway activation.

J Tradit Chin Med 2019 08;39(4):566-574

Institute of Meterial Medica Integration and Transformation for Brain Disorders, CDUTCM, Chengdu 610075, China.

Objective: To investigate the mechanism underlying anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effect of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) based on toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mediated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway activation in rats with rheumatoid arthritis.

Methods: Adjuvant arthritis (AA) model was developed by complete freund's adjuvant (CFA) immunization. TGP (100, 50, 25 mg/kg) and celecoxib (2.8 mg/kg) were administered by intragastric administration for 21 d. Right hind paw swelling was assessed every 2 d. After 21 d, synovial changes of the ankle were detected by histopathology. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell amounts in peripheral blood were measured by flow-cytometrically. Gene and protein levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TRAF6, tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6 (FASLG) in the spleen were assessed by RT-qPCR and Western Bolt, respectively. Nuclear expression of NF-κB p65 was detected by NF-κB p65 Assay Kit.

Results: Paw swelling and synovium lesions were obviously aggravated in AA rats. These symptoms were significantly relieved by TGP. The ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cell was increased in AA rats, while TGP reduced this increased ratio. Gene and protein levels of splenic TLR2, TFAR6 and FASLG, and nuclear NF-κB p65 in AA rats were significantly increased, but overtly inhibited by TGP.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that TGP's anti-inflammatory effect onRA in rats with CFA may be related to the downregulation of TLR2/TRAF6/NF-κB pathway and the regulation of T cell subsets.
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August 2019

Cabin1 involves in renal tubular epithelial cells mitochondrial dysfunction through SIRT1/p53 pathway.

J Recept Signal Transduct Res 2020 Apr 31;40(2):141-147. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Angiotensin II (AngII) induced Calcineurin binding protein 1 (Cabin1) protein expression significantly increased during Renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) injury. However, the detailed function of Cabin1 protein in RTEC was not characterized well. In this study, we aimed to explore the downstream target of Cabin1 model. Rat kidney epithelial cells were cultured and stimulated with AngII. Electron microscopy was performed to observe mitochondrial morphology change. Immunofluorescence staining was detected to observe the distribution of cytoskeleton and Cabin1. Mitochondrial morphology change and protein expression were detected by electrical microscopy and western blot. AngII induced the disruption of cytoskeleton at 24 and 48 h. Western blot analysis showed AngII significantly induced the overexpression of Cabin1. AngII induced a great deal of small, long and irregular mitochondria in RTEC, aspect ratio which reflects the length-to-width ratio of mitochondria remarkably increased at 12 and 24 h. Knocking down Cabin1 aggravated mitochondrial morphological abnormality in AngII treated RTEC. In comparison with control, Cabin1, p53 and cyto C level were significantly increased in AngII treated cells, while SIRT1 level was obviously decreased. Knocked down Cabin1 plus AngII stimulated, SIRT1 was further decreased, while p53 and cyto C were significantly increased. Cabin1 involves in RTEC mitochondrial dysfunction through SIRT1/p53 pathway. Cabin1 may be used as a new marker for the mechanisms of RTEC injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10799893.2020.1719518DOI Listing
April 2020

Long-term consumption of alcohol exacerbates neural lesions by destroying the functional integrity of the blood-brain barrier.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2019 Nov 20:1-8. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, PR China.

Recently, increasing numbers of studies have shown that the consumption of large amounts of alcohol is a major risk factor for dementias, which has led to widespread concern about the harmful effects of alcohol consumption on health. However, the pathological changes in the brain caused by this habit are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the possible causes by determining the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), pathomorphological changes, the mRNA, and protein expressions of adhesion proteins and the concentrations of β-amyloid (Aβ) and some related functional proteins in the brains of C57BL/6 and APPswe/PS1dE9 mice before and after intragastric administration of alcohol for 2 months. The results showed that long-term consumption of alcohol aggravated cognitive decline, increased the permeability of the BBB, led to pathomorphological changes and downregulated some related structural proteins (zonula occludens-1, VE-cadherin, and occludin) and functional proteins (major facilitator superfamily domain-containing protein-2a (Mfsd2a), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and aquaporin-4 (AQP4)) in the BBB but did not increase the concentration of Aβ. These novel findings suggested that long-term consumption of alcohol induces neural lesions, which is related to the destruction of the integrity of the BBB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2019.1681444DOI Listing
November 2019

Associations of vitamin K status with mortality and cardiovascular events in peritoneal dialysis patients.

Int Urol Nephrol 2019 Mar 28;51(3):527-534. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Nephrology, the 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Vitamin K deficiency, expressed by a high level of desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix GLA protein (dp-ucMGP), is highly prevalent in dialysis patients. However, the predictive ability of the vitamin K status remains unclear in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients.

Methods: 158 prevalent CAPD patients with a median level of dp-ucMGP of 1093 (752, 1485) pmol/L were enrolled. Patient outcomes including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events (CVEs) were recorded during follow-up. Survival curves were performed using Kaplan-Meier method, and the influences of dp-ucMGP on outcomes were analyzed by Cox regression models.

Results: A total of 59 deaths and 82 new episodes of CVEs occurred during median follow-up of 31.4 ± 13.1 months (range: 3.8-48.0 months). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed patients with higher dp-ucMGP levels (≥ 1093 pmol/L) had an increased risk for both mortality (P = 0.005) and CVEs (P < 0.001). Multivariable Cox regression confirmed that higher dp-ucMGP levels increase the mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR), 1.763; 95% CI 1.045-3.291] and CVEs (HR, 1.846; 95% CI 1.074-3.172). For every 100 pmol/L increase in serum dp-ucMGP, the adjusted HRs for mortality and CVEs were 1.054 (95% CI 1.008-1.106) and 1.034 (95% CI 1.012-1.089), respectively.

Conclusions: Vitamin K deficiency, as expressed by high dp-ucMGP levels, showed independently associations with mortality and CVEs in CAPD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-019-02080-xDOI Listing
March 2019

Histone demethylase JMJD6 regulates cellular migration and proliferation in adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2018 08 9;9(1):212. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Key Laboratory of Obstetric and Gynecologic and Pediatric Diseases and Birth Defects of the Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have been extensively explored as a promising therapeutic agent due to their differentiation, proliferation and migration abilities. The epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been described in detail. However, the epigenetic modulation of ADSCs proliferation and migration is poorly understood.

Methods: The present study examined histone demethylases roles and expression by RT-PCR, as well as through siRNA screening and ChIP-qPCR assay. Cellular proliferation and migration assays were employed in shRNA-mediated JMJD6 knockdown and control ADSCs. PDE1C inhibition studies were conducted to confirm its role in JMJD6-mediated epigenetic regulation of ADSCs.

Results: The data demonstrate that the histone demethylase JMJD6 plays a critical role in regulating the proliferation and migration of ADSCs by removing H4R3me2a at the promoter regions of PDEC1 and suppressing PDEC1 expression. Importantly, the depletion of JMJD6 in ADSCs significantly increased cellular proliferation and motility, which was associated with increases in PDE1C expression and decreases in the levels of both cAMP and cGMP. The increase in proliferation and migration was reversed by treatment with a PDE1C inhibitor, suggesting that JMJD6 attenuates the proliferation and migration of ADSCs as an epigenetic regulator and PDE1C partially contributes to the JMJD6-mediated regulation.

Conclusions: Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that JMJD6 plays an important role in the regulation of ADSCs proliferation and migration through the modulation of PDE1C expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-018-0949-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6085710PMC
August 2018

Acupoint herbal plaster for patients with primary dysmenorrhea: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2018 Jul 3;19(1):348. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

The Department of Acupuncture and Tuina, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: Primary dysmenorrhea (PD), is one of main gynecological complaints in women of child-bearing age. Common medications for PD do not always achieve satisfactory outcome of pain relief. Hence, both health professionals and patients are seeking help from complementary and alternative medicine. The acupoint herbal plaster (AHP), which appears to be a safe and effective way to alleviate menstrual pain, as well as to improve other PD-related symptoms. Despite similar clinical studies for this condition in the past, no high-quality methodology-based clinical trial has been reported to date. The current study aims to assess the efficacy of the AHP compared with the acupoint placebo plaster (APP) and being placed on a waiting-list control group in patients with primary dysmenorrhea.

Methods/design: This study is a randomized, single-center, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 180 women with PD will be included and randomly allocated to the AHP, APP and waiting-list (WL) groups in a 1:1:1 ratio. Patients in the AHP group will be provided with herbal plasters (Shaofuzhuyu decoction) on various acupoints: Shenque (CV8), Guanyuan (CV4), Qihai (CV5), Ciliao (BL32) and Zigong (EX-CA1). Women in the APP group will receive placebo plasters on the same acupoints, and no intervention will be given to the WL group until completion of the study. The primary outcome will be pain intensity reduction measured by a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), with other outcome measurements including the Cox Menstrual Symptom Scale (CMSS), the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and the Participant Global Impression of Change (PGIC). All assessments will be performed at baseline, each menstrual cycle during the treatment course and the follow-up course. Any adverse events will be recorded throughout the study.

Discussion: This is the first study to compare the changes in menstrual pain after three different interventions: the active intervention (AHP), the placebo intervention (APP), and a period of no intervention (WL). This three-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to investigate the relative contributions of the specific (AHP vs. APP) and non-specific (APP vs. WL) effects to the overall clinical effects of the active AHP on women with PDM. The scientific and rigorous methodology design of this trial should gather good evidence to assess the curative effects and safety of the AHP on PD. Moreover, the results of this study may provide evidence-based references for the treatment of menstrual pain in future.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ID: ChiCTR-TRC-16008701. Registered on 22 July 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-2682-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6029355PMC
July 2018

Knocking down Cabin1 induces glomerular podocyte injury.

Int Urol Nephrol 2018 May 24;50(5):983-991. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, GuangZhou Medical University, 250th, Chang Gang East Road, Guangzhou, 510260, China.

Background: Podocyte damage exerts a key role in proteinuria. We have demonstrated that calcineurin-binding protein 1 (Cabin1) upregulated during podocyte injury, yet its function in podocyte is still unclear.

Methods: We established 5/6 nephrectomized rats and angiotensin II (AngII)-injured podocyte, as well as knocked down Cabin1 with siRNA in cultured podocytes. Rats were killed at 4 or 8 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy. The localization of podocyte cytoskeleton was detected after immunofluorescence staining. Podocyte mitochondrial morphology was observed under electron microscopy. Podocyte mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP) was measured with MitoCapture kit. Cabin1 and cytochrome c protein expression were detected by western blot.

Results: Massive proteinuria, as well as obvious segmental glomerular sclerosis, was found in rats at 8 weeks after nephrectomy, accompanied with the disruption of synaptopodin. Moreover, mitochondria changed from large and ellipsoid shape to the small, long, and irregular shape in rats at 4 weeks after operation. At 8 weeks, mitochondria were swollen and cristae were remarkably dissolved. Compared to sham-operated rats, Cabin1 protein expression was obviously upregulated in rats at 8 weeks. AngII induced the decrease in MMP, as well as the overexpression of Cabin1 and cytochrome c protein in podocytes. Knocking down Cabin1 induced the disruption of F-actin and overexpression of cytochrome c (1.81 ± 0.21 in siRNA group vs. 0.86 ± 0.11 in negative control group).

Conclusions: Knocking down Cabin1 induces the disruption of cytoskeleton and mitochondrial dysfunction in podocyte. Cabin1 could be a crucial factor in podocyte damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-018-1787-zDOI Listing
May 2018

Upregulation of Cabin1 During Injury to Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells in Rats.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2017 Nov;11(6):430-437

Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction: Calcineurin-binding protein 1 (Cabin1) interacts with calcineurin and p53, but its function in renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC) is unclear. We established 5/6 nephrectomized rats and angiotensin II-induced injury to the RTECs in vitro, to observe the expression of Cabin1 during RTEC injury.

Materials And Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy. Renal pathology and mitochondrial damage were detected by light and electrical microscope. The distribution of E-cadherin and α-smad were detected by indirect immunofluorescence staining. Cabin1 protein expression was detected by Western blot.

Results: Obvious tubulointerstitial fibrosis was found in the nephrectomized rats at 8 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, accompanied by the increasing levels of creatinine, as well as the disruption of E-cadherin and overexpression of α-smad in RTECs. Moreover, the mitochondria became swollen and mitochondrial cristae were disrupted and poorly defined in the RTECs. Compared to the sham-operated rats, Cabin1 protein expression was significantly increased at 8 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, while angiotensin II-induced Cabin1 protein expression significantly increased 48 hours after stimulation in normal rat kidney epithelial cells.

Conclusions: Injury to the RTEC and Cabin1 protein overexpression occurred in a time-dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo. Cabin1 may become a potential molecular target in RTEC injury.
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November 2017

Genetic association of rs1344706 in ZNF804A with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia susceptibility in Chinese populations.

Sci Rep 2017 01 25;7:41140. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Wuxi Mental Health Center, Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China.

Rs1344706 in the the zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) gene has been identified to be associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) in Europeans. However, whether rs1344706 is associated with schizophrenia in Chinese populations remains inconclusive; furthermore, the association between rs1344706 and BD in Chinese populations has been rarely explored. To explore the association between rs1344706 and schizophrenia/BD in Chinese populations, we genotyped rs1344706 among 1128 Chinese subjects (537 patients with BD and 591 controls) and found that rs1344706 showed marginal allelic association with BD (P = 0.028) with T-allele being more prevalent in cases than that in controls (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.37). Meta-analysis of rs1344706 by pooling all available data showed that rs1344706 was significantly associated with BD (P = 0.001). Besides, positive association of rs1344706 with schizophrenia was observed in Northern Chinese (P = 0.005). Furthermore, ZNF804A is highly expressed in human and mouse brains, especially in prenatal stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep41140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5264157PMC
January 2017

The influence of low calcium dialysate on left ventricular diastolic function in peritoneal dialysis patients.

Ren Fail 2016 Nov 19;38(10):1665-1671. Epub 2016 Oct 19.

a Department of Graduate School, Southern Medical University , Guangzhou , China.

Left ventricular (LV) diastolic function was found to be a significant predictor of cardiovascular events and general mortality in dialysis. Studies have indicated that dialysate calcium concentrations were significantly associated with cardiac function. However, the relationship between low calcium dialysate and LV diastolic function has not been clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of low calcium dialysate on cardiac function in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. A total of 60 PD patients were enrolled in this study, with a calcium content of the PD solution of 1.25 mmol/L in 30 patients (low-calcium group) and 1.75 mmol/L in 30 patients (standard-calcium group). Standard M-mode and two-dimensional ultrasound measurements were applied to detect the cardiac function. After 12-month follow-up, we found no significant difference in blood pressure, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), etc., between the two groups. Residual renal function (RRF), which is associated with LV cardiac function, was significantly decreased in the standard-calcium group compared with the low-calcium group (5.64 ± 3.23 vs. 9.38 ± 3.17, p = .001). Compared with the low-calcium group, E (peak early diastolic velocity) and A (peak late diastolic velocity) were significantly decreased (p < .05), whereas myocardial performance index (MPI) was obviously increased in standard-calcium group (9.69 ± 2.71 vs. 7.75 ± 0.93, p < .05). In conclusion, our data suggest that low calcium dialysate treatment is significantly associated with better LV diastolic function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2016.1229986DOI Listing
November 2016

Tacrolimus restores podocyte injury and stabilizes the expression of Cabin1 in 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

Ren Fail 2016 24;38(4):564-70. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

a Department of Nephrology , The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University , Guangzhou , P.R. China ;

Podocyte injury is a vital factor, which induces massive proteinuria. Studies have shown that tacrolimus (TAC) protected podocyte via stabilizing cytoskeleton. Our latest study indicates that calcineurin binding protein 1 (Cabin1) undergoes nuclear translocation during podocytes injury. Whether TAC targets on Cabin1 during podocyte injury is still not clear. This study establishes non-immunological proteinuric model. To observe the effect of the treatment of TAC on Cabin1 expression in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with TAC (0.2 mg/kg/day) for 4-8 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy. Then, rats were sacrificed in the eighth week after operation, renal tissues were processed for morphological studies under light and electrical microscope. Cabin1 expression and distribution were detected by western blot and indirect immunofluorescence staining. In 5/6 nephrectomized rats, urinary protein excretion reached 90.2 ± 30.1 mg/24 h, glomerular sclerosis index and tubulointerstitial fibrosis score were significantly increased, and widespread of podocyte foot processes fusion was found. Moreover, Cabin1 protein expression was markedly increased, and its distribution became much more obviously in podocytes nuclei. In TAC treated rats, urinary protein excretion significantly decreased (44.9 ± 22.5 mg/24 h), glomerular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis were alleviated, and podocyte foot processes fusion was inhibited. Furthermore, TAC alleviated the increased protein expression and abnormal distribution of Cabin1. In conclusion, TAC restores podocyte injury and stabilizes the expression of Cabin1. Cabin1 may become a new target to demonstrate the mechanism of TAC in podocyte injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0886022X.2016.1148936DOI Listing
January 2017

Meta-analysis indicates that SNP rs9939609 within FTO is not associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) in Asian population.

J Affect Disord 2016 Mar 31;193:27-30. Epub 2015 Dec 31.

School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China. Electronic address:

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric illnesses with heritability of up to 38%. The fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene, in particular the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609, has been identified as a genetic risk loci associated with MDD. However, most prior studies have involved European and American populations. Whether rs9939609 is an true risk SNP for MDD in Asian populations remains inconclusive.

Methods: In the present study, we conducted a meta-analysis of the association between rs9939609 and MDD in Asian populations by combining 5 available case-control samples totaling 6531 cases and 12,359 controls.

Results: Our meta-analysis suggests that rs9939609 is not a risk SNP for MDD in Asian populations by fixed effect model (Z=1.04, P=0.30, OR=0.96, 95% CI=0.90-1.03).

Limitations: The age distribution and gender ratios were not matched well in the combined samples of cases and controls. Publication bias might be also considered with only a relatively small number of association studies of FTO rs9939609 with MDD in Asian populations.

Conclusions: The absence of association of rs9939609 with MDD in our Asian populations suggests a potential genetic heterogeneity in the susceptibility of MDD on this locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.12.048DOI Listing
March 2016

Effect of the knockdown of Cabin1 on p53 in glomerular podocyte.

J Recept Signal Transduct Res 2016 23;36(2):173-80. Epub 2015 Sep 23.

a Department of Nephrology , The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University , Guangzhou , P.R. China and.

Calcineurin binding protein 1 (Cabin1) is a natural inhibitor of calcineurin (CN). Moreover, Cabin1 retards tumor cell apoptosis by regulating p53. This study was designed to observe the expression of Cabin1 during podocyte injury, as well as its relationship with p53. Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the establishment of 5/6 nephrectomized rat model. Sham-operated rats underwent ventral laparotomy without nephrectomy. Then, rats were sacrificed at 8 and 12 weeks after nephrectomy. WT-1, a podocyte nuclear protein, was used for indicating the localization of Cabin1 in glomeruli. As tacrolimus protects podocyte via inhibiting AngiotensinII (AngII) induced CN activation. Cultured podocytes were injured by AngII or restored by tacrolimus. The protein expression and localization was detected by western blot or immunofluorescence staining. Cabin1 was knocked down by siRNA in cultured podocytes. In 5/6 nephrectomized rats, the colocalization of Cabin1 and WT-1 became more obviously in podocyte nuclei. Cabin1 protein was markedly increased in rats at 8 and 12 weeks after nephrectomy, as well as in AngII injured podocytes at 48 h (0.99 ± 0.12 in AngII group versus 0.80 ± 0.16 in control group). Cabin1 and p53 colocalized in cultured podocyte nuclei, p53 expression was significantly decreased (0.21 ± 0.05 in siRNA group versus 0.31 ± 0.05 in negative control group) after Cabin1 was being knocked down. In conclusion, Cabin1 expression significantly increases during podocyte injury. Knockdown of Cabin1 induces p53 expression decrease in cultured podocyte. Cabin1 may provide a new target to investigate podocyte injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10799893.2015.1069847DOI Listing
November 2016

Cabin1 localizes in glomerular podocyte and undergoes nuclear translocation during podocyte injury.

Ren Fail 2015 14;37(8):1344-8. Epub 2015 Aug 14.

a Department of Nephrology , The Second Affiliated Hospital, GuangZhou Medical University , Guangzhou , China and.

Context: Podocyte injury is related to increasing proteinuria and contributes to the progression of kidney disease. Calcineurin binding protein 1 (Cabin1) is a repressor of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) and calcineurin-mediated transcription in the immune system. Moreover, Cabin1 interacts with p53 and negatively regulates p53 in tumor cells. However, its function in kidney is unknown.

Objective: To explore the exact localization of Cabin1 in glomeruli, as well as the relationship between Cabin1 and podocyte injury.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed to observe the localization and protein expression of Cabin1 in the kidney. Cabin1 localization and protein expression were detected by immunofluorescence staining and western blot, respectively. Mouse podocytes were cultivated at 33 °C to propagate, then cells were transferred to an incubator at 37 °C to allow differentiation. Differentiated podocytes were stimulated by angiotensin II (AngII) or AngII plus tacrolimus. Cells were harvested to detect the localization and protein expression of Cabin1. Cytoplasmic and nuclear protein were separated by protein extraction kit.

Results: Cabin1 mainly localized in the nuclei of glomerular innate cells, it colocalized with WT-1 in podocytes nuclei. Western bolt showed Cabin1 protein remarkably expressed in renal cortex. AngII-induced Cabin1 nuclear protein significantly increased, accompanied by cytoskeleton disruption in cultured mouse podocytes.

Conclusion: Cabin1 localizes in glomerular podocytes. AngII induces nuclear translocation of Cabin1 in cultured podocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0886022x.2015.1073527DOI Listing
June 2016

High glucose concentrations in peritoneal dialysate are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

Perit Dial Int 2015 Jan-Feb;35(1):70-7. Epub 2013 Dec 1.

Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Key Laboratory of Nephrology, Ministry of Health, Guangzhou, PR China.

Background: The effect of high peritoneal dialysate glucose concentration (PDGC) on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is unclear.

Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the effect of high PDGC on all-cause and CVD mortality in continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) patients.

Methods: The study enrolled 716 patients newly initiated on CAPD therapy between January 2006 and December 2010. We allocated the patients to low (< 1.56%), medium (≥ 1.56% to < 1.74%), and high (≥ 1.74%) average PDGC groups according to the tertile of average PDGC in the first 6 months after PD initiation. Cox regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze determinants of mortality and of PDGC use respectively.

Results: Mean follow-up in the study cohort was 31 ± 15 months. The all-cause mortality was 4.7 events per 100 patient-years, and the leading cause of death was CVD. Patients with a higher PDGC had significantly higher cumulative rates of all-cause (log-rank p < 0.001) and CVD mortality (log-rank p < 0.001). In Cox regression analysis, high PDGC independently predicted higher all-cause (hazard ratio: 2.63; p = 0.004) and CVD mortality (hazard ratio: 2.78; p = 0.01). Compared with a lower PDGC, a higher PDGC was significantly associated with older age [odds ratio (OR): 1.02; p < 0.001], low residual renal function (OR: 0.91; p < 0.001), and high dialysate-to-plasma ratio of creatinine (OR: 28.61; p < 0.001) in ordinal logistic regression.

Conclusions: Higher PDGC is associated with higher allcause and CVD mortality in CAPD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3747/pdi.2013.00083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4335930PMC
November 2015