Publications by authors named "Yue-Min Wang"

46 Publications

[Cefoxitin plus levofloxacin for prevention of severe infection after transrectal prostate biopsy].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2018 Apr;24(4):322-326

Department of Urology, Shanghai East Hospital, Shanghai 200120, China .

Objective: To evaluate the effect of cefoxitin prophylactic in reducing the incidence of severe infection after transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB).

Methods: This retrospective study included 155 cases of TRPB with a 5-day administration of oral levofloxacin at 200 mg bid (the control group) and another 167 cases with a 3-day administration of oral levofloxacin at the same dose plus intravenous cefoxitin at 2.0 g 2 hours before TRPB (the experimental group) according to the distribution characteristics of drug-resistance bacteria in our department. The patients of the control and experimental groups were aged (68.68 ± 8.12) and (68.72 ± 7.51) years, with PSA levels of (19.78 ± 21.57) and (21.15 ± 42.63) μg/L, involving (11.68 ± 1.44) and (11.77±1.02) biopsy cores, respectively. Comparisons were made between the two groups of patients in the incidence rate of severe infection, which was defined as lower urinary track symptoms plus the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) within 7 days after TRPB.

Results: The incidence rate of postoperative severe infection was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control (0.6% [1/167] vs 5.8% [9/155], P < 0.05). Blood cultures revealed positive E-coli strains in 6 cases in the control group, including 5 ESBL-positive and 4 quinolone-resistant and amikacin-sensitive cases, all sensitive to cefoxitin, cefoperazone/sulbactam and imipenem. The only one case of severe infection was shown to be negative in blood culture.

Conclusions: Preoperative intravenous administration of cefoxitin according to the specific distribution characteristics of drug-resistance bacteria can significantly reduce the incidence of severe infection after TRPB.
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April 2018

A New Chimeric Natriuretic Peptide, CAA, for the Treatment of Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Myocardial Infarction.

Sci Rep 2017 08 30;7(1):10099. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Department of Physiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, Shaanxi Province, China.

An innovative natriuretic peptide analog named CAA (structurally consisting of the C-terminus and ring of ANP and the N-terminus of CNP) that has been shown to exhibit potent vasodilatory, diuretic, and hypotensive effects in our previous study was evaluated for the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction. The temporal relaxation effect and metabolic status of CAA were determined. A myocardial ischemic model was established. Rats were randomly divided into Sham, MI, MI-ANP, MI-CNP, MI-VNP, and MI-CAA groups. Humoral factors were measured; echocardiography and hemodynamics methods were employed to assess the cardiac function at the fourth week after modeling. The results showed that CAA had a potent relaxant effect and longer duration of action than ANP, CNP, or VNP. The stability of CAA in blood was higher than other three NPs. Four weeks of NP administration ameliorated diastolic and systolic dysfunction, the hypertrophic index, myocardial fibrosis, and infarct size; it also restored the abnormal changes in humoral factors. These results demonstrate that CAA has a potent cardioprotective effect against left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. The results may lay the foundation for the clinical application of this newly designed NP chimera in the treatment and prevention of heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10748-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5577105PMC
August 2017

κ-Opioid Receptor Stimulation Improves Endothelial Function via Akt-stimulated NO Production in Hyperlipidemic Rats.

Sci Rep 2016 05 26;6:26807. Epub 2016 May 26.

Department of Physiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.

This study was designed to investigate the effect of U50,488H (a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist) on endothelial function impaired by hyperlipidemia and to determine the role of Akt-stimulated NO production in it. Hyperlipidemic model was established by feeding rats with a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. U50,488H and nor-BNI (a selective κ-opioid receptor antagonist) were administered intraperitoneally. In vitro, the involvement of the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in the effect of U50,488H was studied using cultured endothelial cells subjected to artificial hyperlipidemia. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations dramatically increased after high-fat diet feeding. Administration of U50,488H significantly alleviated endothelial ultrastructural destruction and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation impairment caused by hyperlipidemia. U50,488H also increased Akt/eNOS phosphorylation and serum/medium NO level both in vivo and in vitro. U50,488H increased eNOS activity and suppressed iNOS activity in vivo. The effects of U50,488H were abolished in vitro by siRNAs targeting κ-opioid receptor and Akt or PI3K/Akt/eNOS inhibitors. All effects of U50,488H were blocked by nor-BNI. These results demonstrate that κ-opioid receptor stimulation normalizes endothelial ultrastructure and function under hyperlipidemic condition. Its mechanism is related to the preservation of eNOS phosphorylation through activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and downregulation of iNOS expression/activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep26807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4881032PMC
May 2016

[Circumcision versus the foreskin-deglove plus shaft-fix procedure for phimosis or redundant prepuce in obese adult patients].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2016 Mar;22(3):233-6

Objective: To compare the clinical effects of circumcision and the foreskin-deglove plus shaft-fix (FDSF) procedure in the treatment of phimosis or redundant prepuce in obese adult males (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 28 kg/m²).

Methods: Forty-four obese adult men with phimosis or redundant prepuce underwent circumcision (n = 24) or FDSF (n = 20) according to their own wishes. The patients in the circumcision and FDSF groups were aged (26.38 ± 4.24) and (26.90 ± 3.14) years, with BMIs of (27.77 ± 0.77) and (28.07 ± 2.28) kg/m² and penis lengths of (3.51 ± 0.46) and (3.50 ± 0.59) cm, respectively. The operations were performed under local anesthesia with lidocaine plus ropivacaine mesylate.

Results: The operation time of circumcision was (28.04 ± 2.65) min and that of FDSF was (45.45 ± 3.49) min. At 6 months after surgery, normal penile erection was found in all the patients, the penis length was significantly longer in the FDSF than in the circumcision group ([5.01 ± 0.73] vs [3.70 ± 0.47] cm) , and the rate of satisfaction with penile appearance was markedly higher in the former than in the latter group (3.25 ± 0.71 vs 2.83 ± 0.56).

Conclusion: The foreskin-deglove plus shaft-fix procedure under local anesthesia with lidocaine and ropivacaine mesylate may achieve desirable penile erection and appearance in the treatment of phimosis or redundant prepuce in obese adult patients.
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March 2016

A Changing Healthcare System Model: The Effectiveness of Knowledge, Attitude, and Skill of Nursing Assistants Who Attend Senile Dementia Patients in Nursing Homes in Xi'an, China - A Questionnaire Survey.

Ochsner J 2014 ;14(3):328-34

Department of Physiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Background: In 2010, China had an elderly population of 1.78 billion people. As in other societies around the world, China is facing a growing challenge in providing care for its elderly citizens. Ensuring the highest quality of care for elderly patients, many of whom have senile dementia, is directly related to the performance of nursing assistants.

Methods: With the goal of investigating the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of nursing assistants who care for senile dementia patients in nursing homes in Xi'an, China, we distributed a survey and analyzed the responses.

Results: Nursing assistants showed dedication and sincerity in their care for senile dementia patients. However, their performances in the categories of life nursing and mental nursing reveal room for improvement. Further, the nursing assistants did not display adequate knowledge about senile dementia. Based on survey results, the knowledge of the nursing assistants concerning nursing safety was comparatively adequate.

Conclusion: Nursing assistants who care for senile dementia patients in nursing homes in Xi'an, China, require further training that expands their knowledge and increases their capabilities. We recommend that nursing homes in Xi'an offer a standardized professional nurse/nurse assistant training course that focuses on care for elderly patients with senile dementia.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4171789PMC
September 2014

Silencing the expression of Cbl-b enhances the immune activation of T lymphocytes against RM-1 prostate cancer cells in vitro.

J Chin Med Assoc 2014 Dec 22;77(12):630-6. Epub 2014 Sep 22.

Department of Urology, East Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: The ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b potently modulates T lymphocyte immune responses and is critical in modulating tumor-induced immunosuppression. The influence of Cbl-b in modulating T lymphocyte activity against prostate cancer remains ill defined. We have determined the effects of silencing Cbl-b expression in T lymphocytes and their subsequent cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells.

Methods: T lymphocytes were isolated from the spleens of C57BL/6 mice. Lipofectamine-directed transfection of T lymphocytes with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) silenced Cbl-b expression, which was confirmed by Western immunoblotting. The siRNA species were chosen that promoted the greatest transfection efficiency and dampened Cbl-b expression in T lymphocytes. The expression of CD69, CD25, and CD71 by the transfected T lymphocytes was determined by flow cytometry. T lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by CCK-8 assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the secretion of interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-β. The objective was to compare the cytotoxic activity of transfected T lymphocytes and nontransfected (i.e., negative control) T lymphocytes against the murine prostate cancer cell line target RM-1 in vitro.

Results: We selected a specific siRNA that decreased T lymphocyte Cbl-b expression to 15%. The siRNA-transfected T lymphocytes showed higher proliferation; higher CD69, CD25, and CD71 expression (p < 0.001); and higher IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-β secretion (p < 0.05), compared to the nontransfected cells. Transfected T lymphocytes were also more potent at killing RM-1 prostate cancer cells, compared to the negative control in vitro.

Conclusion: Silencing Cbl-b significantly enhanced T lymphocyte function and T lymphocyte cytotoxicity activity against a model prostate cancer cell line in vitro. This study suggests a potentially novel immunotherapeutic strategy against prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcma.2014.03.008DOI Listing
December 2014

Lacidipine attenuates TNF-α-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

Cytokine 2015 Jan 16;71(1):60-5. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Department of Physiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, PR China; Department of Cardiosurgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, PR China. Electronic address:

This study was designed to investigate whether lacidipine elicited a protective role on cardiomyocyte against apoptosis induced by TNF-α. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were randomly assigned into different groups. TUNEL staining was utilized to detect apoptosis, and caspase-3 and caspse-12 were determined. To explore the underlying mechanism, Z-ATAD-FMK (a selective caspase-12 inhibitor) was used to identify the key molecule involved. TNF-α increased caspase-3 expression, which was mediated by increased caspase-12 expression. In the meantime, apoptosis was significantly induced by TNF-α. Lacidipine lowered caspase-12 and caspase-3 expression, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by TNF-α. The results suggest that lacidipine attenuates TNF-α -induced apoptosis via inhibition of caspase-12 and caspase-3 successively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2014.08.004DOI Listing
January 2015

Chrebp regulates the transcriptional activity of androgen receptor in prostate cancer.

Tumour Biol 2014 Aug 21;35(8):8143-8. Epub 2014 May 21.

Department of Urology, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Jimo Road 150, 200120, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Androgen receptor (AR), a member of nuclear hormone receptor, plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study, by way of immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry (IP/MS) system, we found that carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (Chrebp), a glucose sensor in normal and cancer cells, interacted with AR in LNCaP cells. The interaction was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation analysis. Besides, Chrebp is required for the optimal transcriptional activity of AR in promoting the transcription of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Consistently, knockdown of Chrebp using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in LNCaP cells reduced endogenous PSA levels. Together, our study demonstrates that Chrebp interacts with AR and regulates its transcriptional activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-014-2085-8DOI Listing
August 2014

Κ-opioid receptor stimulation improves endothelial function in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

PLoS One 2013 7;8(5):e60850. Epub 2013 May 7.

Department of Cardiology, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, P.R. China.

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of κ-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H on endothelial function and underlying mechanism in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Chronic hypoxia-induced HPH was simulated by exposing the rats to 10% oxygen for 2 wk. After hypoxia, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular pressure (RVP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) were measured. Relaxation of pulmonary artery in response to acetylcholine (ACh) was determined. Expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) with NO production, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), gp91(phox) expression and nitrotyrosine content were measured. The effect of U50,488H administration during chronic hypoxia was investigated. Administration of U50,488H significantly decreased mPAP and right ventricular hypertrophy as evidenced by reduction in RVP and RVHI. These effects were mediated by κ-opioid receptor. In the meantime, treatment with U50,488H significantly improved endothelial function as evidenced by enhanced relaxation in response to ACh. Moreover, U50,488H resulted in a significant increase in eNOS phosphorylation, NO content in serum, and T-AOC in pulmonary artery of HPH rats. In addition, the activity of eNOS was enhanced, but the activity of iNOS was attenuated in the pulmonary artery of chronic hypoxic rats treated with U50,488H. On the other hand, U50,488H markedly blunted HPH-induced elevation of gp91(phox) expression and nitrotyrosine content in pulmonary artery, and these effects were blocked by nor-BNI, a selective κ-opioid receptor antagonist. These data suggest that κ-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H improves endothelial function in rats with HPH. The mechanism of action might be attributed to the preservation of eNOS activity, enhancement of eNOS phosphorylation, downregulation of iNOS activity and its antioxidative/nitrative effect.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0060850PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3646880PMC
December 2013

Resveratrol attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in neonatal cardiomyocytes and its underlying mechanism.

PLoS One 2012 20;7(12):e51223. Epub 2012 Dec 20.

Department of Physiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

This study was designed to investigate whether Resveratrol (Res) could be a prophylactic factor in the prevention of I/R injury and to shed light on its underlying mechanism. Primary culture of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were randomly distributed into three groups: the normal group (cultured cardiomyocytes were in normal conditions), the I/R group (cultured cardiomyocytes were subjected to 2 h simulated ischemia followed by 4 h reperfusion), and the Res+I/R group (100 µmol/L Res was administered before cardiomyocytes were subjected to 2 h simulated ischemia followed by 4 h reperfusion). To test the extent of cardiomyocyte injury, several indices were detected including cell viability, LDH activity, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. To test apoptotic cell death, caspase-3 activity and the expression of Bcl-2/Bax were detected. To explore the underlying mechanism, several inhibitors, intracellular calcium, SOD activity and MDA content were used to identify some key molecules involved. Res increased cell viability, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, Bcl-2 expression, and SOD level. While LDH activity, capase-3 activity, Bax expression, intracellular calcium and MDA content were decreased by Res. And the effect of Res was blocked completely by either L-NAME (an eNOS inhibitor) or MB (a cGMP inhibitor), and partly by either DS (a PKC inhibitor) or Glybenclamide (a K(ATP) inhibitor). Our results suggest that Res attenuates I/R injury in cardiomyocytes by preventing cell apoptosis, decreasing LDH release and increasing ATPase activity. NO, cGMP, PKC and K(ATP) may play an important role in the protective role of Res. Moreover, Res enhances the capacity of anti-oxygen free radical and alleviates intracellular calcium overload in cardiomyocytes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0051223PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3527482PMC
June 2013

Vasculoprotective effect of U50,488H in rats exposed to chronic hypoxia: role of Akt-stimulated NO production.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2013 Jan 8;114(2):238-44. Epub 2012 Nov 8.

Department of Physiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Impairment of pulmonary endothelium function in the pulmonary artery is a direct result of chronic hypoxia. This study is to investigate the vasculoprotective effects of U50,488H (a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist) and its underlying mechanism in hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery endothelial functional injury. Chronic hypoxia was simulated by exposing the rats to 10% oxygen for 2 wk. After hypoxia, right ventricular pressure (RVP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) were measured. The pulmonary vascular dysfunction, effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (l-NAME) on the relaxation of U50,488H, and level of nitric oxide (NO) were determined. In vitro, the signaling pathway involved in the anti-apoptotic effect of U50,488H was investigated. Cultured endothelial cells were subjected to simulated hypoxia, and cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining. U50,488H (1.25 mg/kg) significantly reduced RVP and RVHI in hypoxia. U50,488H markedly improved both pulmonary endothelial function (maximal vasorelaxation in response to ACh: 74.9 ± 1.8%, n = 6, P <0.01 vs. hypoxia for 2 wk group) and increased total NO production (1.65 fold). U50,488H relaxed the pulmonary artery rings of the hypoxic rats. This effect was partly abolished by l-NAME. In cells, U50,488H both increased NO production and reduced hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Moreover, pretreatment with nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI, a selective κ-opioid receptor antagonist), PI3K inhibitor, Akt inhibitor or l-NAME almost abolished anti-apoptotic effect exerted by U50,488H. U50,488H resulted in increases in Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. These results demonstrate that pretreatment with U50,488H attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction in an Akt-dependent and NO-mediated fashion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00994.2012DOI Listing
January 2013

Development of a rat respiratory mask and its application in experimental chronic myocardial ischaemia.

Lab Anim 2012 Oct;46(4):293-8

Department of Physiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.

In addressing the challenge of the low survival rates of rats with myocardial ischaemia, we developed a novel respiratory mask. We tested this mask on the rat model. We gave attention to several features of the mask: (1) shape, (2) size, (3) inlet, (4) outlet, (5) compatibility between rat head and the mask, (6) connection between mask and ventilator. We found certain features, especially to influence mask efficacy. These features include: mask shape, mask inlet and outlet, mask connection to the respiratory machine, mask mount on the rat head. We examined the rat mask in a model of chronic myocardial ischaemia; our model was the ligation of the coronary artery. The rats with the masks experienced an increase in survival by a factor of 50-90% compared with rats deprived of the masks. Towards the examination of myocardial ischaemia, our new mask may offer a platform replete with both efficiency and stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/la.2012.012070DOI Listing
October 2012

κ-opioid receptor activation prevents against arrhythmias by preserving Cx43 protein via alleviation of intracellular calcium.

Am J Ther 2013 Sep-Oct;20(5):493-501

1Department of Physiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China 2Department of Cardiology, Institute for Cardiovascular Research, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region, Shenyang, China 3Department of Cardiosurgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China 4Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 5Department of Pharmacology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA.

κ-opioid receptor (κ-OR) activation with U50,488H, a selective κ-OR agonist, has been previously demonstrated to prevent against cardiac arrhythmias via stabilizing the synthesis and degradation of an integral membrane protein, Cx43, in gap junctions. However, the exact prevention mechanism remains unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that the kappa OR agonist U50,488H mediates the prevention of arrhythmia through the regulation of intracellular calcium leading to the preservation of Cx43 protein. By performing electrocardiogram monitoring and immunoblotting in isolated Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, high concentrations of calcium-perfused rat hearts exhibited increased cardiac arrhythmias. Diminished expression of Cx43 protein was observed. The utilization of a whole-cell patch clamp technique revealed that U50,488H inhibited L-type calcium current in single ventricular myocytes in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were blocked by nor-binaltorphimine, potent and selective κ-OR antagonists. Administration of U50,488H before myocardial ischemia resulted in an attenuated of total arrhythmia scores. The attenuation effect was blocked by nor-binaltorphimine. The attenuation effect was antagonized both by Bay K8644, a L-type calcium channel agonist, and also by the Cx43 uncoupler heptanol. Finally, immunoblotting data demonstrated that the preservation of Cx43 protein conferred by U50,488H was reversed in the presence of Bay K8644. In summary, the present study demonstrates κ-OR activation with U50,488H may confer antiarrhythmic effects via modulation of the calcium-Cx43 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0b013e3182456676DOI Listing
December 2014

[Effect of compound nutrients on acute immobilization and cold water-immersion stress-induced changes of Th1/Th2 cytokines].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2012 Jun;28(6):601-3

Department of Physiology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Aim: To investigate the effect of compound nutrients on Th1/Th2 imbalance caused by changes in cytokines of Th cell subsets, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6 and TNF-α, in rats with acute immobilization and cold water-immersion stress.

Methods: Male SD rats were randomly assigned to three groups including normal control group (C), acute stress group (S) and acute stress+compound nutrients group (S+CN). Stress procedure was the acute immobilization and cold water-immersion. The stress rats were fed water (Group S) or compound nutrient liquid (Group S+CN) by a feeding needle 1 week before acute stress, and then restrained and immersed in cold water for 30 min. The control rats were given water in the same way without stress stimulation. The rats were killed and blood samples were collected 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress, respectively. Serum was separated by centrifugation and stored at -70 DegreesCelsius until assayed. The serum levels of IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit.

Results: Acute immobilization and cold water-immersion stress reduced IL-2 level, and increased IL-6 and TNF-α level at different time points (0, 30, 60 and 120 min) after stress, which was most obvious at 30 min. Oral administration (gavage) of compound nutrients was found to moderate the acute immobilization and cold water-immersion stress-induced changes in serum IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α, which was also most significant at 30 min after stress.

Conclusion: Complex nutrients can significantly alleviate the changes of Th1/Th2 cytokines in stress rats, including IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α, which suggests that compound nutrients can improve the immune regulation function of stress rats and restore Th1/Th2 balance. Compound nutrients might enhance the body's anti-stress ability and lighten the stress-related damage, thus being a possible candidate for the therapeutic modulation of stress.
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June 2012

Deletion of RBP-J in adult mice leads to the onset of aortic valve degenerative diseases.

Mol Biol Rep 2012 Apr 20;39(4):3837-45. Epub 2011 Jul 20.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Chang-Le Xi Street #17, Xian, 710032, China.

Transcription factor RBP-J-mediated Notch signaling has been implicated in several inherited cardiovascular diseases including aortic valve diseases (AVD). But whether Notch signal plays a role in AVD in adults has been unclear. This study aims to test whether the deletion of RBP-J in adult mice would lead to AVD and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Cre-LoxP-mediated gene deletion was employed to disrupt Notch signal in adult mice. Immunofluorescence and electron microscope observations showed that deletion of RBP-J in adult mice led to early morphological changes of AVD. The size of aortic valve was enlarged. The endothelial homeostasis was perturbed, probably due to the up-regulation of VEGFR2. The endothelial cells exhibited increased proliferation and loose endothelial junctions. The valvular mesenchyme displayed significant fibrosis, consistent with the up-regulation of TGF-β1 and activation of endothelial-mesenchymal transition. We observed melanin-producing cells in aortic valves. The number of melanin-producing cells increased significantly, and their location changed from the mesenchyme to subendothelial layer of valve cusps in RBP-J deficient mice. These results suggest that RBP-J-mediated Notch signaling in aortic valves may be critically involved in valve homeostasis and valve diseases as well. These findings will be helpful for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of AVD in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-011-1162-yDOI Listing
April 2012

Endogenous κ-opioid peptide mediates the cardioprotection induced by ischemic postconditioning.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2011 Aug;58(2):207-15

Department of Emergency Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Xi'an 710032, China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanism that dynorphin, an endogenous kappa opioid receptor (κ-OR) agonist, triggers antiapoptotic effect of postconditioning (Postcon). In addition to vehicle treatment, Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6) underwent a 30-minute left anterior descending occlusion followed by 2 hours of reperfusion with or without a Postcon stimulus. The selective κ-OR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (Nor-BNI) was administered intravenously 5 minutes before reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Blood plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and myocardial caspase-3 activity were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Myocardial apoptosis was analyzed by the detection of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end labeling. Immunoreactive dynorphin in blood serum and myocardium was measured by means of an antigen-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Infarction size, caspase-3 activity, apoptotic index, and CK and LDH levels were significantly higher in the ischemic/reperfusion group than in the vehicle group (P < 0.01). Postcon significantly reduced infarction size, caspase-3 activity, apoptotic index, CK and LDH levels (P < 0.01 vs. ischemic/reperfusion). Dynorphin content significantly increased after Postcon (P < 0.01). All the effects described above were abolished by Nor-BNI, with the exception of dynorphin content. We found that cardiac protection and antiapoptotic effect of Postcon is mediated by the activation of κ-OR. Effect of Postcon is mediated, at least partially, by enhanced dynorphin expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0b013e318220e37fDOI Listing
August 2011

Doppler flow spectra of the superior vena cava in a rat model of chronic pulmonary hypertension.

Lab Anim 2011 Apr 14;45(2):90-4. Epub 2011 Mar 14.

Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China.

The aim of this study was to explore the changes of the Doppler flow spectra of the superior vena cava (SVC) in a rat model of chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH). Thirty-two rats were injected with monocrotaline (MCT) to establish a model of chronic PH. Eight rats from the control group had a sham operation by injecting Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered solution. Serial echocardiographic parameters of the SVC were analysed four weeks after treating with MCT or placebo, and the relationship was analysed between the Doppler flow spectra of SVC and the pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP). PH models were successfully established in 29 rats. The right ventricular systolic pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure and PASP in the PH group were significantly higher than those in the sham group at 28 days (P < 0.001). The ratios of SVC maximum reverse peak flow velocity/maximum systolic peak flow velocity (VAr/VS) and maximum reverse peak velocity time integral/maximum systolic peak velocity time integral (VTIAr/VTIS) increased significantly (P < 0.05) after MCT injection. These results demonstrate that echocardiography can be used to monitor the haemodynamic changes in SVC in MCT-induced chronic PH rat models. The ratios of VAr/VS and VTIAr/VTIS may be sensitive indices for evaluating PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/la.2010.010152DOI Listing
April 2011

Antiarrhythmic effect mediated by κ-opioid receptor is associated with Cx43 stabilization.

Crit Care Med 2010 Dec;38(12):2365-76

Department of Physiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, and the Department of Emergency, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Acute myocardial ischemia induces electrical and chemical uncoupling of gap junctions, which contributes to conduction abnormalities and re-entrant arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that structure and function of Connexin43 may vibrate during acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion and κ-opioid receptor stimulation may stabilize the alteration of Connexin43.

Design: An animal intervention study was conducted with comparison to a control group.

Setting: University preclinical research laboratory.

Subjects: Age-, weight-, and sex-matched Sprague-Dawley rats.

Interventions: Adult rat hearts were subjected to ischemia or ischemia/reperfusion, which was induced by temporary occlusion of the left main coronary artery. U50488H was given 10 mins before tissue specimens were taken or before ischemia (1.5 mg/kg, intravenous) and nor-BNI was given 15 mins before tissue specimens were taken or before ischemia (2 mg/kg, intravenous). Tissue samples came from left ventricular myocardium of the rat hearts.

Measurements And Main Results: Electrocardiogram, immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to measure changes of arrhythmias, protein, and gene expression of Connexin43, respectively. κ-opioid receptor activation with U50 decreased arrhythmia in a model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. In normal hearts, immunohistochemical data showed reduced amount and lateralization of Connexin43 induced by κ-opioid receptor activation, whereas immunoblotting data demonstrated no significant changes between control and U50 group. During ischemia, however, Connexin43 protein underwent dephosphorylation and degradation, and Connexin43 mRNA was upregulated. These alterations were significantly attenuated on κ-opioid receptor stimulation. During ischemia and reperfusion, Connexin43 protein underwent dephosphorylation and degradation and recovered slowly during reperfusion. Activation of κ-opioid receptor accelerated recovery of phosphorylated and total Connexin43.

Conclusions: In normal rat hearts, Connexin43 translocates from intercellular junctions to intracellular locations on κ-opioid receptor activation. In rat hearts experiencing acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, protein and gene expression of Connexin43 undergo vibration. This phenomenon is stabilized when κ-opioid receptor is activated and by the fact that κ-opioid receptor produces antiarrhythmic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181fa0437DOI Listing
December 2010

Modulation of intracellular calcium transient in response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in the hearts of 4-wk-old rats during simulated weightlessness.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2010 Apr 4;108(4):838-44. Epub 2010 Feb 4.

Department of Pathophysiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China.

Modulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) transient in response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in the hearts of hindlimb unweighted (HLU) rats during simulated weightlessness has not been reported. In the present study, we adopted the rat tail suspension for 4 wk to simulate weightlessness. Effects of simulated microgravity on beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness were then studied. Mean arterial blood pressure, left ventricular pressure (LVP), systolic function [maximum positive change in pressure over time (+dP/dt(max))], and diastolic function [maximum negative change in pressure over time (-dP/dt(max))] were monitored during the in vivo experiment. beta-Adrenoceptor density was quantitated by radioactive ligand binding. Single rat ventricular myocyte was obtained by enzymatic dissociation method. +/-dP/dt(max), myocyte contraction, intracellular [Ca(2+)](i) transient, and L-type calcium current in response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation with isoproterenol were measured. Compared with the control group, no significant changes were found in heart weight, body weight, and mean arterial blood pressure, whereas LVP and +/-dP/dt(max) were significantly reduced. LVP and +/-dP/dt(max) were significantly attenuated in the HLU group in response to isoproterenol administration. In the in vitro study, the beta-adrenoceptor density was unchanged. Effects of isoproterenol on electrically induced single-cell contraction and [Ca(2+)](i) transient in myocytes of ventricles in HLU rats were significantly attenuated. The enhanced L-type Ca(2+) current elicited by isoproterenol in cardiomyocytes was significantly decreased in the HLU group. The above results indicate that impaired function of L-type Ca(2+) current and decreased [Ca(2+)](i) transient cause the depressed responsiveness of the beta-adrenoceptor stimulation, which may be partially responsible for the depression of cardiac function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01055.2009DOI Listing
April 2010

Lentivirus-mediated SMO RNA interference inhibits SMO expression and cell proliferation, and affects the cell cycle in LNCaP and PC3 cancer cell lines.

Asian J Androl 2010 Mar 21;12(2):196-202. Epub 2009 Dec 21.

Department of Urology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University, China.

Smoothened (SMO) is an important member of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. We constructed a specific recombinant lentiviral vector for RNA interference, targeting the SMO gene (NM_005631) to observe its effect on SMO expression, cell proliferation and the cell cycle in the human androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, and in the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line, PC3. Four siRNA sequences were designed and inserted into a lentiviral vector pGCSIL-GFP to construct four recombinant vectors. The vector with the highest interfering efficiency was co-transfected with packaging vectors (pHelper1.0 and pHelper2.0) in 293T cells to assemble lentivirus particles by liposome for infecting LNCaP and PC3 cell lines, respectively. The expression level of SMO mRNA, tumor cell proliferation and cell cycle were measured by quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Sequence results showed that recombinant lentiviral vectors were constructed successfully. pGCSIL-GFP-723 had the highest interfering efficiency, named Lv-SIL-SMO723 after co-transfection, with which LNCaP and PC3 cell lines were infected. Compared with the control groups, results showed significantly decreased (P < 0.05) SMO mRNA expressions of LNCaP and PC3, lower mean percentage of S-phase cells and higher mean percentage of G(2)/M phase cells, as well as obviously slow proliferation (P < 0.01) of LNCaP in the infected group. Yet, the proliferation of PC3 was not altered (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the recombinant lentivirus particles were able to suppress SMO expression, regulate the cell cycle in the LNCaP and PC3 cell lines and markedly inhibit proliferation of LNCaP cells but not PC3 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/aja.2009.79DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3739093PMC
March 2010

Myocardial apoptosis and infarction after ischemia/reperfusion are attenuated by kappa-opioid receptor agonist.

Arch Med Res 2009 May;40(4):227-34

Department of Physiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi Province, PR China.

Background And Aims: It remains unclear whether U50488H (a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist) produces anti-apoptotic effect during ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Therefore, the effect of U50488H on myocardial apoptosis was investigated in the present study.

Methods: Rats were subjected to 45min coronary artery occlusion and 180min of reperfusion. U50488H (1.5mg/kg IV) was given prior to occlusion. Nor-Binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) (2mg/kg IV), a selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, was given 10min prior to U50488H. Cardiac apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and in situ identification of nuclear DNA fragmentation.

Results: The ultrastructure injury of myocardium, myocardial infarct size, and plasma CK and LDH were reduced significantly with administration of U50488H before I/R, whereas the effects of U50488H were abolished by nor-BNI. DNA fragments were visualized by agarose electrophoresis, and clear DNA ladder formation was observed in myocardial tissue from hearts subjected to I/R. Administration of U50488H before ischemia exerted a significant anti-apoptotic effect as evidenced by markedly weaker DNA ladder formation. TUNEL staining showed U50488H treatment before I/R significantly reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells, which was blocked by 5-HD, a mitochondrial k(ATP) channel blocker. In accordance, U50488H treatment significantly inhibited I/R-induced elevated activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. U50488H also produced an increase in Bcl-2 and a decrease in Bax protein expression in the I/R heart, and the anti-apoptotic effects of U50488H were all blocked by nor-BNI.

Conclusions: U50488H reduces myocardial necrosis and apoptosis after I/R and activation of kappa-opioid receptor may mediate a role in U50488H-induced myocardial protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2009.04.009DOI Listing
May 2009

CB1 cannabinoid receptor participates in the vascular hyporeactivity resulting from hemorrhagic shock in rats.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2009 Apr;122(8):950-4

Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, China.

Background: Vascular hyporeactivity, which occurs in the terminal stage of hemorrhagic shock, is believed to be critical for treating hemorrhagic shock. The present study was designed to examine whether the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) was involved in the development of vascular hyporeactivity in rats suffering from hemorrhagic shock.

Methods: Sixteen animals were randomly divided into two groups (n = 8 in each group): sham-operated (Sham) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) groups. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by bleeding. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was reduced to and stabilized at (25 +/- 5) mmHg for 2 hours. The vascular reactivity was determined by the response of MAP to norepinephrine (NE). In later experiments another twelve animals were used in which the changes of CB1R mRNA and protein in aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. In addition, we investigated the effects of a CB1R antagonist on the vascular hyporeactivity and survival rates in rats with hemorrhagic shock. Survival rates were analyzed by the Fisher's exact probability test. The MAP response was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: Vascular hyporeactivity developed in all animals suffering from hemorrhagic shock. The expression of CB1R mRNA and protein in aorta and 2 - 3 branches of the SMA were significantly increased in the HS group after the development of vascular hyporeactivity when compared to those in Sham group. When SR141716A or AM251 was administered, the MAP response to NE was (41.75 +/- 4.08) mmHg or (44.78 +/- 1.80) mmHg respectively, which was higher than that in saline groups with (4.31 +/- 0.36) mmHg (P < 0.01). We also showed an increased 4-hour survival rate in the SR141716A or AM251-treated group with 20% or 30%, but with a statistically significant difference present between the AM251-treated and saline groups (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: CB1R is involved in vascular hyporeactivity resulting from hemorrhagic shock in rats, and CB1R antagonist may be useful in treating patients with traumatic, hemorrhagic shock who need field-rescue or initial treatment.
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April 2009

Distribution of kappa-opioid receptor in the pulmonary artery and its changes during hypoxia.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2009 Jul;292(7):1062-7

Department of Plastic Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

The present study evaluated the distribution of kappa-opioid receptors (kappa-ORs) in pulmonary arteries (PAs) in rats and investigated whether kappa-ORs are altered in PAs during hypoxia. An animal model of hypobaric/hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and a pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) model of hypoxia were utilized. Distribution of kappa-ORs was determined by fluorescence immunohistochemistry and changes in kappa-ORs expression in PAs and PASMCs were determined by fluorescence immunohistochemistry or Western blot techniques. The kappa-ORs were primarily distributed in the smooth muscle layer of the PAs and in the nucleus of PASMCs. The expression of the kappa-ORs were increased in PAs of rats subjected to hypoxia for 1-4 week (P < 0.01). Accordingly, the expression of kappa-ORs in PASMCs were also increased when subjected to hypoxia for 12-36 hr (P < 0.05). The present study has provided evidence for the first time of the precise location of kappa-ORs in PAs and PASMCs of rats and that hypoxia upregulates expression of kappa-ORs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.20911DOI Listing
July 2009

Respiratory face mask: a novel and cost-effective device for use during the application of myocardial ischemia in rats.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2009 May;10(5):391-4

Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.

To shorten operation time and improve survival rate of rats with myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction, we use a novel device comprised of a face mask and a head/neck retainer in this study. We report the basic design of the novel respiratory face mask (RFM) and evaluate its performance in a rat model of myocardial ischemia. The device is cost-effective and easier to handle than other devices, such as tracheal intubation. Compared with conventional tracheal intubation, we found that RFM shortens operation time significantly while keeping blood indices normal; the mean operation time for rats in the mask group was (32+/-3) min, and that for the intubation group was (45+/-7) min (P<0.05). Moreover, the size and shape of the RFM can be changed according to the body weight of rats. In conclusion, RFM is an appropriate device for the establishment of myocardial infarction or ischemia-reperfusion in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B0820216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2676419PMC
May 2009

Effects of U50,488H on hypoxia pulmonary hypertension and its underlying mechanism.

Vascul Pharmacol 2009 Aug-Sep;51(2-3):72-7. Epub 2009 Apr 5.

Department of Physiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province, China.

The aim of the present study was to determine whether U50,488H, a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, inhibits the remodeling of the pulmonary artery (PA). In addition, changes in the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), endothelin (ET) and angiotensin II (AngII) in hypoxic pulmonary hypertensive (HPH) rats were investigated to explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of U50, 488H on HPH. We found that intraperitoneal administration of U50,488H (every other day) during hypoxia depressed mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and attenuated right ventricular pressure (RVP) and right ventricular hypertrophy, at the same time it inhibited remodeling of the PA compared with hypoxia for 2 wk. Moreover, U50,488H also inhibited proliferation of the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) induced by hypoxia for 48 h in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the 2 wk hypoxia group, U50,488H increased the concentration of NO and decreased the production of ET and AngII (P<0.01). In addition, acute intravenous administration of U50,488H after hypoxia for 4 wk decreased mPAP. Our results suggest that effects of anti-remodeling of the PA and anti-proliferation of the PASMC, and regulation of the vasomotor factors in both blood and pulmonary tissues of HPH rats may be critical mechanisms underlying the preventive and therapeutic effects of U50,488H in HPH rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2009.03.003DOI Listing
October 2009

Stimulation of kappa-opioid receptor reduces isoprenaline-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.

Eur J Pharmacol 2009 Apr 21;607(1-3):135-42. Epub 2009 Feb 21.

Department of Emergency, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, PR China.

The aim of the present study was to determine whether U50,488H (a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist) inhibits cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in a rat model. Cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were developed by intraperitoneal administration of isoprenaline (ip. 3.0 mg/kg/day,14 days). In the isoprenaline-treated group, heart weight and heart-to-body ratio increased significantly. Hypertrophic alterations were observed in light micrographs of tissue and transmission electron micrographs of myocardial ultra structures. Increases in heart weight, heart-to-body ratio, diameter of cardiomyocytes, and morphological hypertrophic alterations induced by isoprenaline were significantly attenuated by U50,488H(i.p. 1.25 mg/kg/day). Growth of cardiomyocytes was induced by incubating with isoprenaline (10(-6) mol/l), which resulted in an increase in optical density (OD) values. The increased OD value was attenuated by U50,488H(10(-7) mol/l-10(-5) mol/l) in a dose dependent manner. Animals receiving administration of isoprenaline displayed significant fibrosis. The extent of isoprenaline induced left ventricular fibrosis was dramatically reduced in U50,488H treated animals. Increased cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis induced by isoprenaline, as evidenced by increased OD value, (3)H-thymidine, and (3)H-proline incorporation, were significantly reduced in the U50,488H treated group. The specific extracellular matrix proteins, including type I, type III collagen and fibronectin, which increased after administration of isoproterenol, were also attenuated by U50,488H. The abovementioned effects of U50,488H were completely abolished by nor-BNI (nor-binaltorphimine), a selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist. The enhanced intracellular Ca(2+) transient and L-type Ca(2+) current elicited by isoprenaline in cardiomyocytes were significantly inhibited by U50,488H. This study provides the first morphological evidence of the inhibitory effect of U50,488H on isoprenaline-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis via kappa-opioid receptor stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.01.050DOI Listing
April 2009

Angiogenic effects of the extracts from Chinese herbs: Angelica and Chuanxiong.

Am J Chin Med 2008 ;36(3):541-54

Department of Physiology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.

Angelica and ChuanXiong are used to cure ischemic heart disease in China. Previous studies found that these two herbs could increase myocardial blood flow, oxygen-supply and keep myocardial oxygen balance, etc. However, the mechanisms of angiogenic effects of these two herbs are not well-known. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Angelica and ChuanXiong on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in rat myocardial infarction, on endothelial cell proliferation and quantity of vessels on chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). In this study, rats were divided randomly into either pre-treatment or acute-treatment group and sacrificed at the end of the treatments. VEGF expression using Western blot analysis was significantly increased in the groups pre-treated with ChuanXiong and Angelica when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). There was significant increase in VEGF expression in the rats treated acutely with Angelica (p < 0.05). In the contrary, the rats treated with ChuanXiong showed a decrease in VEGF expression when compared to the acute-treatment control group (p < 0.05). Similar results were observed in immunohistochemistry of VEGF expression in the myocardia. Our study also demonstrated that these two herbs significantly enhanced endothelial cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and revascularity in CAM (p < 0.05). The data showed that Angelica and ChuanXiong could affect VEGF expression in rat myocardial infarction, promote endothelial cell proliferation and stimulate quantity of vessels on CAM model. The results suggest that Angelica and ChuanXiong have angiogenic effects, and may provide some mechanisms for the treatment of myocardial infarction and peripheral ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X08005965DOI Listing
September 2008

Anti-arrhythmic effects of kappa-opioid receptor and its changes in ischemia and reperfusion.

Arch Med Res 2008 Jul;39(5):483-8

Department of Physiology, National Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China.

Background: It remains unclear whether the kappa-opioid receptor (kappa-OR) is altered during ischemia and reperfusion. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate changes in the kappa-OR. Additionally, the anti-arrhythmic effect induced by kappa-OR stimulation was also determined during ischemia and reperfusion (I/R).

Methods: Rats were randomly divided into different groups according to two experimental protocols. The anti-arrhythmic effects of U50,488H, a selective kappa-OR agonist, in an I/R model of 15-min ischemia were studied followed by 15 min of reperfusion. The content of kappa-OR mRNA and protein were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting techniques in an I/R model of 30-min ischemia followed by 360 min of reperfusion.

Results: Limited numbers of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were revealed in the control group. Administration of U50,488H in the control group had no effect on occurrence of PVCs. Incidence of arrhythmia in the I/R group was significantly increased. Treated with U50,488H in the I/R group, the incidence of arrhythmia was significantly reduced. With prior use of nor-BNI, a selective kappa-OR antagonist, the anti-arrhythmic effect of U50,488H was completely blocked. Compared with the control group, the content of kappa-OR mRNA and the density of kappa-OR protein increased significantly at 0 min, 60 min, and 180 min during reperfusion.

Conclusions: The present study provides evidence for the first time that the expressions of kappa-OR mRNA and protein are upregulated in the heart of I/R rats. This alteration may produce a strengthened anti-arrhythmic effect upon kappa-OR stimulation during I/R.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2008.02.011DOI Listing
July 2008

Modulation of {beta}-adrenoceptor signaling in the hearts of 4-wk simulated weightlessness rats.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2008 Aug 29;105(2):569-74. Epub 2008 May 29.

Department of Emergency, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province, China.

The modulation of beta-adrenoceptor signaling in the hearts of hindlimb unweighting (HU) simulated weightlessness rats has not been reported. In the present study, we adopted the rat tail suspension for 4 wk to simulate weightlessness; then the effects of simulated microgravity on beta-adrenoceptor signaling were studied. Mean arterial blood pressure (ABP), left ventricular pressure (LVP), systolic function (+dP/dtmax), and diastolic function (-dP/dtmax) were monitored in the course of the in vivo experiment. Single rat ventricular myocyte was obtained by the enzymatic dissociation method. Hemodynamics, myocyte contraction, and cAMP production in response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation with isoproterenol or adenylyl cyclase stimulation with forskolin were measured, and Gs protein was also determined. Compared with the control group, no significant changes were found in heart weight, body weight and ABP, while LVP and +/-dP/dtmax were significantly reduced. The ABP decrease, LVP increase, and +/-dP/dtmax in response to isoproterenol administration were significantly attenuated in the HU group. The effects of isoproterenol on electrically induced single-cell contraction and cAMP production in myocytes of ventricles in the HU rats were significantly attenuated. The biologically active isoform, Gsalpha (45 kDa) in the heart, was unchanged. Both the increased electrically induced contraction and cAMP production in response to forskolin were also significantly attenuated in the simulated weightlessness rats. Above results indicated that impaired function of adenylyl cyclase causes beta-adrenoceptor desensitization, which may be partly responsible for the depression of cardiac function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01381.2007DOI Listing
August 2008

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008 Mar;20(3):202-8

Department of Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China.

Background And Objectives: The mechanisms that trigger gallbladder evacuation dysfunction, the key risk factor for gallstone formation, have not yet been fully elucidated. The sphincter of Oddi (SO) plays important roles in the regulation of gallbladder evacuation and maintenance of normal hydraulic pressure of the biliary tract. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of hypercholesterolemia on the motility function of SO and the underlying mechanisms of SO dysfunction (SOD).

Methods: Forty New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into the control group fed with standard chow and the experimental (Ch) group fed with a high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Changes in the maximal gallbladder emptying rate, gallbladder evacuation with cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) stimulation and SO functions of both groups were measured in vivo; B ultrasound examination was used for dynamic observation of peristaltic movements in vivo; SO pressure was measured using manometry; morphological characteristics were observed by electronic microscope; laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to identify changes in [Ca]i and Ca oscillation in primary SO smooth muscle cells (SMCs).

Results: Gallbladder cholestasis was observed during early stages of gallstone formation in Ch rabbits. CCK-8 could not improve the gallbladder cholestatic state in Ch group. Passive dilation of SO significantly improved the cholestatic state in Ch rabbits (P<0.05), although the maximal gallbladder emptying rate was still lower than that of the control group. Manometry data indicted a significant increase in the base pressure of the SO low-pressure ampulla segment and high-pressure segment (P<0.05) in Ch group. laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy assay data indicated that [Ca]i in SO cells of Ch group significantly increased and were in a state of overload (P<0.05); Ca oscillation signals in SO cells of Ch group were also abnormal.

Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia initially induced SOD, leading to increased gallbladder evacuation resistance and cholestasis. We suggested that [Ca]i overload and/or Ca oscillation abnormality potentially play important roles in the pathogenesis of SOD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0b013e3282f1d6eeDOI Listing
March 2008
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