Publications by authors named "Yue Song"

392 Publications

Role of light in methylmercury photodegradation: From irradiation to absorption in the presence of organic ligands.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 27;848:157550. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, United States.

Photochemical degradation acts as the principal sink for methylmercury (MeHg) in surface water, which is regulated by light and solution matrix (especially the presence of dissolved organic matter, DOM). The spectral composition of light irradiation and the light absorption properties of reaction media (often exerted by DOM) are important in MeHg photodegradation, which has not yet been clearly resolved. Aiming to understand the role of light in MeHg photodegradation from the perspectives of both light irradiation and absorption, we investigated the photodegradation of MeHg under different simulated sunlight sources, with and without DOM model compounds of different molecular structures. The results show that the photodegradation of MeHg under different sunlight irradiation yields distinct first-order date constant, mainly due to the slight difference in UVB composition. The degradation of MeHg without DOM under a light source with high intensity in the UV region and no MeHg degradation under the UV-filtered light even in the presence of DOM showed the importance of UV lights in MeHg photodegradation. The use of ultrapure water as a reaction medium may be subject to MeHg loss through vessel adsorption, not just photolysis. Additionally, this work found that the type and position of coexisting substituents on aromatic thiols play a critical role in improving the photodegradation of MeHg, following amino > hydroxyl > carboxyl, para > meta > ortho. Based on the characterization of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra and our previous work, it was concluded that the presence of DOM could induce red-shift in light absorption and reduce the electronic transition energy of the CHg bond, facilitating MeHg photodegradation. The structures of DOM affect the light absorption properties, which are related to MeHg photodegradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157550DOI Listing
July 2022

Auto-Segmentation Ultrasound-Based Radiomics Technology to Stratify Patient With Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Multi-Center Retrospective Study.

Front Oncol 2022 4;12:876967. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: An increasing proportion of patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has been observed among incident hemodialysis patients in large cities, which is consistent with the continuous growth of diabetes in the past 20 years.

Purpose: In this multicenter retrospective study, we developed a deep learning (DL)-based automatic segmentation and radiomics technology to stratify patients with DKD and evaluate the possibility of clinical application across centers.

Materials And Methods: The research participants were enrolled retrospectively and separated into three parts: training, validation, and independent test datasets for further analysis. DeepLabV3+ network, PyRadiomics package, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator were used for segmentation, extraction of radiomics variables, and regression, respectively.

Results: A total of 499 patients from three centers were enrolled in this study including 246 patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 253 patients with DKD. The mean intersection-over-union (Miou) and mean pixel accuracy (mPA) of automatic segmentation of the data from the three medical centers were 0.812 ± 0.003, 0.781 ± 0.009, 0.805 ± 0.020 and 0.890 ± 0.004, 0.870 ± 0.002, 0.893 ± 0.007, respectively. The variables from the renal parenchyma and sinus provided different information for the diagnosis and follow-up of DKD. The area under the curve (AUC) of the radiomics model for differentiating between DKD and T2DM patients was 0.674 ± 0.074 and for differentiating between the high and low stages of DKD was 0.803 ± 0.037.

Conclusion: In this study, we developed a DL-based automatic segmentation, radiomics technology to stratify patients with DKD. The DL technology was proposed to achieve fast and accurate anatomical-level segmentation in the kidney, and an ultrasound-based radiomics model can achieve high diagnostic performance in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with DKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.876967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9290767PMC
July 2022

A 3D bioprinted nano-laponite hydrogel construct promotes osteogenesis by activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

Mater Today Bio 2022 Dec 1;16:100342. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Department of Orthopedics, Xijing Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, China.

Development of nano-laponite as bioinks based on cell-loaded hydrogels has recently attracted significant attention for promoting bone defect repairs and regeneration. However, the underlying mechanisms of the positive function of laponite in hydrogel was not fully explored. In this study, the effect of 3D bioprinted nano-laponite hydrogel construct on bone regeneration and the potential mechanism was explored and . analyses showed that the 3D construct protected encapsulated cells from shear stresses during bioprinting, promoted cell growth and cell spreading, and BMSCs at a density of 10/mL exhibited an optimal osteogenesis potential. Osteogenic differentiation and ectopic bone formation of BMSCs encapsulated inside the 3D construct were explored by determination of calcium deposition and x-ray, micro-CT analysis, respectively. RNA sequencing revealed that activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway of BMSCs inside the laponite hydrogel significantly upregulated expression of osteogenic related proteins. Expression of osteogenic proteins was significantly downregulated when the PI3K/AKT pathway was inhibited. The 3D bioprinted nano-laponite hydrogel construct exhibited a superior ability for bone regeneration in rat bones with defects compared with groups without laponite as shown by micro-CT and histological examination, while the osteogenesis activity was weakened by applications of a PI3K inhibitor. In summary, the 3D bioprinted nano-laponite hydrogel construct promoted bone osteogenesis by promoting cell proliferation, differentiation through activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mtbio.2022.100342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9278073PMC
December 2022

Xinfangfangia pollutisoli sp. nov., Isolated from Clopyralid-Contaminated Soil.

Curr Microbiol 2022 Jul 14;79(9):255. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Microbiology, Key Lab of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, People's Republic of China.

With the aim of isolating clopyralid-degrading bacterial species for potential bioremediation, a pale-yellow, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, and non-motile designated as Clo-40 was isolated from soil which was about 10 years use of clopyralid in Zaozhuang city, Shandong province. Growth occurred within the ranges from 10 to 40 °C and 0-2.5% (w/v) NaCl. Strain could completely degrade 50 mg/L clopyralid within 2 days after induction and formed 3, 6-hydroxypicolinic acid, a major clopyralid metabolite, hydrolyze esculin, and reduce nitrates to nitrites, but could not hydrolyze gelatin. Based on phylogenetic analysis, strain clustered within the genus Xinfangfangia clade and branched with Xinfangfangia humi IMT-291 (97.6%) and Xinfangfangia soli ZQBW (96.9%). Genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 4.41 Mbp and G + C content of 67.3%. The average nucleotide ANI values of strain with respect to X. humi IMT-291 and X. soli ZQBW were 77.5% and 76.9%, respectively. The DDH estimated values between strain Clo-40 and X. humi IMT-291 and X. soli ZQBW were 20.5% and 20.0%, respectively. The predominant fatty acids (> 5% of the total fatty acids) were C w7c (42.9%), C (28.8%), C cyclo (13.0%), and C (7.0%). The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, unidentified phospholipid, unidentified glycolipid, and unidentified lipids. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-10. Based on data from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genotypic analyses in this study, strain Clo-40 represent a novel species in the genus of Xinfangfangia, for which the name Xinfangfangia pollutisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Clo-40 (= KCTC 92089 = GDMCC 1.2845).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-022-02958-7DOI Listing
July 2022

Risk factors and optimal predictive scoring system of mortality for children with acute paraquat poisoning.

World J Clin Cases 2022 May;10(15):4799-4809

Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: There is no suitable scoring system that can be used to predict mortality in children with acute paraquat intoxication (APP).

Aim: To optimize a predictive scoring system for mortality in children with APP.

Methods: A total of 113 children with APP from January 1, 2010 to January 1, 2020 were enrolled in this study. These patients were divided into survivors and non-survivors. We compared the clinical characteristics between the two groups and analyzed the independent prognostic risk factors. The survival rates of patients with different values of the pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) were assessed using kaplan-meier survival analysis. The best scoring system was established by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.

Results: The overall mortality rate was 23.4%. All non-survivors died within 20 days; 48.1% (13/27) died within 3 days, and 70.3% (19/27) died within 7 days. Compared to survivors, the non-survivors were older, had higher white blood cell count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and pediatric early warning score, and had lower platelet count, albumin, Serum sodium (Na) and PCIS. ALT and PCIS were the independent prognostic risk factors for children with APP. The survival rate of children classified as extremely critical patients (100%) was lower than that of children classified as critical (60%) or noncritical (6.7%) patients. The specificity of ALT was high (96.51%), but the sensitivity was low (59.26%). The sensitivity and specificity of ALT combined with PCIS were high, 92.59% and 87.21%, respectively. The difference in mortality was significantly higher for ALT combined with PCIS (area under the receiver operating characteristic: 0.937; 95%CI: 0.875-0.974; < 0.05).

Conclusion: In our study, ALT and PCIS were independent prognostic risk factors for children with APP. ALT combined with PCIS is an optimal predictive mortality scoring system for children with APP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v10.i15.4799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9198859PMC
May 2022

Brentuxinmab vedotin, alone or combine with bendamustine in the treatment of natural killer T cell lymphoma.

Hematol Oncol 2022 Jul 7. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Natural killer (NK)/T cell lymphoma is a highly aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The prognosis of patients with natural killer T cell lymphoma (NKTCL) remains poor. More potent treatment strategies are urgently needed to improve the survival of these patients with R/R NKTCL. CD30 expression has been reported to occur in about 40% of NK/T cell lymphoma. Brentuximab vedotin (BV), a monomethyl auristatin E conjugated CD30 antibody, targets CD30 to kill cancer cells. Therapeutic combination of BV and bendamustine has been shown to be highly effective in Hodgkin lymphoma. We investigated efficacy of BV in treating NKTCL as a single therapy, and in combination with bendamustine in vitro and in vivo. We determined CD30 expression levels in 6 NKTCL cell lines. The efficiency of lymphoma cell inhibition by BV correlates with CD30 expression. We also determined the efficacy of BV in combination with bendamustine and found synergistic effects with bendamustine in NKTCL. Combined BV and bendamustine treatment exerted synergistic antiproliferation effect and enhanced cell apoptotic in vitro and in vivo. Brentuximab vedotin and bendamustine synergistically arrested cell cycle at the G2/M phase in NKTCL cell lines. The combination of BV and bendamustine was demonstrated to synergistically damage DNA in NKTCL. This study provides a reference for possible application on using BV for the treatment of NKTCL, either as a single agent or in combination with bendamustine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.3042DOI Listing
July 2022

3,4-Methylenedioxy-β-Nitrostyrene Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Mouse Colitis by Inhibiting the NLRP3 Inflammasome.

Front Pharmacol 2022 15;13:866228. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been reported to be associated with NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Therefore inhibiting inflammasome activation could be a new approach to treat IBD. Inflammasome inhibitors NLRP3-IN-2, JC124, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene (MNS) were previously reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects in various disease models but not in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. Here, we showed that MNS was more efficient in inhibiting the secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) by blocking oligomerization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) than NLRP3-IN-2 and JC124. To investigate the protective effects of MNS on enteritis, we administered intragastric MNS to DSS-induced colitis mice. The results demonstrated that MNS attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening, and pathological damage. In addition, MNS inhibited the infiltration of macrophages and inflammatory cells and reduced IL-1β and IL-12p40 pro-inflammatory cytokines but had no significant effect on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-6. Furthermore, we also found that the differentiation of IL-17Ainterferon-γ (IFN-γ)CD4 T cell was decreased in the colon after MNS treatment, which might be mediated by IL-1β, etc. cytokine release. Taken together, MNS alleviated DSS-induced intestinal inflammation by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which may function as an effective therapeutic for IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.866228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9240698PMC
June 2022

High expression of N-type calcium channel indicates a favorable prognosis in gliomas.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jul 1;101(26):e29782. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

For the diagnosis and prognosis of glioma, the development of prognostic biomarkers is critical. The N-type calcium channel, whose predominant subunit is encoded by calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 B (CACNA1B), is mostly found in the nervous system and is closely associated with neurosensory functions. However, the link between the expression of CACNA1B and glioma remains unknown. We used ONCOMINE to explore the differences in CACNA1B expression among different cancers. We then conducted survival analysis and COX analysis using TCGA_LGG and TCGA_GBM datasets, which were divided into CACNA1Bhigh and CACNA1Blow based on the median. We examined the differences in other favorable prognostic markers or clinical characteristics between CACNA1Bhigh and CACNA1Blow using t tests. Differentially expressed genes were identified, and KEGG pathway enrichment was performed. We compared the expression of methyltransferases and analyzed the differentially methylated regions. Immunohistochemistry results were retrieved from the Human Protein Atlas database for validation purposes. CACNA1B was expressed at lower levels in gliomas, and, for the first time, we found that high expression of CACNA1B in gliomas predicts a good prognosis. Other favorable prognostic markers, such as isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation, were increased in tandem with high expression of CACNA1B. Differentially expressed genes were enriched in multiple pathways related to cancer progression and aberrant epigenetic alterations were significantly associated with CACNA1B. High expression of N-type calcium channels indicates a favorable prognosis for gliomas. This study provides a better understanding of the link between gliomas and N-type calcium channels and may offer guidance for the future treatment of gliomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000029782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9239611PMC
July 2022

Deep-Sea Natural Products from Extreme Environments: Cold Seeps and Hydrothermal Vents.

Mar Drugs 2022 Jun 19;20(6). Epub 2022 Jun 19.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-Resources and Ecology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Materia Medica, Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China.

The deep sea has been proven to be a great treasure for structurally unique and biologically active natural products in the last two decades. Cold seeps and hydrothermal vents, as typical representatives of deep-sea extreme environments, have attracted more and more attention. This review mainly summarizes the natural products of marine animals, marine fungi, and marine bacteria derived from deep-sea cold seeps and hydrothermal vents as well as their biological activities. In general, there were 182 compounds reported, citing 132 references and covering the literature from the first report in 1984 up to March 2022. The sources of the compounds are represented by the genera sp., sp., sp., and so on. It is worth mentioning that 90 of the 182 compounds are new and that almost 60% of the reported structures exhibited diverse bioactivities, which became attractive targets for relevant organic synthetic and biosynthetic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md20060404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9229347PMC
June 2022

TLR2-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in PPV1-induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells.

Vet Res Commun 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Zhengzhou Normal University, Zhengzhou, 450044, Henan, China.

Porcine parvovirus 1 (PPV1) mainly induces severe reproductive failure in pregnant swine, and causes huge economic losses to the swine industry. Cell apoptosis induced by PPV1 infection has been identified the major cause of reproductive failure. However, the molecular mechanism was not fully elucidated. In this study, the potential mechanism of PPV1 induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells was investigated. Our results showed that PPV1 induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells. Further studies revealed toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was involved in the PPV1-mediated apoptosis. TLR2 siRNA significantly decreased the apoptosis. Finally, our study showed NF-κB was activated by TLR2 during PPV1-induced apoptosis. The activation of NF-κB signaling was demonstrated by the phosphorylation of p65, p65 nuclear translocation and degradation of inhibitor of kappa B α (IκBα). Together, these results provided evidence that the recognition between PPV1 and PK-15 cells was mainly through TLR2, and then induction of the NF-κB signaling pathway activation, which further induces apoptosis. Our study could provide information to understand the molecular mechanisms of PPV1 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11259-022-09954-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9213050PMC
June 2022

Integrated analysis reveals the pivotal interactions between immune cells in the melanoma tumor microenvironment.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 16;12(1):10040. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Research Center of Integrative Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Melanoma is the most lethal type of skin cancer. Despite the breakthroughs in the clinical treatment of melanoma using tumor immunotherapy, many patients do not benefit from these immunotherapies because of multiple immunosuppressive mechanisms. Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the mechanisms of tumor-immune system interactions and their molecular determinants to improve cancer immunotherapy. In this study, combined analysis of microarray data and single-cell RNA sequencing data revealed the key interactions between immune cells in the melanoma microenvironment. First, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between normal and malignant tissues were obtained using GEO2R. The DEGs were then subjected to downstream analyses, including enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction analysis, indicating that these genes were associated with the immune response of melanoma. Then, the GEPIA and TIMER databases were used to verify the differential expression and prognostic significance of hub genes, and the relationship between the hub genes and immune infiltration. In addition, we combined single cell analysis from GSE123139 to identify immune cell types, and validated the expression of the hub genes in these immune cells. Finally, cell-to-cell communication analysis of the proteins encoded by the hub genes and their interactions was performed using CellChat. We found that the CCL5-CCR1, SELPLG-SELL, CXCL10-CXCR3, and CXCL9-CXCR3 pathways might play important roles in the communication between the immune cells in tumor microenvironment. This discovery may reveal the communication basis of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment and provide a new idea for melanoma immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-14319-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9203818PMC
June 2022

Cavitation assisted endoplasmic reticulum targeted sonodynamic droplets to enhanced anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer.

J Nanobiotechnology 2022 Jun 16;20(1):283. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310000, China.

Background: Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) induces immunogenic cell death (ICD) in tumors and promises to play an assistive role in immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer. However, the short half-life and limited diffusion distance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) impair ICD induction, especially in tumors with relatively poor blood perfusion and dense stroma.

Results: To address this problem, we fabricated cavitation-assisted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeted sonodynamic nanodroplets (PMPS NDs, 329 nm). The good sonodynamic effect and precise endoplasmic reticulum target effect was verified. After intravenous injection, the cRGD peptide modified nanodroplets initially aggregated around the tumor vascular endothelial cells. Stimulated by ultrasound, the liquid-to-gas bubbles began to oscillate and cavitate. This acoustic droplet evaporation strategy facilitated transport of the nanoparticle across the vessel, with deep penetration. This loosened the tumor stroma and facilitated accumulation and penetration of loaded sonosensitizer after 6 h. The modified sonosensitizer can selectively accumulate in the ER to generate a large amount of ROS in situ, inducing potent ER stress, amplified ICD and dendritic cell maturation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the elevated antitumor effect of SDT plus anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy was verified using an orthotopic tumor model.

Conclusions: This study reports a cavitation assisted ER targeted sonodynamic therapy that can enhance the effect of anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy effectively in orthotopic and distant pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-022-01459-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9202099PMC
June 2022

Fangchinoline inhibits non-small cell lung cancer metastasis by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppressing the cytosolic ROS-related Akt-mTOR signaling pathway.

Cancer Lett 2022 Sep 11;543:215783. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Biochemistry, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China; Research Center of Integrative Medicine, School of Basic Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

Few drugs alleviate non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis effectively. Small molecular screening demonstrated that fangchinoline (Fan) reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in NSCLC cells, inhibiting cell invasion and migration. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of Fan-treated NSCLC cells revealed that Fan potently quenched the NADP metabolic process. Molecular docking analysis revealed that Fan directly and specifically targeted NOX4. NOX4 was associated with poor prognosis in NSCLC in both The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Hong Kong cohorts. In mitochondrial DNA-depleted ρ NSCLC cells, Fan decreased cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to inhibit the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway by directly promoting NOX4 degradation. In TCGA and Hong Kong cohorts, NOX4 upregulation acted as a driver event as it positively correlated with metastasis and oxidative stress. Single-cell RNA-seq indicated that NOX4 was overexpressed, especially in cancer cells, cancer stem cells, and endothelial cells. In mice, Fan significantly impeded subcutaneous xenograft formation and reduced metastatic nodule numbers in mouse lung and liver. Drug sensitivity testing demonstrated that Fan suppressed patient-derived organoid growth dose-dependently. Fan is a potent small molecule for alleviating NSCLC metastasis by directly targeting NOX4 and is a potential novel therapeutic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2022.215783DOI Listing
September 2022

Genomic landscape of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma.

Chin J Cancer Res 2022 Apr;34(2):83-94

Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Objective: T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) is an aggressive neoplasm of precursor T cells, however, detailed genome-wide sequencing of large T-LBL cohorts has not been performed due to its rarity. The purpose of this study was to identify putative driver genes in T-LBL.

Methods: To gain insight into the genetic mechanisms of T-LBL development, we performed whole-exome sequencing on 41 paired tumor-normal DNA samples from patients with T-LBL.

Results: We identified 32 putative driver genes using whole-exome sequencing in 41 T-LBL cases, many of which have not previously been described in T-LBL, such as Janus kinase 3 (), Janus kinase 1 (), Runt-related transcription factor 1 () and Wilms' tumor suppressor gene 1 (). When comparing the genetic alterations of T-LBL to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), we found that JAK-STAT and RAS pathway mutations were predominantly observed in T-LBL (58.5% and 34.1%, respectively), whereas Notch and cell cycle signaling pathways mutations were more prevalent in T-ALL. Notably, besides notch receptor 1 (), mutational status of plant homeodomain (PHD)-like finger protein 6 () was identified as another independent factor for good prognosis. Of utmost interest is that co-existence of and mutation status might provide an alternative for early therapeutic stratification in T-LBL.

Conclusions: Together, our findings will not only provide new insights into the molecular and genetic mechanisms of T-LBL, but also have tangible implications for clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21147/j.issn.1000-9604.2022.02.03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9086577PMC
April 2022

Free Triiodothyronine Is Associated with Poor Outcomes after Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Int J Clin Pract 2022 3;2022:1982193. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Aims: It is unclear whether thyroid hormones are associated with functional outcomes after ischemic stroke. We aimed to investigate the impact of serum levels of thyroid hormones at admission on functional outcomes at 3 months after acute ischemic stroke.

Methods: A total of 480 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke who were admitted to our hospital within 48 h of onset were enrolled. The levels of thyroid hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine, were measured at admission, and functional outcomes were assessed at 3 months using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), with scores ranging from 0 to 6. Poor outcome was defined as mRS score ≥3.

Results: FT3 levels at admission were considerably lower in patients with poor outcomes than in those with good outcomes at 3 months (3.53 ± 0.70 pmol/L vs. 4.04 ± 0.68 pmol/L; < 0.001). Lower FT3 levels were observed in patients with higher mRS scores. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that FT3 levels were significantly associated with a risk of poor outcomes at 3 months, independent of conventional risk factors such as age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and recanalized therapy. In addition, patients in FT3 levels in the lowest quartile had a 2.56-fold higher risk of poor outcomes than those with FT3 levels in the highest quartile (odds ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval = 1.15-5.69, =0.021). The sensitivity and specificity of FT3 level ≤3.69 pmol/L for predicting poor outcomes were 62.70% and 72.03%, respectively.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that FT3 levels at admission are significantly and independently associated with a risk of poor outcomes after ischemic stroke and that lower FT3 levels can be considered as a prognostic biomarker for poor outcomes at 3 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1982193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9159185PMC
June 2022

Effects of physical disturbance of sediment on the cycling of mercury in coastal regions.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 31;838(Pt 3):156298. Epub 2022 May 31.

Shandong Key Laboratory of Environmental Processes and Health, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China; Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, United States.

Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant of health concern due to formation and bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) during its biogeochemical cycle. Coastal areas are important regions in the biogeochemical cycling of Hg (Liu et al., 2017), where often-occurring natural and anthropogenic perturbations affect Hg transport and transformation and the associated health risk from Hg. The rapidly growing mariculture associated with the rising global demand for food may have a profound effect on coastal Hg cycling, due to the environmental alterations (e.g., resuspension and sedimentation) caused by maricultural activities (e.g., bottom sowing and harvesting). Through simulating the effect of water scouring, a common harvesting method, this study investigated Hg migration and distribution in particulate and dissolved phases in Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, China, where mariculture exists extensively. Particulate total and methyl Hg (PTHg and PMeHg) in water (expressed as ng/L) increased sharply due to the resuspension of sediment, but decreased rapidly after a one-off scouring event. When normalized by particle mass, PTHg and PMeHg (ng/g) in suspended sediment particles were significantly higher than that in the initial sediment, suggesting a higher distribution coefficient and higher affinity to bind Hg in the suspended particles. This may be due to the smaller particle sizes, and higher contents of organic matter and Fe/Mn of suspended sediments compared to the initial sediment. While the concentrations of dissolved THg (DTHg) in water column showed minimum changes or decreased, dissolved MeHg (DMeHg) concentrations increased sharply after the perturbation, due to the possible release of MeHg from porewater and potential Hg methylation during the event. These results provide fundamental information needed for ecological and health risk assessment of Hg in mariculture, and highlights the increased mobility and bioaccumulation of MeHg during anthropogenic perturbations in these areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156298DOI Listing
September 2022

Recovery of chromium (VI) from hazardous APV wastewater using a novel synergistic extraction system.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 30;839:156278. Epub 2022 May 30.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China. Electronic address:

As a well-known hazardous material, chromium (VI) in industrial wastewater has always attracted extensive attention. Many studies have focused on the recovery of Cr (VI) which is still challenging and received considerable interest. In this study, a novel synergistic extraction system using amide as extractant and Cyanex 272 as synergistic extractant was built to recover chromium (VI) from the APV wastewater. After optimizing the process parameters of extractant concentration, initial pH, extraction temperature, extraction time, extraction phase ratio, ammonia concentration and stripping phase ratio, the final extraction and stripping efficiency reached more than 99% and 98%, respectively. The CrO product with a purity of 99.52 was prepared and the organic phase could be effectively regenerated for recycling. The extraction mechanism of chromium (VI) in the synergistic extraction system was investigated in-depth with slope method, ESI-MS analysis and FT-IR analysis. In addition, molecular electrostatic potentials analysis was used to display visually the formation process of the extract complex. This paper offered a unique approach to guide sustainable chromium (VI) recovery from hazardous wastewater with great industrial and theoretical significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156278DOI Listing
September 2022

On the Eigenvalues of Global Covariance Pooling for Fine-grained Visual Recognition.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2022 May 30;PP. Epub 2022 May 30.

The Fine-Grained Visual Categorization (FGVC) is challenging because the subtle inter-class variations are difficult to be captured. One notable research line uses the Global Covariance Pooling (GCP) layer to learn powerful representations with second-order statistics, which can effectively model inter-class differences. In our previous conference paper, we show that truncating small eigenvalues of the GCP covariance can attain smoother gradient and improve the performance on large-scale benchmarks. However, on fine-grained datasets, truncating the small eigenvalues would make the model fail to converge. This observation contradicts the common assumption that the small eigenvalues merely correspond to the noisy and unimportant information. Consequently, ignoring them should have little influence on the performance. To diagnose this peculiar behavior, we propose two attribution methods whose visualizations demonstrate that the seemingly unimportant small eigenvalues are crucial as they are in charge of extracting the discriminative class-specific features. Inspired by this observation, we propose a network branch dedicated to magnifying the importance of small eigenvalues. Without introducing any additional parameters, this branch simply amplifies the small eigenvalues and achieves state-of-the-art performances of GCP methods on three fine-grained benchmarks. Furthermore, the performance is also competitive against other FGVC approaches on larger datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2022.3178802DOI Listing
May 2022

Propionate Ameliorates Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice via the Gut-Liver Axis: Focus on the Improvement of Intestinal Permeability.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 May 12;70(20):6084-6096. Epub 2022 May 12.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Immunology for Environment and Health, Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250353, China.

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide with limited therapeutic options. Here, we first revealed the promising beneficial effect of gut microbiota-derived propionate on alcoholic liver injury in mice. This effect was dependent on the modulation of homeostasis of the gut-liver axis, especially the improvement of intestinal permeability. Dietary supplementation with propionate protected against ethanol-induced loss of hepatic function and hepatic steatosis in mice. Meanwhile, propionate treatment attenuated intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction, restored the expression of intestinal mucus layer components, suppressed intestinal inflammation, and altered intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, which inhibited the intestinal hyperpermeability and subsequently reduced lipopolysaccharide leakage in ALD mice. Furthermore, as a consequence of endotoxemia amelioration, the liver inflammation-related TLR4-NF-κB pathway was inhibited. Collectively, our results suggested that propionate supplementation may be a promising option for the prevention and treatment of ALD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.2c00633DOI Listing
May 2022

A dual-signal electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of HPV16 E6 oncoprotein based on PdBP dendritic ternary nanospheres and MBSi-Chi nanocomposites.

Analyst 2022 May 17;147(10):2272-2279. Epub 2022 May 17.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, P.R. China.

Cervical cancer is a common cancer in women. HPV16 E6 oncoprotein is a reliable biomarker for cervical cancer. Although there are other methods for detecting E6 oncoprotein, the electrochemical method has more advantages, such as low cost, convenience and speed. In this study, a novel dual-signal electrochemical immunosensor for quick and sensitive detection of E6 oncoprotein based on a high efficiency catalyst and signal label was developed. Herein, to achieve quick detection, palladium-boron-phosphorus dendritic ternary nanospheres (PdBP NSs) not only acted as a catalyst to catalyze HO, but also as a support material to capture antibodies. Moreover, to realize sensitive detection, nanocomposites of mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with methylene blue and coated with chitosan (MBSi-Chi) were synthesized as a signal label, which can produce electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the label-free immunosensor exhibited a linear range of 100 fg mL to 4 ng mL with a detection limit of 72.8 fg mL (S/N = 3), and the sandwich-type immunosensor presented a linear range of 50 fg mL to 4 ng mL with a detection limit of 34.1 fg mL (S/N = 3). The as-prepared dual-signal immunosensor had desirable specificity, stability and repeatability, implying its potential applications in clinical laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an02120fDOI Listing
May 2022

Effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on ambulatory blood pressures in high-risk sleep apnea patients: a randomized controlled trial.

J Clin Sleep Med 2022 Aug;18(8):1899-1907

Division of Sleep Medicine and Circadian Disorders, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Study Objectives: The long-term effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on 24-hour blood pressure (BP) in patients at high risk with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is uncertain. We aimed to determine the effect of CPAP treatment on ambulatory BP in individuals with moderate or severe OSA and cardiovascular disease or multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors without severe sleepiness.

Methods: In this randomized, controlled, parallel group study, 169 participants were randomly assigned to CPAP treatment or the control group. The primary outcome was the change in mean 24-hour systolic BP between groups from baseline to the average of 6- and 12-month measurements using mixed-effect linear regression models.

Results: The 24-hour systolic BP did not significantly differ by group, although there was a trend of decrease in the CPAP group (treatment effect -2.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval -5.9 to 0.6]; = .105) compared with control. CPAP had the greatest effect on nighttime systolic BP (treatment effect -5.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval -9.9 to -1.9]; = .004). Similar improvements in other nocturnal BP indices were observed.

Conclusions: In patients at high risk with moderate-severe OSA without severe sleepiness, CPAP resulted in modest BP improvements over 6 to 12 months of follow-up, with possibly larger effects for nocturnal BP. Use of office blood pressure may underestimate the effect of CPAP on BP profile in patients with OSA.

Clinical Trial Registration: Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; Title: Sleep Apnea Intervention for Cardiovascular Disease Reduction; Identifier: NCT01261390; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01261390.

Citation: Zhao YY, Wang R, Gleason KJ, et al. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on ambulatory blood pressures in high-risk sleep apnea patients: a randomized controlled trial. . 2022;18(8):1899-1907.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.10012DOI Listing
August 2022

Preparation of a Single-Chain Antibody against Nucleocapsid Protein of Porcine Deltacoronavirus by Phage Display Technology.

Viruses 2022 04 8;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 8.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China.

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) mainly causes severe diarrhea and intestinal pathological damage in piglets and poses a serious threat to pig farms. Currently, no effective reagents or vaccines are available to control PDCoV infection. Single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies can effectively inhibit virus infection and may be a potential therapeutic reagent for PDCoV treatment. In this study, a porcine phage display antibody library from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of piglets infected with PDCoV was constructed and used to select PDCoV-specific scFv. The library was screened with four rounds of biopanning using the PDCoV N protein, and the colony with the highest affinity to the PDCoV N protein was obtained (namely, N53). Then, the N53-scFv gene fragment was cloned into plasmid pFUSE-hIgG-Fc2 and expressed in HEK-293T cells. The scFv-Fc antibody N53 (namely, scFv N53) was purified using Protein A-sepharose. The reactive activity of the purified antibody with the PDCoV N protein was confirmed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Finally, the antigenic epitopes that the scFv N53 recognized were identified by a series of truncated PDCoV N proteins. The amino acid residues GELPPNDTPATTRVT of the PDCoV N protein were verified as the minimal epitope that can be recognized by the scFv-Fc antibody N53. In addition, the interaction between the scFv-Fc antibody N53 and the PDCoV N protein was further analyzed by molecule docking. In conclusion, our research provides some references for the treatment and prevention of PDCoV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v14040772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9030028PMC
April 2022

Broadband Perfect Absorber in the Visible Range Based on Metasurface Composite Structures.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Apr 1;15(7). Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Microelectronics Instruments and Equipments R&D Center, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.

The broadband perfect absorption of visible light is of great significance for solar cells and photodetectors. The realization of a two-dimensional broadband perfect absorber in the visible range poses a formidable challenge with regard to improving the integration of optical systems. In this paper, we numerically demonstrate a broadband perfect absorber in the visible range from 400 nm to 700 nm based on metasurface composite structures. Simulation results show that the average absorptance is ~95.7% due to the combination of the intrinsic absorption of the lossy metallic material (Au) and the coupling resonances of the multi-sized resonators. The proposed perfect absorber may find potential applications in photovoltaics and photodetection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15072612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9000352PMC
April 2022

Sonosensitizer nanoplatform-mediated sonodynamic therapy induced immunogenic cell death and tumor immune microenvironment variation.

Drug Deliv 2022 Dec;29(1):1164-1175

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most lethal gynecologic malignancies, and effective treatments are still lacking due to drug tolerance and tumor recurrence. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) on ovarian cancer and its potential mechanism. Folate receptor-targeted and ultrasound-responsive nanoparticles (NPs) were constructed using PLGA-PEG-FA (PLGA: poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid, polyethylene glycol (PEG), FA: folate), the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating sonosensitizer IR780 and the oxygen-carrying material perfluorohexane (PFH), termed [email protected] NPs. The antitumor effect of NPs triggered by ultrasound (US) was measured by an apoptosis assay in a C57/BL6 mouse model. Immunochemistry and flow cytometry were used to detect the proportion of CD3 T, CD4 T, CD8 T cells and activated dendritic cells (DCs) in spleens and tumor tissues to assess variation in the immune response. Moreover, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and immunogenic cell death (ICD) markers (high mobility group protein box-1, ATP and calreticulin) were detected to identify potential mechanisms. The results showed that [email protected] NP-mediated SDT promoted ID8 cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. The densities of CD3 and CD8 T lymphocytes and inflammatory markers were upregulated in tumor tissues. [email protected] NP-mediated SDT prompted DC maturation and T lymphocyte infiltration by inducing ID8 cell ICD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2022.2058653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9004507PMC
December 2022

Ni-Doped MoC Anchored on Graphitized Porous Carbon for Boosting Electrocatalytic N Reduction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Apr 7;14(15):17273-17281. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Facilitating the efficient activation of N molecules and inhibiting the competing hydrogen evolution reaction remain a challenge in the nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR). A heteroatom doping strategy is an effective way to optimize the energy barrier during the NRR process to improve the catalytic efficiency. Herein, we report Ni-doped MoC anchored on graphitized porous conductive carbon for regulating the electronic structure and catalytic properties of electrocatalysts toward NRR. Benefiting from the porous structure and graphitization features of the carbon matrix, more active sites and high electronic conductivity were achieved. Meanwhile, with the doping of Ni atoms, the electronic configuration near the Ni-Mo active sites was optimized and the adsorption of N on them was also promoted due to the increased electron transfer. Moreover, the lowered energy barrier of the NRR process and the suppressed hydrogen adsorption on the active site all resulted in the high catalytic activity and selectivity of the catalyst. Therefore, a high NH yield rate of 46.49 μg h mg and a faradic efficiency of 29.05% were achieved. This work not only validates the important role of heteroatom doping on the regulation of NRR catalytic activity but also provides a promising avenue for the green synthesis of NH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c00280DOI Listing
April 2022

ATF3 Positively Regulates Antibacterial Immunity by Modulating Macrophage Killing and Migration Functions.

Front Immunol 2022 16;13:839502. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The clinical severity of () respiratory infection correlates with antibacterial gene signature. infection induces the expression of an antibacterial gene, as well as a central stress response gene, thus activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). ATF3-deficient mice have attenuated protection against lethal pneumonia and have a higher bacterial load. We tested the hypothesis that ATF3-related protection is based on the increased function of macrophages. Primary marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were used to determine the mechanism through which ATF3 alters the bacterial-killing ability. The expression of ATF3 correlated with the expression of antibacterial genes. Mechanistic studies showed that ATF3 upregulated antibacterial genes, while ATF3-deficient cells and lung tissues had a reduced level of antibacterial genes, which was accompanied by changes in the antibacterial process. We identified multiple ATF3 regulatory elements in the antibacterial gene promoters by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. In addition, Wild type (WT) mice had higher F4/80 macrophage migration in the lungs compared to ATF3-null mice, which may correlate with actin filament severing through ATF3-targeted actin-modifying protein gelsolin (GSN) for the macrophage cellular motility. Furthermore, ATF3 positively regulated inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40 might be able to contribute to the infection resolution. These data demonstrate a mechanism utilized by to induce ATF3 to regulate antibacterial genes for antimicrobial processes within the cell, and to specifically regulate the actin cytoskeleton of F4/80 macrophages for their migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.839502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8965742PMC
March 2022

ATF3 Positively Regulates Antibacterial Immunity by Modulating Macrophage Killing and Migration Functions.

Front Immunol 2022 16;13:839502. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The clinical severity of () respiratory infection correlates with antibacterial gene signature. infection induces the expression of an antibacterial gene, as well as a central stress response gene, thus activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). ATF3-deficient mice have attenuated protection against lethal pneumonia and have a higher bacterial load. We tested the hypothesis that ATF3-related protection is based on the increased function of macrophages. Primary marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were used to determine the mechanism through which ATF3 alters the bacterial-killing ability. The expression of ATF3 correlated with the expression of antibacterial genes. Mechanistic studies showed that ATF3 upregulated antibacterial genes, while ATF3-deficient cells and lung tissues had a reduced level of antibacterial genes, which was accompanied by changes in the antibacterial process. We identified multiple ATF3 regulatory elements in the antibacterial gene promoters by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. In addition, Wild type (WT) mice had higher F4/80 macrophage migration in the lungs compared to ATF3-null mice, which may correlate with actin filament severing through ATF3-targeted actin-modifying protein gelsolin (GSN) for the macrophage cellular motility. Furthermore, ATF3 positively regulated inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40 might be able to contribute to the infection resolution. These data demonstrate a mechanism utilized by to induce ATF3 to regulate antibacterial genes for antimicrobial processes within the cell, and to specifically regulate the actin cytoskeleton of F4/80 macrophages for their migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.839502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8965742PMC
March 2022

Detection of Farmland Obstacles Based on an Improved YOLOv5s Algorithm by Using CIoU and Anchor Box Scale Clustering.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Feb 24;22(5). Epub 2022 Feb 24.

College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210031, China.

It is necessary to detect multi-type farmland obstacles in real time and accurately for unmanned agricultural vehicles. An improved YOLOv5s algorithm based on the K-Means clustering algorithm and CIoU Loss function was proposed to improve detection precision and speed up real-time detection. The K-Means clustering algorithm was used in order to generate anchor box scales to accelerate the convergence speed of model training. The CIoU Loss function, combining the three geometric measures of overlap area, center distance and aspect ratio, was adopted to reduce the occurrence of missed and false detection and improve detection precision. The experimental results showed that the inference time of a single image was reduced by 75% with the improved YOLOv5s algorithm; compared with that of the Faster R-CNN algorithm, real-time performance was effectively improved. Furthermore, the value of the improved algorithm was increased by 5.80% compared with that of the original YOLOv5s, which indicates that using the CIoU Loss function had an obvious effect on reducing the missed detection and false detection of the original YOLOv5s. Moreover, the detection of small target obstacles of the improved algorithm was better than that of the Faster R-CNN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22051790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8915062PMC
February 2022

Complexities of Regioselective Ring-Opening vs Transcarbonylation-Driven Structural Metamorphosis during Organocatalytic Polymerizations of Five-Membered Cyclic Carbonate Glucose Monomers.

JACS Au 2022 Feb 14;2(2):515-521. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Department of Chemistry, and Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77842, United States.

Rigorous investigations of the organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerizations (ROPs) of a series of five-membered cyclic carbonate monomers derived from glucose revealed that competing transcarbonylation reactions scrambled the regiochemistries of the polycarbonate backbones. Regioirregular poly(2,3-α-d-glucose carbonate) backbone connectivities were afforded by 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD)-catalyzed ROPs of three monomers having different cyclic acetal protecting groups through the 4- and 6-positions. Small molecule studies conducted upon isolated unimers and dimers indicated a preference for Cx-O2 vs Cx-O3 bond cleavage from tetrahedral intermediates along the pathways of addition-elimination mechanisms when the reactions were performed at room temperature. Furthermore, treatment of isolated 3-unimer or 2-unimer, having the carbonate linkage in the 3- or 2-position as obtained from either Cx-O2 or Cx-O3 bond cleavage, respectively, gave the same 74:26 (3-unimer:2-unimer) ratio, confirming the occurrence of transcarbonylation reactions with a preference for 3-unimer vs. 2-unimer formation in the presence of organobase catalyst at room temperature. In contrast, unimer preparation at -78 °C favored Cx-O3 bond cleavage to afford a majority of 2-unimer, presumably due to a lack of transcarbonylation side reactions. Computational studies supported the experimental findings, enhancing fundamental understanding of the regiochemistry resulting from the ring-opening and subsequent transcarbonylation reactions during ROP of glucose carbonates. These findings are expected to guide the development of advanced carbohydrate-derived polymer materials by an initial monomer design via side chain acetal protecting groups, with the ability to evolve the properties further through later-stage structural metamorphosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacsau.1c00545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8889557PMC
February 2022

The investigation of the luminescent structure of thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) basing on the first-principles coupled with spectral analysis.

J Phys Condens Matter 2022 Mar 23;34(21). Epub 2022 Mar 23.

College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, People's Republic of China.

The luminescent structure of thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) and the behavior of electrons during luminescence are studied at great length based on the conventional first-principles calculation combined with ordinary spectroscopic analysis befittingly in this work. The hybrid functionals based on a screened Coulomb potential (HSE) is used to visualize the energy band structure of the experimental sample's system, and the corresponding relationship between the transition behavior of CsI:Tl energy levels and the spectrum is studied more accurately. We show the complete energy conversion process clearly, which involves the crystal beginning to receive the energy of a photon until the moment of de-excitation. All the fluorescence process is completed by Tlions that replace Csions. Our results verify and complement the previous theories and potentially provide important references for the adjustment and design of the detectors and imaging equipment in different fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ac5a91DOI Listing
March 2022
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