Publications by authors named "Yue Xing"

136 Publications

Prognostic models for knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for systematic review, critical appraisal, and meta-analysis.

Syst Rev 2021 May 19;10(1):149. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Imaging, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 1111 Xianxia Road, Changning District, Shanghai, 200336, China.

Background: Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative joint disease. It is associated with significant socioeconomic burden and poor quality of life, mainly due to knee osteoarthritis (KOA), and related total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Since early detection method and disease-modifying drug is lacking, the key of KOA treatment is shifting to disease prevention and progression slowing. The prognostic prediction models are called for to guide clinical decision-making. The aim of our review is to identify and characterize reported multivariable prognostic models for KOA about three clinical concerns: (1) the risk of developing KOA in the general population, (2) the risk of receiving TKA in KOA patients, and (3) the outcome of TKA in KOA patients who plan to receive TKA.

Methods: The electronic datasets (PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, SportDiscus, and CINAHL) and gray literature sources (OpenGrey, British Library Inside, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, and BIOSIS preview) will be searched from their inception onwards. Title and abstract screening and full-text review will be accomplished by two independent reviewers. The multivariable prognostic models that concern on (1) the risk of developing KOA in the general population, (2) the risk of receiving TKA in KOA patients, and (3) the outcome of TKA in KOA patients who plan to receive TKA will be included. Data extraction instrument and critical appraisal instrument will be developed before formal assessment and will be modified during a training phase in advance. Study reporting transparency, methodological quality, and risk of bias will be assessed according to the TRIPOD statement, CHARMS checklist, and PROBAST tool, respectively. Prognostic prediction models will be summarized qualitatively. Quantitative metrics on the predictive performance of these models will be synthesized with meta-analyses if appropriate.

Discussion: Our systematic review will collate evidence from prognostic prediction models that can be used through the whole process of KOA. The review may identify models which are capable of allowing personalized preventative and therapeutic interventions to be precisely targeted at those individuals who are at the highest risk. To accomplish the prediction models to cross the translational gaps between an exploratory research method and a valued addition to precision medicine workflows, research recommendations relating to model development, validation, or impact assessment will be made.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42020203543.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-021-01683-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131111PMC
May 2021

The role of emodin on cisplatin resistance reversal of lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cell.

Anticancer Drugs 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Exploring drugs that reverse drug resistance and increase the sensitivity of chemotherapy drugs could significantly improve treatment effect of cancer. Our study explored the reversal effect and possible molecular mechanisms of emodin on cisplatin resistance in A549/DDP cells.

Methods: The IC50 and resistance index of cells were determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. The ability of cell proliferation was evaluated by wound healing assay. Transwell assay was used to detect cell invasion and migration. Apoptosis induction rate was determined by flow cytometry assay and 4',6- diamidino- 2-phenylindole staining. Intracellular concentration was determined by HPLC. Western blot analysis was applied to determine expressions of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) and its downstream proteins.

Results: In this study, we found that the growth inhibitory effect of cisplatin was significantly enhanced by emodin in A549/DDP cells. The combined use of emodin with DDP can effectively promote lung cancer cells apoptosis and inhibit cell migration and invasion. Further investigation indicated that reinforcement effect of emodin and DDP may be associated with inhibition of NF-κB pathway and drug efflux-related proteins such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and Glutathione S-transferase (GST). The key role of NF-κB was further confirmed by the application of NF-κB inhibitor Ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate. The intervention of both can significantly increase A549/DDP cell apoptosis and inhibit DDP-induced upregulation of P-gp, MRP and GST.

Conclusions: Emodin reverses the cisplatin resistance of tumor cells by down-regulating expression of P-gp, MRP and GST, increasing the intracellular accumulation in A549/DDP cells, and the effect may be associated with the NF-κB pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0000000000001086DOI Listing
May 2021

Usnic acid suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation by inhibiting PD-L1 expression and enhancing T-lymphocyte tumor-killing activity.

Phytother Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji, China.

The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is abnormally expressed in cervical cancer cells. Moreover, PD-1/PD-L1 blockade reduces the apoptosis and exhaustion of T cells and inhibits the development of malignant tumors. Usnic acid is a dibenzofuran compound originating from Usnea diffracta Vain and has anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanism of its antitumor effects has not been fully elucidated. In this work, we first observed that usnic acid decreased the expression of PD-L1 in HeLa cells and enhanced the cytotoxicity of co-cultured T cells toward tumor cells. Usnic acid inhibited PD-L1 protein synthesis by reducing STAT3 and RAS pathways cooperatively. It was subsequently shown that usnic acid induced MiT/TFE nuclear translocation through the suppression of mTOR signaling pathways, and promoted the biogenesis of lysosomes and the translocation of PD-L1 to the lysosomes for proteolysis. Furthermore, usnic acid inhibited cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion, respectively, by downregulating PD-L1, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. Taken together, our results show that usnic acid is an effective inhibitor of PD-L1 and our study provide novel insights into the mechanism of its anticancer targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7103DOI Listing
May 2021

Characterizing the seizure onset zone and epileptic network using EEG-fMRI in a rat seizure model.

Neuroimage 2021 May 2;237:118133. Epub 2021 May 2.

Bioland Laboratory, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, China; Laboratory of Brain Disorders, Ministry of Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Beijing, China; Neuroelectrophysiological Laboratory, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Accurate epileptogenic zone (EZ) or seizure onset zone (SOZ) localization is crucial for epilepsy surgery optimization. Previous animal and human studies on epilepsy have reported that changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals induced by epileptic events could be used as diagnostic markers for EZ or SOZ localization. Simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) recording is gaining interest as a non-invasive tool for preoperative epilepsy evaluation. However, EEG-fMRI studies have reported inconsistent and ambiguous findings. Therefore, it remains unclear whether BOLD responses can be used for accurate EZ or SOZ localization. In this study, we used simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording in a rat model of 4-aminopyridine-induced acute focal seizures to assess the spatial concordance between individual BOLD responses and the SOZ. This was to determine the optimal use of simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording in the SOZ localization. We observed a high spatial consistency between BOLD responses and the SOZ. Further, dynamic BOLD responses were consistent with the regions where the seizures were propagated. These results suggested that simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording could be used as a noninvasive clinical diagnostic technique for localizing the EZ or SOZ and could be an effective tool for mapping epileptic networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118133DOI Listing
May 2021

Multiomics Analysis Reveals New Insights into the Apple Fruit Quality Decline under High Nitrogen Conditions.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 4;69(19):5559-5572. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, Shandong, China.

Excessive application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is common in Chinese apple production. High N reduced the contents of soluble sugar and total flavonoids by 16.05 and 19.01%, respectively, resulting in poor fruit quality. Moreover, high N increased the total N and decreased the total C and C/N ratio of apple fruits. On the basis of the transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses, the global network was revealed. High N inhibited the accumulation of carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose, and trehalose) and flavonoids (rhamnetin-3--rutinoside, rutin, and trihydroxyisoflavone-7--galactoside) in fruits, and more C skeletons were used to synthesize amino acids and their derivatives (especially low C/N ratio, e.g., arginine) to be transferred to N metabolism. This study revealed new insights into the decline in soluble sugar and flavonoids caused by high N, and hub genes (MD07G1172700, MD05G1222800, MD16G1227200, MD01G1174400, and MD02G1207200) and hub proteins (PFK, gapN, and HK) were obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01548DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of Anisotropy and In-Plane Grain Boundary in Cu/Pd Multilayered Films with Cube-on-Cube and Twinned Interface.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Apr 28;16(1):69. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China.

In crystalline materials, grain boundary and anisotropy of crystal structure affect their mechanical properties. The effects of interfacial structure on the mechanical properties may be diverse when the multilayer film is loaded along different directions. In this work, we performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations of the tension of in-plane single and polycrystalline Cu/Pd multilayered films with cube-on-cube (COC) and twinned interfaces to explore the effects of the interfacial structure, loading direction and in-plane grain boundaries on their mechanical properties. The interfacial misfit dislocation lines become bent after relaxation, and the high temperature of 300 K was found as a necessary condition. When stretched along 〈110〉 direction, the strengthening effect of the COC interface is more noticeable; however, when stretched along 〈112〉 direction, the twin interface's strengthening effect is more visible, showing the anisotropic effect of interfacial structure on mechanical properties. However, in the in-plane honeycomb polycrystalline sample, the twin interface showed a pronounced strengthening effect, and no jogged dislocations were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03528-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081810PMC
April 2021

[Practice and exploration of orbital anatomy and orbital imaging courses in dental students].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2020 Dec;29(6):669-672

Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. Shanghai 200011, China.

Purpose: To improve the teaching effect of orbital anatomy course for students majoring in stomatology.

Methods: Based on a retrospective analysis of average score of orbital anatomy course for previous dental and medical students, and the problems existing in teaching effect, orbital anatomy and orbital imaging course were designed and carried out in dental students. The course combined imaging with orbital anatomy, and included clinical examples. Medical students were set as control. Examination was carried out after the end of the whole course, and the professional knowledge of orbital anatomy of two groups was compared. A self-designed questionnaire was designed to evaluate the teaching effect of orbital anatomy and orbital imaging courses for dental students and residents over 1 year after graduation. SPSS 22 software package was used for Statistical analysis.

Results: The previous average score of dental students was 7.50, and the average score of medical students was 8.67. There was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.004). The average score of dental students after offering the course of orbital anatomy and orbital imaging was 9.67, and the average score of medical students was 9.00. No significant difference was noticed between the two groups(P=0.184). Questionnaire survey showed that the after-class review time of dental students was 20 min, and that of medical students was 30 min. 74.7% of the dental students and 80% of the dental residents did not study orbital anatomy and imaging courses before. 87.4% of the dental students and 100% of dental residents considered that the orbital imaging course was helpful to master the anatomical characteristics of the orbit. 89.7% of the dental students and 100% of dental residents believed that orbital imaging course was helpful to their clinical work.

Conclusions: Orbital anatomy and orbital imaging course were designed for dental students as supplementary teaching programme. It successfully inspired students' interest in learning, cultivated the students' overall and comprehensive thinking, narrowed students to master the knowledge of orbital anatomy, closed the gap of teaching effect between dental and clinical medicine, and laid the foundation to develop dental professional work in the future.
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December 2020

Licochalcone A inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of colon cancer cell by targeting programmed cell death-ligand 1 via the NF-κB and Ras/Raf/MEK pathways.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 4;273:113989. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002, Jilin Province, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Glycyrrhiza glabra L., a traditional medicinal, has a history of thousands of years. It is widely used in clinic and has been listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Licochalcone A is a phenolic chalcone compound and a characteristic chalcone of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. It has many pharmacological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-angiogenic activities.

Aim Of The Study: In this study, we explored the anti-tumor activity and potential mechanism of licochalcone A in vitro and in vivo.

Materials And Methods: In vitro, the mechanism of licochalcone A at inhibiting PD-L1 expression was investigated by molecular docking, western blotting, RT-PCR, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation assays. The co-culture model of T cells and tumor cells was used to detect the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Colony formation, EdU labelling and apoptosis assays were used to detect changes in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. In vivo, anti-tumor activity of licochalcone A was assessed in a xenograft model of HCT116 cells.

Results: In the present study, we found that licochalcone A suppressed the expression of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), which plays a key role in regulating the immune response. In addition, licochalcone A inhibited the expressions of p65 and Ras. Immunoprecipitation experiment showed that licochalcone A suppressed the expression of PD-L1 by blocking the interaction between p65 and Ras. In the co-culture model of T cells and tumor cells, licochalcone A pretreatment enhanced the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and restored the ability to kill tumor cells. In addition, we showed that licochalcone A inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis by targeting PD-L1. In vivo xenograft assay confirmed that licochalcone A inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts.

Conclusion: In general, these results reveal the previously unknown properties of licochalcone A and provide new insights into the anticancer mechanism of this compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.113989DOI Listing
June 2021

Knee Cartilage Thickness Differs Alongside Ages: A 3-T Magnetic Resonance Research Upon 2,481 Subjects via Deep Learning.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 9;7:600049. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Imaging, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

It was difficult to distinguish the cartilage thinning of an entire knee joint and to track the evolution of cartilage morphology alongside ages in the general population, which was of great significance for studying osteoarthritis until big imaging data and artificial intelligence are fused. The purposes of our study are (1) to explore the cartilage thickness in anatomical regions of the knee joint among a large collection of healthy knees, and (2) to investigate the relationship between the thinning pattern of the cartilages and the increasing ages. In this retrospective study, 2,481 healthy knees (subjects ranging from 15 to 64 years old, mean age: 35 ± 10 years) were recruited. With magnetic resonance images of knees acquired on a 3-T superconducting scanner, we automatically and precisely segmented the cartilage via deep learning and calculated the cartilage thickness in 14 anatomical regions. The thickness readings were compared using ANOVA by considering the factors of age, sex, and side. We further tracked the relationship between the thinning pattern of the cartilage thickness and the increasing ages by regression analysis. The cartilage thickness was always thicker in the femur than corresponding regions in the tibia ( < 0.05). Regression analysis suggested cartilage thinning alongside ages in all regions ( < 0.05) except for medial and lateral anterior tibia in both females and males ( > 0.05). The thinning speed of men was faster than women in medial anterior and lateral anterior femur, yet slower in the medial patella ( < 0.05). We established the calculation method of cartilage thickness using big data and deep learning. We demonstrated that cartilage thickness differed across individual regions in the knee joint. Cartilage thinning alongside ages was identified, and the thinning pattern was consistent in the tibia while inconsistent in patellar and femoral between sexes. These findings provide a potential reference to detect cartilage anomaly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.600049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900571PMC
February 2021

2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine protects retinal photoreceptors against endoplasmic reticulum stress by modulating ATF4-mediated inhibition of PRP aggregation.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2021 03 7;99(3):383-402. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

State Key laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060, China.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a common threat to photoreceptors during the pathogenesis of chronic retinopathies and often results in irreversible visual impairment. 2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), which possesses many beneficial pharmacological activities, is a potential drug that could be used to protect photoreceptors. In the present study, we found that the cellular growth rate of 661 W cells cultured under low glucose conditions was lower than that of control cells, while the G2/M phase of the cell cycle was longer. We further found that the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was lower and that ER stress factor expression was increased in 661 W cells cultured under low glucose conditions. TMP reversed these trends. Visual function and cell counts in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) were low and the TUNEL-positive rate in the ONL was high in a C3H mouse model of spontaneous retinal degeneration. Similarly, visual function was decreased, and the TUNEL-positive rate in the ONL was increased in fasted C57/BL6j mice compared with control mice. On the other hand, ER stress factor expression was found to be increased in the retinas of both mouse models, as shown by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blotting. TMP reversed the physiological and molecular biological variations observed in both mouse models, and ATF4 expression was enhanced again. Further investigation by using western blotting illustrated that the proportion of insoluble prion protein (PRP) versus soluble PRP was reduced both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that TMP increased the functions of photoreceptors by alleviating ER stress in vitro and in vivo, and the intrinsic mechanism was the ATF4-mediated inhibition of PRP aggregation. TMP may potentially be used clinically as a therapeutic agent to attenuate the functional loss of photoreceptors during the pathogenesis of chronic retinopathies. KEY MESSAGES: • Already known: TMP is a beneficial drug mainly used in clinic to enhance organ functions, and the intrinsic mechanism is still worthy of exploring. • New in the study: We discovered that TMP ameliorated retinal photoreceptors function via ER stress alleviation, which was promoted by ATF4-mediated inhibition of PRP aggregation. • Application prospect: In prospective clinical practices, TMP may potentially be used in the clinic as a therapeutic agent to attenuate the photoreceptors functional reduction in chronic retinopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-020-02017-3DOI Listing
March 2021

Britannin stabilizes T cell activity and inhibits proliferation and angiogenesis by targeting PD-L1 via abrogation of the crosstalk between Myc and HIF-1α in cancer.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jan 30;81:153425. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji 133002, Jilin Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is overexpressed in tumor cells, which causes tumor cells to escape T cell killing, and promotes tumor cell survival, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. Britannin is a natural product with anticancer pharmacological effects.

Purpose: In this work, we studied the anticancer potential of britannin and explored whether britannin mediated its effect by inhibiting the expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells.

Methods: In vitro, the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of PD-L1 expression by britannin were investigated by MTT assay, homology modeling and molecular docking, RT-PCR, western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence. The changes in tumor killing activity, cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis were analyzed by T cell killing assays, EdU labeling, colony formation, flow cytometry, wound healing, matrigel transwell invasion, and tube formation, respectively. In vivo, the antitumor activity of britannin was evaluated in the HCT116 cell xenograft model.

Results: Britannin reduced the expression of PD-L1 in tumor cells by inhibiting the synthesis of the PD-L1 protein but did not affect the degradation of the PD-L1 protein. Britannin also inhibited HIF-1α expression through the mTOR/P70S6K/4EBP1 pathway and Myc activation through the Ras/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway. Mechanistically, britannin inhibited the expression of PD-L1 by blocking the interaction between HIF-1α and Myc. In addition, britannin could enhance the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and inhibit tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis by inhibiting PD-L1. Finally, in vivo observations were confirmed by demonstrating the antitumor activity of britannin in a murine xenograft model.

Conclusion: Britannin inhibits the expression of PD-L1 by blocking the interaction between HIF-1α and Myc. Moreover, britannin stabilizes T cell activity and inhibits proliferation and angiogenesis by inhibiting PD-L1 in cancer. The current work highlights the anti-tumor effect of britannin, providing insights into the development of cancer therapeutics via PD-L1 inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153425DOI Listing
January 2021

Primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) in bone: A review of the literature and a case arising in the humerus with multiple metastases.

J Bone Oncol 2021 Feb 5;26:100336. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Imaging, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1111 XianXia Road, Shanghai 200336, China.

Introduction: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are a family of mesenchymal tumors that rarely arise as a primary bone tumor.

Material And Methods: We report a case of primary malignant bone PEComa. A literature review via PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases with the keyword "PEComa" and "bone" was performed.

Results: We reported a 33-year-old female with primary malignant bone PEComa in right distal humerus. The patient received an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein based on negative molecular investigation result of transcription factor E3 () rearrangement, and additional therapies including palliative radiotherapy, anti-angiogenics and immunotherapy when the disease progression was detected. The patient was alive with the disease twenty-three months postoperatively. A total of nineteen related literature cases were retrieved and reviewed. Taking current case into account, ten males and ten females with median age of 24 years (range, 3-93 years) were identified, who were most frequently affected in tibia. The median follow-up duration of 24 months (range, 3-96 months). One patient died due to this disease, and six patients showed metastases. Three patients experienced recurrence, and two of them experienced twice and three times, respectively.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary malignant bone PEComa arising in humerus. Clinicopathological and radiological correlation is mandatory to the correct diagnosis and to determine its malignancy. More studies are required to understand the role of molecular test and imaging in selecting suitable treatment and mechanisms of treatment resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbo.2020.100336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674509PMC
February 2021

Erianin regulates programmed cell death ligand 1 expression and enhances cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 19;273:113598. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002, Jilin Province, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl is a cultivation of Dendrobium which belongs to the family of Orchidaceae. D. chrysotoxum Lindl is a traditional Chinese medicine with a wide range of clinical applications including tonic, astringent, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties as early as the 28th century B.C. Erianin is a representative index component for the quality control of the D. chrysotoxum Lindl, which is included in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2020 version).

Aim Of The Study: To clarify the anti-tumour mechanisms of erianin in vitro and in vivo.

Materials And Methods: We detected the anti-tumour activity of erianin using in vitro HeLa cell models and in vivo cervical cancer xenograft models. We performed MTT, western blot, RT-PCR, homology modeling, flow cytometry, and immunoprecipitation assays to study the proteins, genes, and pathways related to erianin's anti-tumour activity. LysoTracker Red staining was performed to detect lysosome function. Transwell, wound healing, tube formation, colony formation and EdU labelling assays were performed to determine cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities, respectively. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes ability was confirmed using HeLa/T-cell co-culture model.

Results: Experimental data demonstrated that erianin inhibited PD-L1 expression and induced the lysosomal degradation of PD-L1. Erianin suppressed HIF-1α synthesis through mTOR/p70S6K/4EBP1 pathway, and inhibited RAS/Raf/MEK/MAPK-ERK pathway. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that erianin reduced the interaction between RAS and HIF-1α. Experiments using a co-cultivation system of T cells and HeLa cells confirmed that erianin restored cytotoxic T lymphocytes ability to kill tumour cells. Erianin inhibited PD-L1-mediated angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion and migration. The anti-proliferative effects of erianin were supported using in vivo xenotransplantation experiments.

Conclusions: Collectively, these results revealed previously unknown properties of erianin and provided a new basis for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy against cervical cancer and other malignant tumours through PD-L1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113598DOI Listing
June 2021

Codonopis bulleynana Forest ex Diels (cbFeD) effectively attenuates hepatic fibrosis in CCl-induced fibrotic mice model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 13;133:110960. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Key Laboratory for Forest Resources Conservation and Utilization in the Southwest Mountains of China, Ministry of Education, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China; Southwest China Eco-development Academy, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China. Electronic address:

The root of Codonopis bulleynana Forest ex Diels (cbFeD), a tonic food widely used in Yunnan Province of China, was found to have a wide range of pharmacological effects. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-fibrotic effect of water extracts of cbFeD in chronic liver injury mice model induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl) and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Phytochemical analysis revealed multiple components were present in the water extract of cbFeD and the compounds were mostly enriched in organic acid and its derivatives, flavone, amino acid derivatives, nucleotide and its derivatives, carbohydrates etc. Treatment with cbFeD significantly attenuated liver injury and fibrosis in CCl-administered mice evidenced by improved liver histology, ameliorated apoptosis of hepatocytes, and decreased transaminase levels in the serum. Decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were markedly reversed upon treatment with cbFeD while levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were significantly restored towards normal values. cbFeD also suppressed intrahepatic inflammatory cell infiltration and Kupffer cell activation. Furthermore, our study revealed an inhibitory effect of cbFeD on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, cbFeD could exert a protective role against liver fibrosis in mice model induced by CCl that is comparable to the positive control silymarin and might be developed into a promising anti-fibrotic drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110960DOI Listing
January 2021

Density Functional Theory-Assisted Electrochemical Assay Manipulated by a Donor-Acceptor Structure toward Pharmaceutical Diagnostic.

Anal Chem 2020 12 13;92(23):15297-15305. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, P.R. China.

Oxidative stress is a state of stress injury, which leads to the pathogenesis of most neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, this is also one of the main reasons for the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the abnormal content of dopamine (DA). In the past decades, a number of studies have found that acetaminophen (AP) is metabolized and distributed in the brain when it is used as a neuroprotective compound. In this context, we proposed an electrochemical sensor based on 9-(4-(10-phenylanthracen-9-yl)phenyl)-9-carbazole with the goal of diagnosing these two drugs in the body. Carbazole groups can easily be formed into large π-conjugated systems by electropolymerization. The introduction of anthracene exactly combined the carbazole group to establish an efficient electron donor-acceptor pattern, which enhanced π-π interaction with the electrode surface and charge transporting ability. The diagnostic platform showed good sensing activity toward the oxidation of DA and AP. The detection range for DA and AP is from 0.2 to 300 μM and from 0.2 to 400 μM, respectively. The simultaneous detection range is from 0.5 to 250 μM, which is wider than most reports. After a series of electrochemical assessments were determined, the sensor was finally developed to the analysis of pharmaceutical and human serum, displaying a meaningful potential in clinical evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c01272DOI Listing
December 2020

Electrical stimulation of the endopiriform nucleus attenuates epilepsy in rats by network modulation.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2020 12 31;7(12):2356-2369. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Laboratory of Brain Disorders, Ministry of Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: Neuromodulatory anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy for intractable epilepsy, but few patients achieve complete seizure control with thalamic DBS. Other stimulation sites may be considered for anti-seizure DBS. We investigated bilateral low-frequency stimulation of the endopiriform nuclei (LFS-EPN) to control seizures induced by intracortically implanted cobalt wire in rats.

Methods: Chronic epilepsy was induced by cobalt wire implantation in the motor cortex unilaterally. Bipolar-stimulating electrodes were implanted into the EPN bilaterally. Continuous electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded using electrodes placed into bilateral motor cortex and hippocampus CA1 areas. Spontaneous seizures were monitored by long-term video-EEG, and behavioral seizures were classified based on the Racine scale. Continuous 1-Hz LFS-EPN began on the third day after electrode implantation and was controlled by a multi-channel stimulator. Stimulation continued until the rats had no seizures for three consecutive days.

Results: Compared with the control and sham stimulation groups, the LFS-EPN group experienced significantly fewer seizures per day and the mean Racine score of seizures was lower due to fewer generalized seizures. Ictal discharges at the epileptogenic site had significantly reduced theta band power in the LFS-EPN group compared to the other groups.

Interpretation: Bilateral LFS-EPN attenuates cobalt wire-induced seizures in rats by modulating epileptic networks. Reduced ictal theta power of the EEG broadband spectrum at the lesion site may be associated with the anti-epileptogenic mechanism of LFS-EPN. Bilateral EPN DBS may have therapeutic applications in human partial epilepsies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732253PMC
December 2020

Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging as a Prognostic Marker in Osteosarcoma Patients with Preoperative Chemotherapy.

Biomed Res Int 2020 26;2020:3268138. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Department of Radiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Background: The accurate prediction of prognosis is key to prompt therapy adjustment. The purpose of our study was to investigate the efficacy of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in predicting progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in osteosarcoma patients with preoperative chemotherapy.

Methods: Thirty patients who underwent DKI before and after chemotherapy, followed by tumor resection, were retrospectively enrolled. The patients were grouped into good responders (GRs) and poor responders (PRs). The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test were used for survival analysis. The association between the DKI parameters and OS and PFS was performed by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Significantly worse OS and PFS were associated with a lower mean diffusivity (MD) after chemotherapy (HR, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.5-23.1; = 0.012 and HR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.2-10.1: = 0.028, respectively) and a higher mean kurtosis (MK) after chemotherapy (HR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; = 0.041 and HR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8; = 0.049, respectively). Likewise, shorter OS and PFS were also significantly associated with a change rate in MD (CR MD) of less than 13.53% (HR, 8.6; 95% CI, 1.8-41.8; = 0.007 and HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.0-8.2; = 0.045, respectively). Compared to GRs, PRs had an approximately 9- and 4-fold increased risk of death (HR, 9.4; 95% CI, 1.2-75; = 0.034) and progression (HR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.2-15; = 0.026), respectively.

Conclusions: DKI has a potential to be a prognostic tool in osteosarcoma. Low MK and high MD after chemotherapy or high CR MD indicates favorite outcome, while prospective studies with large sample sizes are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3268138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7533782PMC
April 2021

Reuse of ammonium sulfate double salt crystals formed during electrolytic manganese production.

Water Sci Technol 2020 Aug;82(4):615-626

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, China E-mail: Engineering Research Center of Ministry of Education for Comprehensive Utilization of Water Resources in Cold and Drought Areas, Lanzhou 730070, China.

Ammonium sulfate double salt crystals (ASDSCs) are formed during the electrolytic production of manganese. Typically, the large volume of ASDSCs accumulates in the open air, and this leads to serious environmental pollution and wastage of resources. In this study, we developed a new double-membrane three-chamber electrolysis method. In this method, ASDSCs were dissolved in water and then pretreated stepwise to precipitate manganese(II) carbonate and magnesium carbonate. These precipitates were filtered and the filtrate (mainly ammonium sulfate) was subjected to double-membrane three-chamber electrodecomposition to produce sulfuric acid and ammonia. Further investigations showed that under the optimal conditions of current density of 250 A/m, electrolysis time of 18 h, and temperature of 40 °C, the decomposition rate of ammonium sulfate reached as high as 96.15%. Thus, using this method, ASDSCs can be completely decomposed, which resolves the problem of environmental pollution and provides certain economic benefits to enterprises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2020.374DOI Listing
August 2020

Neuroimaging advances regarding subjective cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Neurodegener 2020 09 22;15(1):55. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053, China.

Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is regarded as the first clinical manifestation in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) continuum. Investigating populations with SCD is important for understanding the early pathological mechanisms of AD and identifying SCD-related biomarkers, which are critical for the early detection of AD. With the advent of advanced neuroimaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), accumulating evidence has revealed structural and functional brain alterations related to the symptoms of SCD. In this review, we summarize the main imaging features and key findings regarding SCD related to AD, from local and regional data to connectivity-based imaging measures, with the aim of delineating a multimodal imaging signature of SCD due to AD. Additionally, the interaction of SCD with other risk factors for dementia due to AD, such as age and the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ɛ4 status, has also been described. Finally, the possible explanations for the inconsistent and heterogeneous neuroimaging findings observed in individuals with SCD are discussed, along with future directions. Overall, the literature reveals a preferential vulnerability of AD signature regions in SCD in the context of AD, supporting the notion that individuals with SCD share a similar pattern of brain alterations with patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia due to AD. We conclude that these neuroimaging techniques, particularly multimodal neuroimaging techniques, have great potential for identifying the underlying pathological alterations associated with SCD. More longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes combined with more advanced imaging modeling approaches such as artificial intelligence are still warranted to establish their clinical utility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13024-020-00395-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7507636PMC
September 2020

Under pressure: Stem cell-niche interactions coordinate tissue adaptation to inflammation.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2020 12 8;67:64-70. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Pathology, Department of Medicine, And Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY, 10016, USA. Electronic address:

Stem and progenitor cells (SCs) are emerging as key drivers of tissue adaptation to inflammation caused by microbes, injury, noxious agents, and other onslaughts. These pressures are most acutely experienced in epithelial tissues such as the skin and gut that interface with the external environment. Thus, here we review how epithelial SCs of the skin and intestine, along with their supportive niches, sense and respond to inflammation for the sake of preserving tissue integrity. We highlight inflammation-induced plasticity in SCs and their progeny and the lasting memory that forms thereafter. The burgeoning area of SC responses to inflammatory stressors may expand therapeutic perspectives in epithelial inflammatory conditions, wound repair, cancers, and aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2020.08.009DOI Listing
December 2020

A systematic review of radiomics in osteosarcoma: utilizing radiomics quality score as a tool promoting clinical translation.

Eur Radiol 2021 Mar 2;31(3):1526-1535. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Imaging, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 1111 Xianxia Road, Changning District, Shanghai, 200050, China.

Objectives: To assess the methodological quality and risk of bias in radiomics studies investigating diagnosis, therapy response, and survival of patients with osteosarcoma.

Methods: In this systematic review, literatures on radiomics in osteosarcoma were included and assessed for methodological quality through the radiomics quality score (RQS). The risk of bias and concern of application was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. A meta-analysis of studies focusing on predicting osteosarcoma response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed.

Results: Twelve radiomics studies exploring osteosarcoma were identified, and five were included in meta-analysis. The RQS reached an average of 20.4% (6.92 of 36) with good inter-rater agreement (ICC 0.95, 95% CI 0.85-0.99). Four studies validated results with an internal dataset, none of which used external dataset; one study was prospectively designed, and another one shared part of the dataset. The risk of bias and concern of application were mainly related to index test aspect. The meta-analysis showed a diagnostic odds ratio of 43.68 (95%CI 13.5-141.31) for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with high heterogeneity and low methodological quality.

Conclusions: The overall scientific quality of included studies is insufficient; however, radiomics remains a promising technology for predicting treatment response, which might guide therapeutic decision-making and related to prognosis. Improvements in study design, validation, and open science needs to be made to demonstrate the generalizability of findings and to achieve clinical applications. Widespread application of RQS, pre-trained RQS scoring procedure, and modification of RQS in response to clinical needs are necessary.

Key Points: • Limited radiomics studies were established in osteosarcoma with mean RQS of 20.4%, commonly due to unvalidated results, retrospective study design, and absence of open science. • Meta-analysis of radiomics studies predicting osteosarcoma response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed high diagnostic odds ratio 43.68, while high heterogeneity and low methodological quality were the main concerns. • A previously trained data extraction instrument allowed reaching moderate inter-rater agreement in RQS applications, while RQS still needs improvement to become a wide adaptive tool in reviews of radiomics studies, in routine self-check before manuscript submitting and in study design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07221-wDOI Listing
March 2021

Association of Preoperative Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio with Clinical Outcomes in Dedifferentiated Chondrosarcoma Patients.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 3;12:6719-6726. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Radiology, Shanghai Tongren Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Background: Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DC) is an extremely uncommon malignant bone tumor with dismal survival outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the preoperative neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has the ability to predict overall survival (OS) in DC patients.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-three DC patients with surgical resection were retrospectively reviewed between 2008 and 2015. The clinical pathological information and survival data were collected for analysis. The cut-off point for NLR was defined by receiver operating curve (ROC). The impact of NLR level on OS between two groups was compared using Kaplan-Meier curves with the Log-rank test. The association between NLR and OS was calculated by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional models.

Results: From the ROC analysis, the optimal NLR cut-off point was 3.11. Patients with high NLR had a worse OS than low NLR (p = 0.003, Log-rank test). In univariate analysis, a significant association was observed between high NLR and poor OS (Hazard ratio (HR) 4.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-14.34, p = 0.008). After adjustment of co-variables, high NLR had more than 4 times the risk of mortality (HR 4.01, 95% CI 1.12-14.26, p = 0.032).

Conclusion: Preoperative NLR in peripheral blood is an easily accessible and cost-effective prognostic biomarker in DC patients. A prospective study with large sample size is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S266671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7425651PMC
August 2020

Effectiveness of intravitreal chemotherapy-assisted endoresection in monocular patients with group D retinoblastoma.

BMC Cancer 2020 Aug 26;20(1):808. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: This study aimed to determine the efficacy and complications of intravitreal chemotherapy-assisted endoresection for refractory International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB) group D retinoblastoma in monocular patients.

Methods: In this retrospective case series, intravitreal chemotherapy-assisted endoresection by pars plana vitrectomy was performed in 11 eyes with refractory ICRB group D retinoblastoma unresponsive to standard therapies in monocular patients.

Results: Across a mean follow-up period of 42.7 months, globe salvage was attained in all 11 eyes (100%). There were no cases of extra-ocular tumour seeding or remote metastasis. In 9 eyes (81.8%), tumour control was achieved with one pars plana vitrectomy; in 2 cases (18.2%), repeated treatment, such as laser therapy, intravitreal chemotherapy or a second pars plana vitrectomy, was needed. Retinal reattachment was achieved in all 4 eyes (100%) with previous retinal detachment. Four eyes (36.4%) required subsequent cataract surgery due to secondary cataract. Ten eyes (90.9%) had improvement in best-corrected visual acuity at the last follow-up.

Conclusion: Intravitreal chemotherapy-assisted endoresection appears to be a safe and effective globe-salvaging method for refractory group D retinoblastoma. It is a promising alternative to enucleation and a supplementary therapeutic strategy for those unresponsive to standard therapies, especially for the monocular retinoblastoma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07314-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448309PMC
August 2020

Regulation of opticin on bioactivity of retinal vascular endothelial cells cultured in collagen.

Int J Ophthalmol 2020 18;13(8):1202-1209. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510000, Guangdong Province, China.

Aim: To investigate the effects of collagen and opticin on the bioactivity of human retinal vascular endothelial cells (hRVECs), and explore its regulations by integrins and RhoA/ROCK1 signal pathway.

Methods: hRVECs were cultured in collagen and treated by opticin, and cell-based bioactivity assays of cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion were performed. The expression of integrin α2, integrin β1, RhoA and ROCK1 were examined with real-time PCR and Western blotting.

Results: Collagen could promote cell viability of proliferation and migration (all <0.05), and enhance the mRNA expression of integrin α2, integrin β1, RhoA and ROCK1 (all <0.05). Opticin could inhibit proliferation and migration ability of hRVECs cultured in collagen, and reduce the mRNA expression of integrin α2, integrin β1, RhoA and ROCK1 (all <0.05).

Conclusion: Collagen and opticin can affect bioactivity of hRVECs, which may be regulated by α2-, β1-integrins and RhoA/ROCK1 signal pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2020.08.05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387909PMC
August 2020

Clarifying prognostic factors of small cell osteosarcoma: A pooled analysis of 20 cases and the literature.

J Bone Oncol 2020 Oct 15;24:100305. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Imaging, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200050, China.

Introduction: Small cell osteosarcoma (SCOS) is a rare subtype of osteosarcoma, with limited studies mainly focusing on histological features. Our study aims to analyze our own patients and those reported in the literature to increase the recognition of this rare disease, to evaluate patient survival and to further determine potential prognostic factors.

Material And Methods: Twenty patients with SCOS were treated in our hospital between 2010 and 2019. Their follow-up data were collected retrospectively. A total of 336 literature cases from 58 manuscripts were retrieved by means of a PubMed search with the key word "small cell osteosarcoma". Data pertaining to treatment and follow-up were extracted. We performed a pooled analysis for the survival of patients and the risk factors for local recurrence (LR), as well as metastatic disease (MD), in a total of 160 patients using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression method.

Results: We reported our experience in diagnosing and treating SCOS. In our cases, elevated alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.013) and lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.001) significantly impaired overall survival. In the pooled analysis, SCOS was diagnosed at the median age of 17 years and affected both sexes almost equally. The median follow-up duration was 19.5 months. In the pooled analysis cases, the 5-year overall survival rate was 38.6%, and 36.4% of patients survived 10 years. However, an increasing trend was detected, indicating recent improvements in management. The surgical margin status (P = 0.024) and metastases (P = 0.008) significantly impaired overall survival, and the response to chemotherapy was related to disease-free survival (P = 0.012). LR and MD were significantly correlated (P = 0.002) and could be observed after 5 years of follow-up. LR was significantly dependent on response to chemotherapy (P = 0.020). The development of MD seemed to be affected by response to chemotherapy (P = 0.060). Correlations between imaging features and prognosis were not detected.

Conclusions: This study suggested that positive margins, poor response to chemotherapy and MD are negative prognostic factors for SCOS, implied the potential role of laboratory examinations in the survival prediction and supported the need for prolonged or more intensive surveillance in patients with MD or LR. More well-documented literatures are encouraged to allow further confirmations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbo.2020.100305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7394919PMC
October 2020

Natural Polymorphisms Are Present in the Furin Cleavage Site of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein.

Front Genet 2020 17;11:783. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Medicine, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, United States.

The furin cleavage site in the spike glycoprotein of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is considered important for the virus to enter the host cells. By analyzing 45828 SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences, we identified 103 strains of SARS-CoV-2 with various DNA mutations including 18 unique non-synonymous point mutations, one deletion, and six gains of premature stop codon that may affect the furin cleavage site. Our results revealed that the furin cleavage site might not be required for SARS-CoV-2 to enter human cells . The identified mutants may represent a new subgroup of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus with reduced tropism and transmissibility as potential live-attenuated vaccine candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7379507PMC
July 2020

A quick measuring method for yield temperatures of materials under constant prestress at ultra-high temperatures.

Rev Sci Instrum 2020 Jul;91(7):075110

College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China.

A new method for the rapid measurement of the yield temperatures of the material subjected to constant prestress at ultra-high temperatures was proposed, combining electric heating with non-contact image measurement technology. In this method, the yield temperature could be determined with a small number of thermal cycles in which the peak temperature increases with an increase in the number of thermal cycles, and in each cycle, the material is heated to a prescribed peak temperature and then cooled. There are two pairs of tiny sharp protrusions in the central part of the specimen. During the test, the surface optical image is recorded and analyzed with code Halcon to determine the temperature and elongation of the specimen. The time of each test is less than 20 min, so the influence of over-heating on the properties and microstructure of the material can be avoided. It is worth noting that the developed method can effectively reduce the test time and cost without breaking the specimen, and should have great potential in testing for the mechanical properties of materials at ultra-high temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0004126DOI Listing
July 2020

MicroGMT: A Mutation Tracker for SARS-CoV-2 and Other Microbial Genome Sequences.

Front Microbiol 2020 25;11:1502. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Medicine, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, United States.

With the continued spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus around the world, researchers often need to quickly identify novel mutations in newly sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes for studying the molecular evolution and epidemiology of the virus. We have developed a Python package, MicroGMT, which takes either raw sequence reads or assembled genome sequences as input and compares against database sequences to identify and characterize indels and point mutations. Although our default setting is optimized for SARS-CoV-2 virus, the package can be also applied to any other microbial genomes. The software is freely available at Github URL https://github.com/qunfengdong/MicroGMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330013PMC
June 2020

Demographic characteristics and neuropsychological assessments of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) (plus).

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2020 06;7(6):1002-1012

Department of Neurology, XuanWu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Since SCD (plus) was standardized, little is known about its demographic characteristics and its outcomes of neuropsychological assessments, including the SCD questionnaire 9 (SCD-Q9).

Objective: To characterize SCD (plus) by comparing the neuropsychological features among its subgroups and with normal controls (NC). Also, to explore its demographics and to understand the relation of the chief complaints and the scores of SCD-Q9.

Methods: Multistage stratified cluster random sampling was conducted to select participants. As a result, 84 NC and 517 SCD (plus) were included. SCD (plus) was further classified into several subgroups (SCD-C: concerned cognitive decline; SCD-F: complaints about SCD within the past five years; SCD-P: feeling performance being not as good as their peers; SCD+: presented> 3 of SCD (plus) features; SCD-: presented ≤ 3 of SCD (plus) features (see the diagnostic criteria for the details)) and between-group comparisons of neuropsychological scores were conducted. Point-biserial correlation and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the demographic characteristics of its subgroups. Finally, Spearman correlation was used to better understand the relation of SCD (plus) to SCD-Q9.

Results: (1) Scores of AVLT-LR (AVLT-LR: Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Long Delayed Recall) and MoCA-B (MoCA: Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Basic) were lower in the SCD-P group than those in the NC group, and the SCD+ group scored lower in the MoCA-B and CDT(CDT: Clock Drawing Test) than the SCD- group. (2) Females were more concerned than male participants. Individuals with lower education level felt that their cognitive performance were worse than their peers. Also, younger people might express concerns more than the more elderly. People who had complaints of SCD-P might be more likely to report SCD-C, but less likely to report SCD-F. (3) Positive correlations were found between the chief complaints of SCD (plus) and some items of SCD-Q9.

Conclusions: SCD (plus) may be related to demographic factors. Individuals with SCD (plus) already exhibited cognitive impairment, which can be detected by SCD-Q9.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317645PMC
June 2020

Exposure to Environmental Levels of Pesticides Stimulates and Diversifies Evolution in toward Higher Antibiotic Resistance.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 07 1;54(14):8770-8778. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois United States.

Antibiotic resistance is one of the most challenging issues in public health. Antibiotics have been increasingly used not only for humans and animals but also for crop protection as pesticides. Thus, antibiotics often coexist with pesticides in some environments. To investigate the effects of the co-occurring, nonantibiotic pesticides on the development of antibiotic resistance, we conducted long-term exposure experiments using an K-12 model strain. The results reveal that (1) the exposure to pesticides (in mg/L) alone led to the emergence of mutants with significantly higher resistance to streptomycin; (2) the exposure to pesticides (in μg/L) together with a subinhibitory level (in high μg/L) of ampicillin synergistically stimulated the selection of ampicillin resistance and the cross-resistance to other antibiotics (i.e., ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline). Distinct and diversified genetic mutations emerged in the resistant mutants selected from the coexposure to both pesticides and ampicillin. The genetic mutations likely caused a holistic transcriptional regulation (e.g., biofilm formation, oxidative stress defense) when grown under antibiotic stress and led to increased antibiotic resistance. Together, these findings provide important fundamental insights into the development of antibiotic resistance and the resistance mechanisms under environmentally relevant conditions where antibiotics and nonantibiotic micropollutants coexist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c01155DOI Listing
July 2020